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# CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I

LISTA 11

2017
CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 1 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989), the total
resistance is made up of a number of different components. In order to deal with the question more simply, it is
usual to consider the total calm water resistance as being made up of four main components: Frictional
resistance, Wave-making resistance, Eddy resistance and Air resistance. It is common take together under the
name "residuary resistance" the following resistance (s):

## (e) Eddy resistance and Air resistance.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 1. Página 2.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 2 - Complete the sentence according to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd
edition: 1988/1989), regarding a streamlined body moving in a straight horizontal line at constant speed,
deeply immersed in an unlimited ocean:

"Near the nose, the pressure is above the pressure, along the middle of the body the
pressure is below it and at the stern it is again ."

## (e) Increased / static / decreased / increased.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 1. Páginas 2 e 3.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 3 - Complete the sentence according to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd
edition: 1988/1989):

"A ship moving on the surface of the sea experiences resistances in the same way as does the submerged body
(...). But there are important differences in the pressure distribution over the hull of a surface ship (...). There is
a. pressure acting over the bow, as indicated by the usually prominent bow wave build-up, and the
pressure at the stern, in and just below the free surface, is always than around a
submerged body."

## (e) Lesser / increase / greater.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 1. Página 3.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 4 - Julgue os itens, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

I - Experiments have shown that even in smooth, new ships the Frictional Resistance accounts for 50
percent of the total resistance in slow-speed ships and as much as 80 to 85 percent in high-speed
ships.

II - Any roughness of the surface will increase the frictional resistance appreciably over that of a smooth
surface.

III - Not only does the nature of the surface affect the drag, but the wake and propulsive performance are
also changed.

IV - Frictional resistance is the largest single component of the total resistance of a ship.

## (e) Todas são falsas.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Os valores da assertativa I estão trocados. Todas as outras assertativas estão corretas:

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 5 - Complete the sentence according to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd
edition: 1988/1989) and choose the CORRECT answer:

Froude gave an empirical formula for the resistance in the form 𝑹 = 𝒇𝑺𝑽𝒏 . For the smooth varnished surface,
the value of the exponent n decreased from for the short plank to for the 15.2 m (50 ft)
plank. For the planks roughened by sand, the exponent had a constant value of .

## (e) 2.0 / 1.83 / 2.0.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 3. Páginas 7 e 8.

..........

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 6 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd edition: 1988/1989), the
transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow does not occur simultaneously over the whole plank and it also
should be noted that there is no unique transition line, the actual one followed in a given case depending upon:

## (b) The initial state of turbulence in the fluid only.

(c) The initial state of turbulence in the fluid and the character of the plank surface only.

(d) The initial state of turbulence in the fluid, the character of the plank surface and the shape of the leading
edge only.

(e) The initial state of turbulence in the fluid, the character of the plank surface, the shape of the leading
edge, and the aspect ratio only.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 3. Página 10.

...........

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 7 - In association with his two-dimensional line, Hughes proposed a new method of extrapolation from
model to ship, also called three-dimensional method. According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture”
(SNAME – 3rd edition: 1988/1989), this method gives:

(a) Substantially lower ship predictions and larger values of the correlation allowance 𝐶 .

(b) Somewhat lower ship predictions and larger values of the correlation allowance 𝐶 .

(c) Substantially higher ship predictions and lower values of the correlation allowance 𝐶 .

(d) Somewhat higher ship predictions and lower values of the correlation allowance 𝐶 .

(e) Somewhat lower ship predictions so lower values of the correlation allowance 𝐶 .

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 3. Página 15.

.........

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 8 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd edition: 1988/1989), the
wave-making resistance of a ship is "the net fore-and-aft force upon the ship due to the fluid pressures
acting on all parts of the hull, just as the is the result of the fluid forces."

## (e) Normally / viscous pressure drag / tangential.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 4. Página 15.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 9 - Julgue os itens, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

I - In the case of a deeply submerged body, travelling horizontally at a steady speed far below the surface,
no waves are formed.

II - If the body is travelling on or near the surface, the variation in pressure causes waves which alter the
distribution of pressure over the hull, and the resultant net fore-and-aft force is the frictional
resistance.

