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The proposed of this research is to emphasize in improving the conservation activities of heritage site in Alor Setar to be a
sustainable heritage centre because of less concerning in conservation activities. This research aims to identify and produce a
proper area for sustainable heritage centre. Furthermore, this study will contribute in the term of physical, economical and social
aspect to enhance Alor Setar image in the future as a tourist attraction.

Chapter 1 3

1. To enhance and promote economic Pekan Melayu as part of the tourist attraction
2. To make Pekan Melayu as one of the tourist centre of heritage business.
3. To expand economic development opportunities for business and residents surrounding.

Chapter 1 4

Chapter 2 5
In this chapter emphasis more about the existence of definition in urban conservation, the rationale of urban conservation and the
existence of category of urban conservation . Through this chapter the understanding of urban conservation will increased through the
definition and the details about urban conservation.

Definition of urban conservation is an urban area that is protected, preserved and carefully managed (
Urban conservation is an important part of modern heritage policies. For at least half a century, historic cities have acquired an
incomparable status in modern culture and in modern life; a status defined by the quality of the architectural and physical environment,
by the persistence of the sense of place, and by the concentration of the historic and artistic events that form the basis for the identity of
a people. Last but not least, they have become the icons of global cultural tourism and coveted places for the enjoyment of a different
lifestyle and for cultural experiences for millions of people.

As the economic and social role of the historic city changes with time, as its own uses and functions are less and less decided by its
own inhabitants, but rather by global forces such as the tourism or real estate industries, the meaning of urban conservation changes
and needs to be reassessed. The first decade of the XXIst century has already shown which are the emerging challenges for urban
historic conservation: global population growth and migrations, the explosion of domestic and international tourism, the growing demand
for specific historic “packages” and the increasing pressures for land conversion inside and –most of all– outside the historic precincts.

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While many countries have been able in the past decades to develop adequate legislation and regulations for the protection of urban
historic areas, the sustainability of public and private efforts towards conservation is far from being demonstrated, in a world where
public resources available for cultural investments are scarce and dwindling. The toolkit available today to urban conservators is not
small: it is formed by a good system of internationally accepted principles of conservation, reflected in important international Charters
and legal tools such as the 1972 World Heritage Convention. Furthermore, the toolkit is supported by a large number of good
practices developed over more than a century in different contexts and on an elaborate planning and regulatory framework.

However, this apparatus is often weak and powerless in front of the forces of change that dominate the world and its urban scenes
today and in the foreseeable future. Many of the most important urban historic areas existing in Europe, Asia and Latin America have
lost their traditional functions and are under the pressure of tourism and other transformation agents. The planning and regulatory
tools put in place are not always adequate to address the new challenges. Urban conservators are increasingly aware of the gap
existing between the ideal world of the “Charters” and the practical realities, especially in emerging societies, and are advocating that
new principles, approaches and tools have to be identified to cope with the new challenges.

Chapter 2 7
Conservation definition is the act of conserving; prevention of injury, decay, waste, or loss; preservation. Apart from that, conservation
also the controlled utilization or official supervision of natural resources in order to preserve or protect them or to prevent depletion.
Conservation also known as the restoration and preservation of works of art (

Conservation is concerned with the long-term preservation of cultural property through examination, documentation, treatment, and
preventive care. Examination and documentation procedures are used to identify materials and methods of manufacture as well as
assess condition and alteration through deterioration and/ or past repair. Analysis and research may contribute to the investigation of
materials, deterioration mechanisms, and treatment protocols (

Preventive care includes monitoring the collection’s environment to control temperature, relative humidity, light levels, pollution, etc.
and promoting safe practice for the display, storage, and transport of objects. Treatment is undertaken to improve structural stability
and aesthetic appearance. Intervention may include repair, reshaping, cleaning, restoration, and/ or toning.

Conservation may address a wide variety of materials, including but not limited to documents and furniture, sculpture and textiles,
archaeological artifacts and scientific specimens, buildings and photographs, paintings and ethnographic objects.

Chapter 2 8
The statutory definition of a conservation area is “an area of special architectural interest, the character or appearance of which it is
desirable to preserve or enhance”. It is the quality and interest of areas rather than individual buildings which is important. There are
many factors that contribute to the character of a conservation area:
i. The historic layout of property boundaries and thoroughfares.
ii. A particular mix of uses.
iii. Vistas along streets and between buildings.
iv. Characteristic materials.
v. Appropriate scaling and detailing of buildings.
vi. Quality shop fronts, street furniture, hard and soft surfaces.
vii. Trees and open spaces. The aim must be to ensure that the quality of townscape is preserved or enhanced as well as
protecting individual buildings.


Our heritage is all that has been passed to us by previous generations. It is all around us. It is in the houses we live in, our places of
work, the transport we use, our places of worship, our parks and gardens, the places we go to for our sport and social life, in the
ground beneath our feet, in the shape of our landscape and in the placing and arrangement of our fields, villages, towns and cities.

Heritage is also found in our moveable possessions, from our national treasures in our museums, to our own family heirlooms, and in
the intangible such as our history, traditions, legends and language. Whilst everything we inherit is strictly our heritage, the term has

Chapter 2 9
become synonymous with the places, objects, knowledge and skills we inherit that are valued for reasons beyond their mere utility. In
other words, they have a value to us that is over and above their functional use.

This guide is concerned however, only with the law, policies and guidance relating to the protection of heritage in the land, buildings
and other structures of Malaysia and all that is fixed to them. It does not deal with the heritage in moveable possessions such as
pictures, antiques, old trains etc.

In this relatively small country everywhere bears the marks of our predecessors' efforts to sustain life and satisfy their needs. That
part of our surroundings that displays the interaction between people and places through time is called the historic environment.

Some parts of the historic environment are important to society as a whole or to a group within it and merit some level of protection or
consideration. These are called our heritage assets. They are the elements of the historic environment that we value for more than
their money’s worth. The generations that follow us are most likely to value them too, for the same or similar reasons. It has therefore
long been accepted that we have a responsibility to look after them.

It is this responsibility that justifies a protection system for the historic environment and the consequent interference with the private
rights of property owners. English Heritage’s publication, Conservation Principles (1) looks at the heritage value of places. It sets out

Chapter 2 10
four broad components: evidential value; historical value; aesthetic value; and communal value. The sum of the values of a particular
heritage asset is called its significance. This term is also used in the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) , which sets out the
Government’s objectives and policies for the historic environment. There it is used in the same sense to mean the value of a heritage
asset to this and future generations because of its heritage interest. That interest may be archaeological, architectural, artistic or

Legislation that offers protection for heritage assets has developed in a piecemeal fashion. It uses a variety of terms to identify the
essence of what makes a heritage asset valued and worthy of protection. The law refers variously to the architectural, historic,
artistic, traditional and archaeological interest of heritage assets and the character that derives from those attributes. The term ‘
significance’, as defined in the NPPF, encompasses all of the different interests that might be grounds for designating a heritage

Chapter 2 11

Global processes have a direct impact on the identity and visual integrity of historic cities and their broader setting, as well as on the
people who live in them. While some cities are growing exponentially, others are shrinking and being radically restructured as a result
of shifting economic processes and new patterns of migration. To address these issues, local urban strategies are becoming the key
component of urban development planning. The increasing globalization of the economy is radically transforming many contemporary
cities, benefiting some groups, whilst marginalizing others. In some countries, centrally controlled planning has given way to
decentralization and market-oriented approaches. The result is that cities have been exposed to new pressures, among which the

i. Rapid urbanization threatening the sense of place and identity of communities

ii. Uncontrolled, poorly conceived and/or badly implemented urban development
iii. Intensity and speed of changes, including global warming
iv. Unsustainable consumption of resources.

