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Food Research International 34 (2001) 695–703

www.elsevier.com/locate/foodres

Rheological properties of selected hydrocolloids as a


function of concentration and temperature
Michèle Marcottea, Ali R. Taherian Hoshahilia, H.S. Ramaswamyb,*
a
Food Research and Development Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 3600 Casavant Blvd West, St. Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada, J2S 8E3
b
Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Macdonald College of McGill University, 21,111 Lakeshore,
Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada, H9V 3V9
Received 22 September 1999; accepted 20 March 2001

Abstract
In this study, rheological properties of several food hydrocolloids (carrageenan, pectin, gelatin, starch and xanthan) were eval-
uated using a rotational viscometer at three concentrations (1–6%, depending on the type of hydrocolloid) and four temperatures
(20, 40, 60 and 80 C). Samples were subjected to a programmed shear rate increasing linearly from 0 to 300 s1 in 3 min, followed
by a steady shear at 300 s1 for 10 min and finally a linearly decreasing shear rate from 300 s1 to 0 in 3 min. Experiments were
performed in duplicate. In general, the power law model fitted most of the experimental results. Xanthan gum and carrageenan (at
20oC) were exceptions, characterized by a yield stress and hence the rheograms were fitted with the Herschel-Bulkley model.
Furthermore, gelatin showed a Newtonian behavior. Three models (power, exponential and polynomial) were used to evaluate
the concentration effect on apparent viscosity. Arrhenius model was used to describe the temperature effect. Among the samples,
carrageenan showed the most temperature dependency and xanthan gum, the least. # 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights
reserved.
Keywords: Rheology; Food gums; Protein; Newtonian Viscosity; Shear viscosity

1. Introduction wamy, & van de Voort, 1995; da Silva & Rao, 1995; da
Silva, Pedro, Oliveira, & Rao, 1997; Dickie & Kokini,
The rheological behavior of hydrocolloids is of special 1983; Krumel & Sarkar, 1975; Ma & Barbosa-Canovas,
importance when they are used to modify textural 1996; Sanderson, 1981; Stanley, 1990; White, Davidson,
attributes. It is also well recognized that rheological & Otten, 1993). The viscosity of hydrocolloids can be
properties play a role in process design, evaluation and significantly affected by variables such as shear rate,
modeling. These properties are sometimes measured as temperature, pressure and time of shearing. For New-
an indicator of product quality (e.g. indication of total tonian fluids, at constant temperature and pressure, the
solids or change in molecular size). Rheological data are viscosity does not vary with the shear rate. For most
required for calculation in any process involving fluid non-Newtonian fluids, the viscosity decreases with an
flow (e.g. pump sizing, extraction, filtration, extrusion, increase in shear rate, giving rise to what is known as
purification) and play an important role in the analyses pseudoplasticity or shear-thinning behavior (Barnes,
of flow conditions in food processes such as pasteuriza- Hutton, & Walters, 1989; Rao, 1977). It has been
tion, evaporation, drying and aseptic processing. recognized that pseudoplasticity represents an irrever-
Hydrocolloids (e.g. xanthan, carrageenan, pectin, sible structural breakdown and the decrease in viscosity
starch and gelatin) are generally used in food applica- occurs as a result of molecular alignment that takes
tions due to their functional properties (Walker, 1983). place within such a substance (Glicksman, 1969). At the
Several studies have been carried out to quantify the opposite end is dilatancy which is the behavior showing
rheological characteristics of food hydrocolloids indivi- an increase in viscosity with increasing shear rate.
dually or in food formulations (Abdelrahim, Ramas- The effect of concentration on apparent viscosity of
hydrocolloids is generally described by either an expo-
nential or a power relationship (Rao & Kenny, 1975;
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-514-398-7919; fax: +1-514-398-
7977.
Speers & Tung, 1986). Moreover, temperature has an
E-mail addresses: marcottem@em.agr.ac (M. Marcotte), important influence on the flow behavior of hydrocolloid
ramaswamy@macdonald.mcgill.ca (H.S. Ramaswamy). solutions. Since different temperatures are usually
0963-9969/01/$ - see front matter # 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0963-9969(01)00091-6
696 M. Marcotte et al. / Food Research International 34 (2001) 695–703