III - If the body is travelling on or near the surface, over some parts of the hull the changes in pressure will
increase the net sternward force, in others decrease it, but the overall effect must be a resistance of
such magnitude that the energy expended in moving the body against it is equal to the energy
necessary to maintain the wave system.

IV - The wave-making resistance depends slightly on the shapes adopted for the area curve, waterlines and
transverse sections.

## (e) Todas são falsas.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## II – (FALSA) - Não é frictional resistance, mas sim wave-making resistance.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## IV – (FALSA) - Não é "slightly", mas sim "in large measure".

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 10 - Marque a opção que completa CORRETAMENTE a sentença de acordo com o contido no livro
“Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989), com relação aos sistemas de ondas do navio:

" The waves are curved back some distance out from the centerline and meet the diverging waves in cusps,
which are the highest points in the system. The heights of these cusps decrease rapidly with
distance from the point than do those of the waves, so that eventually well astern of the point
the _ _waves become the more prominent."

## (e) Less / divergent / transverse.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 4. Página 16.

...........

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 11 - Marque a opção que completa CORRETAMENTE a sentença de acordo com o contido no livro
“Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989):

"At low speeds, the waves made by the ship are very small, and the resistance is almost wholly viscous in
character. Since the frictional resistance varies at a power of the speed a little less than the square, when the
coefficient of total resistance is plotted to a base of Froude number Fn, at first the value of 𝑪𝑻 with
increase of speed. With further increase in speed, the value of 𝑪𝑻 begins to more and more rapidly,
and at Froude numbers approaching the resistance may vary at a power of V of or more."

## (e) Doesn't change / increase / 0.45 / 6 or more.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 4. Página 17.

.........

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 12 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989),
Professor Inui tried various distributions of sources and sinks (singularities) by volume over the curved surface,
in a horizontal plane and over the vertical middle-line plane. He found the geometry of the ends to be most
important for displacement ships at Froude numbers from:

## (e) 0.3 to 0.35.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 4. Página 20.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 13 - Judge the statements according to the picture from the book “Principles of Naval Architecture”
(SNAME – 3rd edition: 1988/1989) and choose the CORRECT answer:

I - Considerably aft of the form, all four systems become sine curves of continuously diminishing
amplitude, of a length appropriate to a free wave travelling at the speed of the model, this length being

II - The calculated profile along the model is the sum of these five systems, and the measured profile was in
general agreement with it so far as shape and positions of the crests and troughs were concerned, but
the heights of the actual waves towards the stern were considerably less than those calculated.

III - The symmetrical disturbance travels with the hull and because of its symmetry does not absorb any
energy at constant speed.

IV - Because of the definite sharp corners at bow, stern, and shoulders, the four free-wave systems have
their origins fixed at points along the hull.

V - As speed increases, the wave lengths of each of the four systems increase.

## (e) Only V is true.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 4. Páginas 22 e 23.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 14 - Complete the sentence below, according to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME –
3rd edition: 1988/1989) and choose the CORRECT answer:

"Wigley also made calculations to show the separate contributions to the wave-making resistance of the
transverse and divergent systems (Wigley, 1942). Up to a Froude number of the transverse waves are
mainly responsible for the positions of the humps and hollows. Above this speed the contribution from the
divergent waves becomes more and more important, and the interference of the transverse waves alone will not
correctly determine the position of the higher humps, particularly the last one at ."

## (e) 0.5 / Fn = 0.5.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 4. Página 24.

............

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 15 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd edition: 1988/1989), wave-
making hardly occurs at very low Froude numbers, below approximately:

(a) 0.10.

(b) 0.20.

(c) 0.30.

(d) 0.35.

(e) 0.45.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 5. Página 29.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 16 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd edition: 1988/1989), for
ahead winds, Hughes found the principal effects to be as follows:

I - The total resistance of a number of separate units is in general more than the sum of their separate
resistances, because of shielding effects, but these ef fects decrease with streamlining.

II - Rounding, tapering or stepping back the fore ends of the main erections reduce the ahead resistance,
but changes of this kind at the aft ends have no effect.

III - The shear on the main hull forward has little shielding effect.

