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Business Writing

Level 2

Worldwide Interactive Network, Inc.


1000 Waterford Place, Kingston, TN 37763 • 888.717.9461
©2008 Worldwide Interactive Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2

Copyright © 1998 by Worldwide Interactive Network, Inc. ALL RIGHTS


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should be addressed to:
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 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
introduction

HI!! It’s me again, EdWIN. If you have met me


through an earlier course, then you know that I
will be your guide through this level.

You are about to begin Level 2 of Business


Writing. If you have become acquainted with
Hi, I’m EdWIN! me before, you already know that I am not
too hard of a task master. I don’t carry a whip
around or anything, so don’t think you are
about to be tortured. Let me ease your mind
about what this level is all about. I will be asking
you to do some writing on your own. We are
specifically concerned with the skills necessary
to communicate successfully with others as they
relate to the workplace situation.

In Level 1 of Business Writing we covered many


of the basics of writing. In this level, we will take
that a step further and also do some reviewing.

It is my goal, as always, to help you develop


your writing skills to the point that you can
feel confident in any required writing task in a
workplace situation. Working together, I know
that we can succeed.

So, without further ado, let’s begin … are


you ready?

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2

LESSON 1 Audience and Purpose

LESSON 2 Business Letters and Memos

LESSON 3 Complete Sentences

LESSON 4 Compound and Complex Sentences

LESSON 5 Commonly Misspelled or Misused Words

LESSON 6 Basic Grammatical Errors

LESSON 7 Posttest

REFERENCE Test-Taking Tips

 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2

1
LESSON 1

audience and purpose

Even though the purpose of your writing


may change with each job assignment you may
receive, the main goal is always the same: to
get your point across clearly, accurately, and
effectively (or successfully).

Writing a message, letter, or report may


not ever be easy for you. Some people have
a natural talent for the job, and some have to
work at every word that’s put to paper. Which
type are you?

Can you sit down and write a letter easily


Some days writing can
with only a few changes, or is it a painful chore
be a chore!
just to write a short note? Whichever type you
are, there are some things that you can do to
make the work less difficult and to write more
effectively at the same time.

When considering the purpose of the


message, ask yourself some questions about
the subject. It may help to write down the
questions and answers in list form to get a
clearer meaning. Ask yourself:

• What am I trying to communicate?

• What details do I need to include?

Make a list of the points and details. If you


make such a list, this will help avoid omitting
important information.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
Did you ever go to the grocery store without a
list? When you are at home you might make a
mental list of the items you need, but more often
than not, when you return home you find that there
is always at least one item you forgot to purchase.
Then you are kicking yourself for not writing it down
(and always promising that next time you will)!

Remember, you want to be sure the work is as


correct and complete as possible before sending
it out. Check the list one more time if necessary.

Next, consider the audience and add this to


your list. Who will be reading this message or
report? Will it be directed to just one person, or will
a group be reading it? Will it be a co-worker who
is a friend or just a casual acquaintance? Will it be
your boss or the Chairman of the Board? Will the
reader be a customer, client, or creditor?

Once you have determined your target


audience, you will have a better idea of just what
style and attitude you can use when composing
your message. There are many different moods in
which the same message can be written. In business
writing, a certain amount of professionalism and
seriousness is required and expected. Even so,
you may write in a different fashion to a co-worker
who is also a friend, as compared to how you
would compose the same message designed
for your boss. Another question you may need
to consider: Will the message be of a negative
nature? All of these things can determine tone or
mood. This is why understanding your audience
is important.

 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
Then as a last step, ask yourself, “What form
should this message take? Does it need to be
a memo, a report, or a business letter?” All of
these use different formats, so you will need to
know which is appropriate for the job. Many times
you will not have to make a decision concerning
the format. For example, if your employer says,
“Send a letter,” then naturally that will be the
format. However, it is up to you to decide which
format will best fit the four Cs (Clear, Concise,
Correct, Conversational). A clear idea of the
purpose and audience is vital.

Now that we have discussed the importance


of understanding audience and purpose, let’s try
a few basic exercises to practice.

Yes sir, ... I’ll send a letter right away!

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

Exercise – Audience and Purpose

Instructions: Read the paragraph and answer the questions regarding its
audience and purpose.

All of our engineering staff will be meeting next week regarding


changes that are going to be made to our computers. The
meeting will be held on Tuesday, Feb. 4, at 10:00 a.m. in the
conference room. I urge all of our engineering staff to arrange
their schedules so that they can attend.

Thanks,

Mr. Bossman

1. What is the purpose?

2. Who is the audience?

3. Who is the speaker?

 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

Instructions: Read the paragraph and rewrite making any correc-


tions that you think are necessary.

People. We need a meeting about problems we are having.


Be there at 1:00 p.m. next Tuesday. The meeting will probably
last an hour or two or maybe more, depending on what we will
have to discuss and what everyone will have to say about our
delivery trucks and repairs that might have to be made. There
will be coffee and doughnuts in the conference room. thanks

Your Paragraph:

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

Instructions: I will give you some information, and you write a paragraph
containing the given information. Remember to keep it clear,
concise, correct, and conversational. Remember your pur-
pose and audience. Don’t worry if the wording is different.
That is not the important thing, here!

Original Information:

• notice of conference
• Monday, May 8
• 9:00 to 4:00
• Lunch break - 12:00 to 1:00
• new hiring policies
• personnel employees
• personnel director
• main conference room

Your Paragraph:

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

10 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

Answers to exercise – Audience and Purpose

1. What is the purpose?

Answer: To notify of a meeting

2. Who is the audience?

Answer: All engineering staff

3. Who is the speaker?

Answer: Mr. Bossman

Suggested paragraph:

There will be a meeting in the conference room next Tuesday


at 1:00 p.m. to discuss maintenance problems with our delivery
trucks. All maintenance staff need to attend. Please schedule a
minimum of two hours for this meeting.

Thanks,

Maintenance Supervisor

NOTE: You will notice that I did not include a date of the meeting
as this information was not given. The best I could do was say,
“next Tuesday”!

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 11


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

Suggested rewrite:

You may have had trouble figuring out exactly what this paragraph
is about. Here is what I think this person was trying to say. Try
to determine the purpose and audience.

All personnel employees will be required to attend a meeting in


the main conference room to address our new hiring policies.
The conference will be held on Monday, May 8 from 9:00 a.m.
until 4:00 p.m., with a lunch break from 12:00 p.m. to 1:00
p.m. Please clear your calendar for that day so that you will
be able to attend.

Thanks,

Personnel Director

OK, how did you do on those exercises?

Were your paragraphs clear; did they contain


all the necessary information? Were they concise
and to the point with no unnecessary wording?
Was the purpose and audience clear?

12 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
business Letters and memos

Probably the most common forms of writing


that will be required of you are the business letter
and the memo.
We will concentrate on the business letter
first. Now, at first glance you may think that any
ol’ way you slap together a letter will work just
fine. Just as long as you get everything in it, it
will be okay. Wrong! There are rules concerning
the proper way to structure a business letter, and
we will cover each of these.
The salutation sets the
tone of the letter. The first thing we need to remember is that
there are five specific parts to any business
letter. Those parts are: heading, salutation,
introduction, body, and closing.
The heading is made up of several pieces
of information, and they are placed in the same
order every time. First, you have the current
date, the name of the person whom you are
addressing, the title of that person if relevant,
the name of the company, and the full address,
including the zip code.
The salutation is next in order of structure.
You know this part. It usually is something like:

• Dear Sir
• Dear Mr. Caldwell
• To Whom It May Concern
Salutations can set the tone of the letter, so
it is important to review purpose and audience
when choosing one.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 13


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

For example, consider these two choices:

Dear Mr. Caldwell: as opposed to Mr. Brown:.


Feel the difference in the mood that the salutation
sets? Whereas, Dear Mr. Caldwell, carries a certain
friendly tone, Mr. Brown seems a bit stern and cold.
The latter sounds like something you might receive
from the IRS informing you of an impending audit!

Also something to consider in choosing a salutation


is the position of the person you are addressing. Many
times the appropriate choice includes the title of the
person, i.e. Mr. President:, or Dear Mr. President:.
By the way, don’t ask me why the word “Dear” is
considered an appropriate beginning for almost any
salutation. The word “dear” normally indicates a close
personal relationship with someone, but in the case
of the business letter, well, that’s just the way it is!

The introduction is pretty much self-explanatory. It


is the section where you introduce yourself. Include a
reminder of a past phone conversation or a request
you received from this person. This will tell the
reader why you have written. Keep this brief and to
the point.

Next, include the body of the letter. Once again, be


specific about the information you are communicating
to the reader. When you have finished the body, then
put in the closing and you’re outta there! A common
closing that will work in almost any situation is Yours
truly, or even more commonly used, Sincerely. Always
follow the closing with your name and title.

14 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 15


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

The punctuation contained in any business letter is the


same as proper punctuation in any writing. The only fast
rule is that the punctuation at the end of the salutation is
always a colon. A comma placed here makes it a personal
letter rather than a business letter.

Also, using a person’s first name in the salutation


without the last name sets the tone as a more personal
letter. The only time that you would ever do this is if you
were, in fact, writing a business letter to a friend. Then,
the casual greeting is acceptable. For example, you
might need to write a letter to a friend in another business
about a meeting you attended recently. Even though it is
a business letter and is set up and written in this format,
your friend might be truly offended if you wrote “Dear
Sir” as the salutation. (I know I would be.) Once again,
this is a situation that calls for knowing your audience.
(Literally!)

For the most part though, you will be using the


standard salutation and punctuation.

16 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

The alignment of a business letter has


two basic formats. The first is a block format,
aligned with the left margin of the page. Any
enclosures are noted under the closing by the
abbreviation “enc.”, and if the letter has been
typed by someone other than the writer, then
the writer’s initials are in capitalization with a
forward slash, followed by the typist’s initials in
lower case. Also, copies of some letters will be
sent to others as a means of communicating
that correspondence has been sent. If this is the
case, then the small letters “cc” will be followed
by a list of names of those that will receive the
correspondence.
Outlines help organize
information. The second type of format aligns the heading
(except for the date), salutation, body of letter,
enclosure notation, writer, and typist initials in
a straight line at the left margin. Paragraphs
are not indented. The date, the closing with the
writer’s name and title, are in the center of the
page. All other heading items are in a straight
line, on the left margin. This is sometimes
referred to as a mixed format.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 17


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

I. Five parts of business letter


A. Heading
1. Date
2. Recipient’s name
3. Recipient’s title
4. Name of company
5. Address of company
B. Salutation
1. Sets tone
2. Indicates title
3. Shows respect
4. Is formal
C. Introduction
1. Introduce yourself
2. Mention previous call, etc.
D. Body of letter
1. Get straight to the point
2. Communicate information, make request
3. Avoid unnecessary comments
E. Closing
1. Use a standard closing
2. Followed by name and title
II. Alignment rules
A. Left margin (or block) format
1. All lines straight down left margin
B. Mixed format
1. Date begins at center
2. Other heading items straight line, left margin
3. No indentations for paragraphs
4. Closing, writer’s name and title begin at center, in line with date
5. Enclosure notation, copies to, and writer’s/typist’s initials on left margin
III. Punctation
A. Always use colon after salutation
1. Exception is business letter to a personal friend, then a comma is appropriate
IV. Additional rules
A. Note any enclosures with “enc.”
B. Initials of writer in all caps, forward slash, followed by initials of typist in lower case
C. Copies sent to others will be designated with cc followed by names

18 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

You thought this would be easy, didn’t you?


Take a look at the following example to see the
parts of the business letter.

M
Miller Computer Components
1000 Winwood Way
Edwinsville, OH 12345-0000

April 12, 1998

Mr. William Alexander heading


298 West End Avenue
Indianapolis, IN 46259-4599

Dear Mr. Alexander: salutation introduction

Top Flight Marketing is pleased to acknowledge receipt of your innovative market-


ing suggestions for our newly developed computer controlled lighting system. We
are, however, currently following a different marketing strategy which is not in keep-
ing with those suggestions outlined in your proposal. body
Thank you for your enthusiastic correspondence. We look forward to working with
you in the future.