Chapter 2 12


On 7 July 2008, Melaka and George Town were fêted as Malaysia's newest UNESCO World Heritage Sites. This is the first time that
cultural sites in Malaysia have been inscribed into UNESCO's prestigious World Heritage Listing. But what is the George Town
UNESCO World Heritage Site, what is its history, where is it? In this feature article, I am providing background information on the
inscribed site in George Town (as relevant to Penang Travel Tips) and will handle Melaka separately. By the way, the official title for
the inscription should read "Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca". "George Town UNESCO World
Heritage Site" is just an in official definition for one of the two component sites inscribed in the list.

Here is the Nomination Dossier submitted to UNESCO. "Melaka and George Town, Cities of the Straits of Malacca" was inscribed as
a UNESCO World Heritage Site during the 32nd session of the World Heritage Committee which met in Quebec City, Canada, on 2-
10 July, 2008.

The properties were celebrated for the following outstanding universal value: Melaka and George Town represent exceptional
examples of multi-cultural tradting towns in East and Southeast Asia. They were established by trading activities that result in the
blending of Malay, Chinese and Indian cultures with three successive European colonial powers, over a period of 500 years. This
creates a lasting imprint on their architecture and urban form. Melaka and George Town are a living testimony to the multi-cultural
heritage and tradition of Asia, and of the European colonial influences. The tangible as well as intangible heritage of the two cities

Chapter 2 13
In December 2012, Singapore placed the Singapore Botanic Gardens on its Tentative List, indicating interest to inscribe it as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site.

A Nomination Dossier, inclusive of a Nomination Document and Site Management Plan will be submitted to UNESCO in February
2014 to indicate Singapore’s formal World Heritage Site nomination. The World Heritage Committee may then support the
nomination, request for further information from the state party, or decide not to recommend the nomination.
To be included on the World Heritage List, sites must be of Outstanding Universal Value and meet at least one out of ten selection

Chapter 2 14
are expressed in its religious buildings of different faiths, ethnic enclaves, spoken dialects, festivities, dances, attire, art form, cuisine and
lifestyle. Melaka and George Town reflect the blend of influences that result in a unique form of architecture, culture and cityscape
incomparable elsewhere in East and South Asia. The cities showcase an exceptional range of shop houses and townhouses from differing
eras, providing snapshots of building styles and types (


UNESCO is guided by the 1972 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage which seeks to encourage
state party members to identify, protect and preserve natural and cultural sites around the world that have Outstanding Universal Value.
Singapore ratified the convention on 19 June 2012 and as the 190th State Party to do so, is committed to studying worthy sites for
preservation within its wider policies.

The Preservation of Monuments Board is jointly coordinating Singapore’s involvement in UNESCO with the Ministry of Culture, Community
and Youth and the National Parks Board.

To nominate a World Heritage Site, a State Party must first submit a Tentative List to UNESCO, which recognizes sites in a State Party’s
territory that would be further researched on for nomination as a World Heritage Site in the near future. This is an important step since the
UNESCO World Heritage Committee cannot consider a nomination for inscription on the World Heritage List unless the property has already
been included on the State Party’s Tentative List.

Chapter 2 15

Chapter 3 16

Chapter 3 17

Kedah is regarded as the oldest state in Malaysia. Its history goes back to the ancient Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Lembah Bujang,
which is the oldest civilization in Malaysia. The present Sultanate of Kedah traces its origin to 1136, when the 9th king of the state,
Phra Ong Mahawangsa, embraced Islam and adopted the name Sultan Mudzafar Shah.

The present ruler, Sultan Abdul Halim Shah, is the 30th Sultan of Kedah. In the 18th century, external pressures from Bugis, Siam
and Burma increasingly weakened Kedah. The situation was exacerbated by a power struggle that sparked off a civil war in 1724.
Raja Haji, a Bugis leader, took advantage of the internal chaos and invaded Kedah in 1770.

To counter the continuous threat from Siam, Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Syah appealed to the British for protection. Sir Francis Light
was appointed as his representative to achieve this, armed with the guarantee of the exclusive leasing of Penang to the British East
Indies Company. On 11 August 1786, Light was sent to Penang to found the first British settlement there.

In 1788, when it became apparent that the British had no intentions of aiding him, Abdullah tried to expel Light from Penang. Light,
anticipating such a move, managed to repel this challenge and consequently forced Abdullah to sign over Penang on 11 May 1791. In
1800, a tract of land on the peninsula mainland, Butterworth, was signed over to the British as well.

Chapter 3 18
In 1821, the Siamese conquered Kedah and ruled it for the next 20 years. Several attempts were made by the disposed Kedah
Sultan to amass military support and restore the kingdom. Eventually Siam acquiesced, but not before separating Perlis from Kedah
to form a separate vassal principality. Kedah itself remained a Siamese vassal state until 1909.

On 9 July 1909, the Bangkok Agreement, which was ratified by the British and Siamese, effectively delivered Kedah to the British.
Upon the appointment of Sir George Maxwell as Kedah’s British adviser, Kedah officially became a British colony. This lasted until
the Japanese Invasion in 1941. British rule resumed on 1 September 1946 and Kedah was placed under the British Military

In London the British formed the Malayan Peninsula Planning Unit in 1943, and on 10 October 1945, the Malayan Union scheme
was laid out before the British Parliament. A day later, Sir Harold MacMichael was sent to the Malayan Peninsula to obtain the
agreement of the Malay Rulers. According to this agreement, Penang, Malacca and nine other Malay states were united under the
Malayan Union.

Malay opposition groups derailed the Malayan Union plan, and the Malays formed the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO)
under Dato’ Onn Jaafar’s leadership on 11 May 1946. The Malay Federation was founded on 1 February 1948 and on 31 August
1957, independence was declared.

Chapter 3 19
Location of Kedah

Key Plan of Alor Setar Location Plan of Alor Setar

Chapter 3 20
Scale 1:2500

Figure 3.1

Landuse of Alor Setar


Commercial landuse
Institution landuse
Open Space/Green Area


Chapter 3 21
Alor Setar is the capital and largest city of Kedah, Malaysia, and is an important city in the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Alor Setar City is managed by the local authorities (PBT) Alor Setar City Council.

As a transportation centre in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia, Alor Setar, which covers a land area of 666 km2 occupied
by more than 300,000 thousand inhabitants according to the census of 2010 is one of the oldest cities in the area.


Alor Setar was first discovered and founded by a Malay Sultans, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin Mu'azam Shah II in the year
1710-1778. He is the king of the of Kedah in 1122-1174 Hijrah. At first, Alor Setar just a village with a few houses located at the
mouth of two rivers.

When Sultan Mohamad Jiwa found a village, he was so impressed with it because the place is surrounded by lush green trees also
the center where the two rivers are converge. According to the history, “Adapun Duli Yang Dipertuan bermuafakat dengan segala
menteri-menteri membuat sebuah kota batu, bernama Kota Setar” indirectly the village called Kota Setar.

He named Setar conjunction with the type of trees around the city known as the 'Stak Tree' but at that time Alor Setar known as
Kota Setar. Setar is the name of the tree, the fruit of a reddish yellow when ripe, tangy sweet-sour taste and the size is same like
‘buah rumbia’ that included in Kundang tree with the scientific name 'Bouea macrophylla'.

Chapter 3 22
A new palace was built complete with a large hall (balairong-seri/balai penghadapan ), balai nobat and mosques. people need to dig
some of which stem from Alor Semadom canal into the big river in Pumpong, defined big river in Pengkalan Badak from kanchut the
other pointing is to the Gerbang (Gedebang) through Geduk to the river at Pengkalan Kundor. In 1726, the Sultan was asked to build
a strong stone fort and the complete dealing with the royal palace in Kota Setar. In the city had developed palaces, gardens, pools
and houses of ministers and state officials. While out of the city they built a mosque, a bridge and fortress.