IV - There is probably some scale effect on the resistance of large rounded structures such as masts and
smokestacks, but this will offset to some extent the omission of small fittings and rigging on the
model.

## (e) All statements are false.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## III – (FALSA) - Termo incorreto: "little".

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 17 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989), the
dependence of drag on the value of the Reynolds number has been reasonably documented for most types of
two-dimensional foil sections. Hoerner showed the value of the drag coefficient 𝑪𝑫 as a function of Reynolds
number for various types of airfoil sections of various thicknesses. Between Reynolds numbers of about 1 X 10⁵
and 1 X 10⁶:

## (a) The boundary layer is completely laminar.

(b) Sections with moderate to high thickness-chord ratios show high drag coefficients because of laminar
boundary layer separation.

## (c) The sections show a rapid decrease of their drag coefficient.

(d) The turbulent flow, for moderate to thick sections, separates closer to the leading edge, than in the case
of laminar flow.

(e) The drag coefficient decreases slightly with increasing Reynolds number.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 5. Páginas 36 e 37.

(a) / (b) – (INCORRETAS) - Essas informações se referem ao range "Below about 1 X 10⁵".

## (d) – (INCORRETA) - O correto seria "trailling edge" (e não "leading edge").

(e) – (INCORRETA) - Essa informação se refere a Reynold numbers maiores que 1 X 10⁷".

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 18 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989) and the
picture below, the resistance of bilge keels can be divided into two parts: 1. Skin friction due to additional
wetted surface; 2. Interference drag at junction between bilge keel and hull. Interference drag reduces as the
angle between the hull and bilge keel plating increases; i.e., as dimension z increases. Thus, when z = 0:

## (c) Interference drag is taken as equal to skin friction drag.

(d) Interference drag is taken as equal to twice the skin friction drag.

(e) Interference drag is taken as equal to the area of the hull covered by bilge keel plus wetted surface of
bilge keel.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## (c) – (CORRETA) – RESPOSTA

(d) – (INCORRETA)

## (e) – (INCORRETA) - Refere-se a outra relação entre x, y e z.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 19 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989),
regarding the wave pattern in shallow waters, this pattern is enclosed between the straight lines having an angle
a = 19 deg 28 min to the centerline, for values of V less than about:

(a) √gh.

(b) 2√gh.

(c) 0.3√gh.

(d) 0.4√gh.

(e) 0.5√gh.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 5. Página 43.

................

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 20 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989), the
speeds at which the power begins to increase, that is, where the effects of shallow water are first noticed and
the critical speed are given respectively, by the relations:

## (e) 𝑉 =6.09√gL ; 𝑉 =4.17√gL.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Resistência, Seção 5. Página 49.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 21 - Correlacione as informações abaixo e marque a opção CORRETA, de acordo com o livro “Principles
of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989):

II – Turbine.

## III - Nuclear reactor.

IV - Internal-combustion engine.

V - Gas turbine.

A - Has exceptional controllability at all loads, is easily reversed (an important consideration in ships) and
its most efficient range of revolutions per minute (RPM) matches that of the screw propeller.

B - Delivers a uniform turning effort, is eminently suitable for large-unit power output, and can utilize very
high-pressure inlet steam over a wide range of power to exhaust at very low pressures.

C - Has a very low fuel consumption, an average figure being around 0.20 kg of oil per kWhr.

D - It can quickly be brought on to full load without a long, warming-up period, some 15 min usually being
sufficient after the warning to "raise steam" from cold.

E - Has been installed on many naval ships and in a few merchant ships and ice breakers.

## (e) I-A; II-B; III-E; IV-D; V-C.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Itens I / II - Página 128.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Itens III / IV / V - Página 129.

.........

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 22 - Analise a figura e marque a opção CORRETA sobre os inflow factors 𝒂 e 𝒂 , segundo o livro
“Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989):

(a) Both 𝑎 and 𝑎 result in a decrease in the angle of incidence at which the water meets the section to a
value considerably below that which would obtain if they were neglected.

(b) Both 𝑎 and 𝑎 result in a increase in the angle of incidence at which the water meets the section to a
value considerably below that which would obtain if they were neglected.

