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ABSTRACT

An innovative concept proposed in this paper is to handle bore well rescue operation.
Children often falls down in bore hole which is left uncovered and get trapped. It
is difficult as well as risky to rescue trapped child from bore hole. Hence we propose a
system of designing robots for the rescue of a child in a bore hole. We aid the child by
continuous monitoring and supply of necessary items to survive using technical
methods. Bores which yielded water and subsequently got depleted are left uncovered
and small children without noticing get trapped inside. To aid in such a life
threatening situation we hereby propose ‘bore well rescue robot’.

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INTRODUCTION
In current scenario, falling of children or even adults in bore well are increasing. These
accidents are mainly happened due to carelessness or playful activities of the
Child, Moreover most of the bore wells are drilled and leaved as it as open without any
proper coverings. When a child fall into the bore well the existing rescue operations
in such a cases are more risky and become a non-safe to the rescue team members.
In existing system, a big hole is dug beside the bore well up to the depth where the child
is stuck. This process a huge amount of human resources (military, Para medical, etc.),
machinery (JCBs, Tractors, etc.) is used. A small delay in this resources accumulation
may reduce the chances of saving child alive. If the area beside
the bore hole contains rocks below certain depth, in such cases the chance of saving
child alive is very low. Whatever may be the case the success ratio depends on lots of
factors like availability of time taken for transportation of machinery to the situation,
human resources and mainly the response time of various government organizations.
In India according to the NCRB report of 2011 there are 5 average deaths per day in the
license bore wells. At present there is no proper solution for this problem; in
this paper the model of a robot arm which can be used for rescue operation is briefly
explained.

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BOREWELL

What is a bore well?

A bore well is a well of 4 1/2", to 12" in diameter drilled into the earth for retrieving
water. In this 4 1/2" and 51/2" Bore wells are commonly for Domestic purposes while
6 1/2“ and more are for Commercial / Industrial purposes. A bore well is cased in
the region of loose subsoil strata open in hard rock or in crystalline rock. High grade
PVC pipes are used for Casing in bore wells. The depth of a bore well can vary from
150 feet to 1500 feet.

What is the difference between a bore well and a tube well?


A bore well is drilled with casing pipe put only up to the soil-rock boundary and this is
done normally for shallow depths in hard rock or in crystalline rock. But in a tube well,
the casing pipes are put up to the bottom of the bore wells, with perforation in the
pipes in some level. Normally the Tube wells are drilled in sand and gravel where the
availability of water is much below the ground level.

How do we find-out the availability of water in the land?


The best way to find out whether water is available in your land is to investigate using
any geophysical techniques adopted by a qualified hydro geologist. By the service of
Experienced Senior Ground Water Surveyor's crew for finding most suitable site
using the latest Computerized Sound Survey Systems. Their findings are 90%
accurate.

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Techniques used in drilling of a bore well :

Ancient techniques utilized driving of tubes inside the earth to drill well using mud or
water as a liquid media. Then after the invention of diesel engines, rotary drilling was
used to remove cores out of the earth. This was called calyx method. There are
several methods used for drilling Bore well. Most commonly used are Compressor
Drilling, Manual Drilling and Rotary Drilling. Compressor Drilling is done with the
vehicle fitted with High Power Hydraulic Air Compressor Machine. It is commonly
used to drill on soil surface and hard rock. Another method is by manual Drilling or
Hand Bore. This is most suited for lands with Clay or Sand. All these drillings will be
at 4 1/2", 5", 6 1/2", 7" & 8 1/2" Dia. Air compressors and pneumatic drilling
equipments are used to drill bore wells up to 3000 feet. The rates for drilling a bore
well depend on the location, nature of soil and availability of water.

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What care must be done while drilling a bore well?
While drilling a bore well we have to insert pipes called Casing pipes. It can be
PVC/GI. This is done to prevent the Surface water with Sand from entering inside the
bore well. These Pipes are fixed inside the hard rock under the soil. Casing pipes are
of 4 - 8 Kgs. Some of the contractors compromise with this casing pipe to reduce
drilling cost. We discourage it. Because it will lead to future problems like bore silting,
muddy water etc. Filtering can also be done to prevent muddy water and for getting
surface yield. Bore wells must be kept closed to prevent something to fall inside it and
block the bore. Pumps must be installed as soon as possible to avoid bore silting and
damage. Periodical cleaning must be done to retain yield and quality of water.