Building known as Balai Besar or Balairong Seri or Balai Penghadapan equipped with a pavilion and the sultan throne built. From
the history on December 15, 1735, the Royal City of Kota Setar was born. On 15 Sha'ban 1418 Hijrah, December 31, 1735, Sultan
Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Shah II Adilin Mu'azam continue dwell in the palace of Kota Setar and he declare it as Royal City of Kedah.
Kota Setar began to grow after founded by an Englishman about more than 150 years after the village was established. In October,
1883, James F. Agustin arrived at the confluence of Kedah (now called Kuala Kedah) is about 10 km from Kota Setar. He was with
some other Englishman has explored area to the interior. In addition, the two rivers that seem small settlement clusters of Malays.

Finally Augustin and his men arrived in the village of Setar City. He had been friendly with the Malay people there and they have
been brought to the Sultan Muhammad Jiwa’s palace. Augustin was so interested with the surrounding palace that surrounded by
points of "stak" and he was more fascinated by the beauty of the Sultan palace. Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Shah II Adilin
Mu'adzam receive Augustin well and they have exchange the goods from the both sided.

Chapter 3 23
From here the businesses to exchange goods and trade between the local people and foreign traders has begin. In the early 19th
century, many foreign traders from UK, India, China and Sumatera have came to Kota Setar to trade their goods. Kota Setar has
grown from a village to a town, and eventually become a city that is a center for trading and administration. The British are
particularly intense to Kota Setar (Alor Setar time known as Kota Setar).

The business, transport and communications was based on Kota Setar, Kedah. The name of Kota Setar changed to Alor Setar by
the time changed. This is because the city is located near the estuary of the river and there are always many Malay traders from
other Malay States stopover there. Kota Setar also has become a name to the area or district surrounding of Alor Setar.

Kota Setar serve as a district in Kedah which is filled with paddy fields and began to grow rapidly especially as a trade center of Alor
Setar in the beginning of opening the Alor Setar which began in 1720s. According to Mr. Ismail bin Hj. Salleh (Honorary Secretaries
Historical Society Kedah) Alor Setar is a special city in the sense that it is quickly experiencing a rapid development although it is a
small town, while still maintaining its cultural heritage in its development, particularly foreign buildings modern construction but has
enough artistic sculptures and original pattern.

Chapter 3 24
Alor Setar is a Head of State of the oldest in the country. The city has become the State Capital for about 250 years. From the time it
was founded until now, Alor Setar still be the Capital City of Kedah. Spelling of Alor Setar was changed to Alor Star after the
declaration of Alor Star City on December 21, 2003. This spelling was changed back to Alor Setar on January 14, 2009 for the Alor
Setar name is derived from the name of a tree called the Tree Setar Kedah.

Figure: Setar fruit or the sceincetific Figure: Setar fruit or the sceincetific
name is Bouea macrophylla name is Bouea macrophylla

Chapter 3 25
Based on UNESCO Criterion

Chapter 4 26

In investigating the unique of Alor Star City, one of the importance elements that must be concern is the structures
or monuments that can reflect directly for the moment of history. By studying the data of location, architecture
style, building massing, and the person that related to the structure, it was possible to trace the change of idealism
and influences for the whole historical timeline. The research also will give clear image of cultural at certain times
that automatically influence the land uses, spatial organization, the pattern of urban sprawl, and lastly, creating the
urban fabric for whole Alor Star City.

Chapter 4 27
Masjid Zahir (Zahir Mosque) was built in 1912 on the initiative of His Highness Tunku
Mahmud Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahamad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah. The site of the
mosque was previously the resting place of Kedah's fallen warriors during the course of
defending Kedah against Siamese invasions (1821). The architectural designs of the
mosque were taken from Masjid Azizi in Bandar Langkat, Northern Sumatera. The
mosque is decorated with five maon domes representing the 5 Islamic precepts and it
was officially open on Friday, 15th October 1915 by Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid
Halim Shah. His Royal Highness was also the Imam for Friday Prayers on that day
after reading the sermon by His Highness Tengku Mahmud

Chapter 4 28

The structure known as the Clock Tower (Bangunan Jam Besar) in the town centre
provides a valuable service. It tells the muezzin in Masjid Zahir (Zahir Mosque) nearby
when to summon Muslims to prayer. In the past, the clock would ring when its prayer
time. This then prompts the beating of gongs from Nobat Hall and then the call to prayer
by the muezzin in Masjid Zahir. The Islamic-style was built around the same time as the
80-year old Masjid Zahir. The walls are ornately carved and on the dome is the half
crescent of Islam

Chapter 4 29
Nobat Hall (Balai Nobat) contains the instruments of the nobat, a type of Malay band which plays during a royal ceremony, such as
serunai (an instrument that is blown to produce sound and resembles the clarinet),nafiri ( a type of long trumpet), gendang (a drum
consisting of a hollow cylinder with parchment stretched tightly over the open sides) and gong (gong).

The three-storey structure features an Islamic-style dome at the top. The original building, which was built during the reign of
Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Syah, the 25th Sultan of Kedah who ruled from 1854 to 1879, had five floors and was built
mainly of stone and metal. It was modified in 1906. The site was originally occupied by a wooden structure that was among the first
few buildings in Alor Star. The town was founded in 1735 by Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin Muazzam Syah, the 19th Sultan
of Kedah who reigned from 1710 to 1778."

Chapter 4 30

The building known as the Main Hall (Balai Besar) was built in 1735 by
Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin Muazam Syah, the 19th Sultan
of Kedah who reigned from 1710 to 1778.It is part of the palace
complex known as Istana Kota Star. The palace stands at the back of
the building. The floors, pillars and roofs of the building are made of
wood. It was used for formal functions and as a reception hall.
The building was damaged during the attacks by the Bugis Armada in
1770 and Siamese forces in 1821. It was rehabilitated in 1895 by the
state's public works department under the architect Muhammad bin
Lebai Tambi. In 1904 the building was used to hold the wedding
receptions of the five children of the 20th Sultan of Kedah. Sultan
Abdul Hamid Halim Syah reigned from 1882 to 1943.

The building was used for weddings, official functions and state council
meetings from 1905 to 1973, and for the installation of Sultan Ahmad
Tajuddin Halim Syah II, the 22nd Sultan of Kedah who reigned from
1804 to 1845, and Tuanku Haji Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Syah in
February 1959

Chapter 4 31

The Art Center (Balai Seni) is the earliest modern building in Alor Star. It was

constructed in 1893 by Muhammad Bin Lebai Tambi, an architect with the

state's public works department. The design has both eastern and western

influences. Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Syah, the 26th Sultan of Kedah who

ruled from 1882 to 1943, officiated the opening of the building which housed

the high court. In June to September 1904, the building was taken over and

used for holding feasts attended by VIPs to celebrate the weddings of the

Sultan's five children.The building housed the office of the British Advisor, the

office of the Sultan, the treasury, the audit office and other government

departments from 1912 until 1940, when it was taken over by the public

works and irrigation and drainage departments. As a result many

departments were relocated to the Wan Muhammad Saman Building. The Art

Center acquired its present role in January 1983 to commemorate the silver

jubilee of the reign of Sultan Haji Abdul Halim Mu'adazam Syah who

ascended the throne in 1958.

Chapter 4 32

This building is located at the Medan Bandar which is adjacent to the Royal

Museum and the Balai Besar. The construction of this building started in 1941

during the British regime. Before the Second World War, this building was occupied

by several important offices including the office of HRH Tuanku Sultan Kedah. After

the war, this building was once the Agriculture Office, headed by Tunku Yaakob,

the Education Office, the Information Office as well as the Land Office.