(c) The inflow factor 𝑎 result in a decrease and 𝑎 in a increase in the angle of incidence at which the water
meets the section to a value considerably below that which would obtain if they were neglected.

(d) The inflow factor 𝑎 result in a increase and 𝑎 in a decrease in the angle of incidence at which the water
meets the section to a value considerably below that which would obtain if they were neglected.

(e) Both 𝑎 and 𝑎 result in a decrease in the angle of incidence at which the water meets the section to a
value considerably over that which would obtain if they were neglected.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 2. Páginas 137 e 139.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 23 - Julgue os itens segundo o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989),
no que diz respeito à “wake” do navio, e marque a opção CORRETA:

I - The frictional drag of the hull causes a following current which increases in velocity and volume towards
the stern, and produces there a wake having a considerable backward velocity relative to the surround
ing water.

II - The streamline flow past the hull causes a decreased pressure around the stern, where the stream lines
are closing in. This means that in this region the relative velocity of the water past the hull will be
higher than the ship's speed and will appear as a forward or positive wake augmenting that due to
friction.

III - The ship forms a wave pattern on the surface of the water, and the water particles in the crests have a
forward velocity due to their orbital motion, while in the troughs the orbital velocity is sternward. This
orbital velocity will give rise to a wake component which will be positive or negative according to
whether there is a crest or a trough of the wave system in the vicinity of the propeller.

IV - The total wake is made up of these three components, and is always positive.

## (e) Apenas a III é falsa.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 4. Página 146.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 24 - Julgue os itens segundo o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989),
no que diz respeito às conclusões obtidas por Hadler et al (1965), e marque a opção CORRETA:

I - In general, for minimizing the cavitation and vibration problems, the open-type stern, i.e., transom stern
with struts supporting the shaft, is superior to the conventional type for the single-screw ship.

II - The rudder may have an effect on the mean longitudinal velocity but does not have an appreciable effect
on the derived quantities.

## IV - The effect of propeller location in the aperture can be important.

V - Changes in displacement and trim may result in large variations in wake patterns and, consequently, in
the cavitation and vibration characteristics.

## (e) Todas são falsas.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 4. Página 149.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 25 – De acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989), no que
diz respeito às conclusões obtidas por Hadler et al (1965), marque a opção que completa CORRETAMENTE o
texto abaixo:

The value of the relative rotative efficiency does not in general depart materially from unity, being in the region
of:

(a) From 1.0 to 1.1 for most twin-screw ships and between 0.95 and 1.0 for single-screw.

(b) From 1.0 to 1.1 for most twin-screw ships and between 1.0 and 1.1 for single-screw.

(c) From 0.85 to 0.95 for most twin-screw ships and between 0.95 and 1.0 for single-screw.

(d) From 0.95 to 1.0 for most twin-screw ships and between 1.0 and 1.1 for single-screw.

(e) From 1.0 to 1.1 for most twin-screw ships and between 0.95 and 1.1 for single-screw.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 4. Página 152.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 26 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989), the
quasi-propulsive efficiency equals:

## (b) Hull efficiency times open propeller efficiency.

(c) Hull efficiency times relative rotative efficiency times open propeller efficiency.

## (e) Relative rotative efficiency times propeller efficiency.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 4. Página 153.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 27 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989),
classifying propeller cavitation according to the physical nature or its appearance, it is possible to specify the
following types:

## (e) Sheet, bubble, cloud, tip vortex, hub vortex.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 7. Página 173.

Existe a classificação " Travelling, fixed, vortex, vibratory.", mas esta não é segundo a "physical nature":

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 28 - Complete a sentença abaixo, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª
edição: 1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

"In any particular case σ can be calculated, 𝒑𝒐 is the , equal to the sum of the _ _
pressures, 𝒑𝒗 is dependent on the and 𝒒 upon the of the fluid and ."

(a) Total pressure / hydrostatic and hydrodynamic / temperature / density / speed of flow.

(b) Total static pressure / hydrostatic and hydrodynamic / temperature / pressure / speed of flow.

(c) Total static pressure / hydrostatic and atmospheric / temperature / density / speed of flow.