Sincerely yours,

Barbara Sutton closing


Barbara Sutton
Sales Manager

Enc.
BS/em additional: enclosures, initials of writer

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 19


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
We will now address the memorandum or “memo.”
The business memo also has a certain format that
must be followed in order to make specific points and
avoid confusion.

This format allows your readers to determine a great


deal of information in a very brief amount of time. There
are several headings in a memo. They will include the
person(s) to whom it is addressed, the writer’s name,
the date, and the subject. (Sometimes the subject is
given prior to the date.)

The next part will be the introduction. It is similar to


a business letter; reviewing any relevant information
that the reader may have already received concerning
the topic of the memo.

The body of the memo will provide the purpose


and details of the information being communicated.
Generally, there is no indentation at the beginning of
the paragraph.

The closing is different from a letter in that it is usually


a closing statement referring to any follow-up details
that may apply.

As you can see, the memo is very brief, which is, of


course, the whole idea of a memo.

Some memos may contain a detail noted under the


subject in the headings section. This is the notation cc
which means copies to. The purpose of including this on
a memo is to avoid unnecessary communication about
the contents to those who were not direct recipients
(those receiving the communication), but may need or
wish to know the information communicated.

20 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
Review the outline of a memo below.

I. Headings
A. Date
B. Addressee
C. Writer’s name
D. Subject
E. Copies to (optional)

II. Introduction
A. Mention previous information

III. Thesis and Body


A. Brief
B. Include all pertinent information

IV. Closing
A. Closing statement

Look at the example of a standard memo.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 21


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

To: All Customer Service Managers

From: William Schmitt

Date: February 15, 1998

Subject: Training Session

You are aware that the company has bought a new computer system
to handle customer orders. Therefore, you are required to attend one
of the training sessions, as indicated below. Please write your name by
the session you plan to attend. Naturally, not everybody can come to the
same session, so please write your name for a second option. I expect
your answer no later than February 17. I will contact you confirming your
scheduled time.

First Option Second Option

February 27 9 a.m. - 11 a.m. __________ __________

February 27 1 p.m. - 3 p.m. __________ __________

February 28 8 a.m. - 10 a.m. __________ __________

March 1 8 a.m. - 10 a.m. __________ __________

It is time to do some practice exercises


covering the proper format of the business
letter and memo.

Now, don’t groan. Aren’t you tired of


reading anyway? Let’s write for awhile.

22 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
Exercise – Business letters and memos

Instructions: Answer the following questions by choosing the best answer.

1. There are five specific parts to any business letter. Which part includes the
current date, the name of the person whom you are addressing, the title of
that person if applicable, the name of the company, and the full address?

a. salutation
b. heading

2. There are five specific parts to a business letter. What is the name for
the following part? Dear Mr. Caldwell:

a. salutation
b. introduction

3. There are five specific parts to a business letter. Which section is the
part where you introduce yourself?

a. salutation
b. introduction

4. There are five specific parts to a business letter. Which is the main part
of the letter?

a. heading
b. body

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 23


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

5. There are five specific parts to a business letter.


Which is the section for ending your letter?

a. salutation
b. closing

6. You must include several things in the heading. What is one of them?

a. your name
b. the date

7. You must include several things in the heading. What is one of them?

a. the addressee
b. your company name

8. You must include several things in the heading. What is one of them?

a. the addressee’s phone number


b. the title of the addressee

9. You must include several things in the heading. What is one of them?

a. the addressee’s company name


b. your address

10. You must include several things in the heading. What is one of them?

a. the addressee’s full address
b. your zip code

24 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

11. True or false: The salutation makes no difference in setting


the tone of a letter.

a. True
b. False

12. True or false: It is acceptable to make personal observations and


comments in the body of a business letter, just as long as you get all of
the important details in also.

a. True
b. False

13. True or false: A colon placed after the salutation in a business letter
denotes formality.

a. True
b. False

14. The alignment of a business letter has two basic formats.


What is one of them?

a. block format
b. type format

15. The alignment of a business letter has two basic formats.


What is one of them?

a. mixed format
b. special format

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 25


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

16. What does ‘enc.’ indicate to the reader?



a. an enclosure is in the document
b. the initials of the writer are ‘enc’

17. What does EW/sp signify at the bottom of a letter?

a. initials of writer and reader


b. initials of writer and typist

18. The business memo has a certain format that must be followed in
order to make specific points and avoid confusion.
What are the parts of a memo?

a. heading, introduction, body, closing


b. heading, salutation, introduction, body, closing

19. In the heading of a memo, we include the date, addressee, and what
else?

a. writer’s name, subject, copies to (optional)
b. writer’s name, writer’s address, thesis

20. What is the main difference between a letter and a memo?



a. Letter - longer, more parts in the heading. Memo - contains more
information, not as detailed.
b. L etter - longer, more formal, contains more information.
Memo- brief,communicates information in just a glance

26 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

Answers to Exercise – Business letters and memos

1. There are five specific parts to any business letter. Which part
includes the current date, the name of the person whom you are
addressing, the title of that person if applicable, the name of the
company, and the full address?

a. salutation
b. heading

Answer: b – The heading is always included in a business letter. It


always contains those several pieces of information in the
same order every time.

2. There are five specific parts to a business letter. What is the name
for the following part? Dear Mr. Caldwell:

a. salutation
b. introduction

Answer: a – Dear Mr. Caldwell: is a salutation. Salutations can set
the tone of the letter, so it is important to review purpose and
audience when choosing one.

3. There are five specific parts to a business letter. Which section is


the part where you introduce yourself?

a. salutation
b. introduction

Answer: b – The introduction is the section where you introduce


yourself. This will tell the reader why you have written. Keep
this brief and to the point.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 27


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
4. T
 here are five specific parts to a business letter.
Which is the main part of the letter?

a. heading
b. body

Answer: b – The body of the letter is the main part of the letter. This
is the section where you make a request of pass along the
facts.

5. There are five specific parts to a business letter.


Which is the section for ending your letter?

a. salutation
b. closing

Answer: b – The closing is the section that ends the letter. A common
closing is: Sincerely, always follow the closing with your name
and title.

6. You must include several things in the heading.


What is one of them?

a. your name
b. the date

Answer: b – The heading is made up of several pieces of information,


and they are placed in the same order every time. First, you
have the current date, the name of the person whom you are
addressing, the title of that person if applicable, the name of
the company, and the full address including the zip code.

28 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
7. You must include several things in the heading.
What is one of them?

a. the addressee
b. your company name

Answer: a – The heading is made up of several pieces of information,
and they are placed in the same order every time. First, you
have the current date, the name of the person whom you are
addressing, the title of that person if applicable, the name of
the company, and the full address including the zip code.

8. You must include several things in the heading.


What is one of them?

a. the addressee’s phone number


b. the title of the addressee


Answer: b – The heading is made up of several pieces of information,
and they are placed in the same order every time. First, you
have the current date, the name of the person whom you are
addressing, the title of that person if applicable, the name of
the company, and the full address including the zip code.

9. You must include several things in the heading.


What is one of them?

a. the addressee’s company name


b. your address

Answer: a – The heading is made up of several pieces of information,


and they are placed in the same order every time. First, you
have the current date, the name of the person whom you are
addressing, the title of that person if relevant, the name of the
company, and the full address including the zip code.
VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 29
• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

10. You must include several things in the heading.


What is one of them?

a. the addressee’s full address
b. your zip code

Answer: a – The heading is made up of several pieces of information,


and they are placed in the same order every time. First, you
have the current date, the name of the person whom you are
addressing, the title of that person if applicable, the name of
the company, and the full address including the zip code.

11. True or false: The salutation makes no difference in setting the tone
of a letter.

a. True
b. False

Answer: b – The salutation can set the tone of the letter. A formal letter
would use a colon in the salutation and look something like
‘Dear Sir:’ and an informal letter may look something like ‘Hey
buddy!’

12. True or false: It is acceptable to make personal observations and


comments in the body of a business letter, just as long as you get
all of the important details in also.

a. True
b. False

Answer: b – In the body of a business letter, just pass along the
facts or make the request. Avoid unnecessary comments or
observations.

30 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1

13. True or false: A colon placed after the salutation in a business letter
denotes formality.

a. True
b. False

Answer: a – A colon placed after the salutation in a business letter
shows it’s a formal letter.

14. The alignment of a business letter has two basic formats.


What is one of them?

a. block format
b. type format

Answer: a – Block format is one of the two basic formats in a business


letter. It is aligned with the left margin of the page (no
paragraph indents.)

15. The alignment of a business letter has two basic formats.


What is one of them?

a. mixed format
b. special format

Answer: a – One type of format aligns the heading, salutation, body,
enclosure notation, and initials in a straight line at the left
margin. The date, the closing with the writer’s name and title,
are aligned on the right side of the letter, approximately 1-1/2
inches from the right margin.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 31


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
16. What does ‘enc.’ indicate to the reader?

a. an enclosure is in the document
b. the initials of the writer are ‘enc’

Answer: a – ‘Enc.’ stands for ‘enclosure’ and indicates to the reader
that an enclosure is in the document.

17. What does EW/sp signify at the bottom of a letter?

a. initials of writer and reader


b. initials of writer and typist

Answer: b – Initials of the writer is in all caps, then a forward slash,
followed by initials of the typist in lower case.

18. The business memo has a certain format that must be followed in
order to make specific points and avoid confusion. What are the
parts of a memo?

a. heading, introduction, body, closing


b. heading, salutation, introduction, body, closing

Answer: a – There are four parts to a memo: heading, introduction,
body, and closing. As you can see, the memo is very brief,
which is, of course, the whole idea of a memo.

19. In the heading of a memo, we include the date, addressee, and what
else?

a. writer’s name, subject, copies to (optional)
b. writer’s name, writer’s address, thesis

Answer: a – There are several headings in a memo. They will include


the person(s) to whom it is addressed, the writer’s name, the
date, and the subject.

32 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 1
20. What is the main difference between a letter and a memo?

a. Letter - longer, more parts in the heading. Memo - contains more
information, not as detailed.
b. Letter - longer, more formal, contains more information. Memo
- brief, communicates information in just a glance

Answer: b – A letter is longer, more formal, and contains more
information than a memo. A memo is brief and conveys
information in just a glance.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 33


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2

2
LESSON 2
Exercise – Business letter and memo

Instructions: I am going to give you some infor-


mation that needs to be put in the form of a business
letter. Using this information, write a letter to the ap-
propriate party using the rules we have stated. Then
use the same information and write a memo to your
co-workers in the purchasing department to notify
them that you have requested this information. (I’ll give
you a little help. The recipients can be: all purchasing
dept. employees.) If you need to, go back and study
the outlines and the written explanation of the points
in this lesson before you start.

Given information:

Assume you work as a purchasing manager for Export Products,


Inc. and you want to obtain the catalogs and price lists of Good
Products, Inc. (999 Elm Street, Nashville, TN 37210) The sales
manager of that company is James White. You would like to
obtain a 10% commission discount for your business. Prepare
a letter making your request. Use the mixed format, everything
aligned on the left margin except the date and closing. There
are no enclosures and your secretary’s name is Sue Smith.

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

34 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 2

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 35


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 2

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36 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 2
Answer to exercise – Business letter and memo

Suggested letter:

January 1, 1998

Mr. James White


Sales Manager
Good Products, Inc.
999 Elm Street
Nashville, TN 37210

Dear Mr. White:

Would you please send me your most recent catalog and price list?
Also, since our company deals in volume sales, would it be possible
for your company to extend to us a 10% commission discount?

I would appreciate your reply as soon as possible as we are very


interested in ordering from your company.

Thank you for your attention in this matter.