encountered during processing of hydrocolloids, their 701J547, Danisco Ingredients Inc., Rexdale, ON), gela-
rheological properties are studied as a function of tem- tin (Gelatin, type B 250 bloom, Germantown Canada
perature. The effect of temperature on the apparent Inc., Scarborough, ON), starch (Thermo-flo starch,
viscosity at a specified shear rate is generally expressed NFPA 0934 lot No. LF5919, National Starch and Che-
by an Arrhenius-type model (Rao & Anantheswaran, mical Corp., Bridgewater, NJ) were obtained from dif-
1982; Rao & Kenny, 1975; Speers and Tung, 1986). ferent sources. Three levels of concentration were
Several models have been used to describe the flow employed: xanthan (1, 2 and 3%), carrageenan (1, 2 and
behavior of hydrocolloid solutions, for example, linear 3%), pectin (1, 3 and 5%), gelatin (2, 3 and 4%), and
(Newtonian or Bingham), power law (Ostwald-de- starch (4, 5 and 6%). Measured amounts of test hydro-
Waele), power law with an yield stress (Herschel-Bulk- colloids were dispersed into distilled water using a high
ley) and Casson models. The power law model is per- speed blender for 8 min at 80 C, as recommended by the
haps the most widely employed model for non- manufacturers. Dispersions were centrifuged (Cen-
Newtonian liquids and is used extensively to describe trifuge, Model GS-6, Palo Alto, CA) at 900  g for 5
the flow properties of liquids in theoretical analysis as min to remove entrapped air bubbles and cooled. Each
well as in practical engineering applications (Barnes et dispersion was prepared in duplicate. Temperature
al., 1989). Hydrocolloid solutions may also exhibit time- effects were evaluated at four levels (20, 40, 60 and
dependent properties, mainly thixotropy, which means 80 C).
that the apparent viscosity or consistency will decrease
with time. In the studies by Abdelrahim, Ramaswamy, 2.2. Rheological measurement
Doyon (1994) and Ramaswamy and Basak (1991, 1992),
a modified Weltmann logarithmic model (Weltmann, Rheological evaluations were performed using a
1943) was utilized to describe the thixotropic behavior rotational viscometer (Haake Model RV20, Haake
of CMC and pectin solutions in flavored yogurt respec- Mess-Technik, Karlsruhe, Germany) equiped with a M5
tively. OSC measuring head and a MV2 rotor (radius of the
Hydrocolloids play an important role in the overall rotor, Rr, 18.4 mm; height, h, 60 mm, radius of the
acceptability of food products by increasing the physical cylindrical cup, Rc, 21 mm) used in the rotational mode
stability of foods and the overall mouth-feel properties. and programmed via a computer controlled Rheocon-
For example, gelatin owes its importance to the unique troller RC20 module. Samples were loaded into the
rheological characteristic in creating the ‘melt in the sample cup and allowed to equilibrate for 20 min at the
mouth’ texture, typical of a gelatin gel (Johnston-Banks, desired temperature and were subjected to a pro-
1990). Gums and stabilizers are incorporated into a grammed shear rate linearly increasing from 0–300 s1
range of diverse food formulations. In particular, they in 3 min, followed by a steady shear at 300 s1 for 10
are used to offer resistance to undesired physical pro- min and a finally a linearly decreasing shear rate from
cesses such as crystallization, gravitational sedimenta- 300 s1 to 0 in 3 min. Silicone oil standards (Cannon
tion and mechanical disaggregation, which might Instrument Company, State College, PA) were used to
otherwise occur during distribution and storage. The calibrate the rheometer. Shear stress-shear rate data
addition of gums to food product very often changes the were gathered as rheograms.
perceived character of food beyond recognition. These
changes may be vital in achieving consumer acceptance 2.3. Data analysis and calculations
(Houska, Valentova, Novotna, Strohalm, Stestak, &
Pokorny, 1998; Morley, 1983; Osman, 1975; Walker, 2.3.1. Newtonian Model
1983). Since the viscosity of aqueous solutions of gelatin did
The objective of this study was to evaluate the rheo- not change with changing shear rate, they were eval-
logical properties of selected food hydrocolloids as uated using a Newtonian model:
influenced by concentration and temperature.