This building was also the District Office of Kota Setar and currently occupied by

the Kedah State Islamic Council Office. This building was named Wan Muhammad

Saman Building in honour of the excellent contributions made by Dato' Wan

Muhammad Saman towards the administration of this State. He was once

appointed as the Prime Minister of Kedah State during the reign of HRH Sultan

Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah (1854-1879) and during the reign of the HRH

Sultan Hamid Halim Shah (1882-1943). If we look at the structure of this building,

we recognise that it has the characteristics of the Colonial architecture

Chapter 4 33

One section of the Sungai Raja flows past an ancient mangrove forest. This forest, which has existed for 500 years, is of vital

importance and immense value for the many animal and bird species that it supports as well as for the ecology of the area. The

swamp sprawls over an area of 340 hectares.

Chapter 4 34
Pekan Rabu has its own unique history regarding its role in Tanjung Chali was the training groung for Malays in business.

encouraging the Malays to take an active role in commercial Tunku Yaakob pioneered this market to be a weekly market on

activities. every Wednesday in the early 1920s. This weekly market soon
evolved into a daily market when business started to prosper. The

Commercial activity at Pekan Rabu began after world War I on State Government then decided to shift the market to it's present

the initiative of Tunku Yaakob, a prince from the royal location in 1932 when it was obvious that the site was getting

household Kedah, Whose aim was to see that the Malays can congested.

continue in trade in Alor Setar. It started as a weekly market in

Tanjung Chali, situated between Jalan Pekan Cina and Jalan During the Japanese Occupation, Tun Dr. Mahathir studies were

Pengkalan Kapal. interrupted and he switch to trading at Pekan Rabu which has now
become a compulsory stop in his annual Ramadhan pilgrimage to
Alor Setar. Many years has passed since then and the boy who
used to sell fruits and handicraft at Pekan Rabu is now Malaysia’s
biggest “salesman” on the international stages.

Pekan Rabu is now open not just on Wednesday, but every day.
From is humble beginning weekly market operating from an attap
roofed shack, it has since expanded into a multistory arcade selling
a wide range of from traditional delicacies like dodol durian to
mengkuang mats and apparel.

Chapter 4 35
Wisma Negeri , located near the Balai Besar, Alor Star , is On 15 April 1993 , all the important offices here , including the
the nucleus of the state government in the past . Legislative Assembly was moved to Wisma Darul Aman,
Inauguration of the building was completed on 11 Shawwal located 1 mile from the city center and is bordered between
1393 subsequent to 8 September 1973 by His Royal Tunku Bendahara Road , Sultanah Road and Highway Darul
Highness Tuanku Haji Abdul Malik, son of the late Sultan Aman. While Wisma Negeri housed several other key
Badlishah, Acting Sultan of Kedah at that time. The location departments such as the Pejabat Perbendaharaan dan Audit,
is close to the Balai Besar and is located in the Medan city . Land Registry and Kota Setar District Office .

The building was originally home to important offices such In terms of the structure of the building design , with the arch
as the office HRH Tunku Sultan , HRH Raja Muda , State forms in each of the windows , making the building look
Secretary and the Officer of State Finance . Previously beautiful . At the front of the building there is a tie badge Kedah
offices are located in building secretariat or well known as create harmony. This coupled with the roof ' fiberglass ' to mark
'opis dalam', the two-story building located behind the first the main entrance to the building. However, Wisma State can
used in 1929 . In this building there is also the Conference be categorized as building features modern architecture.
Hall of the members of the Legislative Assembly of Kedah (
earlier at the Balai Besar of the State Council since founded
in 1905 .

Chapter 4 36

Chapter 5 37
Building Forms

Chapter 5
Scale 1:2500

Figure 3.2

Building Condition



Scale 1:2500

Figure 3.3

Building Material


Brick and Wood


Scale 1:2500

Figure 3.4

Building Style

Early Modern


Neo Classical
Straits Electic

Islamic Style

Early Straits

Southern Chinese

Morya Style


Through the analysis of building material, the total of building in the good condition is 168, for fair is 271 and for poor is 148. for the
building style, in the study area it have 11 types building styles. The types of building styles are Early Modern, Modern, Neo Classical,
Strait Eletic, Utilitarian, Islamic-Style, Southern Chinese, Sino Malay Palladien, Morya Style, and Dutch Patrican.

The highest total of building style is modern style and the total is 246. Whole building material for buildings in study area, consisting of
from Bricks and Bricks and Timber. The total of building material from brick is 357 and from brick and timber is 90. Modern styles have
the highest good building condition and the material is from 60%. For the fair condition the highest total of style of building is Sino Malay
Palledian . Apart from that, the type of material from this building is brick.

Through the analysis we can conclude that building from the material brick an always have a good condition. The material from brick
and wood always have a poor condition.

According to the officer of Majlis Bandaraya Alor Setar (MBAS) the ages every building in the study area over than100 years old. There
are two types of building the ages over than 100 years it’s are one stand alone building like Balai Seni, Court and Wisma Negeri. The
second type is shop lots in the area Jalan Pekan Melayu, Jalan Pekan China, Jalan Langgar and Jalan Penjara. For the MBAS they
was preserved 409 building in the study area as a heritage building.

Chapter 5 42
Building Condition % Building Material %
Type of Building Total
Style Building Brick and
Poor Fair Good Brick

1. Early Modern 103 - 60 40 - 100

2. Modern 248 - 40 60 - 100

70 20 30 70
3. Neo Classical 23 10

4. Strait Eletic 28 5 50 10 70 30

5. Utilitarian 93 - 70 30 10 90

7. Islamic- Style 1 - - 100 90 10

8. Southern Chinese 42 5 60 45 65 35

Sino Malay - 70 30 100 -

9. 7

10. Morya Style 1 - - 100 - 100

11. Dutch Patrican 1 - - 100 - 100

148 271 168 357 90


Chapter 5 43
Socio - Cultural Attribute

Social aspect is the most important thing that must be concerned in creating a great public space. People are the heart of city, without
interaction, a city is just a space contained with buildings and structure. In Alor Star City, the people interaction can be seen closely related
with trading activities. Most of the trading centre such as City Plaza, Pekan Rabu, and Jalan Tunku Ibrahim shows good interaction of
people to fulfill needs for each others. The legibility of plaza, location, and several factors play importan role in making a lively place
where’s the people congregate.

Variety of Activity
Variety of activities Variety of activities and function along Jalan Tunku Ibrahim and Jalan Sultan Badlishah is the key to create an active
social interaction between people. Different function will attracts different people at the diffent time. The vtality of a space with limited
function cannot be retained except the space used as the base of seosional events. The limited function and choice at Dataran Balai
Besar is the main factor of passive at the space.

Chapter 5
Socio - Cultural Attribute

Chapter 5
Socio - Cultural Attribute

Chapter 5
Circulation and Accessibility

The study of accessibility and permeability into the site is very important to determine the main problem in term of easiness of access
into the area. The relationship between accesibility and lively of the area is very close. Beside of the legibility of the place, the easiness
to enter the place give big impacts in creating a good place. Looking into another view, the sense and experience by users entering the
site also important in attracting users to come and stay for a long time. The comfortable of the access point for users also will be
concerned in this study.

Jalan Langgar Circulation System

Chapter 5 47
Chapter 5 48
Chapter 5 49
Scale 1:2500

Figure 3.5

Circulation and Traffic


Water Transport/River
Road System

Traffic Conflict


Through field studies that have been done by our group, the survey questions were given to local residents in our study area covers an
area of ​Pekan Rabu. In addition, through survey questions provided seeks to know more about the city of Alor Setar itself. This survey
question also divided into several sections A to Section C. In addition to the survey findings, the study also conducted through interviews
with local residents in the Pekan Rabu.