Sincerely,

EdWIN
Sales Manager

EW/ss

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 37


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 2

Exercise Memo

Instructions: Now using the same information we used in the business letter, use
this information to write a memo to your co-workers in the purchasing depart-
ment to notify them that you have requested this information. (I’ll give you a little
help. The recipients can be: all purchasing dept. employees.) If you need to go
back and study the outlines and the written explanation of the points in this les-
son before you start.

Given information:
Assume you work as a purchasing manager for Export Products, Inc., and you
want to obtain the catalogs and price lists of Good Products, Inc. (999 Elm
Street, Nashville, TN 37210). The sales manager of that company is James
White. You would like to obtain a 10% commission discount for your business.
There are no enclosures and your secretary’s name is Sue Smith.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

38 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 2

Suggested memo:

Memo

To: Purchasing Department Employees


From: EdWIN
Date: January 1, 1998
Subject: Good Products, Inc.

Please be aware that the request for Good Products, Inc. to be a


supplier of Export Products has been submitted. I will keep
you posted as to our progress.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 39


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 2
EXERCISE – Rejection letter

Instructions: Let’s try a letter with a negative nature. Assume you work
at the Human Resources Department of Big Company, Inc. You
need to send a rejection letter to Mr. I. M. Awaiting, 999 Hopeful
Ave., Swan Lake, UT 84094, who wants to work for your company
as an accountant. Your company does not have any openings.
Use the mixed format. Once again, your secretary is Sue Smith.
There is an application form enclosed.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

40 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 2
Answer to exercise – Rejection letter

Suggested letter:

January 1, 1998

Mr. I. M. Awaiting
999 Hopeful Ave.
Swan Lake, UT 84094

Dear Mr. Awaiting:

I am sorry to inform you that we do not have any openings for


accountants with our company at this time, but I want to thank you for
your interest in working with us.

I have enclosed an application form for you to fill out and return to us
should an opening become available in the future.

Please feel free to follow-up with our personnel department periodically


if you are still interested at a later time.

Sincerely,

EdWIN
Personnel Director

Enc.
EW/ss

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 41


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 2
Exercise – Writing Memos

Instructions: Write a memo using the information provided.

• all secretarial staff


• concerning new flex schedules
• sign up for preference
• Charles Chief, office manager
• date (you pick one)

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

42 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 2
Answer to exercise – Writing Memos

Suggested memo:

To: All secretarial staff


From: Charles Chief, Office Manager
Date: Jan 1, 1998
Subject: Flex scheduling

As you may know, we have recently instituted a flexible schedule


option to all of our secretaries, in order to meet each individual’s
needs, both personal and professional. You will be receiving a sign-up
sheet through interoffice mail, and I would like each of you to fill out
the sheet as to your schedule preferences. Please fill out your first,
second, and third choice and return it to my office as soon as possible.

We will do all we can to satisfy each person’s preferences as best we


can. You will be notified of follow-ups on this subject in the near future.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 43


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2

3
LESSON 3
complete sentences

Exactly what is a complete sentence? This is a


rather simple idea that is overlooked many times
when writing.

Complete sentences have a definite purpose.


They allow us to present a clear and complete
idea through our writing. Sentence fragments are
sometimes used on purpose and are very useful in
creative writing or advertising, but for the workplace
setting they are not generally acceptable.

A complete sentence will always contain at


least a subject and verb, and in most cases an
object. The object gives further information and is
usually critical in getting across the point, but it is
not required when making a complete sentence.
Look at this example:

I write. (contains a subject and verb, but


doesn’t give much information)

I write papers. (contains subject, verb, and


object, giving us an important detail)

Both examples are complete sentences.

44 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3
The other basic rules of sentence construction
concern capitalization and punctuation. All
sentences begin with a capital letter and all
sentences end with a period, question mark, or
exclamation point.

When writing, proofread your work and ask


these simple questions:

1. Is there a subject and verb?

2. Does each sentence begin with a capital let-


ter?

3. Does each sentence have ending punctua


tion?

If you can answer “yes” to each of the above


questions, then all of your sentences are complete
Always proofread and correct in form.
your work.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 45


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3
Look at the following example. It is full of
sentence fragments and incomplete ideas. Do
your best to make sense of it and think about using
the complete sentence rules.

Doug yesterday - wants 100 more of the


same CD. labels 50 CD’s, 25 none, 25
hand-written label. overnight express - office
address. 500 brochures 1000 business
cards

As you can see, incomplete sentences and


poor punctuation and capitalization skills really
make communicating difficult! In fact, you may
have had a hard time getting the meaning from
this at all!

This is what it looks like when we rewrite it:

I heard from Doug yesterday and he wants


100 of the same CD’s that we sent him last
month. Only put labels on 50 of the CD’s,
don’t put any lables on 25 CD’s, and write
the label on the last 25 CD’s. Send the CD’s
overnight express to Doug’s office address.
Please include 500 brochures and 1,000
business cards.

46 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3
Exercise – the Sentence

1. A complete sentence must contain 2 things. What are they?



a. a noun and a pronoun
b. a subject and a verb

2. A complete sentence must make what kind of statement?



a. a complete statement
b. a coordinating statement

3. A clause that can stand alone as a complete sentence


is called a(n) ________.

a. independent clause
b. dependent clause

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 47


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3
Answers to Exercise – the Sentence

1. A complete sentence must contain 2 things. What are they?



a. a noun and a pronoun
b. a subject and a verb

Answer: b – A complete sentence is a group of words which must
contain at least a subject and a verb and make a complete
statement.

2. A complete sentence must make what kind of statement?



a. a complete statement
b. a coordinating statement

Answer: a – A complete sentence is a group of words which must


contain at least a subject and a verb and make a complete
statement.

3. A clause that can stand alone as a complete sentence is called a(n)


________.

a. independent clause
b. dependent clause

Answer: a – A clause that can stand alone as complete sentence is


called an independent clause.

48 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3
EXERCISE – Complete sentences

Instructions: Complete the phrases to form complete sentences with cor-


rect punctuation. Combine questions with multiple phrases to form
complete sentences.

1. We always. go to the fair in September. Because we have such a good


time.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

2. Like to ride the ferris wheel?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

3. A friend of mine together her own computer system.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

4. The monitor. Is part of the system.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

5. Could put together one?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________
VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 49
• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3

6. Now and then wish I had a new system.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

7. The car stopped it was out of gas.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

8. We stood up. And sang the song.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

9. You find that dog. That is whimpering.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

10. Everyone came inside was cold.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

50 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3

Answers to exercise – Complete sentences

Suggested sentences (answers may vary)

1. We always. go to the fair in September. Because we have such a


good time.

Answer: We always go to the fair in September because we have


such a good time.

2. Like to ride the ferris wheel?

Answer: Do you like to ride the ferris wheel?

3. A friend of mine together her own computer system.

Answer: A friend of mine is putting together her own computer


system.

4. The monitor. Is part of the system.

Answer: The monitor comes as part of the system.

5. Could put together one?

Answer: Could you put one together?

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 51


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3
6. Now and then wish I had a new system.

Answer: Now and then, I wish I had a new system.

7. The car stopped it was out of gas.

Answer: The car stopped. It was out of gas.

8. We stood up. And sang the song.

Answer: We stood up and sang the song.

9. You find that dog. That is whimpering.

Answer: You find that dog that is whimpering.

10. Everyone came inside was cold.

Answer: Everyone came inside because it was cold.

52 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3
EXERCISE – Correcting the paragraph

Instructions: Rewrite the paragraph with complete sentences.

When writing. do not use too many short or simple. sentences


writing can often improved by combining. Two simple
sentences. into one complex idea. Just be. sure that the
sentences complete, having a subject and a verb. and that do
not run on. Do not contain at least one subject. Or verb they
are not complete sentences.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 53


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 3
Answers to exercise – Correcting the paragraph

Suggested paragraph (answers may vary)

When writing, do not use too many short or simple


sentences. Writing can often be improved by combining two
simple sentences into one complex idea. Just be sure that
the sentences are complete, have a subject and a verb, and
that they do not run on. If they do not contain at least one
subject and one verb they are not complete sentences.

We will practice combining sentences in the next lesson.

54 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2

4
LESSON 4
compound and complex sentences

If you followed along with me in Level 1 of


this course, you know we covered the basics of
coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
However, in this level we will review them as
I explain complex and compound sentence
structure. This can be a bit confusing, so I
will try my best to explain it so that you can
understand the differences. Since this can get
rather complicated, I will not expect you to have
mastery of it in this level, just develop a better
understanding and ability to use coordination
and subordination in your sentences.
Take note of these
conjunctions ... you will coordinating conjunctions
be needing them.
The simplest way of combining sentences is
called compounding. Compounding combines
sentences by joining them together with
coordinating conjunctions. The most common
coordinating conjunctions are:

and, or, nor, but, for, so, and yet.

There are a variety of ways to create a


compound sentence using these conjunctions.

Examples:

My father is a dentist.
My mother is a writer.
Combined: My father is a dentist,
and my mother is a writer.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 55


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
Notice the comma placed before the coordinating
conjunction. When combining two complete sentences
(also called independent clauses) you always place a
comma before the conjunction. Different conjunctions
may be used.

Example:

My father is a dentist, but my mother is a


writer.

You may also use conjunctions to combine sentence


parts, but they do not make a compound sentence.

Examples:

The departing guests smiled.


The departing guests waved.
Combined: The departing guests smiled and
waved.

These two sentences have been compounded


by joining the verbs. Notice that there is no comma
placed in front of the conjunction when the sentences
are joined.

Examples:

The day was bright.


The day was sunny.
Combined: The day was bright and sunny.

56 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
In this example we joined the adjectives to combine the sentences,
but we do not have two independent clauses.
Notice once again that there is no comma in front of the conjunction
since we did not join two complete sentences or thoughts.

Remember the main purpose of a comma is to show a pause in


the writer’s thoughts. Without any pauses, reading would be very
confusing. A comma makes writing easier to understand. A common
error in writing is to use too many commas. If you are in doubt about
a particular sentence, and you cannot recall the specific rule, read
the sentence aloud and see if it needs a pause. Frequently, you will
be able to tell if a pause is needed, and where it should be in the
sentence.

subordinating conjunctions

A complex sentence is one in which one independent clause is


joined with one or more subordinate clauses to form a sentence.

A subordinate clause is one that cannot stand alone as a


sentence as it does not express a complete thought. Subordinating
conjunctions usually show the connection between time, manner,
cause, condition, comparison, or purpose. The most common
subordinating conjunctions are provided.

•  Time: after, as, as long as, as soon as, before,


since, until, when, whenever, while
• Manner: as, as if, as though
• Cause: because
•  Condition: although, as along as, even if,
even though, if, provided that, though, unless, while
• Comparison: as, than
• Purpose: in order that

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 57


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4

Example:

I cannot go to the movies because


I have no money.

 ecause is a subordinating conjunction


B
showing cause.

Example:

Until you balance your checkbook, you cannot


write another check.

Notice the punctuation in the previous two


examples. When the subordinate clause is following
the independent clause in this manner, there is no
comma placed in front of the subordinating conjunction.
However, when the subordinate clause is at the
beginning of the complex sentence, there is a comma
placed between the two clauses.

Now, look at the examples again, and I will


attempt to clear up a common confusing element
concerning the difference between an independent
clause and a subordinate clause.

58 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4

You will notice in the examples “because I


have no money” and “until you balance your
checkbook” both contain a subject, verb, and
an object. If you dropped the subordinating
conjunction, they could stand alone as complete
sentences. BUT, since the conjunction adds
a condition, time or cause to the meaning
of “I have no money” and “you balance your
checkbook,” they are a part of the whole phrase
and cannot be dropped. They do not carry a
complete thought or idea by themselves. These
clauses cannot stand alone. In other words,
they need something else to finish the idea. The
... because I have “something else” they need is the accompanying
no money is NOT a independent clause to form a complete thought.
complete thought. I hope I made that clear. If you are still unclear
how to use subordinating conjunctions, it is
important that you learn to understand when
you have written a complete thought and when
you have a sentence fragment.