¼  ð1Þ

2. Materials and methods

where  is the viscosity,  is the shear stress and  is the
2.1. Sample preparation shear rate.

Samples of commercial hydrocolloids: xanthan (Rho- 2.3.2. Power-law model


digel, lot No. 9635002, Rhône- Poulenc Food Ingre- Logarithmic plots of shear stress versus shear rate
dients, Fort Washington, PA), carrageenan (Grinsted were used to calculate the consistency coefficient (m)
Carrageenan, CL210, Danisco Ingredients Inc., Rex- and the flow behavior index (n) for starch and pectin
dale, ON), pectin (Grinsted Pectin, RS400 lot No. solutions:
M. Marcotte et al. / Food Research International 34 (2001) 695–703 697

 ¼ m n ð2Þ values employing Eq. (4):
" 2 #
 2! n
¼ ð4Þ
2.3.3. Hershel-Bulkley model n 2n1
Eq. (3) was used to evaluate the Hershel-Bulkley
model consistency coefficeint, m0 and flow behavior
index, n0 values for xanthan at all temperatures and [4] where ! is the angular velocity and  is the ratio of
carrageenan at 20 C, since these products demonstrated the radius of the cup over the radius of the cylinder. The
a noticeable yield stress. The intercept of the linear onset of turbulent flow (Steffe, 1992) was also evaluated
portion of the upward curve from logarithmic plot of to ensure that the flow remained laminar without the
shear-stress vs shear-rate curve was obtained from the effect of centrifugal forces that could create Taylor vor-
computer software as yield stress, 0: tex within samples. The worst-case scenario (i.e. highest
 0
angular velocity, highest temperature and smallest con-
  0 ¼ m0  n ð3Þ centration) was tested for all hydrocolloids.
Apparent viscosity (or viscosity for gelatin) was com-

As recommended by Steffe (1992), a shear analysis puted at a shear rate of 50 s1 as the ratio of   using
test was used to assess the validity of using the power- the appropriate Eqs. (1–3). The low shear rate of 50 s1
law model. Corrections to shear rates were made using n was selected because it has been reported as an effective

Fig. 1. Typical flow curves for selected hydrocolloids at 20 C.


698 M. Marcotte et al. / Food Research International 34 (2001) 695–703

oral shear rate (Morris, 1983). The viscosity for gelatin The temperature dependency of viscosity or apparent
or apparent viscosity (50 s1) for all other hydrocolloids viscosity for each hydrocolloid concentration was eval-
were then used to determine the viscosity-concentration uated by applying the Arrhenius model:
and viscosity-temperature relationships.
The concentration effect at each temperature was exam-  ¼ AexpðEa=RTÞ ð8Þ
ined using three models: a power model (Eq. 5), an expo-
nential model (Eq. 6) and a polynomial model (Eq. 7): where A is the frequency factor, Ea is the activation
energy and R is the gas constant.
 ¼ aCb ð5Þ

 ¼ aexpðbCÞ ð6Þ 3. Results and discussion

 ¼ 1 þ aC þ bC2 ð7Þ Typical rheograms for selected hydrocolloids eval-


uated at 20 C are shown in Fig. 1 for comparison. A
Each model was evaluated for all hydrocolloids using clearly Newtonian behavior was observed with gelatin
data for upward curves. Parameters a and b were cal- (a protein) while the others were found to be non-New-
culated for each model. tonian, shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) fluids. Similar