Total number of dealers by races at areas Pekan
Malay Chinese India
The findings of the study done in terms of demographics, found that almost the
entire population of around Pekan Rabu consists of the Malay population by 80 %.
This amount is only included in the Pekan Rabu only. The area is home to 17%
commercial activities such as sales selling traditional items. It is also a popular area
for tourist attractions in Kedah. Next for the Chinese population of 17 %. The
activities carried out by them are also commercial activities, but most of their
merchandise is made from boiling ordinary everyday items and items of technology
such as cell phone service store and also clothing. A little Chinese population is also
due to their area of concentration more in Chinatown. While the community India
3% of their activities also focused on commercial goods and traditional, but more
focused on their race stuff, such as equipment or weddings.

Chapter 5

Next were the findings by the number of sellers who are available around
Pekan Rabu. As a result the number of survey conducted we conclude that
there are a number of sellers around the Pekan Rabu more composed than yes no
the female seller of 55 % . This is because according to them they are
doing is selling the traditional heritage of the family. However, there is
more to male ownership. 17%

Through our findings are also many traders consists of young girls. For
them it is made ​to help the family activities, and not an’s still a job to
them. This is because most young people prefer to migrate to cities , such
as Kuala Lumpur , Johor and Penang where higher incomes and lucrative .
While the number of dealers man, is 45 % of the conclusions that can be
evaluated is that they are the second and third generation that do
business around Pekan Rabu. Also do not be denied that there are also
workers foreign workers is an employee of the owner of the business in
Pekan Rabu .

Chapter 5 52

• For a number of dealers by age did the highest number of dealers comprise
among age between 40-44. Most of them are second and third generation in
Total of dealers by age at areas Pekan Rabu
their family carries on the tradition. Most of these ages also as business
24 and below 25 -29 30-34
owners in the area Pekan Rabu. Beside that also comprises also the second
35-39 40-44 45-49
highest among the 45-49 . While the lowest number of dealers as seen from
50-54 55-59 60 and above
the ages are the among the age of 60 and above. This can clearly be seen
almost entirely around Pekan Rabu not there this age, because they may 1%
have died or have submitted their business to be dealt with to elders. 9% 5%
However, there are also one dealer alone we have interviewed over 60 13%

years, which has gone out of business selling traditional food and traditional 15%
jewelry in Pekan Rabu. According to him, only to come to business premises
only occasionally. This is because his business was passed to his son. In
addition, the second lowest in the age range of 24 and below, which is 2 % .
Many of these young people do not make this as a regular job which is more
to help the family. This is because most of them made ​up of students
studying in these institutions and the public. Besides that most of these
people have migrated to the city to earn higher income and higher.

Chapter 5 53
Kedah Perlis Penang Others

Next, the analysis of the original owners of the population in Kedah, particularly in
3% 3% 1%
Pekan Rabu, this is reflected in the above analysis can is viewed that are almost
entirely indigenous Kedah itself of 93%. Even according to their business done is also
a traditional business. It can be seen that there are many traders in Pekan Rabu is
the second and third generations who start a business in the Pekan Rabu. While for
others is as much as 3% for traders who hails from the state of Perlis and Penang,
according to the interviews we found that most coming from the nearby state of
these are caused by marriage and also the migration from other parts of the state of

Chapter 5 54

In your opinion what are the factors that cause these residents migrated to other areas of district of Kota Setar.

Next to population and human resources which we study in terms are cheaper and also save on the cost of their business, such
of the factors that cause people to migrate from the Kota Setar to business are caused not cause many profit, as it is mainly a
other regions. And through the graph above shows that the seasonal profit oriented school holidays and tourism alone.
highest number shows 35 % of employment. Through this matter
can be seen that migrants who do more for the economy itself.
1% Marriage
3% 5%
Through this matter it is better to increase income and increase 9% Continue of Study
their economic status. Other factors as they of the opinion that the 17% Getting public facilities
standard of education of a growing population of young people 12% and infrastrcture
2% Getting jobs
make the most of the high and important positions after migrating
to big cities like Kuala Lumpur , Johor and Penang offering jobs Doing the business
and higher pay makes many people out of Kota Setar. In addition, 16% Conversion Work
it is seen business conducted in Pekan Rabu itself, which is more
Urban design
of a family business where they would take foreign employment as 35%

an employee they are caused factors that

Chapter 5 55
In your opinion what is the proposal to recall the residents and people moved into the district of Kota Setar and avoid people out of
Kota Setar.

Next, suggestions for improvement for the residents of Kota Setar and prevents the people from out of Kota Setar. Through the
findings of the above Item desired by the population in the Kota Setar is 25% of employment opportunities. The average population in
the Pekan Rabu said that more job opportunities should be opened to prevent the population out of the Kota Setar. This is because
the existing work in this area is not exhaustive and does not commensurate with the increase in population.

The job opportunities are limited and are also the only type of commercial activity is concentrated in Pekan Rabu itself. This is due to
the development of an urban area employment opportunities should be open to symbolize the economic income in the area itself.
Employment opportunities are also indirectly would open space for local people to work while improving their quality of life by creating
job opportunities. No doubt, too, that the economic activity that is run jobs indirectly will mobilize other factors to establish and create
the city of Kota Setar itself.

Chapter 5 56
Create the oppurtunity of jobs

1% provide economic opportunities for

investors draw
17% 25%
2% provide more public facilities and
adequate infrastructure
create more attractive recreational
promoting tourism assets
establishing educational institutions
Provide more affordable real estate
in the district of Kota Setar

Chapter 5 57

What are the problems faced by this city's

directions / signage is
The next will be seen in terms of field studies through the not clear
problems facing residents of Kota Setar, most problems being lack of street furniture
expressed by local residents is a matter of building a less
no omission building
manageable condition of 20%. This can be seen most of the area 1%
where the building Pekan Rabu consists of old and dilapidated 10% 15%
10% walkways unsafe
buildings. 3% 13%

building signs are not
This can also be seen through the dilapidated building is poorly 18%
no landmark in the city
managed. But also it also disfigures the view around the area
where the Pekan Rabu itself as a tourist attraction. Yet Item image of the city that
should not be blamed on the MBAS because of the difficulty to are not clearly
target ownership status of the building makes the MBAS difficult lack of landscape
to carry out the restoration work. In addition, for building
maintenance factor itself that requires large expense for a cost of
conservation of old buildings in the Pekan Rabu.

Chapter 5 58
What is special about this city image / identity of its
own city
The study carried out is about the city of Alor Setar privilege
itself, the average state that privileges the city of Alor Setar is the architectural
identity of the town of Alor Setar itself of 20%. Item can be seen
through the activities carried out in the area. Item can be seen building harmonious
2% colors
through businesses in Pekan Rabu there are still business 3%
4% 7% 20%
activities such as traditional food business which is only found in many of the buildings
Pekan Rabu only, such as salted fish, kuih penderam and so on. historical relics
In addition there is also the traditional equipment that is only
19% 11% diversity of appearance
available in Kedah. This implies and signifies the identity of of the building

Kedah itself
there is a distinctive

public spaces and

private good, safe and
good road directions

Chapter 5 59
Recommendations for enhance area of this city's

create an image / identity that clearly

create a landmark in the city

adding street furniture

8% 19% Following recommendations proposed by the population to

11% improve the functioning of signs
7% increase self-Kota Setar itself. On the whole, most people are
18% 7% improve pedestrian safety recommended to improve the image of Kota Setar itself to create
11% 12% and enhance the image of the city of Alor Setar itself. This is due
add / beautify the landscape
to the establishment of the identity of the city will represent a
enhance the conservation of historical civilizing a place especially for Setar town itself.
heritage building
a more attractive urban design

building a unified color / harmony


Chapter 5 60
There are historical buildings in the city of Alor Setar must be preserved and maintained

96% stated that there are historical buildings in Alor Setar maintained and preserved because it is a historical legacy.