Let’s practice by combining some simple


sentences into compound and complex
sentences using coordinating and subordinating
conjunctions.

Now, don’t skip these writing exercises.


They’re for your own good!

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 59


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
Exercise – Conjunctions Review

Instructions: Answer the following questions .

1. What is it called when you combine sentences?



a. compounding
b. coordinating

2. Which is a type of conjunction studied in this level?



a. coordinating
b. supporting

3. Which is a type of conjunction studied in this level



a. complex
b. subordinating

4. What type of conjunctions are the following?: and, or, not, but, for,
so, yet

a. subordinating
b. coordinating

5. What type of conjunction is the word ‘because?’



a. subordinating
b. coordinating

60 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
6. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. time
b. explanation

7. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. possession
b. manner

8. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?



a. cause
b. substitute

9. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. example
b. condition

10. If the subordinate clause is at the beginning of the sentence, where


is the comma placed?

a. before the clause
b. following the clause

11. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. comparison
b. punctuation

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 61


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
12. What is the purpose of a comma?

a. to show a pause
b. to form contractions

13. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. verb
b. purpose

14. A ______ sentence is one in which two independent clauses


(or complete sentences) are connected using a coordinating
conjunction.

a. compound
b. complex

15. A ______ sentence is one in which an independent clause and at


least one subordinate clause are connected using a subordinating
conjunction.

a. compound
b. complex

62 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
Answers to Exercise – Conjunctions Review

1. What is it called when you combine sentences?



a. compounding
b. coordinating

Answer: a – Combining sentences is called compounding.

2. Which is a type of conjunction studied in this level?

a. coordinating
b. supporting

Answer: a – We learned two types of conjunctions in this level:
subordinating and coordinating

3. Which is a type of conjunction studied in this level



a. complex
b. subordinating

Answer: b – We learned two types of conjunctions in this level:
subordinating and coordinating.

4. What type of conjunctions are the following?: and, or, not, but, for, so, yet

a. subordinating
b. coordinating

Answer: b – The simplest way of combining sentences is called
compounding. Compounding combines sentences by joining
them together with coordinating conjunctions.
Example: My father is a dentist, but my mother is a writer.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 63


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
5. What type of conjunction is the word ‘because?’

a. subordinating
b. coordinating

Answer: a – ‘Because’ is a subordinating conjunction showing cause.


Subordinating conjunctions add a condition.

6. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. time
b. explanation

Answer: a – The relationships that subordinating conjunctions can show:
time, manner, cause, condition, comparison, purpose.

7. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. possession
b. manner

Answer: b – The relationships that subordinating conjunctions can show:
time, manner, cause, condition, comparison, purpose.

8. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?



a. cause
b. substitute

Answer: a – The relationships that subordinating conjunctions can show:
time, manner, cause, condition, comparison, purpose.

64 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
9. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. example
b. condition

Answer: b – The relationships that subordinating conjunctions can show:
time, manner, cause, condition, comparison, purpose.

10. If the subordinate clause is at the beginning of the sentence, where


is the comma placed?
a. before the clause
b. following the clause

Answer: b – The comma follows the clause.

11. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. comparison
b. punctuation

Answer: a – The relationships that subordinating conjunctions can show:


time, manner, cause, condition, comparison, purpose.

12. What is the purpose of a comma?

a. to show a pause
b. to form contractions

Answer: a – The purpose of a comma is to show a pause.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 65


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
13. What relationship can subordinating conjunctions show?

a. verb
b. purpose

Answer: b – The relationships that subordinating conjunctions can show:
time, manner, cause, condition, comparison, purpose.

14. A ______ sentence is one in which two independent clauses


(or complete sentences) are connected using a coordinating
conjunction.

a. compound
b. complex

Answer: a – A compound sentence is one in which two independent


clauses (or complete sentences) are connected using a
coordinating conjunction.

15. A ______ sentence is one in which an independent clause and at


least one subordinate clause are connected using a subordinating
conjunction.

a. compound
b. complex

Answer: b – A complex sentence is one in which an independent clause


and at least one subordinate clause are connected using a
subordinating conjunction.

66 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
Exercise – Using Conjunctions

Instructions: Try to make as many variations of the given sentences as


you can using coordinating conjunctions. Then impose relation-
ship of time, manner, cause, condition, comparison, or purpose
by using a subordinating conjunction. I’ll give you an example,
so you will know what I mean.

You may use a pen.


You may use a pencil.

Combined variations:
You may use a pen or a pencil.
You may use a pen, or you may use a pencil.
You may use a pen or a pencil provided that you have one.

1. We were cold.
We were hungry.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 67


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
2. You stay home.
You go to school.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

3. I remembered his face.


I forgot his name.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

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LESSON 4
4. I forgot to set my alarm.
I was late for work.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 69


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Level 2
LESSON 4
Answers to Exercise – Using Conjunctions

Suggested sentences (answers may vary):

1. We were cold.
We were hungry.

Answer: We were cold, and we were hungry.


We were cold while we were hungry.

2. You stay home.


You go to work.

Answer: You stay home, or you go to work.


You stay home until you go to work.

3. I remembered his face.


I forgot his name.

Answer: I remembered his face, but I forgot his name.


I remember his face though I forgot his name.

4. I forgot to set my alarm.


I was late for work.

Answer: I forgot to set my alarm, and I was late for work.


I was late for work because I forgot to set my alarm.

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Level 2
LESSON 4
Exercise – coordinating conjunctions

Instructions: Combine the following sentences using coordinating conjunc-


tions.

1. Steve ran for class president. Tina and Meg also ran for team
representative.

____________________________________________________________

2. The weather was chilly. We wore our shorts.

____________________________________________________________

3. Gary likes to play tennis. Sue likes to play golf.

____________________________________________________________

4. The light turned green. Everyone moved on through the traffic.

____________________________________________________________

5. I worked on decorations. Greg worked on refreshments for the dance.

____________________________________________________________

Instructions: Combine these sentences using subordinating conjunctions.

6. The lights went out. The movie began.

____________________________________________________________

7. I set the table. My wife made the salad.

____________________________________________________________
VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 71
• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
8. Val found a defective part. I had gone home.

____________________________________________________________

9. We were hiking. The trails were easy to see.

____________________________________________________________

10. The lake changed colors. The sun slowly set.

____________________________________________________________

11. I will lend you my coat tomorrow. I can find it tonight.

____________________________________________________________

12. The astronauts waited inside the spacecraft. They received orders
to leave.

____________________________________________________________

13. The number of accidents has declined. New traffic lights have been
installed.

____________________________________________________________

72 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


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Level 2
LESSON 4
Answers to exercise – coordinating conjunctions

Suggested sentences (answers may vary)

1. Steve ran for class president. Tina and Meg also ran for team
representative.

Answer: Steve ran for class president, and Tina and Meg ran for team
representative.

2. The weather was chilly. We wore our shorts.

Answer: The weather was chilly, yet we wore our shorts.

3. Gary likes to play tennis. Sue likes to play golf.

Answer: Gary likes to play tennis, but Sue likes to play golf.

4. The light turned green. Everyone moved on through the traffic.

Answer: The light turned green, and everyone moved on through the
traffic.

5. I worked on decorations. Greg worked on refreshments for the dance.

Answer: I worked on decorations, but Greg worked on refreshments for the


dance.

6. The lights went out. The movie began.

Answer: The lights went out as the movie began.


The lights went out when the movie began.

7. I set the table. My wife made the salad.

Answer: I set the table while my wife made the salad.


I set the table as my wife made the salad.
VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 73
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Level 2
LESSON 4

8. Val found a defective part. I had gone home.

Answer: Val found a defective part after I had gone home.


Val found a defective part as soon as I had gone home.

9. We were hiking. The trails were easy to see.

Answer: We were hiking because the trails were easy to see.


We were hiking while the trails were easy to see.

10. The lake changed colors. The sun slowly set.

Answer: The lake changed colors as the sun slowly set.


The lake changed colors when the sun slowly set.

11. I will lend you my coat tomorrow. I can find it tonight.

Answer: I will lend you my coat tomorrow if I can find it tonight.


I will lend you my coat tomorrow as long as I can find it tonight.

12. The astronauts waited inside the spacecraft. They received orders
to leave.

Answer: The astronauts waited inside the spacecraft until they received
orders to leave.
The astronauts waited inside the spacecraft before they received
orders to leave.

13. The number of accidents has declined. New traffic lights have been
installed.

Answer: The number of accidents has declined since new traffic lights
have been installed.
The number of accidents has declined as new traffic lights have
been installed.

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Level 2
LESSON 4

As you can see, many times you will have


more than one subordinating conjunction that
can be used correctly to combine sentences.
Notice that when the subordinate clause
follows the complete sentence, no comma was
needed.

Now let’s try the same exercise sentences,


practicing proper punctuation.

Time to practice!

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 75


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Level 2
LESSON 4
EXERCISE – Conjunction punctuation - subordinate clause

Instructions: Change the sentences around so that the subordinate clause is


at the beginning of the sentence.

1. The lights went out. The movie began.

____________________________________________________________

2. I set the table. My wife made the salad.

____________________________________________________________

3. Val found a defective part. I had gone home.

____________________________________________________________

4. We were hiking. The trails were easy to see.

____________________________________________________________

5. The lake changed colors. The sun slowly set.

____________________________________________________________

6. I will lend you my coat tomorrow. I can find it tonight.

____________________________________________________________

7. The astronauts waited inside the spacecraft.


They received orders to leave.

____________________________________________________________

8. The number of accidents has declined.


New traffic lights have been installed.

____________________________________________________________
76 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0
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Level 2
LESSON 4
Instructions: Underline the subordinate clause in following sentences.

9. The store has not opened since the fire burned the interior.

10. Please reply to my letter when you have time.

11. The flowers bloomed until the snow came.

12. We may go to the beach if the weather improves.

13. Unless we go now, we will be late for the meeting.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 77


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 4
Answers to exercise – Conjunction punctuation -
subordinate clause

Answers will vary.

1. The lights went out. The movie began.

Answer: As the movie began, the lights went out.


When the movie began, the lights went out.

2. I set the table. My wife made the salad.

Answer: While my wife made the salad, I set the table.


As my wife made the salad, I set the table.

3. Val found a defective part. I had gone home.

Answer: After I had gone home, Val found a defective part.


As soon as I had gone home, Val found a defective part.

4. We were hiking. The trails were easy to see.

Answer: Because the trails were easy to see, we were hiking.


While the trails were easy to see, we were hiking.

5. The lake changed colors. The sun slowly set.

Answer: As the sun slowly set, the lake changed colors.


When the sun slowly set, the lake changed colors.

6. I will lend you my coat tomorrow. I can find it tonight.

Answer: If I can find my coat tonight, I will lend it to you tomorrow.


As long as I find my coat tonight, I will lend it to you tomorrow.

78 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


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Level 2
LESSON 4
7. The astronauts waited inside the spacecraft. They received orders to
leave.

Answer: Until they received orders to leave, the astronauts waited inside
the spacecraft.
Before they received orders to leave, the astronauts waited inside
the spacecraft.

8. The number of accidents has declined. New traffic lights have been
installed.

Answer: Since new traffic lights have been installed, the number of
accidents has declined.
As new traffic lights have been installed, the number of accidents
has declined.

9. The store has not opened since the fire burned the interior.

Answer: since the fire burned the interior

10. Please reply to my letter when you have time.

Answer: when you have time

11. The flowers bloomed until the snow came.

Answer: until the snow came

12. We may go to the beach if the weather improves.

Answer: if the weather improves

13. Unless we go now, we will be late for the meeting.

Answer: Unless we go now

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 79


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Level 2

5
LESSON 5
commonly misspelled or misused
words

When writing for the workplace, it is


important that you always follow the basic
rules. Yes, it’s the four Cs again: clear,
concise, correct, and conversational. You
may already be familiar with these from
previous Writing lessons.

