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Oracle Database
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D50081GC21
Edition 2.1
September 2010
D63697
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Contents
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

I Introduction
Overview I-2
Oracle Database Innovation I-3
Enterprise Grid Computing I-4
Oracle Database 11g: Focus Areas I-5
Management Automation I-7
Self-Managing Database: The Next Generation I-8 ble
Suggested Additional Courses I-9 fe r a
ans
Further Information I-10
n - t r
Suggested Schedule I-11 o
s an
1 Oracle Grid Infrastructure r ) ha deฺ
Objectives 1-2 m ฺa Gui
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 1-3 n ฺ co ent
Automatic Storage Management Technology
@ ao Stack S tud1-4
z
Oracle Grid Infrastructure and i l le Database
Oracle t h is Installation: System
Requirements 1-5cel
oฺ use
a r System
to 1-6
Preparing the Operating
m e
l l e ( iceVariables
Setting iEnvironment ns 1-7
Z l
lo the System Requirements 1-8
r c eChecking
Ma Defining Ownership of OS Devices for ASM 1-9
Installation Scenario 1-10
Part One: Installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for Stand-Alone Server 1-11
Selecting Product Languages 1-12
Creating an ASM Disk Group 1-13
Defining ASM Passwords 1-14
Defining Privileged Operating System Groups 1-15
Specifying Installation Location 1-16
Creating Inventory 1-17
Performing Prerequisite Checks 1-18
Verifying Installation Summary Data 1-19
Monitoring Installation Progress 1-20
Executing root Configuration Scripts 1-21
Executing Configuration Assistants 1-22
Finishing the Installation 1-23

iii
Configuring the FRA Disk Group 1-24
Oracle Local Registry 1-25
Quiz 1-27
Practice 1-1: Overview 1-28
ASM Files and Volumes 1-29
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM) Concepts 1-30


ASM Dynamic Volume Striping 1-31
ADVM Restrictions 1-32
Creating an ASM Dynamic Volume 1-33
Managing ASM Dynamic Volumes 1-35
Using SQL to Manage ASM Dynamic Volumes 1-36
Extending ASMCMD for ASM Dynamic Volumes 1-38
ble
ASM Cluster File System (ACFS) 1-39 fe r a
ACFS Architecture 1-40 ans
n - t r
Using Enterprise Manager to Manage ACFS 1-41 o
Linux/UNIX File System APIs 1-42
s an
Linux/UNIX Extensions 1-43
r ) ha deฺ
Windows File System APIs 1-44
m ฺa Gui
Windows Extensions 1-45
n ฺ co ent
ao Stud
ACFS Platform-Independent Commands 1-46
@
i l le this
ASM Cluster File System Limitations 1-47
z
c e loฺ use
Creating an ASM Cluster File System 1-48
a
ACFS Snapshots 1-49r to
m e
i l l e ( icens
Administering Oracle ACFS Snapshots 1-50

e oZ
Quiz 1-51
l l
Marc Summary 1-52
Practice 1-2: Overview 1-53

2 Installation Enhancements
Objectives 2-2
Oracle Database 11g Installation: Changes 2-3
Part Two: Installing the Oracle Database Software 2-6
Choosing the Type of Installation 2-7
Choosing Grid Installation Options 2-8
Choosing Language Settings 2-9
Choosing the Database Edition 2-10
Specifying Installation Location 2-11
Choosing Operating System Groups 2-12
Performing Prerequisite Checks 2-13
Installation Summary Page 2-14
Install Product Page 2-15

iv
Installation Finish Page 2-16
Quiz 2-17
Practice 2-1: Overview 2-18
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Upgrade Paths 2-19
Deprecated Features in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 and Release 2 2-20
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Initialization Parameter Information 2-21


Practice 2-2: Overview 2-23
Practice 2-3: Overview 2-24
Direct NFS Client: Overview 2-25
Direct NFS Configuration 2-27
Monitoring Direct NFS 2-29
Online Patching: Overview 2-30
ble
Installing an Online Patch 2-31 fe r a
Benefits of Online Patching 2-32 ans
n - t r
Conventional Patching and Online Patching 2-33 o
Online Patching Considerations 2-34
s an
Quiz 2-36
r ) ha deฺ
Summary 2-37
m ฺa Gui
Practice 2-4: Overview 2-38
n ฺ co ent
@ ao Stud
3 Oracle Restart
z i l le this
Objectives 3-2
c e loฺ use
Oracle Restart 3-3 a r to
m e
Oracle Restart
i l l e ( Process
i c e s
nStartup 3-5
l o Z
Controlling l
Oracle Restart 3-6
e
rc Choosing the Correct SRVCTL Utility 3-8
Ma Oracle Restart Configuration 3-9
Using the SRVCTL Utility 3-10
Obtaining Help for the SRVCTL Utility 3-11
Starting Components by Using the SRVCTL Utility 3-12
Stopping Components by Using the SRVCTL Utility 3-13
Viewing Component Status 3-14
Displaying the Oracle Restart Configuration for a Component 3-15
Manually Adding Components to the Oracle Restart Configuration 3-16
Quiz 3-17
Summary 3-18
Practice 3-1: Overview 3-19

4 ASM Enhancements
Objectives 4-2
Without ASM Fast Mirror Resync 4-3

v
ASM Fast Mirror Resync: Overview 4-4
Using Enterprise Manager to Perform Fast Mirror Resync 4-5
Setting Up ASM Fast Mirror Resync 4-7
ASM Preferred Mirror Read: Overview 4-9
ASM Preferred Mirror Read: Setup 4-10
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Enterprise Manager ASM Configuration Page 4-11


ASM Preferred Mirror Read: Best Practice 4-12
Quiz 4-13
ASM Scalability and Performance Enhancements 4-14
ASM Scalability in Oracle Database 11g 4-16
SYSASM Privilege 4-17
Using Enterprise Manager to Manage ASM Users 4-18 ble
ASM Disk Group Compatibility 4-19 fe r a
ASM Disk Group Attributes 4-21 ans
n - t r
Using Enterprise Manager to Edit Disk Group Attributes 4-22 o
Enhanced Disk Group Checks 4-23
s an
Restricted Mount Disk Group for Fast Rebalance 4-24
r ) ha deฺ
Mount Force Disk Group 4-25 m ฺa Gui
Forcing Disk Group Drop 4-27 n ฺ co ent
ao Stud
ASMCMD Extensions in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 4-28
@
ASMCMD Command Extensions 4-30
z i l le this
c e loฺ use
ASMCMD Extensions: Example 4-31
Quiz 4-32 a r to
m e
l e ( icens
ASM ACLs 4-33
i l
e oZ l
ASM ACLs Prerequisites 4-34
l
Marc Managing ASM ACLs by Using SQL Commands 4-36
Managing ASM ACLs by Using SMCMD Commands 4-37
Managing ASM ACLs by Using Enterprise Manager 4-38
ASM Intelligent Data Placement 4-40
Managing ASM Intelligent Data Placement Examples 4-41
Managing ASM Intelligent Data Placement 4-42
ASM Intelligent Data Placement Best Practices 4-44
Viewing ASM Intelligent Data Placement Information 4-45
Quiz 4-47
Summary 4-48
Practice 4: Overview 4-49

5 Storage Enhancements
Objectives 5-2
Supporting 4 KB Sector Disks 5-3

vi
Using 4 KB Sector Disks 5-4
Specifying the Disk Sector Size 5-5
Using the SECTOR_SIZE Clause 5-6
Creating a Database with 4 KB Sector Disks 5-7
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Specifying BLOCKSIZE 5-8


Determining Your Log File Block Size 5-9
Performing an Offline Migration to 4 KB Disks 5-10
Quiz 5-12
Table Compression: Overview 5-13
Table Compression Concepts 5-14
Compressing Table Data 5-15
Using OLTP Compression 5-17 ble
Using the Compression Advisor 5-18 fe r a
ans
Viewing Table Compression Information 5-19
n - t r
SQL Access Advisor: Overview 5-20 o
SQL Access Advisor: Usage Model 5-21 s an
Possible Recommendations 5-22
r ) ha deฺ
Using SQL Access Advisor 5-23 m ฺa Gui
ฺ co ent
SQL Access Advisor: PL/SQL Procedure Flow 5-24
n
ao Stud
SQL Access Advisor: PL/SQL Example 5-25
@
i
Temporary Tablespace Shrink 5-26
z l le this
e
DBA_TEMP_FREE_SPACE 5-27
c loฺ use
a r to
Tablespace Option for Creating Temporary Table 5-28
m e
l l e ( icens
Segment Creation on Demand 5-29
i
e loZ l
Creating Tables Without Segments 5-30

Marc Controlling Deferred Segment Creation 5-31


Restrictions and Exceptions 5-32
Additional Automatic Functionality 5-33
Quiz 5-34
Summary 5-35
Practice 5: Overview 5-36

6 Data Warehouse and Partitioning Enhancements


Objectives 6-2
Preprocessing Data for ORACLE_LOADER Access Driver in External Tables 6-3
Windows Example 6-4
Example of Preprocessing 6-5
EXECUTE Privilege for Directory Objects 6-7
Security Implications 6-8
Securing the ORACLE_LOADER Access Driver 6-10

vii
Considerations and Usage Notes 6-12
Quiz 6-13
Review: Degree of Parallelism (DOP) 6-14
Review: PARALLEL Clause 6-16
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Goal: Simplifying Parallel Execution 6-17


Automatic Degree Of Parallelism Determination 6-18
Summary of Changes to Parameters 6-19
Using PARALLEL_MIN_TIME_THRESHOLD 6-20
Using PARALLEL_DEGREE_POLICY 6-21
Using PARALLEL_DEGREE_LIMIT 6-23
Using PARALLEL_FORCE_LOCAL 6-25
Changes to Existing Parameters 6-26 ble
fe r a
Parallel Hints Are Now at the Statement Level 6-27 s
Implication of Statement-Level Parallel Hints 6-28
- t r an
EXPLAIN PLAN Enhancements 6-29 o n
Enhanced Explain Plan Example 6-30 s an
In-Memory Parallel Query 6-31 r ) ha deฺ
Quiz 6-32 m ฺa Gui
Oracle Partitioning 6-33 n ฺ co ent
Partitioning Enhancements 6-34 @ ao Stud
Interval Partitioning 6-35 z i l le this
c e loฺ use
Interval Partitioning: Example 6-36
a r to
m e
Moving the Transition Point: Example 6-37
i l l e ( icens
System Partitioning 6-39
e loZ l
System Partitioning: Example 6-40

Marc System Partitioning: Guidelines 6-41


System-Managed Indexes for List Partitioning 6-42
Virtual Column–Based Partitioning 6-43
Virtual Column–Based Partitioning: Example 6-44
Reference Partitioning 6-45
Reference Partitioning: Benefit 6-46
Reference Partitioning: Example 6-47
Composite Partitioning Enhancements 6-48
Range-Range Partitioning: Example 6-49
Summary 6-50
Practice 6: Overview 6-51

7 Oracle SecureFiles
Objectives 7-2
Managing Enterprise Information 7-3

viii
Issues with Existing LOB Implementation 7-4
Oracle SecureFiles 7-5
Enabling SecureFiles Storage 7-6
SecureFiles: Storage Options 7-7
SecureFiles: Advanced Features 7-8
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Creating SecureFiles 7-9


Creating SecureFiles Using Enterprise Manager 7-10
Shared I/O Pool 7-11
Altering SecureFiles 7-12
Quiz 7-13
What Is SecureFile Compression? 7-14
Compression Modes 7-15
ble
Creating a SecureFile LOB with LOW Compression 7-16 fe r a
Configuration Parameters 7-17 ans
n - t r
Quiz 7-18 o
Accessing SecureFiles Metadata 7-19
s an
Migrating to SecureFiles 7-20
r ) ha deฺ
SecureFiles Migration: Example 7-21 m ฺa Gui
SecureFiles Monitoring 7-22 n ฺ co ent
Summary 7-23
@ ao Stud
Practice 7: Overview 7-24
z i l le this
c e loฺ use
a
8 Security and Networkingr to
Enhancements
m
( ens e
Objectives
i l l e 8-2
o Z PasswordlicSupport 8-3
Secure
l
rceAutomatic Secure Configuration 8-4
Ma Password Configuration 8-5
Enable Built-in Password Complexity Checker 8-6
Managing Default Audits 8-7
Audited Privileges 8-8
Setting Security Parameters 8-9
Setting Database Administrator Authentication 8-11
Quiz 8-12
Transparent Data Encryption 8-13
Hardware Security Module 8-14
Using Tablespace Encryption 8-15
Tablespace Encryption New Features 8-16
Tablespace Master Key Re-Key 8-17
Quiz 8-18
Enterprise Manager Security Management 8-19
Using RMAN Security Enhancements 8-20

ix
Managing Fine-Grained Access to External Network Services 8-21
Supporting IPv6 Address Notification 8-23
Connecting to the Oracle Database 8-24
IPv6 Supported in Java Interfaces 8-25
Summary 8-26
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Practice 8: Overview 8-27

9 SQL Performance Analyzer


Objectives 9-2
Challenges Faced by DBAs When Performing Changes 9-3
Change Is the Only Constant 9-4
Change Management in Oracle Database 11g 9-5
ble
Lifecycle of Change Management 9-6 fe r a
SQL Performance Analyzer: Overview 9-8 ans
n - t r
SQL Performance Analyzer: Use Cases 9-9 o
Using SQL Performance Analyzer 9-10
s an
Step 1: Capture SQL Workload 9-11
r ) ha deฺ
Step 2: Transport to a Test System 9-12
m ฺa Gui
ฺ co ent
Step 3: Build Before Change Performance Data 9-13
n
ao Stud
Step 4: Implement Planned Change and Step 5: Build After-Change
@
Performance Data 9-14
z i l le this
c e loฺ use
Step 6: Compare and Analyze Performance and Step 7: Tune Regressed SQL 9-15
Quiz 9-16 a r to
m e
i l l e ( icens
Accessing SQL Performance Analyzer 9-17

e oZ l
Using Enterprise Manager to Access SQL Performance Analyzer 9-18
l
Marc SQL Performance Analyzer: PL/SQL Example 9-19
Tuning Regressed SQL Statements 9-21
Testing Database Upgrades: Oracle9i Database and Oracle Database 10g
Release 1 9-22
Testing Database Upgrades: Oracle Database 10g Release 2 and
Later Releases 9-25
SQL Performance Analyzer: Data Dictionary Views 9-28
Summary 9-29
Practice 9: Overview 9-30