(d) Total static pressure / hydrostatic and atmospheric / temperature / pressure / speed of flow.

(e) Total static pressure / hydrostatic and atmospheric / temperature / density / speed of the section
shearing the flow.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 7. Página 173.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 29 - Complete a sentença abaixo, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª
edição: 1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

"One advantage of Super Cavitating Propellers is the of back erosion, because the cavitation
bubbles no longer collapse on the of the blades. Also, the unsteady forces resulting from
intermittent cavitation will be much so that less vibration may be expected (Todd, 1946)."

## (e) Little presence / face / reduced.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 10. Página 233.

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Questão 30 - Complete a sentença abaixo, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª
edição: 1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

" The blades of this vane wheel are designed in such a way that the vane wheel is absorbing energy from the
propeller race at its radii, which it transmits immediately in thrust at its radii (...).
In this way the required impulse to produce the total thrust of the propeller plus vane wheel is transmitted
through a mass of water and hence at a required power than for the single
conventional propeller of same thrust."

## (e) Inner / outer / lower / lower.

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 10. Página 238.

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Questão 31 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd edition: 1988/1989), sea
trials were carried out on three large bulk carriers, both with and without a reaction fin on one ship, with a fin
on a second ship and without a fin on a third vessel, sister ship of the second. The results show a reasonable
agreement between tank predictions and measured power savings, namely (in the ballast condition) around:

(a) 3 to 4 percent.

(b) 3 to 6 percent.

(c) 4 to 6 percent.

(d) 4 to 8 percent.

(e) 7 to 8 percent.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 10. Página 239.

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 32 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989), the
principal advantage of the shroud ring or nozzle is found in tugs, where the pull at the bollard for a given
horsepower compared with that given by an open propeller may be increased by as much as:

## (a) 15-25 percent.

(b) Up to 30 percent.

## (c) 30 percent or more.

(d) Up to 35 percent.

## (e) 40 percent or more.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 1. Página 128.

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Questão 33 - Marque a opção que correlaciona CORRETAMENTE as informações abaixo, de acordo com o livro
“Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989):

I - Indicated power.

II - Brake power.

## III - Shaft power.

IV - Delivered power.

V - Effective power.

A - RV

B – It is measured in the cylinders by means of an instrument (an indicator) which records continuously the
steam or gas pressure throughout.

## C - The power actually delivered to the propeller.

D – It is the power transmitted through the shaft to the propeller. It is usually measured aboard ship as
close to the propeller as possible by means of a torsionmeter.

E – It is the power measured at the crankshaft coupling by means of a mechanical, hydraulic or electrical
brake.

## (e) I-B; II-E; III-D; IV-A; V-C.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 1. Páginas 129 e 130.

...............

...............

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Questão 34 - Complete a sentença, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

" The momentum theories were based on correct fundamental principles, but gave of the propeller
form which would produce the calculated thrust. The propeller was idealized as an "actuator disk" or some
similar conception, which could cause an instantaneous increase in pressure in the fluid passing through it.
They led, however, to the important conclusion that the efficiency of an ideal propeller has an upper limit which
varies with the . The blade element theories, on the other hand, were capable of predicting the
effects of various changes in propeller form, but led to the incorrect result that the efficiency of an ideal
propeller was ."

## (e) Little indication / disc area / greater than the unity.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 2. Página 131.

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Questão 35 - Analise a figura e marque a opção CORRETA, de acordo com o contido no livro “Principles of Naval
Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989), com relação ao ângulo BOC:

(a) It is always small in an efficient propeller, usually in the region of 3 to 5 deg, at which angles the L/D
ratio is approximately at its maximum value.

(b) It is always small in an efficient propeller, usually in the region of 3 to 6 deg, at which angles the L/D
ratio is approximately at its maximum value.

(c) It is usually small in an efficient propeller, usually in the region of 3 to 5 deg, at which angles the L/D
ratio is approximately at its maximum value.

(d) It is usually small in an efficient propeller, usually in the region of 3 to 6 deg, at which angles the L/D
ratio is approximately at its maximum value.

(e) It is usually small in an efficient propeller, usually in the region of 3 to 5 deg, at which angles the L/D
ratio is approximately at its minimum value.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 2. Páginas 137 e 139.