If you are, then you can quickly see how


common misspellings and misused words
can cause your messages to be ineffective
and incorrect. Naturally, you should be
Oops!
sure that the words you have chosen are
appropriate as to meaning and clarity. Since
there are many, many words that can be
used or spelled incorrectly, I will not attempt
to list them all here. I will give you a list of
some of the most common ones, though, a
little later in our text. Many times the words
are simply homonyms, and you have used
the incorrect spelling, which, of course, will
then carry a completely different meaning.
Take the words who’s and whose. See how
mixing up these two words could throw off
your entire message?

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Level 2
LESSON 5
The best way to avoid these types of mistakes is to be sure of
the meaning that you are trying to communicate in any message.
Then, having this firmly in mind, you can check each spelling
in the dictionary to confirm the proper word touse. Since the
meanings and spellings of these words are always different, it will
be pretty easy to spot them if they do not fit within the meaning of
your message. Always check these words during the proofreading
and editing phase of your work.

Here’s the list I promised you.

Common Homonyms Troublesome Words


all ready already accept except
canvas canvass access excess
capital capitol adverse averse
cite sight site advice advise
course coarse affect effect
complement compliment allusion illusion
council counsel breath breathe
desert dessert elicit illicit
holy wholly holey eminent imminent
principal principle faith fate
sale sail sell have of
stationary stationery its it’s
their there they’re lie lay
throne thrown loose lose
weak week moral morale
weather whether personal personnel
whose who’s quiet quite
sit set
than then
their there they’re
to too two
were where
who’s whose
your you’re

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 81


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Level 2
LESSON 5
You may remember all of the spelling rules,
or you may not! I know I have trouble with them
from time to time. So, for review, we will briefly
discuss them.

Rule 1
Use i before e,
Except after c,
Or when sounded like a
As in neighbor or weigh.

Example:
friend, fiend
piece, tie
receipt, deceive

Of course, there are always exceptions to most rules and the exceptions to
the above verse are these:

ei exceptions: either, foreign, forfeit, height, leisure, and neither

ie exceptions: ancient, efficient

Rule 2
Form the plurals of nouns and the s forms of verbs ending
in y in these ways:

a. When a noun or verb ends in y preceded by a consonant, change the y


to i and add es.

Example:
mystery to mysteries; berry to berries; carry to carries

b. When a word ends in y preceded by a vowel, add s.

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LESSON 5
Example:
boy to boys; key to keys; pay to pays

c. When a proper noun ends in y, add s.

Example:
Kennedy to Kennedys

Rule 3
Do the following when adding a suffix to a word that ends in a silent e.

a. When the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the silent e.

Example:
live to living or livable; bake to baker or baking

b. When a word ends in ce or ge, keep the silent e when it


is needed to maintain the soft sound of c or g.

Example:
manage to manageable

Exceptions to this rule are:


judge to judgment
acknowledge to acknowledgment

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 83


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Level 2
LESSON 5

Rule 4
When adding a suffix that begins with a vowel, it sometimes is
necessary to double the consonant.

a. When a one-syllable word ends with a consonant preceded by a single


vowel, double the consonant: This applies only when the suffix begins
with a vowel.

Examples:
hop to hopping
win to winner
star to starred
b. When a word of two or more syllables ends in a single consonant
preceded by a single vowel, and when the final syllable is accented,
double the consonant when adding a suffix.

Examples:
rebel to rebellious
control to controlled

c. When a word of two or more syllables does not have the accent on
the final syllable, the consonant should not be doubled.

Example:
travel to traveler
shovel to shoveler

84 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


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Level 2
LESSON 5

Rule 5
To form noun plurals and the third person singular form of present
tense verbs:

a. In most cases, add s

Examples:
pencil to pencils
jump to jumps

b. When the word ends in s, sh, ch, x, or z, add es.

Examples:
brush to brushes
box to boxes
watch to watches

Wow, remember all those spelling rules now?

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 85


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 5
Commonly Misspelled Words

A
absence acquaintance analysis/analyze
absorption across angel/angle
abundance address annual
accessible advice/advise apparent
accidentally aggravate appearance
acclaim allotted argument
accommodate a lot atheist
accomplish all right attendance
accumulate already auxiliary
achievement amateur

B
balloon believe breathe
barbiturate benefited Britain
bargain biscuit buoyant
basically bouillon bureaucracy
beggar boundary business
beginning breadth/breath

C
calendar colossal consciousness
camouflage column consensus
cantaloupe coming consistent
capital/capitol committee continuous
cemetery commitment controlled
chagrined comparative coolly
challenge/challengeable competent corollary
characteristic completely correlate
changing concede correspondence
chief conceive council/counsel
choose/chose condemn counselor
cigarette condescend courteous
climbed conscience courtesy
colonel conscientious criticize

D
deceive desperate disappoint
defendant develop disastrous
deferred developed discipline
definitely development disease
dependent/dependant dilemma dissatisfied
descend dining dominant
desirable disappearance drunkenness
despair

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LESSON 5

E
easily environment exhaust
ecstasy equipped exhilarate
efficiency equivalent existence
eighth especially expense
eligible exaggerate experiment
embarrass exceed explanation
eminent excellence extremely
enemy exuberance
entirely
F
fallacious fiery forfeit
fallacy finally formerly
familiar financially forty
fascinate forcibly fourth
February foreign fulfill
fictitious foresee fundamentally

G
gauge governor guard
generally grammar guerrilla
genius grievous guidance
government guarantee

H
handkerchief hemorrhage hoping
happily heroes humorous
harass hesitancy hypocrisy
height hindrance hypocrite
heinous hoarse

I
ideally independent interference
idiosyncrasy indicted interpret
ignorance indispensable interrupt
imaginary inevitable introduce
immediately inoculate irrelevant
implement insurance irresistible
incidentally intelligence island
incredible intercede

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 87


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Level 2
LESSON 5
J
jealousy judicial judgment
jewelry

K
knowledge

L
laboratory license literally
legitimate lieutenant loneliness
leisure lightning loose
length likelihood lose
lenient likely luxury

M
magazine medieval misspelled
maintain millionaire mortgage
maintenance miniature mosquito
manageable minor mosquitoes
maneuver minutes murmur
marriage mischievous muscle
mathematics missile mysterious
medicine

N
narrative neutron noticeable
naturally niece nowadays
necessity ninety nuclear
neighbor ninth nuisance
neither

O
obedience omission oppression
obstacle omit optimism
occasionally omitted ordinarily
occurred opinion origin
occurrence opponent outrageous
official opportunity overrun

P
panicky piece prevalent
parallel pitiful primitive
parliament planning principle
particularly playwright privilege
peaceable possessive probably
peculiar potato procedure

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LESSON 5

penetrate potatoes proceed


perceive practically process
performance prairie professor
permanent precede prominent
permissible preceding pronounce
permitted predominant pronunciation
perseverance preference propaganda
persistent preferred prophecy/prophesy
physical prejudice psychology
physician preparation publicly
picnicked prescription pursue

Q
quandary questionnaire quizzes
quarantine

R
realistically really receipt
realize recede receive
recognize religious reservoir
recommend remembrance resistance
reference reminiscence restaurant
referred repetition rheumatism
relevant representative rhythmical
relieving resemblance roommate

S
sacrifice skeptical subtle
safety skiing succeed
salary soliloquy succession
satellite sophomore sufficient
scenery souvenir summary
schedule specifically supersede
secede specimen suppress
secretary sponsor surprise
seize spontaneous surround
separate statistics susceptible
sergeant stopped suspicious
several strategy syllable
shining strength symbol
simile strenuous symmetrical
simply stubbornness synonymous
sincerely subordinate

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 89


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Level 2
LESSON 5
T
tangible themselves tournament
technical theories tourniquet
technique therefore tragedy
temperature thorough transferred
tenant though truly
tendency through twelfth
than/then till tyranny
their/there/they’re tomorrow

U
unanimous unnecessary usage
unconscious until usually
undoubtedly

V
vacuum vengeance villain
valuable vigilant violence
varies village visible

W
warrant wherever women
weather/whether wholly writing
Wednesday whose/who’s written
weird woman

XYZ
yacht your/you’re zoology
yield

Let’s try a few exercises to practice this


lesson. You can use the list provided, the rules
review section, or you may want to use your
dictionary if you are unsure of the meaning.

90 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


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Level 2
LESSON 5
EXERCISE – Spelling

Instructions: Rewrite the misspelled words from the following sentences below.

1. The master of ceramonies asked us to keep quiet in the autitorium.

____________________________________________________________

2. The graduates were walking down the isle.

____________________________________________________________

3. Don’t rush to vengance!

____________________________________________________________

4. I suppose I just guest at that question.

____________________________________________________________

5. She is a very loveable person.

____________________________________________________________

6. Whose going with us to the show?

____________________________________________________________

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 91


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Level 2
LESSON 5
7. Who’s jacket is this?

____________________________________________________________

8. I need to buy stationary at the store.

____________________________________________________________

9. This schedule is barely managable.

____________________________________________________________

Instructions: Correct the spelling of each word.

10. excepton

____________________________________________________________

11. necesary

____________________________________________________________

12. recomend

____________________________________________________________

13. tempereture

____________________________________________________________

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Level 2
LESSON 5
14. theif

____________________________________________________________

15. decieve

____________________________________________________________

16. reciept

____________________________________________________________

17. begining

____________________________________________________________

18. honestie

____________________________________________________________

19. beleive

____________________________________________________________

20. enviroment

____________________________________________________________

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 93


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Level 2
LESSON 5
Answers to exercise – Spelling

1. The master of ceramonies asked us to keep


quiet in the autitorium.

Answer: ceremonies, auditorium

2. The graduates were walking down the isle.

Answer: aisle

3. Don’t rush to vengance!

Answer: vengeance

4. I suppose I just guest at that question.

Answer: guessed

5. She is a very loveable person.

Answer: lovable

6. Whose going with us to the show?

Answer: Who’s

7. Who’s jacket is this?

Answer: Whose

94 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


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Level 2
LESSON 5

8. I need to buy stationary at the store.

Answer: stationery

9. This schedule is barely managable.

Answer: manageable

10. excepton

Answer: exception

11. necesary

Answer: necessary

12. recomend

Answer: recommend

13. tempereture

Answer: temperature

14. theif

Answer: thief

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 95


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Level 2
LESSON 5
15. decieve

Answer: deceive

16. reciept

Answer: receipt

17. begining

Answer: beginning

18. honestie

Answer: honesty

19. beleive

Answer: believe

20. enviroment

Answer: environment

96 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


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Level 2

6
LESSON 6

Basic grammatical errors

Subject – verb agreement

For a sentence to be clear, the subject and its


verb must agree. The forms of nouns, pronouns,
and verbs can be changed to show that they
are either singular or plural. If the subject is
singular, then the verb must be also. The same
goes for plural forms. This is called making the
subject and verb agree in number. Check out
the examples. (The subject is in italics, the verb
is bold.)

Examples:

Check it out!
Peter lives in a small town in Tennessee.

Peter is singular … he lives …

My relatives live in the same town.

Relatives is plural … they live …

Sometimes a verb needs the help of another


verb, called an auxiliary or helping verb. The
verb that it helps is called the main verb. The
main verb and the helping verb form a verb
phrase.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 97


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Level 2
LESSON 6

For a verb phrase to agree with its subject, the


helping verb must agree in number with the subject.
Look at these examples.

Examples:

1. Will you wait for me after school?

2. My sister should have taken that job.

In example 1, will is the helping verb, wait is the


main verb, and will wait is the verb phrase. In example
2, should have is the helping verb, taken is the main
verb and should have taken is the verb phrase.

Sometimes words and phrases come between a


subject and its verb. These words or phrases do not
change the number of the subject. Be sure that you
make the verb agree with the subject, not some other
word that may be contained in another phrase.