10 SQL Plan Management


Objectives 10-2
SQL Plan Management: Overview 10-3
SQL Plan Baseline: Architecture 10-4
Loading SQL Plan Baselines 10-6
Evolving SQL Plan Baselines 10-7

x
Viewing Important Baseline SQL Plan Attributes 10-8
Important Baseline SQL Plan Attributes 10-9
SQL Plan Selection 10-10
Quiz 10-12
Possible SQL Plan Manageability Scenarios 10-13
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SQL Performance Analyzer and SQL Plan Baseline Scenario 10-14


Loading a SQL Plan Baseline Automatically 10-15
Purging SQL Management Base Policy 10-16
Enterprise Manager and SQL Plan Baselines 10-17
Using the MIGRATE_STORED_OUTLINE Functions 10-18
Summary 10-19
Practice 10: Overview 10-20 ble
fe r a
11 Database Replay ans
n - t r
Objectives 11-2 o
Why Use Database Replay? 11-3
s an
Using Database Replay 11-4
r ) ha deฺ
The Big Picture 11-5 m ฺa Gui
System Architecture: Capture 11-6 n ฺ co ent
ao Stud
System Architecture: Preprocessing the Workload 11-7
@
i
System Architecture: Replay 11-8
z l le this
c e loฺ use
Prechange Production System 11-9
a r
Supported Workloads 11-10 to
m e
l e ( icens
Capture Considerations 11-11
i l
e oZ l
Replay Considerations 11-12
l
Marc Replay Options 11-14
Workload Replay Filters 11-16
Replay Analysis 11-18
Quiz 11-20
Database Replay Workflow in Enterprise Manager 11-21
Accessing Database Replay 11-22
Packages and Procedures 11-23
Database Replay: PL/SQL Example 11-24
Data Dictionary Views: Database Replay 11-26
Calibrating Replay Clients 11-27
Summary 11-28
Practice 11: Overview 11-29

12 Automatic SQL Tuning


Objectives 12-2
SQL Tuning in Oracle Database 10g 12-3

xi
Automatic SQL Tuning in Oracle Database 11g 12-4
Summary of Automation in Oracle Database 11g 12-5
Selecting Potential SQL Statements for Tuning 12-6
Maintenance Window Timeline 12-7
Automatic Tuning Process 12-8
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Controlling the Automatic SQL Tuning Task 12-10


Example: Controlling the Automatic SQL Tuning Task 12-11
Automatic SQL Tuning Task 12-12
Configuring Automatic SQL Tuning 12-13
Automatic SQL Tuning Result Summary 12-14
Quiz 12-15
Automatic SQL Tuning: Fine Tune 12-16
ble
Using the PL/SQL Interface to Generate Reports 12-18 fe r a
Automatic SQL Tuning Considerations 12-19 ans
n - t r
Summary 12-20 o
Practice 12: Overview 12-21
s an
r ) ha deฺ
13 Intelligent Infrastructure Enhancements
m ฺa Gui
Objectives 13-2
n ฺ co ent
Using New and Enhanced Automatic Workload
@ tud Views 13-3
ao SRepository
Comparative Performance Analysis
z i l le withtAWR
h is Baselines 13-4
c e loฺ Baselines
Automatic Workload Repository
u se 13-5
a r
Moving Window Baseline to
13-6
m e
i l e ( iOptions
Baseline Display
l c e ns 13-7
Z Templates
Baseline
l o l 13-8
e
Marc Creating AWR Baselines 13-9
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY Package 13-10
Generate a Baseline Template for a Single Time Period 13-11
Creating a Repeating Baseline Template 13-12
Baseline Views 13-13
Quiz 13-14
Performance Monitoring and Baselines 13-15
Defining Alert Thresholds Using Static Baseline 13-17
Using Enterprise Manager to Quickly Configure Adaptive Thresholds 13-18
Practice 13-1: Overview 13-19
Maintenance Windows 13-20
Default Maintenance Plan 13-21
Automated Maintenance Task Priorities 13-22
Controlling Automatic Maintenance Tasks 13-23
Quiz 13-24
Important I/O Metrics for Oracle Databases 13-25

xii
I/O Calibration and Enterprise Manager 13-27
I/O Calibration and the PL/SQL Interface 13-28
I/O Statistics: Overview 13-30
I/O Statistics and Enterprise Manager 13-32
Practices 13-2 and 13-3: Overview 13-34
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Resource Manager Enhancements 13-35


Resource Manager Enhancements: Database Consolidation 13-36
Fixed Policy CPU Resource Management 13-37
Limiting CPU Utilization 13-38
Resource Manager Enhancements: Server Consolidation 13-39
Instance Caging 13-40
Instance Caging Examples 13-41
ble
Enabling Instance Caging 13-42 fe r a
Monitoring Instance Caging 13-43 ans
n - t r
Quiz 13-44 o
Resource Manager: Changes to DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER 13-45
s an
Resource Manager: New Enterprise Manager Interface 13-46
r ) ha deฺ
Resource Plans Created by Default 13-47 m ฺa Gui
Default Plan 13-48 n ฺ co ent
I/O Resource Limit Thresholds 13-49
@ ao Stud
i
Resource Manager Statistics 13-50
z l le this
Summary 13-51
c e loฺ use
a r to
m e
i l l
14 Diagnosabilitye ( Enhancements
c e ns
o Z 14-2li
Objectives
l
rceOracle Database 11g Fault Management 14-3
Ma Ease Diagnosis: Automatic Diagnostic Workflow 14-4
Automatic Diagnostic Repository 14-5
ADRCI: The ADR Command-Line Tool 14-7
V$DIAG_INFO 14-8
Location for Diagnostic Traces 14-9
Viewing the Alert Log Using Enterprise Manager 14-10
Viewing the Alert Log Using ADRCI 14-11
Quiz 14-13
Problems and Incidents 14-14
Incident Packaging Service (IPS) 14-17
Incident Packages 14-18
Enterprise Manager Support Workbench: Overview 14-20
Enterprise Manager Support Workbench Roadmap 14-21
View Critical Error Alerts in Enterprise Manager 14-22
Package and Upload Diagnostic Data to Oracle Support 14-23

xiii
Track the SR and Implement Repairs 14-24
Creating User-Reported Problems 14-25
Enterprise Manager Support Workbench for ASM 14-26
Invoking IPS Using ADRCI 14-27
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Quiz 14-29
Health Monitor: Overview 14-30
Running Health Checks Manually: Enterprise Manager Example 14-32
Running Health Checks Manually: PL/SQL Example 14-33
Viewing HM Reports Using the ADRCI Utility 14-34
SQL Repair Advisor: Overview 14-35
Accessing the SQL Repair Advisor Using Enterprise Manager 14-36
Viewing, Disabling, or Removing a SQL Patch 14-37 ble
Using SQL Repair Advisor from PL/SQL: Example 14-38 fe r a
ans
Using the SQL Test Case Builder 14-39
n - t r
Quiz 14-40 o
Summary 14-41 s an
Practice 14: Overview 14-42
r ) ha deฺ
m ฺa Gui
15 Real-Time SQL Monitoring n ฺ co ent
Objectives 15-2
@ ao Stud
SQL Monitoring 15-3 z i l le this

loDatabase e Release 2 15-5
s11g
SQL Monitoring in Oracle
c e
r Enterprise u
SQL Monitoring with
m a e to Manager Database Control 15-6
Monitored
i l l eSQL( Executions
c e ns 15-7
SQL
l o Z
Monitoring li 15-8
List
e
Marc Monitored SQL Execution Details 15-9
SQL Execution Details for Parallel Queries 15-10
Details for Parallel Execution 15-11
Activity Details for Parallel Execution 15-12
Viewing Session Details 15-13
SQL Details 15-14
Viewing the SQL Monitoring Report 15-15
Quiz 15-16
Summary 15-17
Practice 15-1: Overview 15-18

16 Performance Enhancements
Objectives 16-2
Using the DBMS_ADDM Package 16-3
Advisor Named Findings and Directives 16-6

xiv
Modified Advisor Views 16-7
New ADDM Views 16-8
Quiz 16-9
Review: Oracle Database 10g SGA Parameters 16-10
Review: Oracle Database 10g PGA Parameters 16-11
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Oracle Database Memory Advisors 16-13


Automatic Memory Management: Overview 16-15
Oracle Database 11g Memory Parameters 16-17
Automatic Memory Parameter Dependency 16-18
Enabling Automatic Memory Management 16-20
Monitoring Automatic Memory Management 16-21
DBCA and Automatic Memory Management 16-23
ble
Quiz 16-24 fe r a
DB Smart Flash Cache Overview 16-25 ans
n - t r
Using DB Smart Flash Cache 16-26 o
DB Smart Flash Cache Architecture Overview 16-27
s an
Configuring DB Smart Flash Cache 16-28
r ) ha deฺ
Sizing DB Smart Flash Cache 16-30
m ฺa Gui
ฺ co ent
Specifying DB Smart Flash Cache for a Table 16-31
n
Statistic Preferences: Overview 16-32
@ ao Stud
i l le this
Using New Statistic Preferences Features 16-33
z
c e loฺ use
Setting Global Preferences with Enterprise Manager 16-34
a r to
Partitioned Tables and Incremental Statistics: Overview 16-35
m e
i l l e ( icens
Hash-Based Sampling for Column Statistics 16-37

e oZ l
Multicolumn Statistics: Overview 16-39
l
Marc Expression Statistics: Overview 16-41
Deferred Statistics Publishing: Overview 16-42
Deferred Statistics Publishing: Example 16-44
Quiz 16-45
Locking Enhancements 16-46
Identify Foreground and Background Process Events 16-47
Summary 16-48
Practice 16: Overview 16-49

17 Application Performance Enhancements


Objectives 17-2
Online Redefinition Enhancements 17-3
Fine-Grained Dependency Management 17-4
Minimizing Dependent Recompilations 17-5
More Precise Dependency Metadata 17-6
Managing Dependencies 17-7

xv
Usage Guidelines to Reduce Invalidation 17-9
Invisible Index: Overview 17-10
Invisible Indexes: Examples 17-11
Adaptive Cursor Sharing: Overview 17-12
Adaptive Cursor Sharing: Architecture 17-13
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Adaptive Cursor Sharing Views 17-15


Interacting with Adaptive Cursor Sharing 17-16
SQL Query Result Cache: Overview 17-17
Setting Up SQL Query Result Cache 17-18
Managing the SQL Query Result Cache 17-19
Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint 17-20
In-Line View: Example 17-21 ble
Using Table Annotation to Control Result Caching 17-22 fe r a
Using the DBMS_RESULT_CACHE Package 17-23 ans
n - t r
Viewing SQL Result Cache Dictionary Information 17-24
SQL Query Result Cache: Considerations 17-25 a no
h a s ฺ
Quiz 17-27
OCI Client Query Cache 17-28 ฺ a r) uide
Using Client-Side Query Cache 17-29 ฺ c om ent G
PL/SQL Function Cache 17-30 a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
Using PL/SQL Function Cache 17-31
l o
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PL/SQL Function Cache: Considerations 17-32
a
PL/SQL and Java Native Compilation Enhancements 17-33
(m ense
l e
Setting Up and Testing PL/SQL Native Compilation 17-34
i l
oZ lic
Recompiling the Entire Database for PL/SQL Native Compilation
l 17-35
e
Marc Summary 17-37
Practice 17: Overview 17-38

18 Backup and Recovery Enhancements


Objectives 18-2
Using New SET NEWNAME Clauses 18-3
Substitution Variables for SET NEWNAME 18-4
Using SET NEWNAME FOR DATABASE 18-5
Using SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE 18-6
Performance Enhancements 18-7
Improved Block Corruption Detection 18-8
Using New Settings for Binary Compression 18-9
Using New Compression Algorithm Settings 18-10
Optimized Backups 18-11

xvi
Parallel Backup and Restore for Very Large Files 18-13
Using RMAN Multisection Backups 18-14
Quiz 18-15
Duplicating a Database 18-16
Performing Active Database Duplication 18-17
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The RMAN DUPLICATE Command 18-18


Creating a Standby Database with the DUPLICATE Command 18-19
Enhancements to Database Duplication 18-20
Targetless DUPLICATE 18-21
Using Targetless DUPLICATE 18-22
Using New DUPLICATE Command Options 18-23
DUPLICATE … [SKIP] TABLESPACE Enhancements 18-24 ble
fe r a
Using RMAN to Create Archival Backups 18-25
ans
Managing Archival Database Backups 18-26
n - t r
o
an
Creating Archival Backups 18-27
Easier Recovery from Loss of Server Parameter File 18-28s
ha deฺ
TSPITR Enhancements and Modifications 18-29 r )
ฺa Gui
m
Identifying Relationships that Span Recovery Set Boundaries 18-30
co ent
n ฺ
Using Image Copies for Faster TSPITR Performance 18-31
Quiz 18-32 @ ao Stud
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Managing Recovery Catalogs 18-33l le this
c e loฺ use
The IMPORT CATALOG Command 18-35
a r to
m e
Creating and Using Virtual Private Catalogs 18-37
i l l e ( icens
Using RMAN Virtual Private Catalogs 18-38
e loZ
Quiz 18-40
l
Marc Summary 18-41
Practice 18: Overview Using RMAN Enhancements 18-42

19 Flashback Technology, LogMiner, and Data Pump Enhancements


Objectives 19-2
Flashback Data Archive: Overview 19-3
Flashback Data Archive: Architecture 19-5
Preparing Your Database 19-6
Flashback Data Archive: Workflow 19-10
Using Flashback Data Archive 19-11
Configuring a Default Flashback Data Archive 19-12
Filling the Flashback Data Archive Space 19-13
Maintaining Flashback Data Archives 19-14
Flashback Data Archive: Examples 19-15
Flashback Data Archive: DDL Restrictions 19-16

xvii
Flashback Data Archive: Supporting Transparent Schema Evolution 19-17
Flashback Data Archive: Supporting Full Schema Evolution 19-18
Viewing Flashback Data Archives 19-19
Guidelines and Usage Tips 19-20
Quiz 19-21
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Flashback Transaction Backout 19-22


Prerequisites 19-23
Flashing Back a Transaction 19-24
Using the Flashback Transaction Wizard 19-25
Using the DBMS_FLASHBACK.TRANSACTION_BACKOUT Procedure 19-26
Viewing a Dependency Report 19-27
Viewing Flashback Transaction Metadata 19-28 ble
Quiz 19-29 fe r a
Flashback Database Enhancements 19-30 ans
n - t r
Using LogMiner 19-31 o
Review: Data Pump Export and Import 19-32
s an
Migration with Data Pump Legacy Mode 19-33
r ) ha deฺ
Data Pump Legacy Mode 19-34 m ฺa Gui
Managing File Locations 19-36 n ฺ co ent
Quiz 19-37
@ ao Stud
Summary 19-38
z i l le this
c e loฺ use
Practice 19: Overview Using Flashback Technology 19-39
a r to
m e
i l l
20 Data Recovery e ( Advisor
c e ns
o Z 20-2li
Objectives
l
rceRepairing Data Failures 20-3
Ma Data Recovery Advisor 20-4
Assessing Data Failures 20-7
Data Failures 20-8
Data Failure: Examples 20-9
Data Recovery Advisor RMAN Command-Line Interface 20-10
Listing Data Failures 20-11
Advising on Repair 20-13
Executing Repairs 20-14
Classifying (and Closing) Failures 20-15
Quiz 20-16
Data Recovery Advisor Views 20-17
Best Practice: Proactive Checks 20-18
Setting Parameters to Detect Corruption 20-19
Summary 20-21
Practice 20: Overview Repairing Failures 20-22

xviii
Appendix A: Practices and Solutions

Appendix B: Scheduler Enhancements


Objectives B-2
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Lightweight Jobs B-3