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 36 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989), the
effect of the propeller in inducing an inflow velocity reduces the forward wake to some extent, the effective
wake usually being lower than the nominal wake:

## (e) Two or four points.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 4. Página 147.

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Questão 37 - Correlacione as informações abaixo e marque a opção CORRETA, de acordo com o livro “Principles
of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989):

I - Side elevation.

## III - Transverse view.

IV - Developed outline.

A - Is drawn through the edges of the blade when the blade widths are set out around helical arcs.

B - Shows the transverse projection and developed outline of the blade, the line of maximum thickness of
the sections and the amount of skew.

C - Shows the section shapes pitch faces all drawn parallel to the base line and at their correct radii from
the axis.

D - Shows the rake of the propeller (the fore-and-aft slope of the generating line) and a hypothetical
section showing the variation of maximum blade thickness from tip to root.

## (e) I-A; II-D; III-C; IV-D.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 6. Páginas 165 e 166.

.................

..............

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Questão 38 - Complete a sentença, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

"An increase in the number of blades not only the thrust per blade, thereby _ _ the
intensity of the disturbing forces, but also their frequency."

## (e) Increasing / reducing / reduces.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 6. Página 167.

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Questão 39 - Julgue os itens, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

I - Sheet cavitation first occurs at the leading edges of propeller blades on the suction side (back).

II - Bubble cavitation first occurs at the midchord or at the position of maximum thickness of the blade sec-
tions, at shock-free entry of the flow.

III - Cloud cavitation often occurs behind strongly developed stable sheet cavities and, in general, in mod-
erately separated flows in which many small vortices form kernels form many small cavities.

IV - Tip vortex cavitation usually starts somewhat behind the tip of the propeller blades.

V - The hub vortex is formed by the combined vortices from the blades at the blade root, which by
themselves are too weak to cavitate. With a converging hub form this hub vortex can, however, be very
strong and cavitate readily. The resulting vortex cavitation is very stable and appears as a thick rope
with strands corresponding to the number of blades.

## (e) Todas são falsas.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 7. Página 175.

...............

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 40 - Complete a sentença, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

"Leaving the wake peak a blade section camber is induced when the angle of attack _ _ again.
Sheet cavitation at the leading edge disappears and bubbles are formed at the midchord position. These
bubbles leave the propeller blade together when the induced blade section curvature . The relatively
long period available for bubble growth and the simultaneous arrival of these bubbles at the trailing edge with
its associated high pressure causes a simultaneous collapse. This explains the bending of _ _ edges
towards the side."

## (e) Decrease / increases / increases / trailing / suction.

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## Comentário: Propulsão, Seção 7. Páginas 180 e 181.

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 41 - Associe as informações abaixo, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME –
3ª edição: 1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

I – Coursekeeping.

II – Maneuvering.

## C - The controlled change in the direction of motion (turning or course changing).

D - Interest centers on the ease with which the ship can be held to the course.

E - Interest centers on the ease with which change can be accomplished and the radius and distance
required to accomplish the change.

F - Interest centers on the ease, rapidity and distance covered in accomplishing changes.

## (e) A-I; B-III; C-II; D-I; E-III; F-II.

84
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 1. Página 191.

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Questão 42 - Analise a figura, julgue os itens de acordo com os conceitos de estabilidade do livro “Principles of
Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

I - A surface ship sailing a calm sea possesses positional motion stability in the horizontal plane with
controls fixed.

II - In the horizontal plane in the open sea with stern propulsion, a self-propelled ship cannot possess
either positional or directional stability with controls fixed.

III - A ship must possess both positional and directional stability with controls working either under manual
or automatic guidance.

IV - The only kind of motion stability possible with self-propelled ships in the horizontal plane with controls
fixed is straight-line stability.

## (e) Todas são falsas.

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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 3. Página 195.

I – (FALSA)

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 43 - Analise a figura e marque a única opção INCORRETA, de acordo com a manobra "Dieudonne",
explicada no livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989):

(a) No data can be obtained for the unstable ship B on the dotted curve between (a) and (b), because these
are points of unstable equilibrium for the particular rudder angles.