While 4% indicated that this building should be demolished and replaced to boost and increase economic activity in the
vicinity of Pekan Rabu.



Chapter 5 61
Natural – Heritage Attribute

According to National heritage act 2005 (Act 645) natural heritage is any area in Malaysia that consists of physical, biological
combination of land information geological features or physiography like mountains, river, streams, rock formations, coastal features or
any natural site that striking features from natural, scientific, historical conservation point or natural beauty including flora and fauna in

In the study area among the natural heritage that found is Setar tree. The significance of these Setar tree that need to as natural
heritage in study area because from this tree Setar, Alor Setar city got their name. Because of Alor Setar city get the name from Setar
tree so, Setar tree have to preserve as a natural heritage in the study area.

Other natural heritage that can be preserve as a heritage according to the Act 645 is Sungai Raja. Sungai raja need to be conserve as
natural heritage because it have it have natural site striking features from natural beauty.

Chapter 5 62
Scale 1:2500

Figure 3.6

Natural Heritage

Tree River/Water Bodies



Chapter 5

SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding the Strengths and Weaknesses, and for identifying both the Opportunities open to the
treat. The method of SWOT analysis is to take the information from an environmental analysis and separate it into internal (strengths and
weaknesses) and external issues (opportunities and threats). Once this is completed, SWOT analysis determines what may assist the firm in
accomplishing its objectives, and what obstacles must be overcome or minimized to achieve desired results. Following show the SWOT Analysis
based on the analysis done at Alor Star.

Chapter 5 64

Most of the old and big building at Alor Star still in good condition and have their own architectural element.
The structure of the Old and big building in good condition.
Historical building has their own historical function to be the attraction element.
Masjid Zahir known as the main Icon for Alor Star

Certain building façade in Pekan Cina has been adjusted and renovate due to Owner decision.
Most of the Old and historical building façade need to be refurbish and treat first.
Most of the building are vacant and abandoned due to unknown ownership.
Menara Alor Star only become the landmark but less activity integrated with the lifestyle of the community.

Most of the shop houses in pekan cina and pekan Melayu still used by the local people for their activity
The location of the historical building in strategic location and nearer to each other in Alor Star.
The unique and different element of architecture become merchant from outside influence
The new development are located within the historical area.
The new development are overpowering the identity of the historical building.

Chapter 5 65

River as the main natural asset that can provide multi of activity and bring peaceful. Besides, it also as the natural landscape
element to the city.
Old and Big tree are located along the river
Original ‘Setar’ tree become the main element attraction.

Not properly maintained the tree by the respectable agency
Less natural tree within the historical area
Natural element polluted and less activity that include the community toward the river.
Less of clear physical and visual access to the river.

Tree preservation Order (Act 172)
Historical Water element as the starter for the historical element.

The natural landscape are not well planned by the respective group

Chapter 5 66

Alor Setar are one of the historical town in Malaysia. The existing local people still aware of the historical stories of the area.
Well known because of the historical site in the main area.
The location of the historical site area attach to each others.
Active social activity around the Pekan Rabu as the main business area.
Clear social activity can be define directly by zoning.
Less social mixing within the Malay, Chinese and Indian community
Most of the area are become the dead town in night.
Most of High generation within the area are elderly and school generation.
Less cultural activity been held within the area.
Mixing of culture can become the attraction toward the area.
Improved the public private partnership to promote the social and cultural activities in Alor Setar through financial or other provision.
The less social activity give less attraction to the tourism to come to the area
The migration of young generation to the Urban area led to the low level of youngster generation within the area.

Chapter 5 67
Commercialization Potential

i. Pekan Rabu is constructed by local people since 1930 as a heritage shopping area and it has create strong identity of ‘sense
of place’ in the Alor Setar itself.

ii. The elements in the area will create the place more lively and vital for day and night.

iii. The economic activities, temporary stalls, parking area, and shelters give comfortable for visitor.

iv. The usage of the shop lot frontage can be a best place for shop owner to displaying their traditional products to attract visitors
especially in the Pekan Rabu and some of the shop lot along Jalan Tunku Ibrahim.

v. The revitalization strategy will focus in creating the heritage trail within this area and give unique experience for visitors when
walking through the area of Pekan Melayu.

Chapter 5 68

Chapter 5 69
The whole problem in the study area we found the overall research problem is caused by the difficulty of identifying the ownership. Through
this matter can be said that this problem is a challenge to spread. This makes it difficult for local governments to do the work of restoration of old
buildings in the vicinity of Kota Setar. In addition, the ownership status also many buildings have been rented to someone else. This in turn
becomes a problem and the buildings were abandoned and maim old buildings in the area.

Through this matter clearly shows that most of the sewage discharge was channeled into a nearby river. As an example can be seen in
the Pekan Rabu, where the activities carried out in the vicinity of Pekan Rabu is a commercial activity. Besides these activities clearly
show this waste directly into the Sungai Raja adjoining Pekan Rabu. This in turn makes the Sungai Raja polluted due to the discharge
of waste from the Pekan Rabu.


Through observation we find that this does not keep pace with current developments taking place in the Kota Setar. This is reflected in
the structure of the building that is old and not well suited for use. For example building trails in the surrounding Pekan Rabu for
example many buildings that are old and can not be used again. Given this situation will cause danger to the public. In addition, it can
also be seen almost the entire zone of the study area there are also other physical conditions and infrastructure are poorly maintained.

Chapter 5 70
Through much of the problem refers to financial problems. Item can be seen through the difficulties for local governments to do the
repair work the streets in the vicinity of the study area. It is well known that the limited financial resources of local governments to
provide facilities and utilities, according to current needs. This can be seen in the overall utilities and infrastructure building in the
vicinity of Kota Setar which the majority of the poor condition and not in accordance with the current classification.


Through this matter, can be seen by the local management level of MBAS. For example almost all the buildings in the surrounding area
of ​study we found that the management of such gutter, sidewalk, and street lighting also looks less maintenance level of local


Through this matter, visible lack of interest applied to the town atmosphere in Kota Setar itself. This is also reflected in the culture of
Kedah. No doubt that there are cultures around the city of Alor Setar still maintain their culture and traditions as in terms of food, but
can be seen eroding culture little by little due to the application of modern culture in line with the recent trend of technology and so on.

Chapter 5 71

Chapter 6 72
Conservation Guidelines

Conservation guidelines for new development is proposed in order to parallel with the context of Alor Setar Heritage Characteristic. The
addition of new development to urban areas Alor Setar can not be denied by upgrading its role in the future. But a guideline type,
appearance and design features its development required to ensure the new addition will not affect the existing heritage. As the basis of
the method adopted reference the guidelines MHI is taking an approach that is recognized internationally that the method International
Committee on the Conservation of Monument and Sites (ICOMOS) - "charter for the conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas"
otherwise known as brief as "the Washington Charter" which was enacted in 1987.

There are 5 basic emphasis on the preservation of the city as Highlights on the ICOMOS "Charter for the Conse, vation of
Historic Towns and Urban Areas":

i. The pattern layout is formed as from city lots and streets, road present until now.
ii. The relationship between buildings and open green area
iii. Seem formal, inside and out, building buildings that are formed through the scale, size, design, pattern construction, materials,
colours and decorations.
iv. The functions for which the city or urban areas plays a role from time to time. Any threat to these qualities will prevent the authenticity
of the history of a town or city.