Choosing the Right Job B-4
Scheduler Email Notification: Overview B-5
Using Scheduler Email Notification B-6
Setting the email_server Attribute B-7
Setting the email_sender Attribute B-8
Using ADD_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION B-9 ble
Using REMOVE_JOB_EMAIL_NOTIFICATION B-11 fe r a
ans
Email Notification: New Dictionary Views B-12
n - t r
Scheduler File Watcher: Overview B-13
a no
Creating a File Watcher and an Event-Based Job B-14
h a s ฺ
Step 1: Creating a Scheduler Credential Object B-15
ฺ a r) uide
Step 2: Creating a File Watcher B-16
ฺ c om ent G
on tud
Using DBMS_SCHEDULER.CREATE_FILE_WATCHER B-17
a
l l e@ is S
Step 3: Creating a Scheduler Program Object B-18
i
ฺz se th
Using the SCHEDULER_FILEWATCHER_RESULT Object Type B-20
l o
a rce to u
Using the SCHEDULER_FILEWATCHER_REQUEST Object Type B-21

l e n se Job that References the File Watcher B-22


(man eEvent-Based
Step 4: Creating
Z l
Step 5: iEnabling ithe
l c Objects B-23
l o
Enabling File Arrival Events from Remote Systems B-24
rce
Ma Using DBMS_SCHEDULER.DROP_FILE_WATCHER B-25
File Watcher: Changes to Existing DBMS_SCHEDULER Procedures B-26
File Watcher: Changes to Existing Attributes B-27
File Watcher: New Dictionary Views B-28
File Watcher: New Columns in Existing Views B-29
Scheduler Remote Database Jobs: Overview B-30
Using CREATE_DATABASE_DESTINATION B-31
Using DROP_DATABASE_DESTINATION B-32
Creating Remote Database Jobs: Configuration B-33
Setting Up the Database for Remote Jobs B-34
Creating Remote Database Jobs B-35
Scheduler Multiple Destination Jobs: Overview B-36
Scheduler Multiple Destination Jobs: Terminology B-37
Scheduler Multiple Destination Job States B-38
Creating Multiple Destination Jobs B-39

xix
Using Destination Groups for Multiple Destination Jobs B-40
Using CREATE_GROUP B-41
Using ADD_GROUP_MEMBER B-42
Using DROP_GROUP B-43
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Using REMOVE_GROUP_MEMBER B-44


Modifications to Existing DBMS_SCHEDULER Procedures B-45
Multiple Destination Jobs: New Dictionary Views B-46
Multiple Destination Jobs: New Columns in Existing Dictionary Views B-47
Summary B-48

Appendix C: Oracle Secure Backup Cloud Module


Objectives C-2 ble
fe r a
Oracle Database Backup in the Cloud C-3 s
Introducing Oracle Secure Backup Cloud Module C-4
- t r an
Advantages of Backing Up to the Cloud C-5 o n
What Is Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)? C-6 s an
r
Installing the Oracle Secure Backup Cloud Module C-7) ha deฺ
Summary C-8 m ฺa Gui
n ฺ co ent
@ ao Stud
z i l le this
c e loฺ use
a r to
m e
i l l e ( icens
e loZ l
Marc

xx
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Introduction

ble
fe r a
ans
n - t r
o
s an
r ) ha deฺ
m ฺa Gui
n ฺ co ent
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loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc
Overview
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• This course focuses on those features of Oracle


Database 11g that are applicable to database
administration.
• Previous experience with Oracle databases
(particularly Oracle Database 10g) is required for a
full understanding of many of the new features.
a b le
• Hands-on practices emphasize functionality rather s f er
than test knowledge. - t r an
n no
a
s ฺ
h a
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Overview Zi
l lic
l o
rcecourse is designed to introduce you to the new features of Oracle Database 11g that are
This
a
M applicable to the work usually performed by database administrators and related personnel. The
course does not attempt to provide every detail about a feature or cover aspects of a feature that
were available in previous releases (except when defining the context for a new feature or
comparing past behavior with current behavior). Consequently, the course is most useful to you
if you have administered other versions of Oracle databases, particularly Oracle Database 10g.
Even with this background, you should not expect to be able to implement all of the features
discussed in the course without supplemental reading, especially the Oracle Database 11g
documentation.
The course consists of instructor-led lessons and demonstrations, plus many hands-on practices
that enable you to see for yourself how certain new features behave. As with the course content
in general, these practices are designed to introduce you to the fundamental aspects of a feature.
They are not intended to test your knowledge of unfamiliar syntax or to provide an opportunity
for you to examine every nuance of a new feature. The length of this course precludes such
activity. Consequently, you are strongly encouraged to use the provided scripts to complete the
practices rather than struggle with unfamiliar syntax.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 2


Oracle Database Innovation
Audit Vault
Database Vault
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Secure Enterprise Search


Grid Computing
Automatic Storage Mgmt
Self Managing Database
XML Database
Oracle Data Guard
Real Application Clusters
Flashback Query
Virtual Private Database ble
Built-in Java VM fe r a
Partitioning Support
ans
Built-in Messaging
n - t r
Object Relational Support
Multimedia Support
a no
Data Warehousing Optimizations
h a s ฺ
Parallel Operations
Distributed SQL & Transaction Support
ฺ a r) uide
om G with
Cluster and MPP Support
Multi-version Read Consistency
ฺ …
c continuing
n t
Client/Server Support
Platform Portability
a on tuOracle de Database 11g
Commercial SQL Implementation

l l e@ is S
l o ฺzi se th
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Oracle Database
l
Zi Innovationlic
l o
As
a rcaeresult of its early focus on innovation, Oracle has maintained the lead in the industry with a
M large number of trend-setting products. Continued emphasis on Oracle’s key development areas
has led to a number of industry firsts—from the first commercial relational database, to the first
portable tool set and UNIX-based client/server applications, to the first multimedia database
architecture.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 3


Enterprise Grid Computing
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bl e
Managing fe r a
SMP RAC
dominance clusters
Grids of
changet r a ns
low-cost
o n
across
- the
for hardware and n
availability storagehas
a enterprise
r ) d e ฺ
ฺa Gu i
c o m n t
n ฺ e
@ ao Stud
z i l le this

loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
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l e (m ense
l
i Computing
EnterpriseZGrid lic
l o
rce Database 10g was the first database designed for grid computing. Oracle Database 11g
Oracle
a
M consolidates and extends Oracle’s unique ability to deliver the benefits of grid computing. Oracle
Infrastructure grids fundamentally changed the way data centers look and operate, transforming
data centers from silos of isolated system resources to shared pools of servers and storage.
Oracle’s unique grid architecture enables all types of applications to scale out server and storage
capacity on demand. By clustering low-cost commodity server and storage modules on
Infrastructure grids, Oracle Database 11g enables customers to improve their user service levels,
reduce their down time, and make more efficient use of their IT resources while still increasing
the performance, scalability, and security of their business applications.
Oracle Database 11g furthers the adoption of grid computing by offering:
• Unique scale-out technology with a single database image
• Lower server and storage costs
• Increased availability and scalability

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 4


Oracle Database 11g: Focus Areas
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• Manageability
• Availability
• Performance
• Business intelligence and data warehousing
• Security e
r a bl
s fe
- t r an
n no
a
s ฺ
h a
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Oracle Database
l
Zi 11g: licFocus Areas
l o
rceOracle Infrastructure grid technology enables information technology systems to be built out
The
a
M of pools of low-cost servers and storage that deliver the highest quality of service in terms of
manageability, high availability, and performance. With Oracle Database 11g, the existing grid
capabilities are extended in the areas listed in the slide, thereby making your databases more
manageable.
Manageability: New manageability features and enhancements increase DBA productivity,
reduce costs, minimize errors, and maximize quality of service through change management,
additional management automation, and fault diagnosis.
Availability: New high-availability features further reduce the risk of down time and data loss,
including further disaster recovery offerings, important high-availability enhancements to
Automatic Storage Management, support for online database patching, improved online
operations, and more.
Performance: Many innovative new performance capabilities are available, including
SecureFiles, compression for OLTP, Real Application Clusters optimizations, SQL Query Result
Cache, TimesTen enhancements, and more.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 5


Oracle Database 11g: Focus Areas
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• Information management
– Content management
– XML
– Oracle Text
– Spatial
– Multimedia and medical imaging ble
fe r a
• Application development ans
n - t r
– PL/SQL
a no
– .NET
h a s ฺ
– PHP ฺ a r) uide
– SQL Developer ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
l
Zi 11g:
Oracle Database licFocus Areas (continued)
l o
rceOracle Infrastructure grid provides the additional functionality required to manage all the
The
a
M information in the enterprise with robust security, information life-cycle management, and
integrated business intelligence analytics to support fast and accurate business decisions at the
lowest cost.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 6


Management Automation
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Auto-tuning

Advisory

ble
Instrumentation fe r a
ans
n - t r
a no

Recovery

Replication
RAC
Memory

Schema
Apps/SQL
Backup
Storage

h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Management
l
Zi Automation
lic
l o
rce Database 11g continues the effort begun in Oracle9i Database and carried on through
Oracle
a
M Oracle Database 10g to dramatically simplify and ultimately, fully automate the tasks that DBAs
must perform. What is new in Oracle Database 11g is Automatic SQL Tuning with self-learning
capabilities. Other new capabilities include automatic, unified tuning of both SGA and PGA
memory buffers, and new advisors for partitioning, database repair, streams performance, and
space management. Enhancements to Oracle Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM)
give it a better global view of performance in Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)
environments and improved comparative performance analysis capabilities.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 7


Self-Managing Database: The Next Generation
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Manage performance and resources


Manage
change
ble
Manage fault
fe r a
ans
n - t r
o
s an
r ) ha deฺ
m ฺa Gui
n ฺ co ent
@ ao Stud
z i l le this

loCopyright e
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r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
Self-Managing
l
Zi Database:
lic The Next Generation
l o
a rce
Self-management is an ongoing goal for Oracle Database.
M Oracle Database 10g marked the beginning of a major effort to make the database easy to use.
With Oracle Database 10g, the focus for self-managing was on performance and resources.
Oracle Database 11g adds two important axes to the overall self-management goal: change
management and fault management.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 8


Suggested Additional Courses
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Foundation


Administration
• Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Foundation Overview
Seminar
• Oracle Database 11g: Data Guard Administration
• Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Data a b le
Guard Seminar s f er
- t r an
• on
Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Streams
n
Seminar a
as ) h deฺ
r
ฺa Gui
co entm
n ฺ
@ ao Stud
z i l le this

loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
i l
SuggestedZAdditional lic Courses
l o
e information about the key grid computing technologies used by the Oracle products,
rcmore
For
a
M you can obtain additional training from Oracle University.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 9


Further Information
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

For more information about topics that are not covered in


this course, refer to the following:
• Oracle Database 11g: New Features Overview Seminar
• Oracle Database 11g: Change Management Seminar
• Oracle Database 11g: New Features eStudies
– http://www.oracle.com/education/library
a b le
– A comprehensive series of self-paced online courses
s f er
covering all new features in detail ran -t
• non
Oracle By Example series: Oracle Database 11g
a
a s
– http://www.oracle.com/technology/obe/demos/admin/dem
h deฺ
os.html r )
ฺa Gui
o m
– http://www.oracle.com/technology/obe/start/index.html
t
ฺc den
• aon
Oracle OpenWorld events
@ S tu
z ill e t hi s
– http://www.oracle.com/openworld/index.html
ฺ e
r c eloCopyright
o u©s2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 10


Suggested Schedule

Topic Lessons Days


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Installation I, 1 - 3 1

Manage Storage 4-7 2

Manage Security 8 3

Manage Change 9 - 11 3 ble


fe r a
ns
Manage Performance and Resources 12 - 17 -tra5
3, 4 and
on
n
a 5
Manage Availability 18 - 20as
r ) h deฺ
m ฺa Gui
n ฺ co ent
@ ao Stud
z i l le this

loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
i l
SuggestedZSchedule lic
l o
rcelessons in this guide are arranged in the order in which you will probably study them in the
The
a
M class. The lessons are grouped into topic areas, but they are also organized by other criteria,
including the following:
• A feature is introduced in an early lesson and then referenced in later lessons.
• Topics alternate between difficult and easy to facilitate learning.
• Lessons are supplemented with hands-on practices throughout the course to provide regular
opportunities for you to explore what you are learning.
If your instructor teaches the class in the sequence in which the lessons are printed in this guide,
the class should run approximately as shown in the schedule. Your instructor, however, may vary
the sequence of the lessons for a number of reasons, including:
• Customizing material for a specific audience
• Covering a topic in a single day instead of splitting the material across two days
• Maximizing the use of course resources (such as hardware and software)

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators I - 11


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Marc
le
oZ
i l l l
m a r c e
e ( icens
e
z i
to
l @
loฺ use
n
le this

m
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s
ฺa Gui
ha deฺ
an
on - t r an
s
fe r a bl
e
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Oracle Grid Infrastructure

ble
fe r a
ans
n - t r
o
s an
r ) ha deฺ
m ฺa Gui
n ฺ co ent
@ ao Stud
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loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc
Objectives
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

After completing this lesson, you should be able to:


• Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a stand-alone
server and create an ASM disk group
• Use the ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) to
create an ASM disk group
• Create and manage ASM Dynamic Volumes
a b le
• Create and manage an ASM Cluster File System nsfe
r
-tra
n o n
s a
) a
h deฺ
r
ฺa Gui
co entm
n ฺ
@ ao Stud
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loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 2


11.2

Oracle Grid Infrastructure

• Standardized infrastructure
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Applications
software
• Eliminates need for third- Middleware
party solutions
• Includes:
Database
– Automatic Storage
Management (ASM) EM
Oracle Grid Infrastructure ble
– ASM Cluster File System
fe r a
(ACFS)
ans
– ACFS Snapshots
n - t r
– Oracle Clusterware
a no
– Oracle Restart h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Oracle Grid
i l lic
ZInfrastructure
l o
e Grid Infrastructure includes: Automatic Storage Management (ASM), ASM
The
a rcOracle
MCluster File System (ACFS), ACFS Snapshots, Oracle Clusterware, and Oracle Restart. These
components are installed into the Grid Infrastructure home using the Oracle Universal
Installation (OUI) tool.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 3