In some sentences it may be hard to decide whether


the subject is singular or plural. There are some
guidelines to go by to help you do this.

Compound subjects joined by and are usually


plural.

Example:

John and Jim are good workers.

98 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


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Level 2
LESSON 6

Use a singular verb with a compound subject


that refers to one person or one thing.

Example:

This year’s most popular player and


speaker was here on Saturday to sign
autographs. (Notice that “player” and
“speaker” are the same person.)

A compound subject that is singular and is


connected by the word or/nor will use the
singular verb.

Example:

My aunt or my cousin plans to attend the


reunion.

A compound subject that is plural and is


connected by the word or/nor will use the
plural form of the verb.

Example:

My aunts nor my cousins plan to attend


the reunion.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 99


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Level 2
LESSON 6
When a compound subject contains
both a plural form and a singular form,
use the form of the subject that is
closest to the verb form.

Example:

Neither the drummers nor the violinist has


sheet music.

Nouns that have plural forms even though


they are considered singular use plural verb
forms.

Example:

The scissors are on the table.

When the sentence has the verb coming


before the subject, it is sometimes difficult
to locate the subject.

Here’s a tip for locating the subject in these


cases. Change the sentence around so that the
action comes after the subject. Then it will be
easier to make the subject and verb agree.

Example:

There are many caves in those mountains.


(Think: caves are)

100 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


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Level 2
LESSON 6
When using the adjective “every” to modify
the subject, use a singular verb form. Every
means every single one and takes a singular
verb.

Example:

Every boy and girl is going to visit our


plant.

When using the adjective many to modify


the subject, always use the plural form of
the verb.

Example:

Many people work on weekends.

I know that your head must be spinning


by now, trying to remember all of these rules.
But before you go tearing your hair out, just
remember this: Most of these rules you will
already be using properly. Frequently, when
you read or hear a sentence, you can tell if the
subject and verb agree in most cases. When
you are writing for the workplace, you will
check your subject/verb agreement as part of
your proofreading. After you have done this for
awhile, it will be no problem for you.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 101


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Level 2
LESSON 6
Apostrophes

The last thing we will tackle in this lesson will be using


the apostrophe correctly. I can hardly say it and barely
spell it! But, I will try to explain it.

There are only a few ways in which the apostrophe


is used, and this is also something you will be checking
in your proofreading chores. Apostrophes can:

• Show possession
• Form contractions
• Substitute for omitted letters in other words
and numbers

To show possession

Nouns change form to show possession or ownership.


To form the possessive of a singular noun or a plural
noun that does not end in s add ’s.

Examples:

the astronaut’s helmet


the women’s softball team

To form the possessive of a plural noun that does


end in s, just add the apostrophe at the end.

Example:

three girls’ books

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LESSON 6
When a proper noun ends in s, add ’s.

Example:

Mr. Jones’s car

To form contractions

Another use of the apostrophe is in forming


contractions.

they are they’re


you are you’re
we are we’re
it is it’s

Contractions are made by combining two words


and omitting one of the letters. Contractions usually
include a verb and another word that is usually a
subject or the word “not.” The apostrophe always
goes in the place of the omitted letter(s).

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 103


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Level 2
LESSON 6

To form other words or numbers

The same holds true for writing other words


or numbers that have omitted parts. In writing
the year 1997, for instance, you can place the
apostrophe as substitution for the 19. Hence, it
is written like this: ’97. I am sure you have seen
this many times. Numbers, however, are usually
written in complete form in business writing.

Another example: If you are changing the


word “old” to show a certain inflection or accent,
you would drop the “d” and substitute the
apostrophe to spell it ol’. Please notice again
though, that in business writing you will rarely
use this last example if ever. This is really a
slang pronunciation and slang is never used in
Get your pen or business writing. The only way this would be
pencil again. considered correct is if a different form of the
word is part of a company name or such; for
instance, “The Ol’ Left Shoe Co.” Otherwise,
always spell out the entire word. Now, let’s
practice what we’ve learned.

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Level 2
LESSON 6

EXERCISE – verbs

Instructions: Write the correct verb in present tense in


the following sentences.

1. A large cloud (block) the sun. ____________

2. A bell (signify) the end of the shift. ____________

3. A large maple tree (shade) our house. ____________

4. The flower (fill) the room with a wonderful scent. ____________

5. The customer (pay) his bill with a check. ____________

6. The seal (splash) water on the crowd. ____________

7. He (play) the guitar like a professional. ____________

8. The airplane (fly) to the east coast every day. ____________

9. The restaurant (supply) the waiters with uniforms. ____________

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Level 2
LESSON 6
Instructions: Underline the correct verb in the parentheses.

10. The heavy trucks (was, were) in the right lane.

11. Your letter (has, have) arrived in the mail today.

12. My friends (have, has) part-time jobs.

13. You (do, does) write interesting letters.

14. It (isn’t, aren’t) warm enough to eat outside.

15. The kittens (have, has) all been fed.

16. The runners (were, was) exhausted.

17. The trees (does, do) help shade the houses.

18. A bad storm (is, are) about to break.

106 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


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Level 2
LESSON 6
Answers to exercise – verbs

1. A large cloud (block) the sun.

Answer: blocks
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Cloud’ is
a singular subject and ‘blocks’ is a singular verb.

2. A bell (signify) the end of the shift.

Answer: signifies
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Bell’ is a
singular subject and ‘signifies’ is a singular verb.

3. A large maple tree (shade) our house.

Answer: shades
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Trees’ is
a plural subject and ‘shade’ is a plural verb.

4. The flower (fill) the room with a wonderful scent.

Answer: fills
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Flower’
is a singular subject and ‘fills’ is a singular verb.

5. The customer (pay) his bill with a check.

Answer: pays
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Customer’
is a singular subject and ‘pays’ is a singular verb.

6. The seal (splash) water on the crowd.

Answer: splashes
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Seals’ is
a plural subject and ‘splash’ is a plural verb.
VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 107
• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 6
7. He (play) the guitar like a professional.

Answer: plays
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘He’ is a
singular subject and ‘plays’ is a singular verb.

8. The airplane (fly) to the east coast every day.

Answer: flies
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Airplanes’
is a plural subject and ‘fly’ is a plural verb.

9. The restaurant (supply) the waiters with uniforms.

Answer: supplies
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Restaurant’
is a singular subject and ‘supplies’ is a singular verb.

10. The heavy trucks (was, were) in the right lane.

Answer: were
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Trucks’
is a plural subject and ‘were’ is a plural verb.

11. Your letter (has, have) arrived in the mail today.

Answer: has
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Letter’ is
a singular subject and ‘has’ is a singular verb.

12. My friends (have, has) part-time jobs.

Answer: have
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Friends’
is a plural subject and ‘have’ is a plural verb.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
13. You (do, does) write interesting letters.

Answer: do
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘You’ is a
singular subject and ‘do’ is a singular verb.

14. It (isn’t, aren’t) warm enough to eat outside.

Answer: isn’t
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘It’ is a
singulr subject and ‘isn’t’ is a singular verb.

15. The kittens (have, has) all been fed.

Answer: have
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Kittens’
is a plural subject and ‘have’ is a plural verb.

16. The runners (were, was) exhausted.

Answer: were
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Runners’
is a plural subject and ‘were’ is a plural verb.

17. The trees (does, do) help shade the houses.

Answer: do
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Trees’ is
a plural subject and ‘do’ is a plural verb.

18. A bad storm (is, are) about to break.

Answer: is
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Storm’ is
a singular subject and ‘is’ is a singular verb.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
EXERCISE – SUbject-verb agreement

Instructions: Underline the correct verb form.

1. Knowledge and information (travels, travel) in a variety of ways.

2. Waves or electrical signals (creates, create) your television


picture.

3. Sounds and pictures (are, is) picked up by laser beam from video
discs.

4. People sometimes (watch, watches) too much television.

5. Neither magazines nor books (reaches, reach) as many people as


television does.

6. Entertainment and information (comes, come) into many homes by


way of a computer.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
Answers to exercise – SUbject-verb agreement

1. Knowledge and information (travels, travel) in a variety of ways.

Answer: travel
Explanation: ‘Knowledge and information’ is a compound subject.
Compound subjects joined by ‘and’ are usually plural.
‘Travel’ is a plural verb.

2. Waves or electrical signals (creates, create) your television picture.

Answer: create
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Waves or
electrical signals’ is a compound subject that is plural and
connected by the word ‘or.’ ‘Create’ is a plural verb.

3. Sounds and pictures (are, is) picked up by laser beam from video
discs.

Answer: are
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Sounds and
pictures’ is a compound subject that is plural.
‘Are’ is a plural verb.

4. People sometimes (watch, watches) too much television.

Answer: watch
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘People’ is a
plural subject. ‘Watch’ is a plural verb.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
5. Neither magazines nor books (reaches, reach) as many people as
television.

Answer: reach
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree.
‘Magazines nor books’ is a plural compound subject.
‘Reach’ is a plural verb.

6. Entertainment and information (comes, come) into many homes by


way of a computer.

Answer: come
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree.
‘Entertainment and informaiton’ is a compound subject.
Compound subjects joined by ‘and’ are usually plural.
‘Come’ is a plural verb.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
EXERCISE – Indefinite pronouns and inverted sentences

Instructions: Underline the correct verb form.

1. Everyone (is, are) going to the theater.

2. Several of the houses (have, has) nice lawns.

3. Somebody (leaves, leave) a newspaper on my porch.

4. Many in our group (has, have) cameras with them.

5. Both of the tires (look, looks) flat.

6. All of the birds (sing, sings) in the morning.

7. None of the fruit (was, were) ripe.

8. Each of us (want, wants) to run in the race.

9. Most of the streets (is, are) closed.

Instructions: Underline the correct verb form in these inverted sentences.

10. On the roof (sits, sit) several large birds.

11. There (flows, flow) a river through the town.

12. Under the porch (is, are) a rake.

13. In the sky (float, floats) several large balloons.

14. Where (are, is) my bicycle?

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 113


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 6
Answers to exercise – Indefinite pronouns and inverted
sentences

1. Everyone (is, are) going to the theater.

Answer: is
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Everyone’ is
a singular subject and ‘is’ is a singular verb.

2. Several of the houses (have, has) nice lawns.

Answer: have
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Several’ is a
plural subject and ‘have’ is a plural verb.

3. Somebody (leaves, leave) a newspaper on my porch.

Answer: leaves
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Somebody’ is
a singular subject and ‘left’ is a singular verb.

4. Many in our group (has, have) cameras with them.

Answer: have
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Many’ is a
plural subject and ‘have’ is a plural verb.

5. Both of the tires (look, looks) flat.

Answer: look
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Both’ is a plural
subject and ‘look’ is a plural verb.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
6. All of the birds (sing, sings) in the morning.

Answer: sing
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘All’ is a plural
subject and ‘sing’ is a plural verb.

7. None of the fruit (was, were) ripe.

Answer: was
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘None’ is a singular
subject and ‘was’ is a singular verb.

8. Each of us (want, wants) to run in the race.

Answer: wants
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Each of us’ is a
singular subject and ‘wants’ is a singular verb.

9. Most of the streets (is, are) closed.

Answer: are
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Most’ is a plural
subject and ‘are’ is a plural verb.

10. On the roof (sits, sit) several large birds.

Answer: sit
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Several’ is a plural
subject and ‘sit’ is a plural verb.

11. There (flows, flow) a river through the town.

Answer: flows
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘River’ is a singular
subject and ‘flows’ is a singular verb.

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LESSON 6

12. Under the porch (is, are) a rake.

Answer: is
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Rake’ is a singular
subject and ‘is’ is a singular verb.

13. In the sky (float, floats) several large balloons.

Answer: float
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Several’ is a plural
subject and ‘float’ is a plural verb.

14. Where (are, is) my bicycle?

Answer: is
Explanation: In a sentence, the subject and verb must agree. ‘Bicycle’ is a singular
subject and ‘is’ is a singular verb.