Chapter 6
Approach for Heritage Building Conservation

Building preservation - Generally heritage buildings (General Guidelines)

Building work to get planning permission from the Local Authority Alor Setar City Council. Work is defined as building demolition,
erection, re-erection or extension of a building or part thereof and includes:

i. Any increase in the height or area of ​the floor in a building:

ii. Roofing or re-roofing A building or part thereof; Any additions or alterations to a building that touches directly or indirectly on the
order of part or sanitary or soundness;
iii. Any additions or alterations to a building, whether made ​before or after completion of the building, or to deviate from the original
iv. Any additions or alterations to a building that substantially affects;
v. Any other work normally undertaken by any person or party who transacts business with the City Council of Alor Setar

Chapter 6
Scale 1:2500

Figure 3.7

Building Conservation Gazette


Build Heritage Conservation

Approach for Heritage Conservation (Significances)

Significances Shop lot Darul Aman Masjid Zahir Menara Jam


Condition Poor Good Good

Conservation Interpretive Restoration: Preservation: Rehabilitation:

Most of this building need to be repair The condition of the mosque is good. The The surrounding area of the Menara Jam
and restore to be original form. building need to be preserve and sustain need to be designed as a space with a lot
Maintain the function as retail stores it into the next generation. Still use for of functional activities.
prayer and religion activities

Chapter 6
Approach for Heritage Conservation (Significances)

Significances Balai Nobat Wisma Negeri Balai Besar


Condition Good Good Good

Conservation Preservation Preservation Preservation

The condition of the Menara Nobat is The condition of the Wisma Negeri is The condition of the Balai Besar is
excellent quality. The building need to good. The building need to be preserve excellent quality and use as Gallery. The
be preserve and sustain it for the next and sustain it for the next generation building need to be preserve and sustain
generation. It can be a minor landmark it for the next generation.
for Alor Setar.

Chapter 6
Approach for Heritage Conservation (Significances)

Significances Wan Mat Saman Building Balai Seni Sungai Raja


Condition Average Good Poor

Conservation Restoration: Preservation: Rehabilitation:

The condition of the Wan Mat Saman The condition of the Balai Seni is Sungai Raja need to be revitalize and
Building is excellent quality but the excellent quality and use as art Gallery propose a lot of activities at the riverfront
aqueduct system is not working. for Alor Setar. The building need to be for community and visitor. Plant more
Restoring aqueduct system as pond to preserve and sustain it for the next aesthetic tree to enhance the view.
enhance the visual quality generation.

Chapter 6
Approach for Heritage Conservation (Significances)

Significances Pekan Rabu Jalan Langgar Shop lot


Condition Average Good

Conservation Rehabilitation Interpretive Restoration

Pekan Rabu building need to be re- Most of this building need to be repair and
painting with the appropriate color such restore to be original form. Maintain the
as brown color to suit with the vintage function as retail stores
identity. The surrounding area need to
propose a lot of heritage activity such as
heritage commercial activity.

Chapter 6
Proposal Master Plan
Scale 1:5000

The Golden Memories
There are various definition about the Gold. Gold was
symbolized the high value elements. It also symbolized
something that more longer so it will more valuable and this
concept same like heritage that always increase it value day
by day. We need to preserve it for the next generation to
be a beautiful memories.

Chapter 6
Proposal Build Heritage

Heritage Enclave

Pekan Rabu
Scale 1:2000 Bus Station

Chapter 6
Proposal Build Heritage
Shop Lot
Plant a lot of
Avenue trees

Pedestrian Heritage Trail


Building facade

Chapter 6
Proposal Natural Heritage
Sungai Raja Recreational Activity at the river front

Outdoor Gallery

Chapter 6
Proposal Outcomes
Beautification of the city
•The introduction of landscape elements in the city such as public art and water fountain,
bollards and street lighting to demarcate pedestrian area .
•Beautification of the Sungai Raja and any water bodies.
•Shaded and improvement of pedestrian links and open spaces (include pedestrian

Heritage City
•Conservation of Built Heritage
•Preservation of the shoplots
•Restoration, preservation and refurbishment the original character of the building (to
enhance the ethnic and western influences in design and layout of the buildings).

Culture City
•Museum and art galleries.
•Festivals and events (multi cultural show and performances).
•Diversify cultural celebration.
•Conservation of ethnic village (Kampung Bugis, Kampung Jawa etc.)

Green Recreational City

•Urban Ecology Management (Persiaran Sungai Raja),
•Promotion sporting life in city park, garden, playgounds as social attraction.

Chapter 6
The Golden Memories;
Alor Setar Heritage Trail

Present like Past
1 Station Place
7 6
1. Shop lot Darul Aman
9 2. Masjid Zahir
3. Menara Jam
4. Balai Nobat
5. Wisma Negeri
6. Balai Besar
7. Balai Seni
8. Wan Mat Saman Building
9. Sungai Raja
10. Pekan Rabu

Heritage Trail Map

Chapter: Understand
Section 6 the Heritage
Alor Setar Heritage Trail for Pedestrian

3 Legend:
2 Station Place Distance (m) Time (Minute)
5 1. Shop lot Darul Aman 0 0.0
1 2. Masjid Zahir 50 1.5
7 6
8 3. Menara Jam 35 1.0
9 4. Balai Nobat 30 1.0

5. Wisma Negeri 50 1.5
6. Balai Besar 40 1.0
7. Balai Seni 30 1.0
8. Wan Mat Saman Building 35 1.0
9. Sungai Raja 20 0.5
10. Pekan Rabu 35 1.0

Heritage Trail Map

for Pedestrian

Chapter 6
Alor Setar Heritage Trail for Vehicular

3 Legend:
2 Station Place Distance (m)
5 1. Shop lot Darul Aman 0
1 2. Masjid Zahir 50
7 6
8 3. Menara Jam 35
9 4. Balai Nobat 30

5. Wisma Negeri 60
6. Balai Besar 50
7. Balai Seni 40
8. Wan Mat Saman Building 45
9. Sungai Raja 30
10. Pekan Rabu 35

Heritage Trail Map

for Vehicular

Chapter 6
Heritage Trail - Activities
Visitor’s Station Activities

Shop Lot Darul Aman

i. All visitors will gather in Shoplot Darul Aman as the first station.
ii. This shoplots is the earliest built in Alor Setar Kedah.
iii. Visitors can see British colonial architecture which remains until now.
iv. Visitors can purchase any items here for the next trip.

Masjid Zahir
i. Zahir Mosque is among the earliest mosque built in Alor Setar and has
architectural features of Sumatra.
ii. Visitors can view the architectural features of the mosque is very beautiful and
has a very high historical value.
iii. Muslim visitors can use this place for prayers and a non-Muslim can relax in the
corridors of the mosque before proceeding to the next station.

Chapter 6
Heritage Trail - Activities
Visitor’s Station Activities

Menara Jam i. The construction of the Menara Jam has a close relationship with Zahir Mosque
adjacent to the terms of its role and function, which Azan before muslim prayer.
ii. Visitors can do a photographic activities here and also a picnic on the beautiful

Balai Nobat i. Belonging to the old Sultanate of Kedah, Balai Nobat is a splendid hall in which
the nobat, or royal orchestra instruments, are stored. The instruments, which are
brought out for special occasions only, include gongs, drums and a traditional
ii. Visitors may enter into the tower and do the photography activities with their
family and friends.