11.2

Automatic Storage Management


Technology Stack
Previous Releases Oracle Database 11g
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of ASM Release 2 ASM

Application Application
Application 3rd Party
Database Database ACFS FS
Database
ASM ble
ASM/ADVM fe r a
ASM
t r a ns
Operating System
Operating Systemo n -
s an
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loCopyright e
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a t
l e (m ense
Automatic Z i l
Storage ic
lManagement Technology Stack
e l o
The
a rcgraphics in the slide illustrate the software stack for previous versions of ASM and ASM
M in Oracle Database 11g Release 2. “Previous Releases of ASM” refers to Oracle Database 10g
and Oracle Database 11g Release 1. Previously, ASM sat on top of the operating system,
which provided the drivers to access the storage devices. The database sits on top of ASM, and
applications on top of the database.
In the Oracle 11g Release 2 Automatic Storage Management stack, ASM still sits on the
operating system (OS) level and includes the ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM). At
the same level as the database there is the ASM Cluster File System (ACFS), and the
possibility of third-party file systems built on ASM.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 4


11.2

Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database


Installation: System Requirements
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• Memory requirements:
– 1 GB for the database instance with Database Control
– 1.5 GB for the ASM instance and Oracle Restart
• Disk space requirements:
– 3 GB of swap space (based on 2GB RAM)
– 1 GB of disk space in the /tmp directory le
a b
– Between 1.5 GB and 3.8 GB for the Oracle software
s f er
– 1.7 GB for the preconfigured database (optional)-tra
n
– 2.4 GB for the fast recovery area (optional) n on
a s ฺ
) ha
• Operating system (see documentation)
ฺ a r ide
u
ฺ c om ent G
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l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
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a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Oracle Grid i l lic and Oracle Database Installation: System
ZInfrastructure
l o
rce
Requirements
a
MA standard database installation can be completed on a computer with 1 GB of RAM and 1.5
GB of swap space or larger. A standard Oracle Grid Infrastructure for stand-alone server
installation requires a minimum of 1.5GB RAM.
Note: Oracle Restart enables Oracle components to be automatically restarted after a hardware
or software failure, or whenever your database host computer restarts. Additional information
on Oracle Restart is provided later in this lesson and in the lesson titled "Oracle Restart."
The amount of swap space required is dependent on the amount of RAM. Please see the
OS-specific installation guide for more details.
Depending on the activity level of the machine on which you are installing the Oracle
Database software, the standard installation can complete in 20 minutes or less.
Some installation details:
• Oracle Database 11g ships two seed database templates.
• Duplicated files are removed.
• Many other products and demonstrations are installable from additional CDs.
The hardware requirements listed in the slide are minimal requirements across all platforms.
Your installation may have additional requirements (especially disk space).
Note: An Enterprise Edition installation type that includes a standard seed database is referred
to as a “standard installation.”
Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 5
11.2

Preparing the Operating System

Create the required operating system groups and users:


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• Groups:
– oinstall
– dba
– Optional groups (for separation of duty across
multiple users):
— oper ble
fe r a
— asmdba
ans
— asmoper
n - t r
— asmadmin
a no
• Users: h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
– Software owner, usually oracle
ฺ c om ent G
– Can create multiple users a on fortumultipled product
installations lle @ is S
ฺ z i t h
e loCopyright
u e
s2009,
a r c t o © Oracle. All rights reserved.

l e (m ense
Preparing Zi l lic
e l o the Operating System
arc are steps that need to be performed by the systems administrator for the hardware you
There
Mare using for your Oracle installation. Refer to your operating system-specific installation
documentation for detailed information on the operating system configuration details and
commands.
One of the required steps is to create the necessary operating system groups and users. The two
required operating system groups are: oinstall and dba. If you are implementing separation
of duty across multiple user accounts, other groups that should be created are: oper, asmdba,
asmoper, and asmadmin. You need at least one operating system user to act as the owner of
your Oracle installation. In most cases the oracle user is configured for this purpose. If you
want to have a true separation of duty then you can have separate owners for each of your
Oracle products.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 6


Setting Environment Variables

Oracle environment variables:


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• ORACLE_BASE: Base of the Oracle directory structure.


Recommendation is to set this before installation.
• ORACLE_HOME: The environment in which Oracle
products run. Not required before installation if
ORACLE_BASE is set.
• ORACLE_SID: Not required before installation, but
a b le
useful after for ease of interaction with a particular sfer
instance. - t r an
n o n
• NLS_LANG: Optional environment variable a that controls
a s
r) h set
language, territory, and client character eฺ settings
ฺa Guid
co entm
n ฺ
@ ao Stud
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loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
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Zi l
Setting Environment licVariables
l o
rceare many Oracle environment variables involved in each Oracle environment. Those
There
a
Mmentioned here are important to the successful installation and use of an Oracle database.
None of these are required to be set, but you can avoid future problems by setting them.
• ORACLE_BASE: Specifies the base of the Oracle directory structure for Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) that is recommended by Oracle Support. Use is optional; if used, it
can facilitate future installations and upgrades. Set this to a directory path, as shown in the
following example:
/u01/app/oracle
• ORACLE_HOME: The environment in which Oracle products run. It is not required before
installation if ORACLE_BASE is set. The OUI can use the ORACLE_BASE setting to
determine the recommended ORACLE_HOME for your installation. Having this
environment variable makes maintenance and management of Oracle software easier. Set
to a directory path, as shown in the following example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
• ORACLE_SID: The system identifier for an Oracle instance, such as orcl for a database
or +ASM for an ASM instance. It is not required before installation, but is useful for ease
of interaction with a particular instance.
• NLS_LANG: Optional environment variable that controls language, territory, and client
character set settings as in the following example:
AMERICAN_DENMARK.WE8MSWIN1252
For more information about valid languages, territories, character sets, and language
support, see the Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide.
Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 7
11.2
update
Checking the System Requirements
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• Adequate temporary space


• 64-bit versus 32-bit issues
• Correct operating system (OS)
• OS patch level
• System packages
• System and kernel parameters bl e
fe r a
• X Server permissions ans
n - t r
• Sufficient swapping
a no
• ORACLE_HOME status h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Checking the
l
Zi System licRequirements
l o
e Universal Installer automates most of the prerequisite checks to verify the
The
a rcOracle
M following:
• Minimum temporary space requirements for installation and configuration are checked.
Those requirements are validated during the installation process.
• 64-bit installations are prevented from being installed into Oracle homes with 32-bit
software already installed (and vice versa).
• Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g and Oracle Database 11g is certified against several
versions of the Linux platform, as well as other platforms.
• All required OS patches are installed.
• All required system and kernel parameters are set correctly.
• The DISPLAY environment variable is set and the user has sufficient permissions to
display to the specified DISPLAY.
• The system has a sufficient swapping set.
• The Oracle home for the new installation either is empty or is one of a handful of
supported releases on top of which Oracle Database 11g can be installed. The installation
process also verifies that those releases are registered in the Oracle inventory.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 8


11.2

Defining Ownership of OS Devices for ASM


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• The operating system devices that are being used for


ASM disks need to be owned by the Grid Infrastructure
user and the OSASM group.
• For Oracle ASMLib drivers:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
..
a b le
Default user to own the driver interface []: grid
s f er
n
Default group to own the driver interface []: asmadmin
.. -tra on
a n
a
h deฺs
r
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@ ao Stud
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loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
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l e (m ense
Zi l
DefiningoOwnership c OS Devices for ASM
liof
e l
The
a rcoperating system devices that are being used for ASM disks need to be owned by the Grid
MInfrastructure user and the OSASM group. The suggested name for the account is grid, and
the suggested name for the group is asmadmin.
Most installations will probably use oracle:oinstall as the user:group owners for
all Oracle software. In this case, the ownership of the ASM disks will be
oracle:oinstall. Note that the owner of the Grid Infrastructure software must be the
owner of the ASM disks.
Note: In previous versions of Oracle ASM, the account and group was defined to be oracle
and dba respectively. With separation of job roles and ASM being moved to the Grid
Infrastructure home instead of the original Oracle Database home directory, the values have
now changed.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 9


11.2

Installation Scenario
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The installation scenario being presented in this course is


divided into two parts:
• Part One: Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for stand-
alone server (Lesson 1)
• Part Two: Install Oracle Database software (Lesson 2)
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i
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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Installation i l
ZScenario lic
l o
As
a ce of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, the steps to configure the ASM disk
rpart
M groups are shown and Oracle Restart is configured. The Oracle Grid Infrastructure is installed
first so that the database created after the Oracle Database software installation will be able to
use the ASM disk groups and be automatically registered with Oracle Restart.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 10


11.2

Part One: Installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure


for Stand-Alone Server
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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Part One: Zi l
Installing c Oracle Grid Infrastructure for Stand-Alone Server
lithe
l o
To
a ce the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software by using OUI, log on to your computer as a
rinstall
Mmember of the administrative group that is authorized to install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
software, and create and manage the database. Insert the distribution CD for the clusterware
into your CD drive, or navigate to the Oracle clusterware staging location. From that location,
enter ./runInstaller to start the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI). The Select Installation
Option page is displayed. Select the “Install and Configure Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server” option and click Next.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 11


11.2

Selecting Product Languages


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ans
n - t r
a no
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Zi l
SelectingoProduct lic
Languages
l
e Product Languages” page is displayed. To add a language to the installation, click
The
a rc“Select
M the language to highlight it and then use the right-arrow button to move it the “Selected
Languages” list. Multiple languages can be selected by pressing and holding the Ctrl key while
selecting them with the mouse. Click the Next button to proceed with the installation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 12


11.2

Creating an ASM Disk Group


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l e (m ense
CreatingoanZASM
l
i Disk lic Group
l
e ASM Disk Group” page is displayed. The Oracle Grid Infrastructure includes
The
a rc“Create
M support for ASM and Oracle Restart. The OUI will not proceed unless an ASM disk group is
created. Enter the name of the first ASM disk group to be created in the “Disk Group Name”
field. If the “Add Disks” section is not populated with candidate disks, then click the “Change
Discovery Path” button, and enter the disk discovery path to the ASM disks.
Oracle recommends that you create two disk groups for most environments. The OUI is only
capable of creating a single ASM disk group at this time. You may create the recommended
second ASM disk group after the installation using the ASM Configuration Assistant
(ASMCA) utility or the SQL*Plus utility. Click the Next button to proceed with the
installation.
Note: Devices appear in the list for the example due to ASMLib being configured. ASMLib is
only for Linux platforms. There is a default discovery path specific to each operating system.
If the default discovery path does not locate any devices, you can click the “Change Discovery
Path” button and define the actual path.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 13


11.2

Defining ASM Passwords


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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
DefiningoASM
l
Zi Passwords
lic
e l
The
a rc“Specify ASM Password” page is displayed. Passwords must be supplied for two
Maccounts: the SYS account and the ASMSNMP account. The option to use different passwords
for the accounts or the option to use the same password for the accounts is presented. The
ASM instance does not contain a data dictionary such as an Oracle database, so the only
authentication methods are operating system authentication and password file authentication.
The SYS account will be added to the password file (orapw+ASM on Linux) and granted the
SYSDBA, SYSOPER, and SYSASM privileges. The ASMSNMP account will be added to the
password file and granted only the SYSDBA privilege. After entering appropriate passwords,
click the Next button to proceed with the installation.
Note: The ASMSNMP user is created to provide monitoring of the ASM instance through
Enterprise Manager. ASMSNMP has limited access and capabilities.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 14


11.2

Defining Privileged Operating System Groups


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l e (m ense
Zi l
DefiningoPrivileged ic
lOperating System Groups
e l
The
a rc“Privileged Operating System Groups” page is displayed. The OUI utility provides
M suggested default values for the following groups if the current user is an operating system
member of the groups:
• ASM Database Administrator (OSDBA) Group: asmdba
• ASM Instance Operator (OSOPER) Group: asmoper
• ASM Instance Administrator (OSASM) Group: asmadmin
Because this installation is for a stand-alone server, it is common practice to use the same
operating system group for all three, such as dba (as shown in the slide). Click the Next button
to proceed with the installation. Click Yes in response to the warning that appears because you
use the same operating system group for OSDBA, OSOPER, and OSASM.
Note: Because the Oracle Database server logs in to the ASM instance with a SYSDBA
connection, the OSDBA group selected for the Grid Infrastructure installation needs to be the
same as the OSDBA group selected for the Database installation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 15


11.2

Specifying Installation Location


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a no
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Specifying i l
ZInstallationlic Location
e l o
The
a rc“Specify Installation Location” page is displayed. In the “Oracle Base” field, enter the
Mvalue of ORACLE_BASE for the software owner. The default value is /u01/app/grid, but
because this installation is not using a separate grid user, this value should be changed to
match the installation user. In the example, this user is oracle. In the “Software Location”
field, enter the value of the ORACLE_HOME for the Grid Infrastructure software. The default
value is /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid. Click the Next button to proceed
with the installation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 16


11.2

Creating Inventory
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ans
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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Zi l
CreatingoInventory lic
l
e Inventory directory does not exist on the host machine, the "Create Inventory"
rcOracle
Ifaan
M page is displayed. In the "Inventory Directory" field, enter the desired location for the
oraInventory directory. The recommended oraInventory directory should be one
level higher than the ORACLE_BASE directory. The directory is
/u01/app/oraInventory in the example.
Select the oraInventory group name from the selection list. The recommended name is
oinstall. Click the Next button to proceed with the installation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 17


11.2

Performing Prerequisite Checks


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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Performing i l
ZPrerequisitelic Checks
e l o
The
a rc“Performing Prerequisite Checks” page appears. No action is required on this page unless
M the checks fail with errors.
If errors do occur, they will need to be corrected before proceeding with the installation. If the
error is one that is not fixable, you must either fix the problem manually or choose to Ignore
All and continue on with the installation (if the failed check is not critical).
Note: Not all failures can be fixed by the runfixup.sh script generated by the OUI. In such
cases, manual intervention to correct the problem is required before you can reattempt the
installation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 18


11.2

Verifying Installation Summary Data


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l e (m ense
Zi l
VerifyingoInstallationlicSummary Data
e l
The
a rc“Summary” page is displayed. You are presented with the option to save the interactive
M installation questions and answers to a response file. A response file can be used in future
installations to perform a silent installation in the same manner in which this installation is
being performed. The response file is a text file and can also be edited with a text editing tool
to modify it for a different installation. Click the Finish button to proceed with the installation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 19