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Level 2
LESSON 6

EXERCISE – Apostrophes

Instructions: Form the proper contractions from the following words.

1. can not _______________________

2. will not _______________________

3. are not _______________________

4. they are _______________________

5. could not _______________________

6. she will _______________________

7. is not _______________________

8. who will _______________________

9. have not _______________________

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Level 2
LESSON 6
Instructions: Let’s try some possessives.

10. the camera of my friend __________________________

11. the paintings of the artist __________________________

12. books of her sister __________________________

13. recital of the pianists __________________________

14. contributions of the alumni __________________________

15. the class of Mr. Jones __________________________

16. the toys of the children __________________________

17. the nest of the mice __________________________

18. the bottles of the babies __________________________

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Level 2
LESSON 6
Answers to Exercise - APOSTROPHES

1. can not

Answer: can’t

2. will not

Answer: won’t

3. are not

Answer: aren’t

4. they are

Answer: they’re

5. could not

Answer: couldn’t

6. she will

Answer: she’ll

7. is not

Answer: isn’t

8. who will

Answer: who’ll

9. have not

Answer: haven’t

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 119


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Level 2
LESSON 6
10. the camera of my friend

Answer: my friend’s camera

11. the paintings of the artist

Answer: the artist’s paintings

12. books of her sister

Answer: her sister’s books

13. recital of the pianists

Answer: the pianists’ recital

14. contributions of the alumni

Answer: the alumni’s contributions

15. the class of Mr. Jones

Answer: Mr. Jones’s class

16. the toys of the children

Answer: the children’s toys

17. the nest of the mice

Answer: the mice’s nest

18. the bottles of the babies

Answer: the babies’ bottles

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Level 2
LESSON 6
WORK - RELATED DOCUMENTS

We have covered quite a bit of material in


this level. Now it is time to practice what we’ve
learned. We are going to concentrate on somn
workplace situations that require a written re-
sponse.

This is the type of writing you will be expect-


ed to do on the ACT WorkKeys Business Writing
assessment. You will be asked to write a letter
expressing your opinion of a certain situation and
why you have this opinion.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
FOCUS AND DEVELOPMENT

As you begin the writing process, keep in


mind the importance of Focus and Development.
Focus is having a clear topic and staying with
tthat topic and Development is supporting your
main ideas with strong and relevant details.

Before you begin writing, make sure you


understand the topic or situation. Once you un-
derstand the situation, begin planning your re-
sponse. The planning process includes determin-
ing the main points that should be emphasized.
One way to do this is to organize your thoughts
and information through an outline or mind map.
These techniques are helpful in the development
of explanations. They help the writer visualize
how ideas are related and where connections
or transitions are needed. They help determine
where additional details and development is
needed to bolster your main ideas. They also
help identify which ideas have too much empha-
sis and which needs to be pruned down to avoid
an imbalance.

Mind maps and outlines help with the focus


and development of paragraphs. Remember to
include examples, comparisons, analogies, de-
scriptions, or descriptive details that will help
support and develop the main points. Avoid sim-
ply repeating the main ideas in different words.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
One way to orgainize a paragraph is to begin
it with a topic sentence - the sentence that con-
trols the paragraph. The body of the paragraph
explains, develops, and supports the topic sen-
tence’s main idea or claim. The topic sentence is
usually the first sentence, but not always. Some-
times it may come at the end of the paragraph
and sometimes it may come after a transition sen-
tence.

Topic sentences are just one way to orga-


nize a paragraph. Not all paragraphs need a topic
sentence. For example, paragraphs that provide
steps to a procedure or process do not need a
topic sentence. If the paragraph is analyzing a sit-
uation or making an argument, then a topic sen-
tence is useful. They are also helpful for writers
who have a tendency to digress or have difficulty
developing focused paragraphs. Topic sentences
help develop main ideas and assist writers in stay-
ing focused.

As you organize and develop your para-


graphs, ensure that each sentence explains, de-
velops, or supports the main ideas. Avoid para-
graph sprawls. These occur when digressions or
deviations are present in an otherwise focused
paragraph. Irrelevant details or shifts in focus are
examples of digression and deviations.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
Editing Tips

Remember to think about the audience and


purpose of your letter and don’t forget the four C’s
(Clear, Concise, Correct, Conversational). Remem-
ber to ask yourself: “What am I trying to commu-
nicate?” and “What details do I need to include?”
If you were with me in Business Writing Level 1,
you’ll remember that an outline and a mind map
are great tools to use for organizing your thoughts.
(If you need a review, you might want to go back to
Lesson 8 of Business Writing Level 1.)

After you’ve written it, put yourself in the place


of the intended reader. Ask yourself a few ques-
tions:

1. Does it make sense and present the


ideas in a clear, concise fashion?
2. Is it conversational or does it seem
complicated or tense?
3. Are there any sentences that run on too
long?
4. Have I used any unnecessarily long or
easlily misunderstood words?
5. Are there any synonyms, antonyms,
homonyms, or acronyms used incorrect
ly?
6. Did I check any abbreviations or capital
letters that were used?
7. Is punctuation used correctly?

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LESSON 6
Remember to stay focused on the main idea. Don’t
include sentences that are about other things or devi-
ate from the main points. Review your work to ensure
you have answered the question or addressed the
situation. Ask yourself if you included all the impor-
tant details. Did you vary the types of sentences you
used? How about transition words? Did you use good
transition words like before, also, next, or finally? Was
a strong topic sentence used? What about the clos-
ing sentence? Finally proofread the material for any
editing mistakes. Check spelling, capitalization, and
punctuation.

Let’s give it a try!

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 125


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Level 2
LESSON 6
EXERCISE - WRITING A LETTER

Instructions: Read the situation and write a letter to your manager ex-
plaining whether or not you are in favor of the recommendation and why.
Remember the four C’s we have learned.

Situation:

The company you work for is trying to encourage more communica-


tions between various work shifts. One recommendation your manager has
suggested is for each shift to remain an additional 15 minutes and on com-
ing shifts to arrive 15 minutes early. This will allow time for workers to dis-
cuss any problems or issues that occured during their shift. Write a letter to
your manager explaining whether or not you are in favor of this recommen-
dation and why.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 127


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Level 2
LESSON 6
Suggested letter (answers may vary)

Dear Mrs. Anderson:

Over the last several weeks, there has been much discussion regarding the need
for increased communication between the various work shifts. Currently, the way
the shifts are set up, there is little or no time for associates to discuss issues or
problems that occured during their shift. The shift replacement discovers these
problems as they work. This method does not provide opportunities for the asso-
ciates to practice problem - solving skills or establish trust with each other.

I believe the recommendation you suggested wil provide an opportunity for in-
creased communication between shifts. By having associates stay 15 minutes
later and others arrive 15 minutes earlier than a shift, this will provide time for
individuals to discuss problems and issues that occured during their shift. The
increased communication between shifts will help ensure trust among associates.
Implementing this recommendation should increase communication and improve
productivity, therefore boosting employee morale.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
Writers often use Idea Webs as guides when they write. Diagrams like the web
shown below help demonstrate and determine how certain ideas trigger other
ideas, similar to the process in a chain reaction. Professional writers are trained
and skilled at organizing sentences in a progression that makes them flow smooth-
ly so the reader can follow the meaning of the material more easily. A good habit of
a skilled writer is placing himself or herself in the reader’s position in order to view
their written work from the reader’s point of view.

Read the sentences over again in this Idea Web diagram until you grasp the na-
ture of how certain ideas flow or transform into other ideas. Once you understand
this concept, complete the following exercise. Remember, everything flows better
when there is ORDER!

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Level 2
LESSON 6
EXERCISE - DEVELOPING IDEAS

Instructions: Number the sentences below in the sequence in which you think they
should appear in a paragraph or letter format. Also, underline the topic sentence.

________ Also, I am learning how to develop my skills in creative advertising.

________ It has been a pleasure working with so many nice people.

________ Someday I hope to become a journalist after I graduate.

________ To the contrary, working with a cooperative team enhances sat-


isfaction and productivity in the daily routine of work.

________ Working with a cooperative team enhances satisfaction and


productivity in the daily routine of work.

________ My job consists mostly of editing articles for for the weekly news.

________ The staff members I work with are extremely helpful in offering
advice and in giving me new ideas.

________ I find that working closely with other personnel is a valuable op-
portunity for building relaitonship skills.

________ I study writing at the community college I attend.

________ Sometimes I take phone orders for the classified ads department.

________ For instance, gossip, criticism, and fault-finding create tension and
promote breakdown in employee communication, therefore work
does not flow effectively.

________ On the other hand, I have learned that in situations where employ-
ees are uncooperative with one another, the employer will suffer
the consequences.

________ Currently, I have accepted a job at a local newspaper in order to gt


some early training and experience in a working environment.

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Level 2
LESSON 6
Suggested Answers to Exercise - Developing Ideas:

1. I study writing at the community college I attend.

2. Someday I hope to become a journalist after I graduate.

3. Currently, I have accepted a job at the local newspaper in order to get


some early training and experience in a working environment.

4. My job consists mostly of editing articles for the weekly news.

5. Sometimes I take phone orders for the classified ads department.

6. Also, I am learning how to develop my skills in creative advertising.

7. The staff members I work with are extremely helpful in offering advice and
in giving me new ideas.

8. I find that working closely with other personnel is a valuable opportunity for
building relationship skills.

9. On the other hand, I have learned that in situations where employees are
uncooperative with one another, the employer wil suffer the consequences.

10. For instance, gossip, criticism, and fault-finding create tension and promote
breakdown in employee communication, therefore work does not flow ef-
fectively.

11. To the contrary, working with a cooperative team enhances satisfaction and
productivity in the daily routine of work.

12. It has been an invaluable experience working at the newspaper in the com-
pany of so many helpful people.

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Level 2

7
LESSON 7
Well, that’s it. I didn’t make it too hard on you,
did I? I hope you’re ready for the Posttest. It’s
OK. You can go back and review before you take
it if you feel the need. I want you to be completely
comfortable with the information. I will warn you
though, this test is pretty comprehensive, so if
you do well on it, you definitely understand the
material! When you are ready, go for it.

Since I will not be there to go over your


writing exercises, it will be up to you to check it
thoroughly. If you have made mistakes that you
don’t understand, go back to the section where it
was covered, and review the lesson. OK? Well,
good luck now and press onward.

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Level 2
LESSON 7
Exercise - posttest

1. What are two things to consider when deciding the purpose of your
business writing?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

2. When considering your audience, what question(s) should be


asked?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

3. When considering the context, what question should be asked?

____________________________________________________________

4. What are the five main parts of a business letter?

__________________________ ______________________________

__________________________ ______________________________

__________________________

5. What is included in the heading?

__________________________ ______________________________

__________________________ ______________________________

__________________________

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 133


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Level 2
LESSON 7
6. The salutation makes no difference in setting the tone of a letter. True or False?

__________________________

7. It is acceptable to make personal observations and comments in the


body of a business letter, just as long as you get all of the important
details in also. True or False?

__________________________

8. A colon placed after the salutation in a business letter denotes formality.


True or False?

__________________________

9. What are the two standard alignments for a business letter?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

10. What does “enc.” indicate to the reader?

__________________________

11. What does EW/sp signify at the bottom of a letter?

____________________________________________________________

12. What are the parts of a memo?

__________________________ ______________________________

__________________________ ______________________________

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Level 2
LESSON 7
13. What is included in the heading of a memo?

__________________________ ______________________________

__________________________ ______________________________

__________________________

14. What is the main difference between a letter and a memo?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

15. What is a complete sentence?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

16. Combining sentences is called ____________________________.

17. What are two types of conjunctions studied in this level?

__________________________ ______________________________

18. What is a compound sentence?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 135


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Level 2
LESSON 7
19. What is a complex sentence?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

20. A clause that can stand alone as a complete sentence is called

_____________________________.

21. What relationships can subordinating conjunctions show? Name at


least three.