Table 1
The Herschel-Bulkely parameters for carrageenan and xanthan at different concentrations and temperatures

Sample/Temperature  o (pa) Upward curve Downward curve

m0 (Pa sn) n0 () R2 m0 (Pa sn) n0 () R2

1% Carrageenan
20  C – 0.52
0.07 0.53
0.01 0.99 0.50
0.04 0.52
0.01 0.99
40 C – 0.10
0.002 0.62
0.001 0.98 0.094
0.007 0.66
0.008 0.99
60 C – 0.051
0.001 0.72
0.01 0.96 0.052
0.004 0.72
0.02 0.95
80 C – 0.030
0.003 0.78
0.003 0.90 0.027
0.002 0.82
0.009 0.95

2% Carrageenan
20 C 49.24 8.8
0.7 0.49
0.04 0.99 6.4
0.7 0.51
0.01 0.99
40 C – 0.39
0.003 0.55
0.007 0.99 0.42
0.02 0.52
0.004 0.99
60  C – 0.13
0.02 0.68
0.009 0.96 0.17
0.006 0.65
0.008 0.98
80 C – 0.081
0.005 0.74
0.046 0.99 0.075
0.001 0.76
0.04 0.99

3% Carrageenan
20 C 56.49 14.0
0.33 0.45
0.02 0.97 15.3
0.25 0.42
0.003 0.99
40 C – 4.70
0.21 0.48
0.01 0.95 4.50
0.1 0.50
0.009 0.99
60 C – 0.460
0.007 0.61
0.01 0.99 0.48
0.02 0.65
0.005 0.99
80 C – 0.230
0.03 0.68
0.01 0.99 0.22
0.03 0.71
0.02 0.99

1% Xanthan
20 C 7.24 2.60
0.3 0.21
0.002 0.98 2.26
0.09 0.27
0.008 0.97
40 C 6.00 2.10
0.4 0.24
0.003 0.97 2.09
0.09 0.29
0.003 0.98
60 C 5.19 1.98
0.01 0.26
0.002 0.99 1.87
0.02 0.31
0.01 0.99
80 C 3.97 1.60
0.01 0.29
0.002 0.99 1.50
0.008 0.35
0.001 0.99

2% Xanthan
20 C 10.1 7.30
0.4 0.19
0.009 0.99 5.31
0.09 0.25
0.002 0.99
40 C 8.51 7.70
0.7 0.23
0.01 0.99 6.30
0.2 0.28
0.005 0.99
60 C 7.41 7.40
0.5 0.27
0.006 0.99 6.80
0.9 0.28
0.003 0.99
80 C 6.68 10.8
0.9 0.296
0.002 0.99 10.5
0.2 0.310
0.007 0.99

3% Xanthan
20 C 31.1 14.3
0.4 0.18
0.002 0.97 9.40
0.6 0.25
0.01 0.99
40 C 25.8 11.8
0.9 0.21
0.006 0.99 9.10
0.9 0.26
0.004 0.99
60 C 23.6 13.0
2 0.24
0.008 0.99 10.0
1 0.28
0.002 0.99
80 C 19.98 15
4 0.30
0.02 0.98 12
1 0.337
0.008 0.99