11.2

Monitoring Installation Progress


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l e (m ense
Monitoring i l lic Progress
ZInstallation
e l o
The
a rc“Setup” page shows the progress of the installation. This includes preparing for
M installation, copying files, linking libraries, and creating setup files. No action is required on
this page unless the installation fails with errors. If errors do occur, they will need to be
corrected before proceeding with the installation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 20


11.2

Executing root Configuration Scripts


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bl e
fe r a
ans
n - t r
a no
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Executing root
l
Zi Configuration
lic Scripts
e l o
The
a rc“Execute Configuration scripts” dialog box appears, indicating configuration scripts that
Mneed to be executed as the root user. The orainstRoot.sh script is executed to change
the permission of the Oracle Central Inventory directory by adding read and write permissions
for the group, along with removing the read, write, and execute permissions for world. The
root.sh script copies files to the /usr/local/bin directory, creates the
/etc/oratab file, creates OCR keys for the grid user, starts the ohasd daemon, and
modifies the /etc/inittab to automatically start the ohasd daemon when the machine is
started. After you execute the root scripts, click the OK button to return to the “Setup”
progress page and proceed with the installation.
Note: The ohasd daemon is the Oracle High Availability Services daemon. In an Oracle
Restart environment the ohasd daemon manages application resources.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 21


11.2

Executing Configuration Assistants


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ans
n - t r
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l e (m ense
Executing Zi l lic Assistants
Configuration
l o
e Net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) is invoked with a silent installation method
The
a rcOracle
M to create the network configuration files, followed by the Automatic Storage Management
Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) to create the ASM disk group and register ASM
components with Oracle Restart.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 22


11.2

Finishing the Installation


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Finishingothe
l
Zi Installation
lic
e l
The
a rc“Finish” page is displayed at the end of the installation. Click the Close button to exit the
M OUI utility.
Note: At this point Grid Infrastructure daemons are running, the ASM instance is started, a
single disk group is mounted, and the listener is running.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 23


11.2

Configuring the FRA Disk Group


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Configuring
l
Zithe FRAlicDisk Group
l o
rce you can configure only one disk group during the installation of Oracle Grid
Because
a
M Infrastructure, the creation of further disk groups must be done manually. In this scenario, the
FRA disk group is used for the fast recovery area of the database. The ASM Configuration
Assistant (ASMCA) utility provides an intuitive GUI interface allowing you to easily create
new or remove existing ASM disk groups.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 24


11.2

Oracle Local Registry

Oracle Clusterware 11g Release 2 includes an Oracle Local


Registry (OLR) on each node for node-specific resources.
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• Is installed and configured when Oracle Clusterware is


installed
• Is located at
Grid_home/cdata/localhost/$host_name.olr in
case of single-instance installations
a b le
• Allows multiple processes on each node simultaneous
s f er
read and write access to the local OLR of that node
- t r an
• Is managed with the –local option for the n on
OCRCHECK,
s a
OCRDUMP, and OCRCONFIG commands a
h follows:
as ฺ e
ฺa r) id
$ ocrcheck –local
$ ocrdump –local –stdout ฺc o m n t Gu
n e
ao tud
$ ocrconfig –local -manualbackup
@ is S
i l l e
l o ฺz se th
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Oracle Local
l
ZiRegistry lic
l o
rceClusterware 11g Release 2 includes an Oracle Local Registry (OLR) on each individual
Oracle
a
Mnode of a cluster or single-instance installation for storing node-specific resource information.
The OLR can be accessed by all processes on the same node for full simultaneous read and
write operation regardless of whether Oracle Clusterware is running or not. It cannot be
accessed by remote processes running on other nodes of the cluster.
The OLR location for single-instance installation is
Grid_home/cdata/localhost/$host_name.olr and is identified by the
/etc/oracle/olr.loc file. The OLR is installed and configured when Oracle
Clusterware is installed, and should require no additional user configuration upon installation.
The OLR is managed by adding the –local option to the OCRCHECK, OCRDUMP, and
OCRCONFIG commands as shown in the slide. You can define the backup location of the OLR
using the ocrconfig –local –backuploc file_name command.
The OLR is backed up at the end of an installation or an upgrade. After that time, you can only
manually back up the OLR. Automatic backups are not supported for the OLR.
You should create a new OLR backup each time you modify your Oracle Restart
configuration.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 25


Important Instructions
To restore the OLR, use the following commands as root:
crsctl stop crs
ocrconfig -local -restore file_name
ocrcheck –local
crsctl start crs
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i l l e ( icens
e l oZ l
M arc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 26


Quiz
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Before installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you must


implement user role separation.
1. True
2. False

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Answer:o 2 Zi
l lic
l
a rce
M

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 27


Practice 1-1: Overview
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In this practice, you install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure


for a stand-alone server.

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s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 28


11.2

ASM Files and Volumes

user
ASM
ASMInstance
Instance
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Kernel ASM
ASMCluster
ClusterFile
FileSystem
System(ACFS)
(ACFS)
OS ACFS Snapshots
ACFS Snapshots
Dynamic
DynamicVolume
VolumeManager
Manager
ASM Device File: /dev/asm/dgbvol1-123

ble
ASM Files Dynamic Volumes fe r a
ans
ASM n - t r
DB
DB
DB
files
DB
files
files
files a no
Disk DB
DB files
files a s ฺ
DB files h
Group
DBDB
DBDB
files
files
files
files
ACFSr)
ฺ a u ide3rd Party
DBDB
DBDB
files
files
files
DBfiles ฺ c om ent G FS
files
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
ASM Files
l
Zi Volumes
and lic
l o
e feature of Oracle Database has been extended in Oracle Grid 11g Release 2 to
The
a rcASM
Minclude support for a general purpose cluster file system, ASM Cluster File System (ACFS).
To understand the operation of this feature, some terminology needs to be defined and
explained.
At the OS user level, the ASM instance provides the disk group which is a logical container for
physical disk space. The disk group can hold ASM database files and ASM dynamic volume
files. The ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM) presents the volume device file to the
operating system as a block device. The mkfs utility can be used to create an ASM file system
in the volume device file. Once mounted, general purpose files may be created in the ACFS.
There are four OS kernel modules that are loaded in the OS, providing the data service. On
Linux they are: oracleasm, the ASM module; oracleadvm, the ASM Dynamic Volume
Manager module; oracleoks, the kernel services module; and oracleacfs, the ASM file system
module. These modules provide the ASM Cluster File System, ACFS snapshots, the ADVM,
and cluster services. The ASM volumes are presented to the OS as a device file at
/dev/asm/<volume name>-nnn, where nnn is the disk group number.
The volume device file appears as another ASM file to the ASM instance and ASMCMD
utility. But to the OS file system commands, the ASM layers are transparent. Only the general
purpose files and directories created in the ACFS and the ACFS snapshots are visible to the
OS file system commands.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 29


11.2

ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM) Concepts


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• ADVM provides volume management services and a


standard disk device interface to ACFS and other file
systems.
• Volume is created using an ASM management tool.
• Volume is a new ASM file type for ACFS.
• Volume needs to be enabled to generate an OS device. ble
• Devices reside at /dev/asm/<volume-name>. f e ra
s an
• File systems issue input/output (I/O) requests - t r
n onto
volume devices. s a
) a
h advolume
e ฺ
• ADVM driver maps I/O requests against r i
m ฺa Gu
device to the corresponding ฺ c ovolume n t file located within
n e
an ASM disk group. ao
@ S tud
z i l le this

loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
ASM Dynamic
l
Zi Volume lic Manager (ADVM) Concepts
l o
e Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM) is an enabler of ACFS. It provides volume
rcASM
The
a
Mmanagement services and a standard disk device driver interface that enables ACFS to utilize
the space allocated to an ASM dynamic volume inside an ASM disk group.
In Oracle Database 11g Release 2, a new file type for ASM dynamic volumes is introduced.
These volumes use the same striping and mirroring policies as other ASM file types, such as
archived logs and database data files. Like other ASM files, an ASM volume file must be
wholly contained within a disk group, and there can be many volume files in one disk group.
ASM dynamic volumes can be created using SQL or by means of the ASMCMD
command-line tool or the ASMCA graphical management tool. After a volume is created, it
needs to be enabled in order to generate an operating system device node under /dev/asm.
ACFS (or another file system such as NTFS) is created over the ASM volume device.
Finally, the ADVM driver maps I/O requests against an ASM volume device to the underlying
dynamic volume file contained inside an ASM disk group.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 30


11.2

ASM Dynamic Volume Striping

Disk Group (1MB AU size, Normal Redundancy )


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Disk A Disk B Disk C Disk D


Secondary (Failure Group 1) (Failure Group 2) (Failure Group 3) (Failure Group 4)
AU (Mirror)

Primary
AU

Data Stripe 1 2 3 4
(Default: 128KB) 5

Allocation
ble
Unit (AU)
... ... ... ...
fe r a
Volume Extent
(64MB)
Volume Extent 1 Volume Extent 2 Volume Extent 3 Volume Extent 4
an s
ASM Dynamic Volume (Default: 128KB stripe width, 4 stripe columns)
n - t r
a no
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
1
2
ACFS File
ฺ c om ent G 3
4 (640KB)

a on tud 5

l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
ASM Dynamic
l
Zi Volume lic Striping
e l o
The
a rcdiagram in this slide illustrates the relationship between an ASM Dynamic Volume and
Mthe ASM structures that underpin it. It also illustrates how files are striped using an ASM
Dynamic Volume.
A Dynamic Volume is essentially the same as an ASM file. It is made up of units of space
known as Allocation Units (AU). These are spread across the available disks in an ASM Disk
Group and may be mirrored for data protection purposes. Like any other ASM file, a Dynamic
Volume must be wholly contained with a single disk group.
Dynamic Volume extents and space allocation differs from regular ASM files. In a disk group
with an AU size of 1 MB, each volume extent is 64 MB in size. Volume extents are allocated
in groups based on the number of striping columns specified for the volume. The default
number of striping columns is 4. The volume extent size multiplied by the number of striping
columns determines the volume allocation unit (VAU) for the volume. The default VAU is
256 MB for a volume created in a disk group with a 1 MB AU. The overall size of a volume
must be a multiple of the VAU.
Volume striping is similar to fine grain ASM striping. The default stripe settings specify a
stripe size of 128 KB with four striping columns. In other words, data is written in turn across
four allocation units in 128 KB chucks until each group of four AUs is filled.
Setting the number of columns on an Oracle ADVM volume to 1 effectively turns off striping
for the ADVM volume.
Note: To add a volume to an ASM disk group, the COMPATIBLE.ASM and
COMPATIBLE.ADVM disk group attributes must be set to 11.2.
Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 31
11.2

ADVM Restrictions

• Partitioning of dynamic volumes (using fdisk or


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similar) is not supported.


• Do not use raw(8) to map ADVM volume block devices
into raw volume devices.
• Do not create multipath devices over ADVM devices.
• Do not create ASMLIB devices over ADVM devices.
a b le
• ADVM supports all ASM supported storage solutions s f er
except NFS and Exadata. - t r an
n on
• ADVM volumes cannot be used as a boot s adevice or a
a
root file system. r) h deฺ ฺa Gui
co entm
n ฺ
@ ao Stud
z i l le this

loCopyright e
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r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
Zi l
ADVM Restrictions lic
l o
rce ADVM provides a standard disk device interface for dynamic volumes, the
Although
a
Mfollowing restrictions should be noted:
• Device partitions are not supported on Oracle ADVM dynamic volumes. Dynamic
volumes supersede traditional device partitioning. Each volume is individually named and
may be configured for a single file system. Oracle ADVM volumes may be created on
demand from ASM disk group storage and dynamically resized as required. These
attributes make Oracle ADVM volumes far more flexible than physical devices and
associated partitioning schemes.
• On Linux platforms, Oracle ADVM volume devices are created as block devices
regardless of the configuration of the storage underpinning the ASM disk group. Do not
use raw (8) to map Oracle ADVM volume block devices into raw volume devices.
• You should not create multipath devices over Oracle ADVM volume devices.
Multipathing should be applied over the disk devices that are initially consumed by ASM
to construct the disk group underpinning an ADVM volume.
• You should not use ASMLIB over an ADVM volume device. You cannot layer ASM over
ASM in a recursive fashion because this serves no useful purpose and is not supported.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 32


11.2

Creating an ASM Dynamic Volume


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

ble
fe r a
ans
n - t r
o
s an
r ) ha deฺ
m ฺa Gui
n ฺ co ent
@ ao Stud
z i l le this

loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
i l lic
CreatingoanZASM Dynamic Volume
e l
rc the following steps to create an ASM dynamic volume:
Perform
Ma 1. On the Enterprise Manager home page, scroll down to the Instances section. Click the
name of one of the ASM instances.
2. On the Automatic Storage Management page, click the ASM Cluster File System tab.
3. On the ASM Cluster File System tab, click Create.
4. On the Create ASM Cluster File System page, click Create ASM Volume.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 33


11.2

Creating an ASM Dynamic Volume


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ble
fe r a
ans
n - t r
a no
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
i l
CreatingoanZASM Dynamic lic Volume (continued)
l
On
a rctheeCreate ASM Volume page, enter a volume name and size. In this example, a volume
M named testvol with a size of 1 GB is created.
If you click “Show SQL,” you see the following SQL command:
ALTER DISKGROUP DATA ADD VOLUME TESTVOL SIZE 1G;
Click OK to create the volume.
Optionally, you can specify a region of the physical disk in the disk group where the extents
should be placed. Optimal Disk Placement is discussed in detail in the ASM Enhancements
lesson.
The ASMCMD command to add a volume is:
ASMCMD> volcreate -d DATA -s 1G testvol
You can use the ASMCMD and SQL commands to view the volume information as shown
below:
ASMCMD> volinfo –a
SQL> SELECT * FROM v$asm_volume;

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 34


11.2

Managing ASM Dynamic Volumes


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

SQL> SELECT volume_name, volume_device, state, usage,


ble
2 mountpath, size_mb, redundancy
fe r a
3 FROM v$asm_volume;
ans
VOLUME_NAME VOLUME_DEVICE STATE USAGE
n - t r
no
--------------- ------------------------- -------- ------
MOUNTPATH SIZE_MB REDUND a
s ฺ
----------------------------------- ---------- ------
h a
ACFS_DB1 /dev/asm/acfs_db1-481 ENABLED ACFS
ฺ a r) uide
/u01/app/oracle/acfsmounts/acfs_db1 om ent G
6144 UNPROT
ฺ c
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Managing
l
Zi Dynamic
ASM lic Volumes
l o
rceare pages in Enterprise Manager that enable you to create, delete, and manage ASM
There
a
M volumes.
You can also query the V$ASM_VOLUME dynamic view to obtain information about the ASM
volumes.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 35


11.2

Using SQL to Manage


ASM Dynamic Volumes
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Add a volume:
SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP DGROUPA
ADD VOLUME asmvol1 SIZE 10G;

• Resize a volume:
SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP DGROUPA
RESIZE VOLUME asmvol1 SIZE 15G; ble
fe r a
• Drop a volume: ans
n - t r
SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP DGROUPA
a no
DROP VOLUME asmvol1;
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Using SQL
l
Ztoi Manage lic ASM Dynamic Volumes
l o
rceare new SQL commands that enable you to manage ASM volumes. Note that each
There
a
Mvolume is managed as a part of a disk group. You can create volumes, resize the volume, and
drop volumes as shown in the examples in the slide.
Note: When you create a volume named asmvol1 in the DGROUPA disk group (as shown in
the example in the slide), a device is created in /dev/asm named asmvol1-xxx, where
xxx is a number unique to the disk group.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 36


11.2

Using SQL to Manage


ASM Dynamic Volumes
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Enable a volume:
SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP DGROUPA
ENABLE VOLUME asmvol1;

• Disable a volume:
SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP ALL
DISABLE VOLUME ALL; ble
fe r a
• Modify a volume: ans
n - t r
o
SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP DGROUPA
an
as
MODIFY VOLUME asmvol1 USAGE 'acfs';
) h deฺ
r
ฺa Gui
co entm
n ฺ
@ ao Stud
z i l le this

loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
Using SQL
l
Ztoi Manage lic ASM Dynamic Volumes (continued)
l o
e enable and disable volume as shown in the slide. The MODIFY VOLUME clause
You
a rccan
Menables you to set the intelligent data placement option [HOT|COLD], the mount point, and the
usage name of the volume.
Intelligent data placement enables you to specify disk regions on Oracle ASM disks for best
performance and is discussed in detail in the lesson titled “ASM Enhancements.”