(b) At zero rudder angle, the ship will tend to move to either (c) or (c1) depending on the previous time
history of the motion because these are positions of unstable equilibrium for zero rudder deflection.

(c) Ships with an odd number of unirotating propellers are not dynamically symmetrical about the xz-plane.

(d) For a stable ship, the rudder angle =0 is the rudder angle needed to maintain a straight course.

(e) For an unstable ship, the rudder angle corresponding to the position of half the loop height is the
approximate neutral angle.

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

(a) – (CORRETA)

## (c) / (d) / (e) - (CORRETAS)

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Questão 44 - Marque a alternativa INCORRETA, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME
– 3ª edição: 1988/1989), com relação à "Rudder Cycling maneuver":

(a) The maneuver comprises four partial turns to alternating sides about the base heading.

(b) Engine speed is reduced in steps during the maneuver until finally reversed.

## (c) Engine orders are keyed to heading changes.

(d) It has a greater head reach but a more predictable trajectory than the conventional crash astern.

(e) If lateral sea room permits, a simple hard-over is better than the Rudder Cycling.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 10. Página 258.

...........

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 45 - Complete a sentença, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

"The results of the zigzag maneuver are speed dependent. In general, for any given ship the time to reach
execute . with increasing speed, and the overshoot yaw angle and the overshoot width of
path with increasing speed. However, the non-dimensional time to reach execute, with
increasing speed."

## (e) Increases / increase / decreases.

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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 5. Página 206.

...........

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 46 - Julgue os itens a seguir, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª
edição: 1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

I - Accelerating means increasing ship speed from rest, or from a particular ahead speed to a higher ahead
speed.

II - Stopping is desacelerating the ship from any given ahead speed until the ship comes to rest.

## (d) Apenas I e III são verdadeiras.

94
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 10. Página 251.

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Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

Questão 47 - Analise a figura correlacionando as informações abaixo e, de acordo com o contido no livro
“Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989), marque a opção CORRETA:

## I-0< 𝑼′𝒂 < 3.

II - 3 < 𝑼′𝒂 < 11.
III - 11 < 𝑼′𝒂.

## (e) I-B; II-C; III-D.

96
CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 12. Página 271.

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Questão 48 - De acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989), dados
de “full-scale trials” com o navio ESSO OSAKA mostraram que, tomando a velocidade angular em águas
profundas como 100%, as velocidades em águas rasas são geralmente:

## II - In water depth 2.5 times ship draft, 50 to 60 percent.

III - In water depth 1.25 times ship draft, 60 to 100 percent increase in turning diameter.

## (e) Todas são falsas.

98
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 13. Páginas 280 e 281.

Na verdade, os valores estão trocados nos itens I e II. O correto seria 2.5 e 1.25, respectivamente.

..................

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Questão 49 - Complete a sentença, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

"Sinkage is the downward vertical displacement of ship's , and trim is the bow-up
angle of rotation of the ship at its . Squat is the resultant movement due to sinkage and bow-up
rotation."

## (e) Center of gravity / positive / center of gravity.

100
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 13. Página 290.

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Questão 50 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989),
usually, the ship's turning path or tatical diameter is practically independent of speed at Froude numbers less

(a) 0.10.

(b) 0.15.

(c) 0.25.

(d) 0.30.

(e) 0.35.

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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 14. Página 297.

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Questão 51 - Complete a sentença abaixo, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª
edição: 1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

"The Bech or reverse spiral maneuver is an alternative test to the direct spiral maneuver. In the reverse spiral
test the ship is steered at a constant and the required to produce this is
measured."

## (e) Yaw angle / maximum rudder angle / yaw angle.

104
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 4. Página 204.

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Questão 52 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd edition: 1988/1989), a
highly maneuverable ship will have:

## (e) A large value of K' and a large or small value of T'.

106
CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 5. Página 208.

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Questão 53 - Julgue os itens, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), com relação às características do “Turning Path”:

I - During the first phase of the turn, before it becomes steady, there is also an apaparent "pivoting point".
This point near the bow of the ship initially follows a path which is a straight-line extension of the
approach path, while the stern deviates inward of the approach path and the bow deviates outward of it.