Hershel-Bulkley parameters:  o, yield stress; m0 , consistency coefficient; n0 , flow behavior index;


values indicate the standard deviation. The
number of replicates, 2.
M. Marcotte et al. / Food Research International 34 (2001) 695–703 699

curves were obtained at other concentrations and tem- corrections (Steffe, 1992) to experimental data were
peratures. Earlier studies have also shown that aqueous performed. As a result of corrections, values of flow
gelatin is Newtonian at most temperatures; but just behavior index remained unchanged while values of
above the setting point, the viscosity becomes markedly consistency coefficients were only marginally affected;
time dependent owing to the degree of aggregation tak- nevertheless the recalculated shear rates were used.
ing place which is accentuated by higher concentrations Xanthan gum samples, under all test conditions, and
and high molecular weights (Johnston-Banks, 1990). 2 and 3% carrageenan samples, only at 20 C, were
The onset of turbulent flow was tested. Results indi- characterized by an yield stress. Higher yield stress
cated that only in one condition (pectin 1% and at values were observed at higher concentrations and
80 C) Taylor vortices might have been produced. The lower temperatures. This is in agreement with Szczes-
related data were discarded. Understandably, pectin niak (1985) who also indicated that the appearance of
(1%) demonstrated a nearly Newtonian like flow beha- an yield stress followed by shear-thinning is a typical
vior (n=0.96, close to 1). behavior for xanthan gum. The author also mentioned
The parameters obtained for the power-law model for that this behavior was caused by intermolecular asso-
starch and pectin (Eq. 2) and Herschel-Bulkely model ciation due to acetate residues. It has been recognized
for carrageenan and xanthan (Eq. 3) and Newtonian that the yield stress is a useful property of gums when
model (Eq. 1) for gelatin are summarized in Tables 1–3. they are used as binders, because it helps keep various
The coefficients of determination, for all cases, were components of the food formulation in place (Rao and
higher than 0.99 with higher concentrations and tem- Kenny, 1975; Szczesniak, 1985). Rao and Kenny (1975)
peratures showing slightly lower values. Shear rate demonstrated that yield stress affects directly the

Table 2
Power-law parameters for starch and pectin at different concentrations and temperatures

Sample/Temperature Upward curve Downward curve


2
n
m (Pa s ) n () R m (Pa sn) n () R2

4% Starch
20 C 2.05
0.05 0.53
0.002 0.99 1.96
0.07 0.54
0.003 0.99
40 C 1.20
0.1 0.55
0.002 0.99 1.14
0.09 0.56
0.006 0.99
60 C 0.68
0.005 0.57
0.003 0.99 0.63
0.007 0.61
0.001 0.99
80 C 0.44
0.006 0.60
0.005 0.99 0.39
0.003 0.61
0.001 0.99

5% Starch
20 C 6.80
0.2 0.50
0.007 0.98 7.20
0.2 0.51
0.01 0.99
40 C 3.90
0.1 0.52
0.002 0.99 4.17
0.06 0.52
0.02 0.99
60 C 2.39
0.04 0.53
0.006 0.99 2.60
0.1 0.53
0.001 0.99
80 C 1.49
0.005 0.54
0.001 0.99 1.53
0.05 0.55
0.001 0.99

6% Starch
20 C 20.5
0.6 0.43
0.008 0.99 20.3
0.7 0.44
0.005 0.99
40 C 12.5
0.09 0.46
0.002 0.99 13.1
0.3 0.45
0.005 0.99
60 C 7.23
0.07 0.47
0.004 0.99 7.70
0.1 0.46
0.001 0.99
80 C 4.08
0.07 0.50
0.008 0.99 4.60
0.1 0.49
0.002 0.99

1% Pectin
20 C 0.055
0.005 0.83
0.007 0.98 0.059
0.004 0.84
0.01 0.99
40 C 0.027
0.003 0.85
0.001 0.97 0.026
0.0003 0.88
0.03 0.99
60 C 0.017
0.002 0.89
0.002 0.98 0.017
0.001 0.91
0.008 0.97

3% Pectin
20 C 0.93
0.02 0.81
0.006 0.99 0.90
0.01 0.82
0.002 0.99
40 C 0.41
0.003 0.86
0.008 0.99 0.40
0.002 0.86
0.002 0.99
60 C 0.17
0.006 0.87
0.006 0.99 0.17
0.005 0.88
0.007 0.99