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 37


11.2

Extending ASMCMD for


ASM Dynamic Volumes
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

volcreate -G diskgroup -s size


[--column number] [--width stripe_width]
[--redundancy {high|mirror|unprotected}]
[--primary {hot|cold}]
[--secondary {hot|cold}] volume
volresize -G diskgroup -s size [-f] volume
voldelete -G diskgroup volume
volenable {-a|-G diskgroup -a|-G diskgroup volume}
a b le
voldisable {-a|-G diskgroup -a|-G diskgroup volume}
s f er
volset -G diskgroup [--usagestring string]
- t r an
[--mountpath mount_path]
n o n
[--primary {hot|cold}]
s a
[--secondary {hot|cold}] volume
) a
h deฺ
r
ฺa Guivolume}
volinfo {-a|-G diskgroup -a|-G diskgroup
m
ฺco nt
volinfo [--show_diskgroup|--show_volume] volumedevice
on tude
a
@ is S
i l l e
l o ฺz se th
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Extending Z i l
ASMCMDlic for ASM Dynamic Volumes
e l o
rccommands shown in the slide have been added to ASMCMD to allow the ASM volumes
The
Ma
to be managed from ASMCMD. The ASMCMD commands allow you to have the same level
of control through ASMCMD as you do through SQL*Plus commands or Enterprise Manager.
Refer to Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2) for detailed
information about each command and its options.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 38


11.2

ASM Cluster File System (ACFS)


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• General purpose scalable file system


– Journaling, extent based
– Single node and cluster
• Multi OS platform (Linux and Windows at initial release)
– POSIX, X/OPEN file system solution for UNIX/Linux
– Windows file system solution for Windows platforms ble
fe r a
• Accessible through NAS protocols (NFS, CIFS)
t r a ns
• Integrated with Oracle Clusterware for cluster
o n -
support
s
• Integrated with Oracle system management a ntools
a h eฺ
a r) uid
– Oracle installation and configuration

– Enterprise Manager and n ฺ
ASMcom n
storage
e t G
management tools
o d
– Native OS file system Stu
@amanagement
le this tools
ฺ z i l
e loCopyright u e
s2009,
a r c t o © Oracle. All rights reserved.

l e (m ense
ASM Cluster
l
ZiFile System
lic
l o
e Cluster File System (ACFS), extends Automatic Storage Management (ASM) by
rcASM
The
a
Mproviding a robust, general purpose, extent-based, and journaling file system. ACFS provides
support for files such as Oracle binaries, report files, trace files, alert logs, and other
application data files. With the addition of ACFS, ASM becomes a complete storage
management solution for both Oracle database and non-database files. ACFS scales from small
files to very large files (exabytes) and supports large numbers of nodes in a cluster. ACFS is an
extent-based file system to provide high performance and uses a log-based metadata
transaction engine for file system integrity and fast recovery. The ACFS on-disk structure
supports endian neutral metadata. ACFS systems can be exported to remote clients through
industry standard protocols such as network file system (NFS) and Common Internet File
Systems (CIFS).
ACFS eliminates the need for third-party cluster file system solutions while simplifying all
file-type management in a single node, as well as RAC and Grid computing environments.
ACFS supports dynamic file system expansion and contraction without any down time. ACFS
is highly available, making use of the ASM mirroring and striping features in addition to
hardware RAID functionality.
ACFS is integrated with the Oracle tools for easy installation and configuration. ACFS can be
managed with Enterpriser Manager, SQL*Plus, and ASMCMD. ACFS is integrated with
native OS file management tools, so the file system is transparent to users.
Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 39
11.2

ACFS Architecture

Oracle 3rd Party 3rd Party


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Database Application File System

ASM ASM Cluster


File System

Dynamic Volume Manager


ble
fe r a
ASM Instance
ans
n - t r
n o
Database &
ACFS
rd
3 Party a
s ฺ
Clusterware File h a
System
Files
Files
ฺ a r) Filesuide
Disk Group c
Dynamic
ฺ om Volume n t G
a on tude
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Zi l
ACFS Architecture lic
l o
rceextends the architecture of ASM. The ACFS architecture introduces a new ASM file
ACFS
a
Mtype, known as a dynamic volume. A dynamic volume is essentially an ASM file that can be
presented as a volume to a file system rather than as a data file to the Oracle database. The
ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM), and associated device driver provides the interface
between dynamic volumes and the ASM cluster file system. You can even run other file
systems, such as NT File System (NTFS) for example, over an ASM dynamic volume.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 40


11.2

Using Enterprise Manager to


Manage ACFS
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

ble
fe r a
ans
n - t r
a no
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
l
Zi Manager
Using Enterprise lic to Manage ACFS
l o
e use Enterprise Manager to create and manage an ASM Cluster File System.
You
a rccan
M

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 41


11.2

Linux/UNIX File System APIs


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Standard POSIX and X/OPEN file system APIs and


commands are used to manage ACFS.
• Administration commands used to manage the ACFS
file system include:
– mkfs
– fsck e
– r a bl
mount
s fe
– umount - t r an
n no
a
s ฺ
h a
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Linux/UNIX
l
i System
ZFile lic APIs
l o
e file system is integrated with the POSIX and X/OPEN file system APIs and
The
a rcACFS
M commands. This allows users and administrators to use ACFS transparently. Standard file
system access commands are transparently supported with ACFS.
Administration commands such as mkfs, fsck, mount, and umount are used to manage the
ACFS file system.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 42


11.2

Linux/UNIX Extensions
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Create an ACFS file system:


$ mkfs -t acfs /dev/asm/asmvol1-216

• Mount an ACFS file system:


$ mount -t acfs /dev/asm/asmvol1-216 \
/oracle/cluster1/myacfs ble
fe r a
• Unmount an ACFS file system: ans
n - t r
$ umount [-v]
a no
h a s ฺ
e
• Check and repair an ACFS filem ฺar) Guid
system:
n ฺ co ent
$ fsck -t acfs /dev/asm/asmvol1-216
@ ao Stud
z i l le this

loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
Linux/UNIX
i l
ZExtensionslic
e l o
The
a rcadministration commands have extensions to handle the differences between ACFS and
M other file systems. Most of these extensions use the familiar file system type and file system
specific option parameters just as other file systems do.
• Create an ACFS file system:
mkfs [-vf] -t acfs [-b blksz] [-n name ] device [blocks]
• Mount an ACFS file system:
mount [-v] -t acfs [-o options] device dir
• Unmount an ACFS file system:
umount [-v] device|dir
• Check and repair an ACFS file system:
fsck [-avnf] -t acfs [info] device
The example commands in the gray boxes show the most common usage. Each command is
typed on one line. The mount command example is shown with the backslash continuation
character to format the command for the slide.
Note: The examples assume that the volume that was created was named asmvol1-216,
where 216 is a number unique to the disk group.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 43


11.2

Windows File System APIs


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Windows file management APIs and commands are


integrated with the ACFS file system.
• Additional commands include:
– acfschkdsk
– acfsformat
– e
acfsmountvol
r a bl
– acfsdismount
s fe
- t r an
n no
a
s ฺ
h a
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
WindowsoFile
l
Zi System lic APIs
e l
The
a rcWindows file management APIs are integrated with the ACFS file system. A few
M administration commands have been added as shown in the slide.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 44


11.2

Windows Extensions
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Create an ACFS file system:


acfsformat [/vf] [/b blksz] [/n name] device [blocks]

• Mount an ACFS file system:


acfsmountvol [/all] [/v]
ble
fe r a
• Unmount an ACFS file system: ans
n - t r
acfsdismount [/v] [/p] [/P] path
a no
h a s ฺ
e
• Check and repair an ACFS filem ฺar) Guid
system:
n ฺ co ent
acfschkdsk [/a] [/v] [/n] ao[/f]Stu[info] d device
l @
le this
ฺ z i
e loCopyright u e
s2009,
a r c t o © Oracle. All rights reserved.

l e (m ense
Zi l
WindowsoExtensions lic
e l
a•rcCreate an ACFS file system:
M acfsformat [/vf] [/b blksz] [/n name] device [blocks]
• Mount an ACFS file system:
acfsmountvol [/all] [/v]
• Unmount an ACFS file system:
acfsdismount [/v] [/p] [/P] path
• Check and repair an ACFS file system:
acfschkdsk [/a] [/v] [/n] [/f] [info] device

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 45


11.2

ACFS Platform-Independent
Commands

Command Function
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

acfsutil info Display new ACFS file and file system features
(ACFS, snapshots, registry, size) and information.
acfsutil snapshot Create and display ACFS snapshots.

acfsutil registry Register an ACFS file system with the ACFS mount
registry.
bl e
acfsutil rmfs Remove an ACFS file system. fe r a
an s
acfsutil size Resize an ACFS file system. n - t r
a no
acfsutil tune View or modify ACFS tuneables.
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Zi l lic
ACFS Platform-Independent Commands
e l o
rcACFS commands for Linux/UNIX and Windows that are not natively supported are listed
New
Main the slide.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 46


11.2

ASM Cluster File System


Limitations
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ACFS:
• Cannot be used for root file system or bootable
partition
• Cannot be used for the Grid Infrastructure home
directory
ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM)
a b le
• Presents a block device called a volume to the OS nsfe
r
• Uses a device driver n - tra
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ASM Cluster
l
ZiFile System
lic Limitations
l o
e volume is constructed from an ASM file. One or more ADVM volumes may be
An
a rcADVM
Mconfigured within each ASM disk group. The ADVM Driver maps I/O requests against an
ADVM volume to blocks in a corresponding ASM file and disk set located within an ASM
disk group. An ADVM volume device exports ASM volume manager features and ensures
that volume mirrors remain consistent in the face of abnormal system shutdowns, ASM
instance failures, or system crashes. The ADVM volume can be extended dynamically if there
is space available in the ASM disk group.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 47


11.2

Creating an ASM
Cluster File System
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l e (m ense
Create an
l
Zi Cluster
ASM lic File System
l o
ceexample, an ASM Cluster File System is created on the testvol ASM volume that
In rthis
a
Mwas created previously. Note that a unique number is added to the volume name. This number
is system assigned.
Complete the fields on the page as follows:
• Assign a volume label. In this example, it is labeled test.
• Assign a mount point. The mount point must be an existing directory. Best practice is to
place the ACFS mount points in a common directory below the ORACLE_BASE
directory. In this example, ORACLE_BASE is /u01/app/oracle. The common
directory is acfsdata and the mount point is
/u01/app/oracle/acfsdata/test. The mount point directory must be created
on all the nodes of the cluster.
If you click “Show Command,” you can view the commands used to make the file system on
the ASM volume and to register the volume and mount point. For Linux, the commands are:
$ /sbin/mkfs -t acfs -b 4k /dev/asm/testvol-93 -n "test"
$ /sbin/acfsutil registry -f -a /dev/asm/testvol-93 \
/u01/app/oracle/acfsdata/test
Click OK to perform the operations. The file system will be created on the ASM volume and
the volume will be registered. The file system is then mounted on all the nodes of the cluster.
Note: Automount of ACFS mount points is not supported for single-node installations.
Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 48
11.2

ACFS Snapshots
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• An ACFS snapshot is an online, space-efficient, point-


in-time copy of an ACFS file system.
• Snapshot copy is initially sparse, referencing the
storage allocation information maintained by the file
system.
• Snapshot storage is maintained within the file system. le
a b
• Before an ACFS file extent is modified or deleted, a sfer
copy is saved to the snapshot (copy-on-write). -tran
nodata. n
– Snapshots only consume space for changed
a
– Snapshot maintenance has very low h a s ฺ
overhead.
) e r
• Snapshots can be created onodemand m ฺ a G uiddeliver a
to
ฺ c ofenan t
current, consistent, online a o n view u d active file system.
@ is S t
i l l e
l o ฺz se th
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Zi
ACFS Snapshots
l lic
l o
e ACFS snapshot is an online, read-only, point-in-time copy of an Oracle ACFS file
An
a rcOracle
Msystem. The snapshot copy is initially sparse and merely references the storage allocation
information maintained by the file system. Before an Oracle ACFS file extent is modified or
deleted, its current value is copied to the snapshot using a copy-on-write (COW) technique to
maintain the snapshot's point-in-time view of the file system.
Oracle ACFS snapshots are immediately available for use after they are created. They are
always online while the file system is mounted. As a result, an Oracle ACFS snapshot can
support the online recovery of files that are inadvertently modified or deleted from a file
system. With up to 63 snapshot views supported for each file system, flexible online file
recovery solutions spanning multiple views can be employed. An Oracle ACFS snapshot can
also be used as the source of a file system backup because it can be created on demand to
deliver a current, consistent, online view of an active file system.
Oracle ACFS snapshot storage is maintained within the file system, eliminating the need to
manage separate storage pools for file systems and snapshots. Oracle ACFS file systems can
be dynamically resized to accommodate additional file and snapshot storage requirements.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 49


11.2

Administering Oracle ACFS Snapshots


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Oracle ACFS snapshots are administered by using


ACFSUTIL snap commands
• Create a read-only snapshot of an Oracle ACFS file
system:
acfsutil snap create snapshot mount_point
bl e
fe r a
• Delete a read-only snapshot of an Oracle ACFS filens
a
system: n-tr no
acfsutil snap delete snapshot mount_point a
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l e (m ense
Administering
l
Zi Oracle licACFS Snapshots
l o
To
a ce a read-only snapshot of an Oracle ACFS file system, use the following command:
rcreate
M acfsutil snap create snapshot mount_point
Specify the parameters as follows:
• snapshot: Snapshot name. The .ACFS/snaps directory itself cannot be snapped.
• mount_point: The mount point

The snapshot appears in .ACFS/snaps/snapshot and is a complete replica of the file


system at the time the snapshot command was executed.
To delete a read-only snapshot of an Oracle ACFS file system, use the following command:
acfsutil snap delete snapshot mount_point
The command deletes the named snapshot in the Oracle ACFS mounted on the specified
mount_point. After successful completion of the command, the representation of the snapshot
in the .ACFS/snaps directory is removed. The command fails if any file within the snapshot
is open on any cluster node.
Note: Administrator privileges are required to use the snap create and snap delete
commands, or you must be a member of the Oracle ASM administrator group.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 50


Quiz
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

ASM Cluster File System (ACFS) provides support for


Oracle Database binary files.
1. True
2. False

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Answer:o 1 Zi
l lic
l
a rce
M

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 51


Summary
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In this lesson, you should have learned how to:


• Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a stand-alone
server and create an ASM disk group
• Use the ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) to
create an ASM disk group
• Create and manage ASM Dynamic Volumes
a b le
• Create and manage an ASM Cluster File System nsfe
r
-tra
n o n
s a
) a
h deฺ
r
ฺa Gui
co entm
n ฺ
@ ao Stud
z i l le this

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s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
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l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 52


Practice 1-2: Overview
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In this practice, you configure the ASM cluster file system.