We recommend using high quality ISI mark casing pipes with correct measurement &
thickness for long life of bore wells.

Did all bore well yield water?


According to us most of the bore wells yield water. Only a few of them were dry. We
had drilled 85% of bore well with high yield 10% with good yield & 5% with no yield.
Our Water divining success rate is 90% - 95%.

We recommend clean/flush your bore well on every 5 year to retain the yield & quality
of water.

Why the bore well fails?


All the locations indicated by a geophysical survey at their respective locations are
interpreted from the resistivity values which are far better than those obtained from
the surrounding regions of the area surveyed , these locations contrarily have
resistivity values indicative of massive hard rock with absolutely no fractures or

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seepages of water within them. Under the conditions of crystallization of basalt,
innumerable vesicles are formed, thus creating air pockets within the mass of hard
rock, The resistively of these vesicular crystals remain in a similar range as those of
soft weathered rock through which seepage of water is likely. Hence, in case pockets
of these are encountered a probability of a decrease in yield of the aquifer bodies in
the boreholes is possible. Thus all results are interpreted from a complex natural
system of heterogeneous nature. Hence, variations in the results cannot be totally
ruled out.

What types of Pumps are used in bore wells?

Most commonly used pumps for bore wells are Submersible pumps, Hand pumps and
Compressor pumps. All types of pumping systems from 0.25 monoblocks to 50 HP
Submersible pumps, Monoblocks, Centrifugal jet, Bore well submersible, Compressor
pumps, Hand pumps, Solar Submersibles, Pressure boosters, Piston Pumps, Turbine
pumps etc. can also be used. It depends upon the availability of water & the depth of
bore well. Testing can be done for checking the discharge quantity of water from the
bore well. We have professional geologists for testing and they will recommend the
pump suitable for your bore well.

Is bore well water pure for domestic use?


The bore well water is purer than fresh river or lake water. It will still have dissolved
solids and salts and minerals. Some of the bore well water will be hard water. It is
advisable to test the bore well water before drinking, if you have any doubts on its
freshness.

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HYDRAULICS

Hydraulics is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other
sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids. At a very basic level,
hydraulics is the liquid counterpart of pneumatics, which concerns gases. Fluid
mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the
applied engineering using the properties of fluids. In its fluid power applications,
hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use
of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through some parts of science and most
of engineering modules, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and
fluid control circuitry, pumps. The principles of hydraulics are in use naturally in the
human body within the heart and the penile erection.Free surface hydraulics is the
branch of hydraulics dealing with free surface flow, such as occurring
in rivers, canals, lakes, estuaries and seas. Its sub-field open channel flow studies the
flow in open channels.

Pascal's law is the basis of hydraulic drive systems. As the pressure in the system is the
same, the force that the fluid gives to the surroundings is therefore equal to pressure ×
area. In such a way, a small piston feels a small force and a large piston feels a large
force. This is exactly how a hydraulic ram or jack works. If you squirt fluid through a
narrow tube at one end, you can make a plunger rise slowly, but with a lot of force, at
the other end: Photo: How to magnify force with a water pistol working in reverse. The
science behind hydraulics is called Pascal's principle

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Pascal’s Law
Pascal's law (also Pascal's principle or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure) is
a principle in fluid mechanics that states that a pressure change occurring anywhere in
a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted throughout thefluid such that the same
change occurs everywhere.

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Hydraulics in theory

Turn a water pistol on its end and this is (crudely simplified) what's going on inside:

: A simplified view of a hydraulic water pistol.

When you press on the trigger (shown in red), you apply a relatively large force that
moves the trigger a short distance. Because the water won't squeeze into a smaller
space, it gets forced through the body of the pistol to the narrow nozzle and squirts out
with less force but more speed.

Now suppose we could make a water pistol work in reverse. If we could shoot liquid into
the nozzle at high speed, the water would flow the opposite way and we'd generate a
large upward force on the trigger. If we scaled our water pistol up many times, we could
generate a big enough force to lift things. This is exactly how a hydraulic ram or jack
works. If you squirt fluid through a narrow tube at one end, you can make a plunger rise
slowly, but with a lot of force, at the other end:

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How to magnify force with a water pistol working in reverse.