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

22. What is the purpose of a comma?

____________________________________________________________

23. If the subordinate clause is at the beginning of the sentence, where


is the comma placed?

____________________________________________________________

24. A singular subject must have a _______________verb.

25. The operation of having a singular subject and a singular verb is


called: __________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

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Level 2
LESSON 7
26. Underline the correct verb.

a. My husband (walk, walks) everyday.


b. Jose and Michelle (is, are) friends.
c. Flowers (smell, smells) delightful.
d. Every supervisor and employee (have, has) to attend.
e. Where (is, are) my pair of pliers?

27. What three ways are apostrophes used?

__________________________ ______________________________

__________________________

28. Make the following words possessive.

a. operator __________________________

b. men __________________________

c. Mr. Jones __________________________

d. children __________________________

e. Mr. Smith __________________________

29. Form contractions with the following words:

a. they are __________________________________________

b. we are __________________________________________

c. do not __________________________________________

d. can not __________________________________________

e. we will __________________________________________
VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 137
• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
30. Use these coordinating conjunctions in a sentence.

a. and __________________________________________

b. but __________________________________________

c. yet __________________________________________

31. Use these subordinating conjunctions in a sentence with the


subordinate clause coming after the independent clause.

a. unless __________________________________________

b. whenever __________________________________________

c. as long as __________________________________________

32. Use these subordinating conjunctions in a sentence with the


subordinate clause coming before the independent clause.

a. although __________________________________________

b. provided that __________________________________________

c. because __________________________________________

138 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
To complete the posttest, let’s practice one more
business writing exercise! Take the time to complete
the exercise. Do not look at Edwin’s version until you
have tried writing the business letter yourself first.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 139


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
Exercise Posttest Writing

Instructions: Read the situation and write a letter to your principal explaining
whether or not you are in favor of this recommendation and why. Remember the
four C’s we have learned.

Situation:

You are a teacher in a school district that did not incorporate snow days into the
school year. This year, six snow days have been taken. Three of the days will
be made up through teacher workdays. One recommendation for making up the
additional three days is to have students attend Saturday classes. Please write
a letter to your principal explaining whether or not you are in favor of this recom-
mendation and why.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
140 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0
• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________
VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 141
• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
Suggested Letter:

The make-up for snow days is the topic of many people’s conversations.
I am glad we can make up at least three of these days through scheduled
Teacher Workdays. However, I am concerned about the recent proposal
that requires students to attend classes on Saturdays. Although at first
this may sound like a sensible solution, there are some concerns I have
that you might want to consider.

First, we are entering spring and students are beginning to experience


spring fever. Trying to maintain their attention five days a week can be
challenging. Adding an additional day will only make things worse.

Second, although I believe that sports and extracurricular activities


always should come second to class work, many of the students are
involved in spring sports. Many of these sporting events are scheduled
for Saturdays. Some parents have paid tournament fees that are
nonrefundable.

I suggest adding three additional days to the end of the school year. It is
early enough to make changes to graduation dates. This is just another
recommendation to take into consideration. I am confident the school
district will establish a plan that will work for the majority’s needs.

142 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
ANSWERs to posttest

1. What are two things to consider when deciding the purpose of your
business writing?

Answer: What I am trying to communicate?


What details do I need to include?

2. When considering your audience, what question(s) should be


asked?

Answer: Who will be reading this?


A group, a co-worker, boss, creditor, owner, etc.

3. When considering the context or purpose, what question should be


asked?

Answer: What format should I use?

4. What are the five main parts of a business letter?

Answer: heading, salutation, introduction, body, and closing

5. What is included in the heading?

Answer: date, addressee, title, name of company, full address

6. The salutation makes no difference in setting the tone of a letter.


True or False?

Answer: False

7. It is acceptable to make personal observations and comments in the


body of a business letter, just as long as you get all of the important
details in also. True or False?

Answer: False

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 143


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
8. A colon placed after the salutation in a business letter indicates
formality. True or False?

Answer: True

9. What are the two standard alignments for a business letter?

Answer: (any 2 of three)


straight line, left margin, no paragraph indents
straight line, left margin, indented paragraph
mixed format

10. What does “enc.” indicate to the reader?

Answer: an enclosure is in the document

11. What does EW/sp signify at the bottom of a letter?

Answer: initials of writer and typist

12. What are the parts of a memo?

Answer: heading, introduction, body, and closing

13. What is included in the heading of a memo?

Answer: date, addressee, writer ’s name, subject, copies to


(optional)

14. What is the main difference between a letter and a memo?

Answer: A letter is longer, more formal, and contains more information


than a memo. A memo is brief and communicates information
in just a glance.

144 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
15. What is a complete sentence?

Answer: A complete sentence is a group of words which must contain at


least a subject and a verb and make a complete statement.

16. Combining sentences is called ________.

Answer: compounding

17. What are two types of conjunctions studied in this level?

Answer: coordinating and subordinating

18. What is a compound sentence?

Answer: A compound sentence is one in which two independent clauses


(or complete sentences) are connected using a coordinating
conjunction.

19. What is a complex sentence?

Answer: A complex sentence is one in which an independent clause


and at least one subordinate clause are connected using a
subordinating conjunction.

20. A clause that can stand alone as a complete sentence is called an


___________.

Answer: independent clause

21. What relationships can subordinating conjunctions show? Name at


least three.

Answer: (any 3 of the following) time, manner, cause, condition,


comparison, or purpose

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 145


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
22. What is the purpose of a comma?

Answer: to show a pause

23. If the subordinate clause is at the beginning of the sentence, where is the
comma placed?

Answer: The comma follows the clause.

24. A singular subject must have a __________verb.

Answer: singular

25. This operation is called __________.

Answer: making the subject and verb agree in number

26. Underline the correct verb.

a. My husband (walk, walks) everyday.

Answer: walks

b. Jose and Michelle (is, are) friends.

Answer: are

c. Flowers (smell, smells) delightful.

Answer: smell

d. Every supervisor and employee (have, has) to attend.

Answer: has

e. Where (is, are) my pair of pliers?

Answer: is (I tried to fool you on this one, the subject is pair, not pliers!)
146 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0
• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
27. What three ways are apostrophes used?

Answer: to show possession


form contractions
substitute for omitted numbers or letters in other words

28. Make the following words possessive.

a. operator

Answer: operator’s

b. men

Answer: men’s

c. Mr. Jones

Answer: Mr. Jones’s

d. childrens

Answer: children’s

e. Mr. Smith

Answer: Mr. Smith’s

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 147


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
29. Form contractions with the following words:

a. they are

Answer: they’re

b. we are

Answer: we’re

c. do not

Answer: don’t

d. cannot

Answer: can’t

e. we will

Answer: we’ll

30. Use these coordinating conjunctions in a sentence.

a. and

Answer: Jack and Jill went up the hill, and Jack fell down.

b. but

Answer: Today was rainy, but tomorrow is supposed to be sunny.

c. yet

Answer: The day was cold, yet we went on the trip anyway.

148 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
31. Use these subordinating conjunctions in a sentence with the subordinate
clause coming after the independent clause.

a. unless

Answer: You will not be able to get into the game unless you bought your
ticket early.

b. whenever

Answer: You may go whenever you like.

c. as long as

Answer: I like to hike as long as it is not too cold.

32. Use these subordinating conjunctions in a sentence with the subordinate


clause coming before the independent clause.

a. although

Answer: Although he ran as hard as he could, he could not catch the


leader.

b. provided that

Answer: Provided that you complete your form correctly, you will be allowed
to attend the conference.

c. because

Answer: Because he forgot to set his alarm, he was late for work.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 149


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7

Part II

33. Write a short business letter using the following information: (Use mixed
format)

Feb. 15, current year, to Charles Brown, purc. dept. manager, Good
Service, Inc., 113 Commerce Street, Nashville, TN 37214 notifying
him that you have sent a catalog and price list that he requested.
Offer volume discounts and inform him that special payment terms
are available, prices are FOB anywhere in the continental U.S. The
writer is Joseph Sanders, sales manager.

Answer: (your letter may vary from this example)

February 15, 1998


Mr. Charles Brown
Purchasing Department Manager
Good Service, Inc.
113 Commerce Street
Nashville, TN 37214

Dear Mr. Brown:

It was a pleasure talking to you on the phone about our products. As you
requested, I am enclosing a catalog and a price list of our complete line.

Please keep in mind that we offer volume discounts, and we can


negotiate special payment terms. You will also notice that our prices are
FOB anywhere in the continental United States.

Do not hesitate to call me if you have any questions or comments. I look


forward to hearing from you soon.

Sincerely,

Mr. Joseph Sanders


Sales Manager

150 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
34. Write a memo using the above information to notify all sales dept.
employees of your correspondence with Mr. Brown.

Answer: (your memo may vary from this example)

Date: February 15, 1998

To: All Sales Dept. Employees

From: Joseph Sanders, Sales Manager

Subject: Catalog and Price List

As of today, I have sent our catalog and price list to Mr. Charles
Brown of Good Service, Inc., Nashville, as per his request. I have
informed him of our volume discounts, special payment terms
available, and FOB shipping policy. Be aware that he may be
calling with questions or comments in the future. Get back with
me if you have any questions.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 151


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
LESSON 7
Well, how did you do on the Posttest? If you
scored 80% or higher, you have a reasonable
chance to pass Level 2 of the ACT WorkKeys®
Business Writing assessment. Remember the
basics of writing, take your time and think about
each question, and you will do fine. But, you may
want to complete Level 3 of Business Writing
with me before you take the assessment. Hope
to see you there!

There is a lot of information to remember.


Practice the exercises in this course. You can
do it! And, your enhanced work skills will pay off
in the long run.

Take time to review the Test-Taking Tips


provided in teh Reference section. Good luck
improving your work skills and attaining your
goals!

You should be proud of


your progress.

152 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
reference
EDWIN’S TEST-TAKING TIPS

Preparing for the test . . .


Complete appropriate levels of the WIN Instruction Solution self-study
courses. Practice your writing skills until you feel comfortable with your
ability to listen to a message, take notes, and compose written messages
communicating what you have heard.

Get a good night’s rest the night before the test and eat a healthy breakfast
on test day. Your body (specifically your mind) works better when you take
good care of it.

Allow adequate time to arrive at the test site. Being in a rush or arriving
late will likely upset your concentration when you actually take the test.

The answers must be written in blue or black ink, so if you have a favorite
pen, you may want to take it with you. However, the test administrator will
have pens available for your use.

During the test . . .


Listen to the instructions carefully. Do not hesitate to ask the administrator
questions if you do not understand what to do.

Dealing with test anxiety . . .


Being prepared is one of the best ways to reduce test anxiety. Study the
WIN Instruction Solution course material. Practice will increase confidence
in your writing and reduce your test anxiety.

Do not think negatively about the test. The story about the “little engine
that could” is true. You must, “think you can, think you can, think you can.”
If you prepare yourself by writing clear, concise, and complete sentences,
there is no reason why you cannot be successful. Don’t get discouraged;
be persistent.

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 153


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2
reference

If time allows, ask yourself the following proofreading questions:

• Does each sentence begin with a capital letter?


• Does each sentence have ending punctuation?
• Have you used “I” in the message? If so, and you have time, change this.
• Is there a subject and a verb in each sentence?
• Do the subject and verb agree?

Prior to the test, relax, close your eyes, take several deep breaths, and think
of a relaxing place or a favorite activity. Visualize this setting for a minute or
two before the test is administered.

Studying with a partner is another way to overcome test anxiety. Encouragement


from each other helps to increase your confidence.

154 • Business Writing • VERSION 5.0


• WIN CAREER SOLUTIONS •
Level 2

resources
ACT, Inc. (1994). WorkKeys Targets for Instruction: Business Writing. Iowa City, IA: ACT.
®

VERSION 5.0 • Business Writing • 155


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