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i l lic
el oZ
Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 1 - 53


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Marc
le
oZ
i l l l
m a r c e
e ( icens
e
z i
to
l @
loฺ use
n
le this

m
ao Stud
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co ent
s
ฺa Gui
ha deฺ
an
on - t r an
s
fe r a bl
e
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Installation Enhancements

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Objectives
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After completing this lesson, you should be able to:


• Install Oracle Database 11g
• Enable Direct NFS
• Use online patching

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Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 2


11.2

Oracle Database 11g Installation: Changes


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• Addition of new products to the installation:


– Oracle Application Express
– Oracle Configuration Manager (OCM)
– SQL Developer
– Warehouse Builder (server-side pieces)
– Oracle Database Vault e
r a bl
• Default options: s fe
– Data Mining - t r an
n no
– OLAP a
h a s ฺ
– Partitioning r) uide
ฺ a
– Real Application Testing
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
l
Zi 11glicInstallation: Changes
Oracle Database
e l o
The
a rcfollowing are the new components that are available when you install Oracle Database
M11g Release 2:
• Oracle Application Express is installed with Oracle Database 11g. It was previously
named HTML DB and was available as a separate companion CD component.
• Oracle Configuration Manager is offered during installation. It was previously named
Customer Configuration Repository (CCR). It is an optional component for database
installation. Oracle Configuration Manager gathers and stores details relating to the
configuration of the software stored in Oracle Database home directories.
• Oracle SQL Developer is installed by default with template-based database installations,
such as General Purpose/Transaction Processing and Data Warehousing. It is also
installed with database client Administrator, Runtime, and Custom installations.
• Oracle Warehouse Builder is installed with Oracle Database 11g.
• Oracle Database Vault is an optional component for installation with Oracle Database
11g. It was previously available as a separate companion CD component.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 3


Oracle Database 11g Installation: Changes
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• Move to JDK/JRE 1.5


• Removal of certain products and features from the
installation:
– OEM Java Console
– Raw storage support for data files
– Oracle Data Mining Scoring Engine e
r a bl
– Oracle Workflow s fe
– iSQL*Plus - t r an
n no
– Oracle Ultra Search a
– Workload Manager ) h as eฺ
ฺ a r uid
• Addition of new prerequisite ochecks
c m n t G
n ฺ e
• Changes to the defaultafile
@ S tud
o permissions
z i l le this

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s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
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l e (m ense
l
Zi 11glicRelease 2 Installation: Changes (continued)
Oracle Database
e l o
The
a rcfollowing components are part of Oracle Database 10g, Release 2 (10.2) but are not
Mavailable for installation with Oracle Database 11g Release 2:
• Oracle Enterprise Manager Java Console
• Oracle Data Mining Scoring Engine
• Oracle Workflow
• iSQL*Plus

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 4


Oracle Database 11g Installation: Changes
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• Support for upgrade of Oracle XE databases directly to


Oracle Database 11g
• Better conformance to OFA in the installation:
– Prompt for ORACLE_BASE explicitly
– Warnings in the alert log when ORACLE_BASE is not set

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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
l
Zi 11glicInstallation: Changes (continued)
Oracle Database
l o
In
a ce Database 11g, Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) prompts you to specify the Oracle
rOracle
Mbase. The Oracle base that you provide during installation is logged in the local inventory. You
can share this Oracle base across all of the Oracle homes that you create on the system. Oracle
Corporation recommends that you share an Oracle base for all of the Oracle homes created by
a user.
Oracle Universal Installer has a list box in which you can edit or select the Oracle base. The
installer derives the default Oracle home from the Oracle base location that you provide in the
list box. However, you can change the default Oracle home by editing the location.
The following are changes made in Oracle Database 11g with respect to the Oracle base to
make it compliant with Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA):
• ORACLE_BASE is a recommended environment variable.
• In Oracle Database 10g, the default flash recovery area and the data file location are one
level above the Oracle home directory. However, in Oracle Database 11g, the Oracle base
is the starting point to set the default fast recovery area and the data file location. Oracle
Corporation recommends that you keep the fast recovery area and data file location on
separate disk groups in ASM.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 5


11.2

Part Two: Installing the Oracle Database Software


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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Part Two: Zi l
Installing c Oracle Database Software
lithe
l o
In
a celesson, the installation steps for the Oracle Database software are reviewed.
rthis
MLog on to your computer as a member of the administrative group that is authorized to install
the Oracle software, and to create and manage the database. Insert the distribution CD for the
database into your CD drive, or navigate to the Oracle database staging location. From that
location enter ./runInstaller to start the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI).
If desired, enter the email address where you want to be informed of security issues. If you
want to receive security updates via My Oracle Support, also include your My Oracle Support
password. If you do not enter your email address, a warning message is displayed asking if you
are sure you do not want to be informed about critical issues in your configuration. Click Yes
in response to this warning to continue with the installation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 6


11.2

Choosing the Type of Installation


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l e (m ense
Choosing the
l
Zi Type lof
ic Installation
l o
e Installation Option page is displayed. Choose the type of installation that you want
The
a rcSelect
M to perform:
• Create and Configure a Database: This option creates a database after the product is
installed.
• Install Database Software Only: This option installs only the Oracle Database binaries.
• Upgrade an Existing Database: This option is used to upgrade a database of an earlier
release.
Click Next.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 7


11.2

Choosing Grid Installation Options


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ฺ a r) uide
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ฺz se th
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a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Choosing
l
Zi Installation
Grid lic Options
l o
e Installation Options page is displayed. Choose whether this is to be a single instance
The
a rcGrid
M database installation or an Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) database installation on a
cluster. Click Next to continue.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 8


11.2

Choosing Language Settings


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a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Choosing Zi l
Language licSettings
l o
e Product Languages page is next. Here you select all the languages in which your
The
a rcSelect
M product will run. English is selected by default and cannot be removed from the Selected
Languages list. Click Next to continue.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 9


11.2

Choosing the Database Edition


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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Choosing the
l
Zi Database
lic Edition
l o
e Database Edition page is displayed. Choose from one of the following three
The
a rcSelect
M editions:
• Enterprise Edition: This edition delivers a self-managing database that provides
performance, scalability, security, and reliability on a choice of clustered or single-
servers. It provides comprehensive features to easily manage the most demanding
transaction processing, business intelligence, and content management applications.
• Standard Edition: This edition provides a full-featured database for servers with up to
four sockets. It includes Oracle Real Application Clusters for higher availability, provides
enterprise-class performance and security, is simple to manage, and can easily scale as
demand increases. It is also upwardly compatible with the Enterprise edition.
• Standard Edition One: This edition provides a full-featured database for servers with up
to two sockets. It provides enterprise-class performance, security, and manageability that
can easily scale as demand increases. It is also upwardly compatible with other database
editions.
Click the Select Options button to further customize what components are installed. Click
Next when finished with all selections on the Select Database Edition page.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 10


11.2

Specifying Installation Location


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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
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Specifying i l lic Location
ZInstallation
l o
e Installation Location page is displayed next. A suggested Oracle base path
The
a rcSpecify
M appears by default. You can change the path based on your requirement. In the Software
Location section, you can accept the default values or enter the Oracle home name and
directory path in which you want to install the Oracle components. The directory path should
not contain spaces. Click Next to continue the installation process.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 11


11.2

Choosing Operating System Groups


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ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Choosing Zi l
Operating licSystem Groups
e l o
The
a rcPrivileged Operating System Groups page is displayed. Choose the appropriate operating
Msystem group for the OSDBA and OSOPER privileges. By default dba is specified for OSDBA
and oper is specified for OSOPER. Click Next to continue.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 12


11.2

Performing Prerequisite Checks


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a no
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
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ฺz se th
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a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Performing i l lic Checks
ZPrerequisite
e l o
The
a rcPerform Prerequisite Checks page is displayed. The OUI goes through various
M prerequisite checks. After all the checks have been performed, the OUI displays a message if
any of the tests fail. No action is required on this page unless the checks fail with errors. If
errors do occur, they will need to be corrected before proceeding with the installation. In most
cases, OUI is able to correct those errors by instructing you to run a script that will correct
these issues and then run the checks again. If the error is not fixable, you must either fix the
problem manually or choose “Ignore All” and continue with the installation (if the failed check
is not critical). Click Next to continue.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 13


11.2

Installation Summary Page


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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
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Installation i l
ZSummary licPage
e l o
a rcSummary
The page is displayed. Review the information presented that is related to the
M installation answers provided on previous windows. You are presented with the option to save
the interactive installation questions and answers to a response file. A response file can be
used in future installations to perform a silent installation in the same manner in which this
installation is being performed. The response file is a text file and can also be edited with a
text editing tool to modify it for a different installation. Click the Finish button to proceed with
the installation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 14


11.2

Install Product Page


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ฺz se th
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a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
l
Zi Pagelic
Install Product
l o
rceinstallation process pauses at this point, requiring you to execute an additional
Your
a
Mconfiguration script as the root user. In a separate terminal window, enter:
$ su
# password: oracle <root password, does not appear in the window>
# /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/root.sh
Accept the default for the local bin directory during a Linux or UNIX installation. When the
script is finished, exit from the root account and close the window. Click OK in the Execute
Configuration scripts dialog box to allow the installation to complete.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 15


11.2

Installation Finish Page


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a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Installation i l
ZFinish lic
Page
l o
rceall the installation steps are completed, the Finish page is displayed. Click the Close
After
a
M button to exit the OUI utility.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 16


Quiz
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

During the installation of Oracle Database, you can specify


whether you want to receive security updates via My
Oracle Support.
1. True
2. False
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s2009,
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Answer:o 1 Zi
l lic
l
a rce
M

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 17


Practice 2-1: Overview
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

In this practice, you install the Oracle Database 11g


software.

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s2009,
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l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 18


11.2

Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Upgrade Paths


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

≥≥ 9.2.0.8
9.2.0.8

≥≥ 10.1.0.5
10.1.0.5
ble
fe r a
≥≥ 10.2.0.2
10.2.0.2
ans
n - t r 11.2
11.2
o
s an
r ) ha deฺ
m ฺa Gui
11.1.0.6 onฺ
≥≥ 11.1.0.6
co ent
@ a Stud
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loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
l
Zi 11glicRelease 2 Upgrade Paths
Oracle Database
l o
e that you must take to upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 depends on the
The
a rcpath
Mrelease number of your current database. It might not be possible to upgrade directly from the
current version of the Oracle Database to the latest version. Depending on your current release,
you might be required to upgrade through one or more intermediate releases to upgrade to
Oracle Database 11g Release 2.
For example, if the current database is running release 8.1.6, follow these steps:
1. Upgrade release 8.1.6 to release 8.1.7.4 by using the instructions in Oracle8i Database
Migration, Release 3 (8.1.7).
2. Upgrade release 8.1.7.4 to release 10.2.0.4 by using the instructions in Oracle Database
Upgrade Guide 10g Release 2 (10.2).
3. Upgrade release 10.2.0.4 to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 by using the latest Upgrade
Guide.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 19


11.2

Deprecated Features in
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 and Release 2
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Features deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1:


– Oracle Ultra Search
– Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.4
– CTXXPATH index
• Features deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2:
– Workload Manager ble
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a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
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t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Deprecated
i l
ZFeatures licin Oracle Database 11g Release 1 and Release 2
l o
e lists the Oracle Database features that are deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release
The
a rcslide
M 1 and Release 2. Although they are supported in this release for backward compatibility,
Oracle recommends that you migrate away from these deprecated features:
• Oracle Ultra Search
• Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.4: Oracle recommends that you use JDK 5.0; however,
JDK 1.5 is also fully supported.
• CTXXPATH index: Oracle recommends that you use XMLIndex instead.
• Workload Manager

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 20


Initialization Parameter Information


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

USER_DUMP_DEST
• BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST DIAGNOSTIC_DEST
• CORE_DUMP_DEST
• UNDO_MANAGEMENT not set implies AUTO mode.
• CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS
– Specifies the Server Manageability Packs that should be able
active s f er
– Default is DIAGNOSTIC+TUNING - t r an
n no
a
s ฺ
h a
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Initialization
l
ZiParameter
lic Information
e l o
The
a rcDIAGNOSTIC_DEST initialization parameter replaces the USER_DUMP_DEST,
M BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST, and CORE_DUMP_DEST parameters. Starting with Oracle
Database 11g, the default location for all trace information is defined by
DIAGNOSTIC_DEST, which defaults to $ORACLE_BASE/diag. Old parameters are
ignored if specified.
For more information about diagnostics, refer to the lesson titled “Diagnosability
Enhancements.”
A newly installed Oracle Database 11g instance defaults to automatic undo management
mode, and, if the database is created with the DBCA, an undo tablespace is automatically
created. A null value for the UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization parameter now defaults to
automatic undo management; in previous releases, it defaulted to manual undo management
mode. You must, therefore, be careful when upgrading a previous release to Oracle Database
11g.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 21