II - The first phase starts at the instant that the rudder begins to deflect and may be complete by the time
the rudder reaches its full deflection angle.

III - The great majority of merchant ships have turning diameters of from two to four ship lengths at full
rudder angle.

## (e) Apenas a III é falsa.

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## III – (VERDADEIRA) - Página 211.

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Questão 54 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3 rd edition: 1988/1989),
turbines of most merchant ships, were designed to provide an astern torque and an astern propeller rpm of,
respectively:

(a) 60 percent of the rated ahead torque; 50 percent of the rated ahead rpm.

(b) 50 percent of the rated ahead torque; 60 percent of the rated ahead rpm.

(c) 80 percent of the rated ahead torque; 50 percent of the rated ahead rpm.

(d) 50 percent of the rated ahead torque; 80 percent of the rated ahead rpm.

(e) 50 percent of the rated ahead torque; 85 percent of the rated ahead rpm.

110
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 10. Página 256.

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Questão 55 - Complete a frase, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), com relação aos resultados obtidos com testes com o navio ESSO SUEZ, e marque a opção
CORRETA:

"The important result is that there is only a decrease of about percent of the original head reach
by increasing the absorbed astern horsepower by as much as 100 percent."

(a) 10 to 15.

(b) 15 to 20.

(c) 20 to 25.

(d) 25 to 30.

(e) 30 to 35.

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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 10. Páginas 260 e 261.

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Questão 56 - According to the book “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3rd edition: 1988/1989), when
coasting, if the propellers are locked instead of allowed to windmill, coasting distances may be reduced by a
factor of between:

## (e) Three and four.

114
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 10. Página 262.

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Questão 57 - Complete a frase, de acordo com o livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição:
1988/1989), e marque a opção CORRETA:

"While the effect of corrective rudder action in reducing yaw amplitudes in overtaking seas was not shown by
Eda and Crane (1965), this effect would be , because in general, wave excitations exert ____________
forces than those that a rudder can exert."

## (e) Very small / far larger.

116
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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 12. Páginas 276 e 277.

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Questão 58 - Observe a figura e marque a opção que completa CORRETAMENTE a sentença abaixo, segundo o
livro “Principles of Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989):

## "This figure shows that is the dominant phenomenon at subcritical speeds

(Fn < 1), whereas is dominant at supercritical speeds (Fn > 1). The figure also shows
that the sinkage is always , whereas the super-critical trim is ."

## (e) Sinkage / trim / negative / positive.

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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 13. Página 290.

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Questão 59 - Marque a opção que completa CORRETAMENTE a sentença abaixo, segundo o livro “Principles of
Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989), com relação às superfícies de controle:

"Three components of interest in ship control are a lift component, L, to the direction of motion, a
drag component, D, to the direction of motion, and a y-component normal to the ."

## (e) Parallel / normal / axis of the ship.

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## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 14. Página 292.

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Questão 60 - Marque a opção que completa CORRETAMENTE a sentença abaixo, segundo o livro “Principles of
Naval Architecture” (SNAME – 3ª edição: 1988/1989), com relação à Estabilidade e Controle em ondas:

"In the case of head and bow seas, where the frequency of encounter with waves causing yawing and
swaying is comparatively , and where course stability is usually , serious
difficulties occur."

## (e) High / large / seldom.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

## Comentário: Controlabilidade, Seção 12. Página 272.

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CICLO DE EXERCÍCIOS I
Questões PNA-Resistance / PNA-Propulsion / PNA-Controllability

GABARITO

1 B 11 A 21 B 31 E 41 A 51 C

2 A 12 B 22 A 32 E 42 B 52 A

3 B 13 A 23 D 33 D 43 B 53 D

4 B 14 C 24 A 34 A 44 D 54 C

5 E 15 A 25 D 35 B 45 A 55 C

6 E 16 D 26 C 36 D 46 E 56 D

7 A 17 C 27 E 37 C 47 B 57 E

8 C 18 C 28 C 38 B 48 C 58 A

9 D 19 D 29 A 39 A 49 E 59 B

10 D 20 B 30 C 40 B 50 D 60 E

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