The science behind hydraulics is called Pascal's principle. Essentially, because the
liquid in the pipe is incompressible, the pressure must stay constant all the way through
it, even when you're pushing it hard at one end or the other. Now pressure is defined as
the force acting per unit of area. So if we press down with a small force on a small area,
at the narrow end of the tube on the left, there must be a large force acting upward on
the larger area piston on the right to keep the pressure equal. That's how the force
becomes magnified.

Hydraulics in practice

You can see hydraulics at work in this digger. When the driver pulls a handle, the
digger's engine pumps fluid into the narrow pipes and cables (shown in blue), forcing
the hydraulic rams (shown in red) to extend. The rams look a bit like bicycle pumps
working in reverse. If you put several rams together, you can make a digger's arm
extend and move much like a person's—only with far greater force. The hydraulic rams
are effectively the digger's muscles:

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Why would you use a hydraulic motor instead of an electric one? Where a powerful
electric motor generally needs to be really big, a hydraulic motor just as powerful can be
smaller and more compact, because it's getting its power from a pump some distance
away. You can also use hydraulic motors in places where electricity might not be viable
or safe—for example, underwater, or where there's a risk of electric sparks creating a
fire or explosion.

Hydraulic lift

An elevator operated by fluid pressure, especially one used for raising automobiles in
service stations and garages. A hydraulic lift is a type of machine that uses a hydraulic
apparatus to lift or move objects using the force created when pressure is exerted on
liquid in a piston. Force then produces "lift" and "work." Hydraulic lift technology has a
multitude of industrial applications, like construction and transport. It is often
implemented to operate heavy machinery or to move and lift heavy and large objects
like cars, dirt and shipping containers.

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How does a hydraulic lift work?
Hydraulic elevator systems lift a car using a hydraulic ram, a fluid-driven piston mounted
inside a cylinder. You can see how this system works in the diagram below. The
cylinder is connected to a fluid-pumping system (typically, hydraulic systems like this
use oil, but other incompressible fluids would also work).

Principle of hydraulic lift


A hydraulic lift for automobiles is an example of a force multiplied by hydraulic press,
based on Pascal's principle. The fluid in the small cylinder must be moved much further
than the distance the car is lifted. One of the physics equations that applies to hydraulic
lift technology is "pressure x area = force." This helps determine the pressure exertion
required on a liquid in a piston to produce enough force to provide lift and move an
object.

The Purpose of hydraulic lift


A hydraulic lift typically uses hydraulic cylinders to either raise or lower platforms
formwork, or other lifting devices. Hydraulic lifts are ideally used for support, as well as

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lift and move heavy to very heavy, and large objects; at the same time providing a safe
environment that is ergonomically useful. Hydraulic lift technology can be found in
hydraulic jacks, forklifts, car lifts, among many other machines. Machines can use it to
provide the hydraulic lift technology is a critical aspect of engineering, without which
many applications would not be possible unless another technology existed to replace
it. Automotive, construction, avionics and shipping industries depend heavily upon it,
and it has contributed to a large part of the modern world as we know it.ift exertion
(force) needed to produce work, such as moving another object.

Even automobile brakes use hydraulics. When you push the brake pedal, it pushes a
small piston in the brake master cylinder. The piston applies pressure on the brake fluid,
which transfers the pressure through the brake lines, forcing another set of pistons to
force the brake linings into contact with the brake drums on each wheel. The resulting
friction of brake lining against brake drum slows the car down, eventually stopping the
car.

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BOREWELL RESCUE

Children fall in the Borewell due to the carelessness nature of the people in society. Due
to this many children are becoming the victims. The currently available systems are less
effective and costly too. Thus the society is in need of a new technique which is more
efficient and effective. In most cases reported so far, a parallel hole is dug and then
horizontal path is made to reach the child. It is not only a time taking process, but also
risky in various ways. The borewell rescue robot is capable of moving inside the same
borewell where the child has been trapped and performs various actions to save the
child. CCTV camera is used to continuously monitor the child’s condition and also help
to decide the actions which have to be performed by the robot. This robot has a high
power LED which acts as a light source since light intensity inside the hole will be less.
The advancement in the field of automation along with the mechanical design has a
great impact on the society. This project includes series of process development from
hand drawn sketches to computer generated design. The modern equipments are
implemented for various parts of the robot, since the robot performs a life rescuing
activity. The light weight servomotors are implemented for the robot’s operations. A
safety airbag is introduced in order to prevent the further falling down of child during
rescue operation. A wide range CCTV camera is placed to find the child’s position. An
additional robotic arm system is included for the perfect positioning. Borewell rescue
Robot is a human controlled computerized Robotic system embedded with additional
safety devices.