Important Initialization Parameter Changes (continued)
Note: The CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS initialization parameter controls
access to the Oracle Diagnostic Pack and the Oracle Tuning Pack. The Oracle Diagnostic Pack
includes AWR, ADDM, and so on. The Tuning pack includes SQL Tuning Advisor, SQL
Access Advisor, and so on. Refer to Oracle Database Licensing Information 11g Release 2 for
complete information about the packs.
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

The Diagnostic Pack must be enabled before the Tuning Pack can be enabled.
The possible values for the CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS parameter:
• NONE: Diagnostic Pack and Tuning Pack functionality is disabled in the database server.
• DIAGNOSTIC: Only Diagnostic Pack functionality is enabled in the server.
• DIAGNOSTIC+TUNING (default): Diagnostic Pack and Tuning Pack functionality is
enabled in the database server.
ble
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i l l e ( icens
e l oZ l
M arc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 22


Practice 2-2: Overview
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

In this practice, you create a database.

ble
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n ฺ co ent
@ ao Stud
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s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
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l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 23


Practice 2-3: Overview
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

In this practice, you use ASM cluster file system


snapshots.

ble
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ans
n - t r
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n ฺ co ent
@ ao Stud
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s2009,
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l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 24


Direct NFS Client: Overview

Oracle Database 10g Oracle Database 11g


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Optional generic
configuration
parameters
Oracle Oracle
RDBMS RDBMS
kernel kernel
Specific
configuration
parameters DBA
Specific Specific
kernel kernel
ble
NFS driver NFS driver

fe r a
an s
n - t r
Variations across platforms
a no
Many parameters to tune
h a s ฺNAS
NAS
a r) uideStorage
Ease of NFS configuration

Storage
o m ntune
Fewer parameters
c
to
t G
n ฺ e (NFS V3)

@ ao Stud
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loCopyright e
s2009,
r c e o u© Oracle. All rights reserved.
a t
l e (m ense
Direct NFS
i l
ZClient: lic
Overview
l o
rceNFS is implemented as a Direct Network File System client as part of the Oracle
Direct
a
MRDBMS kernel in the Oracle Disk Manager library. NAS-based storage systems use Network
File System to access data. In Oracle Database 10g, NAS storage devices are accessed using
the operating system–provided kernel Network File System driver, which requires specific
configuration settings to ensure its efficient and correct usage with Oracle Database. The
following are the major problems that arise from incorrectly specifying these configuration
parameters:
• NFS clients are very inconsistent across platforms and vary across operating system
releases.
• With more than 20 parameters to tune, manageability is affected.
Oracle Direct Network File System implements the NFS version 3 protocol in the Oracle
RDBMS kernel. The following are the main advantages of implementing Oracle Direct NFS:
• It enables complete control over the input/output path to Network File Servers. This
results in predictable performance and enables simpler configuration management and a
superior diagnosability.
• Its operations avoid the kernel Network File System layer bottlenecks and resource
limitations. However, the kernel is still used for network communication modules.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 25


Direct NFS Client: Overview (continued)
• It provides a common Network File System interface for Oracle for potential use on all
host platforms and supported Network File System servers.
• It enables improved performance through load balancing across multiple connections to
Network File System servers and deep pipelines of asynchronous input/output operations
with improved concurrency.
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

ble
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Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 26


Direct NFS Configuration

1
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Mount all expected mount points using kernel NFS driver.

2 (Optional) Create an oranfstab file.

mv libodm11.so libodm11.so_stub
3 ln -s libnfsodm11.so libodm11.so
ble
fe r a
ans
Mount points lookup order
n - t r
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab Load balancing
server: MyDataServer1
a no
and
path: 132.34.35.12

h
path: 132.34.35.13 a s ฺ
/etc/oranfstab
failover
ฺ a r) uide
export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1

ฺ c om ent G
on tud
/etc/mtab

a
@ is S
i l l e
l o ฺz se th
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Direct NFS
i l lic
ZConfiguration
l o
By
a ce Direct NFS attempts to serve mount entries found in /etc/mtab. No other
rdefault,
Mconfiguration is required. You can optionally use oranfstab to specify additional Oracle-
specific options to Direct NFS. For example, you can use oranfstab to specify additional
paths for a mount point as shown in the example in the slide.
When oranfstab is placed in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs, its entries are specific to a single
home. However, when oranfstab is placed in /etc, it is global to all Oracle databases and
thus, can contain mount points for all Oracle databases.
Direct NFS looks for the mount point entries in the following order:
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab, /etc/oranfstab, and /etc/mtab. It uses the
first matched entry as the mount point.
In all cases, Oracle requires that mount points be mounted by the kernel NFS system even
when being served through Direct NFS. Oracle verifies kernel NFS mounts by cross-checking
entries in oranfstab with the operating system NFS mount points. If a mismatch exists,
Direct NFS logs an informational message and does not serve the NFS server.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 27


Direct NFS Configuration (continued)
Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS:
1. Make sure that NFS mount points are mounted by your kernel NFS client. The file
systems to be used through ODM NFS should be mounted and available over regular NFS
mounts for Oracle to retrieve certain bootstrapping information. The mount options that
are used in mounting the file systems are not relevant.
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

2. (Optional) Create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each NFS server to
be accessed using Direct NFS:
- Server: The NFS server name
- Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP address or by
name, as displayed using the ifconfig command. The Direct NFS client performs
load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified path fails, Direct NFS reissues
I/Os over any remaining paths. le
- Export: The exported path from the NFS server r a b
s f e
tranNFS. To
- Mount: The local mount point for the NFS server
3. Oracle Database uses the ODM library, libnfsodm10.so, to enablenDirect -
replace this standard ODM library with the ODM NFS library, a no the following
complete
steps: h a s ฺ
- Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/lib. ฺar) u ide
m nt G
- Enter the following commands: ฺco
on tude
cp libodm11.so libodm11.so_stub a
@ is S
i l l e
ln -s libnfsodm11.so libodm11.so
ththe Direct NFS client:
l
Use one of the following methodso ฺz to disable
s e
• Remove the oranfstab a rce file.to u
• Restore the l estub
e n se file by reversing the process you completed in step 3.
(mlibodm11.so
• Remove
l
Zithe specific
lic NFS server or export paths in the oranfstab file.
l o
rce
Note
a
M • If you remove an NFS path that the Oracle Database is using, you must restart the
database for the change to be effective.
• If Oracle Database is unable to open an NFS server using Direct NFS, it uses the platform
operating system kernel NFS client. In this case, the kernel NFS mount options must be
set up correctly. Additionally, an informational message is logged in to the Oracle alert
and trace files indicating that Direct NFS could not be established.
• With the current ODM architecture, there can be only one active ODM implementation
for each instance at any given time. Using NFS ODM in an instance precludes any other
ODM implementation.
• The Oracle files resident on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client are
also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client. The usual considerations
for maintaining integrity of the Oracle files apply in this situation.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 28


Monitoring Direct NFS

SVR_ID/
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

V$DNFS_FILES
ID

Join column

V$DNFS_SERVERS PNUM V$DNFS_STATS

ble
fe r a
ans
n - t r
o
an
ID/
SVR_ID V$DNFS_CHANNELS s
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loCopyright e
s2009,
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a t
l e (m ense
Monitoring
i l
ZDirect lic
NFS
l o
e following views for Direct NFS management:
Use
a rcthe
M • V$DNFS_SERVERS: Shows a table of servers accessed using Direct NFS
• V$DNFS_FILES: Shows a table of files currently open using Direct NFS
• V$DNFS_CHANNELS: Shows a table of open network paths (or channels) to servers for
which Direct NFS is providing files
• V$DNFS_STATS: Shows a table of performance statistics for Direct NFS

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 29


Online Patching: Overview
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

For a bug fix or diagnostic patch on a running Oracle


instance, online patching provides the ability to do the
following:
• Install
• Enable
• Disable ble
fe r a
ans
n - t r
a no
h a s ฺ
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
l
Zi Overview
Online Patching: lic
l o
rce patching provides the ability to install, enable, and disable a bug fix or diagnostic patch
Online
a
Mon a live, running Oracle instance. Using online patching is the recommended solution for
avoiding down time when applying online patches. Oracle provides the capability to perform
online patching with any Oracle database using the opatch command-line utility. Online
patches can be provided when the changed code is small in scope and complexity (for
example, with diagnostic patches or small bug fixes).

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 30


Installing an Online Patch
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Applying an online patch does not require instance


shutdown, relinking of the Oracle binary, or instance
restart.
• OPatch can be used to install or uninstall an online
patch.
• OPatch detects conflicts between two online patches, le
a b
as well as between an online patch and a conventional
s f er
patch.
- t r an
• To determine if a patch is an online patch: n on
a s ฺ
h a
opatch query -is_online_patch <patch ฺ a u ide
r)location>
OR ฺ c om ent G
opatch query <patch location> a on -all tud
@
le this S
ฺ z i l
e loCopyright u e
s2009,
a r c t o © Oracle. All rights reserved.

l e (m ense
Installingoan
l
ZiOnlineliPatch
c
l
rce traditional patching mechanisms, applying an online patch does not require instance
Unlike
a
M shutdown or restart.
Similar to traditional patching, you can use OPatch to install an online patch.
You can determine whether a patch is an online patch by using the following commands:
opatch query -is_online_patch <patch location> or
opatch query <patch location> -all
Note: The patched code is shipped as a dynamic/shared library, which is then mapped to
memory by each Oracle process.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 31


Benefits of Online Patching
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• No down time and no interruption of business


• Extremely fast installation and uninstallation times
• Integrated with OPatch:
– Conflict detection
– Listed in patch inventory
– Works in RAC environment ble
fe r a
• Persist across instance shutdown and startup s
- t r an
n no
a
s ฺ
h a
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e@ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Benefitso
i l lic
ofZOnline Patching
l
e not have to shut down your database instance while you apply the online patch. Unlike
You
a rcdo
M conventional patching, online patching enables fast installation and uninstallation. Because
online patching uses OPatch, you get all the benefits that you already have with conventional
patching that uses OPatch. It does not matter how long or how many times you shut down your
database—an online patch always persists across instance shutdown and startup.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 32


Conventional Patching and Online Patching
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Conventional Patches Online Patches


Require down time to apply Do not require down time to apply
or remove or remove
Installed and uninstalled Installed and uninstalled
via OPatch via OPatch
Persist across instance startup Persist across instance startup
ble
and shutdown and shutdown
fe r a
Take several minutes to install ra
Take only a few seconds to-tinstall
ns
or uninstall or uninstall no n
s a
) a
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s2009,
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a t
l e (m ense
Conventional
l
Zi Patching
lic and Online Patching
l o
a rce
Conventional patching basically requires a shutdown of your database instance.
M Online patching does not require any down time. Applications can keep running while you
install an online patch. Similarly, online patches that have been installed can be uninstalled
with no down time.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 33


Online Patching Considerations
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• Online patches are supported on the following


platforms:
– Linux x86 32/64
– HP Itanium
– Sun Sparc Solaris 64
– AIX e
– Windows x86 32/64 r a bl
sfe
• Some extra memory is consumed. - t r an
n no
– Exact amount depends on: a
Size of patch h a s ฺ
ide
r) processes

Number of concurrently running ฺ a


Oracle u

ฺ c om ent G
– Minimum amount of memory:
a on tuApproximately
d one OS
page per runningeOracle
l @ iprocess s S
i l h
e l oฺz use t
a rc Copyright
t o © 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

l e (m ense
Zi
Online Patching
l lic
Considerations
e l o
arcoperating system (OS) page is typically 4 KB on Linux x86 and 8 KB on Solaris
One
MSPARC64. With an average of approximately one thousand Oracle processes running at the
same time, this represents around 4 MB of extra memory for a small online patch.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 34


Online Patching Considerations
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

• There may be a small delay (a few seconds) before


every Oracle process installs or uninstalls an online
patch.
• Not all bug fixes and diagnostic patches are available
as an online patch.
• Use online patches in situations when down time is not le
a b
feasible.
s f er
r
• When down time is possible, you should install-tallan
relevant bug fixes as conventional patches. n on
a s ฺ
h a
ฺ a r) uide
ฺ c om ent G
a on tud
l l e @ is S
i
ฺz se th
l o
a rce Copyright
t o u© 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.
l e (m ense
Online Patching
l
Zi Considerations
lic (continued)
e l o
rc majority of diagnostic patches are available as online patches. For bug fixes, it really
Aavast
Mdepends on their nature. Not every bug fix or diagnostic patch is available as an online patch.
But the long-term goal of the online-patching facility is to provide online-patching capabilities
for Critical Patch Updates.
Note: You must uninstall the online patch before applying the conventional patch.

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 35


Quiz
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Which of the following statements are true about online


patches?
1. Can be installed using OPatch
2. Require down time to apply
3. Persist across instance startup and shutdown
4. Do not require down time to remove ble
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ans
n - t r
o
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s2009,
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a t
l e (m ense
Answers: Z3,
1,
l
i and 4lic
l o
a rce
M

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 36


Summary
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

In this lesson, you should have learned how to:


• Install Oracle Database 11g
• Enable Direct NFS
• Use online patching

ble
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ans
n - t r
o
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s2009,
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l e (m ense
i l lic
el oZ
Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 37


Practice 2-4: Overview
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

In this practice, you use online patching to patch your


database.

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ans
n - t r
o
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s2009,
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i l lic
el oZ
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Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 2 - 38


11.2
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Oracle Restart

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Marc
11.2

Objectives
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

After completing this lesson, you should be able to use


Oracle Restart to manage components.

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n - t r
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s2009,
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Marc

Oracle Database 11g: New Features for Administrators 3 - 2


11.2

Oracle Restart

Oracle Restart implements a high availability solution for


Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

stand-alone Oracle databases.


• Can monitor and restart the following components:
– Database instances
– Oracle Net listener
– Database services
– Automatic Storage Management (ASM) instance a b le
– ASM disk groups s f er
- t r an
– Oracle Notification Services (ONS/eONS) on n
• Runs periodic check operations to monitor s a the health
) a
h deฺ
of the components r
ฺa Gui
• Runs out of the Oracle Grid
m
o ent
cInfrastructure home, which
o n ฺ d
you install separately a Oracle
@from Stu Database homes
le this
ฺ z i l
e loCopyright u e
s2009,
a r c t o © Oracle. All rights reserved.

l e (m ense
Oracle RestartZi l lic
l o
rceRestart is designed to improve the availability of your Oracle Database. It implements a high
Oracle
a
Mavailability solution for single instance (nonclustered) environments only. For Oracle Real
Application Cluster (Oracle RAC) environments, the functionality to automatically restart
components is provided by Oracle Clusterware. Oracle Restart can monitor the health and
automatically restart the following components:
• Database instances
• Oracle Net listener
• Database services
• ASM instance