Chapter 5: Proposal
Heritage Trail - Activities
Visitor’s Station Activities

Wisma Negeri i. Wisma Negeri is located along Jalan Pekan Melayu on the field of Alor Setar's city
centre, adjacent to the Balai Besar building in Kedah state.
ii. Among the historical buildings in Alor Setar, Wisma Negeri has a unique and
modernised architectural design during those period, features a multi-arch shaped
windows with a crest of the Kedah State at the middle of the top face of the
building, which signifies harmony.
iii. Visitors can view the exterior and interior of the Wisma Negeri

Balai Besar
i. Balai Besar built with a combination of stunning architecture and intricate work of
remarkable artisanship. Balai Besar built using wood cengal gold and it is a
testament to the subtlety and artistic carpentry Malays.
ii. Visitors can enter the Balai Besar building andget a feel for legacy of old Malay
traditional. Visitors feel as to return to the days of yore when visiting this Balai

Chapter 5: Proposal
Heritage Trail - Activities
Visitor’s Station Activities

Balai Seni i. Kedah Art is the heart of all the cultural activities and the arts in the State and it is
managed by the Board of the State Museum.
ii. State of Art is another landmark that is often visited not only by Malaysians but
also by foreign tourists.
iii. They can appreciate the local art-art that is worth

Wan Mat Samad Building i. The canal Remains Part of the state's landscape, running along the Route 1 of the
Federal Road, Which is sandwiched by a smaller canal built later.
ii. Visitors can appreciate the beauty of the landscape with the theme of water which
it is create ​by the Alor Setar City Council here.

Chapter 5: Proposal
Heritage Trail - Activities
Visitor’s Station Activities

Sungai Raja

i. Sungai raja is the origin for the development of Alor Setar, Kedah.
ii. Once upon a time, it was used as major transporation for Alor Setar community.
iii. It also use as aqueduct for paddy field in Alor Setar
iv. Visitor can enjoy the water element and can do recreational activity at the

Pekan Rabu i. Pekan Rabu is the last station and is a landmark business Malay people in this
town of Alor Setar.
ii. A place that should be visited by anyone who visited Orissa.
iii. Here are the various items that are sold as male and female jewelry, kitchenware,
confectionery modern and traditional, traditional clothing, fabrics, traditional
medicine and herbs, handicrafts, souvenirs, retail stores and so on.

Chapter 6

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Conservation Management Plan (CMP) is the principal guiding The aim of the CMP for Bandar Alor Setar is ;

document for the conservation and management of a heritage

place, building, monument and other significance. It is a tool that
allows stakeholder such as owners and related agencies This aim will be supported by two main focus concentrating on
especially Local Authority to make decisions about heritage rebranding and repositioning of the heritage and historical
places. Through this CMP the understanding of significance of a value;
heritage and conservation of Alor Setar shall demand the need of
protection of the heritage significance. Basically, CMP identifies Compact and conducive tourism Vibrant activities in conducive
environment environment
the heritage values or significance of a place or other CMP
manual called heritage merit.
Rebranding on; Repositioning on;
▪ Built Heritage Tourism ▪ Retail
This will be the actions to be taken in order to protect and
conserve the indigenous significances of the heritage, historical,
▪ Cultural Heritage Tourism ▪ Green Transportation

natural, cultural place of Alor Setar. This guide focuses on ▪ Nature Heritage Tourism ▪ Local Entertainment

historic places. Some places may also have natural and. All ▪ River Heritage Tourism ▪ Food & Beverages

identified values in Alor Setar can be addressed in this CMP. This ▪ View Heritage Tourism ▪ Public Facilities
document is the planning tool that supports effective and timely ▪ Walkable and cycle tourism ▪ Low crime
property management decisions for heritage places. ▪ Quality streetscape ▪ Hotel and budget hotel
▪ Green linkages

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Bandar Alor Setar have ‘intangible’ aspects that are integral to their heritage significance. ‘Intangible’ aspects can include historical,
traditions, events, social, cultural and practices that are associated with the place. Heritage place of Alor Setar also have ‘tangible’
aspect consisting built heritage, historical monument, heritage tree and other tangible significance.



Nature Development Business

Figure 6.1 : Future Target

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However, in order to prepare the good CMP, all the tangible and intangible elements that has been identified in study
area need to be put as the future targets. Due to character of Bandar Alor Setar, three pillars will be the future target in
developing the heritage and historical city for international standing. Figure 7.1 showing the future target of the CMP
and Figure 7.2 detailing the process to achieved every target.





Figure : Process to Achieve Future Target

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CMP strategy of Bandar Alor Setar is to guide, design and help stakeholders including owners to manage the conservation of heritage
and historical places. It is applicable to both private landownership and public places. Based on the understanding of significance
elements and values of the heritage and historical place of Bandar Alor Setar ten strategies has been defined to be the direction of the
CMP. This strategies will make clear set of strategic path for the stakeholders to be taken.

This strategies will involved several stages of conservation plan including rebranding, enhancement, upgrading, provision, incentive to
stimulate, establishment and promotion. However, these strategies will take sometimes to be complied and implemented by the relevant
agencies in Bandar Alor Setar Therefore prioritised of the strategies will be needed and considered wisely in this CMP. Figure 6.3,
Shows the priority of CMP strategies to be achieved in conserving the city heritage and historical value.

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1 6
Ensure Comprehensive Transportation
Rebranding and Repositioning
Movement And Facilities

Enhancement of Heritage
2 7 Upgrading of Accommodation

Incentive To Stimulate New Economy,

Promotion On Tourism
3 8 Business And Communities

Upgrade Utilities and Social Establishment Of Food And Beverages
9 Activities

Provision Of Comprehensive Promotion For Private Partnership And
Pedestrian & Cycling Linkages 10 Participation

Figure : CMP Strategies

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Methodology of CMP Bandar Alor Setar as shown in Figure 6.4 will be followed by the relevant stakeholders.


Marketing, Public & Urban Policy and Projects City Management &
Investor Relations Master plan Implementation Maintenance

Scope: Scope: Scope: Scope:

 Investor/land  Agencies liaison  Prioritise Project  City Cleanliness
owners relation &  Urban design, dev  Development  Safety and
facilitation/PPP & controls Phase Security
 Marketing &  Policy and  Project Execution
Promotion incentives
 Media relations  Actions plans
 Events and  Research and
activities development
 Public awareness
and Participation

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Stakeholders and Responsibilities
According to recommendation of Alor Setar CMP, Table 7.1, shown the
relevant stakeholders involvement and the responsibilities to be taken by

Table 7.1 : Stakeholders And Responsibilities Due to successful of the heritage and historical CMP for
Bandaraya Alor Setar all agencies cannot be working in silo. The intervention among the agencies are
needed to ensure the sense of ownership of relevant agencies to conserve the significance of heritage
and historical value.

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Action Developing Managing Maintenance Monitoring
1. Iconic Development MBAS MBAS MBAS MBAS
2. Historical, Natural & Cultural MBAS, JPS MBAS, JPS MBAS, JPS MBAS, JPS
3. View Heritage MBAS MBAS MBAS, Community MBAS
4. Walk and Cycle Path JKR JKR JKR JKR, MBAS
5. Traffic Flow and Pedestrian JKR JKR JKR JKR, MBAS
6. Street Planting MBAS MBAS MBAS, Community MBAS
9. Public Promenade MBA, JPS MBAS, JPS MBAS, JPS MDKS, JPS
10. Water Taxi Private Private Private MBAS, Private
11. Alor Setar River Bank JPS JPS JPS JPS
12. Building Heritage MDS/ Building Owner MBAS Building Owner MBAS
13. Colour Theme Sponsored by paint company MBAS Building Owner MBAS
14. Enhancing Commercial Private Private Private Private
15. Beautification MBAS, Community MBAS, Community MBAS, Community MBAS, Community

Table : Stakeholders And Responsibilities

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Chapter 5 102

The building heritage and history of Alor Setar has been published but there are still several aspect as of the city that is still not uncovered by
the general public. The study has help in uncovering various aspect of the city in terms of physical natural and social aspect. Therefore,
relevant proposal has been submitted in order to improve the overall condition in the city .

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