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OBJECTIVE
The main objective of the project is to rescue the children who have fallen inside the
Borewell with the help of robotic arms and safety airbag with minimal time. CCTV
camera plays a very important role of continuous monitoring of the child’s position. The
myDAQ which is the controlling device located at the ground level controls all the
actions of the robot. The Borewell Rescue Robot can replace the currently available
techniques.

The objectives of this project include

1. Manually monitoring the child with the help of camera and controlling unit of robot.

2. Communicating with the robot by sending appropriate commands to it and activate


the suitable motors.

3. Length of the rope can be determined roughly with the help of IR sensors. Once the
robot has reached proximity of child, it is stopped immediately and is given the
commands by the controlling device to perform the closing of the robotic arms.

4. Oxygen supply is activated immediately to overcome its scarcity and entire


arrangement is pulled up.

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Methodology
The entire system is manually controlled by the user. The functional block diagram of
Borewell Rescue Robot is as shown in Figure 1. The CCTV camera is used for
continuous monitoring and records each and every action of the child and display can
be observed on monitor.

The fully computerized control unit controls the camera and acquires the images that
have been captured with the help of CCTV camera. With the help of this, the child’s
position can be inferred. The ground control unit comprises of air compressor unit which
is used to supply air to the safety air bag to provide a platform for the child. The video
signals received are analyzed by the user and in turn sends the suitable commands to
the robot. These command signals are then passed on to the myDAQ for further actions
to take place. The metallic plate can be rotated, clamped and rod is inserted inside the
gap found with the airbag tied at its one end. Finally the air is blown into the airbag to
form a horizontal platform. It is ensured that the child is provided with the oxygen
supply. To implement the prototype, 4 DC motor and 2 servomotors are used to achieve
the robotic movements and ensured that the child has been held safely in the robot’s
hand. Once this is ensured the entire arrangement is pulled up using pulley
arrangement. The design of the robot basically consists of three metallic discs as shown
in the .The upper metallic disc has slightly more diameter about 14 inches greater when
compared to the other two discs forming a lid at the opening of the Borewell. Usually the
Borewell diameter varies from 8 to 12 inches. The first and the second discs are
interconnected via the rope. The second metallic disc has a diameter of 8 inches and

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the third disc of 6 inches. The robot is designed in a conical shape ensuring that while
moving inside the well it will not collide with the edges of the well which may hamper the
rescue operations. A number of components are used to achieve and control various
actions of the Robot. The various hardware components used are CCTV Camera,
Oxygen Supply Unit, Servomotor, Motor Driver Circuit, DC Motor, Pulley, Safety Airbag
and Robotic Arms.

Mechanism
The robot is expected to be fabricated in such a way that the trained operator opens
the stand and fixes over the bore well and give the input regarding depth and diameter
of the bore well. The robot self-operating system starts with the given input into the well.
The IR sensor place along with camera on the bottom will detect the distance of the
victim from the ground. Then the rescue robot is going to fit in the bore well. Oxygen
supply is provided through a special pipe arranged from the rescue robot. The rescue
robot is going to sense the position of the person or child and it is going to send a long
assisting pipe so that child can mount on them. The assembly of robot is such a way
that it has three degrees of freedom and can adjust its position according to safety and
comfort of child. Then with the help of motors, the child or person mounted on the three
legs of rescue robot is pulled upward safely in fastest possible time.

Result and Conclusion


The proposed prototype performs the rescuing actions more precisely in very limited
time. Usage of robotic arms ensures the rescuing action in both conditions such as
when the child has been struck in between or at the bottom of the well. The inclusion of
metallic plates has been proposed to provide an additional support and ensure the
complete safety of the child. The robot is also capable of performing life saving actions
like supplying oxygen.

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Future Enhancement
• The Robot can be equipped with necessary cleaning device like brush at its one end
so that it can be used to clean the underground tanks.

• The metallic plates can be used below the safety airbag in order to provide extra
support to the child from the bottom.

• A small vacuum unit with appropriate pressure could be used to suck the mud particles
that have been accumulated over the baby and disturbing the proper acquisition of the
images.

• Sponge kind of soft material can be used at the inner arms of the Robot, taking care
that it will not hurt the Baby while holding.

• A mesh structure can be designed in order to prevent the falling of mud over the child.

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