5% Pectin
20 C 5.92
0.08 0.72
0.003 0.99 5.10
0.1 0.73
0.006 0.99
40 C 2.19
0.05 0.76
0.01 0.99 2.33
0.03 0.76
0.003 0.99
60 C 1.20
0.06 0.81
0.004 0.99 1.09
0.09 0.84
0.01 0.99
80 C 0.55
0.02 0.869
0.005 0.99 0.55
0.01 0.878
0.005 0.99

Power-law parameters: m, consistency coefficient; n, flow behavior index;


values indicate the standard deviation. Number of replicates, 2.
700 M. Marcotte et al. / Food Research International 34 (2001) 695–703

amount of material retained on the walls of containers depend on the method of evaluation and condition of
and process vessels. The concept of yield stress has been the experimentation.
discussed in detail by Christianson and Bagely (1984) Starch, pectin and carageenan (except at 20 C)
who evaluated the yield stresses in dispersions of swol- exhibited a power-law shear-thinning behavior, char-
len, deformable corn starch granules and found the acterized by an n value less than 1 at all concentrations
experimentally determined value of yield stress to and temperatures (Tables 1 and 2). Gelatin character-
istically displayed a Newtonian behavior and their visc-
Table 3 osity at different concentrations and temperatures are
Viscosity of gelatin at different concentrations and temperatures given in Table 3.
Sample/Temperature Upward curve Downward curve For all hydrocolloids (except gelatin), an increase in
concentration was accompanied with an increase in
Viscosity (Pa s) R2 Viscosity (Pa s) R2 pseudoplasticity, shown by a decrease in values of the
2% Gelatin flow behavior index (n or n0 ). As expected, the con-
20 C 0.014
0.001 0.97 0.014
0.002 0.99 sistency coefficient (m or m0 ) increased with the con-
40 C 0.0060
0.0002 0.94 0.0050
0.0003 0.98 centration of hydrocolloids. For gelatin the viscosity
60 C 0.0050
0.0001 0.98 0.0040
0.0002 0.91
decreased with temperature; however, within the range
80 C 0.0030
0.0002 0.87 0.0030
0.0002 0.94
of concentration employed (2–4%), the viscosity was
3% Gelatin almost unaffected by concentration.
20 C 0.016
0.0005 0.98 0.016
0.0007 0.98 A decrease in consistency coefficient (m or m0 ) was
40 C 0.0068
0.0001 0.95 0.0060
0.0006 0.92 observed with the increasing temperature indicating a
60deg;C 0.0050
0.0001 0.96 0.0050
0.0002 0.91
decrease in apparent viscosity at higher temperatures.
80 C 0.0040
0.0002 0.91 0.0040
0.0001 0.95
The flow behavior index (n or n0 ) showed an increasing
4% Gelatin trend with the temperature which indicated that hydro-
20 C 0.017
0.0002 0.99 0.017
0.0005 0.99 colloid solutions were tending to be closer to Newtonian
40 C 0.0071
0.0001 0.93 0.0070
0.0003 0.96 flow at higher temperatures. Comparatively, the magni-
60 C 0.0060
0.0001 0.96 0.0060
0.0001 0.97
tude of flow behavior index was the lowest for xanthan
80 C 0.0050
0.0001 0.96 0.0050
0.0001 0.96
and the highest for pectin within the range of con-

Values indicate the standard deviation. Number of replicates, 2. centration levels studied. Starch and carrageenan had
Table 4
Concentration coefficients (Eqs. 5, 6 and 7) for apparent viscosities for upward curves of selected hydrocolloidsa

Power Exponential Polynomial

a b R2 a b R2 a b R2

(Pa s.%1) () (Pa s) (1/%) (1/%) (1/%)

Carrageenan
20 C 0.668 4.4045 0.89 0.0947 2.292 0.78 6.8 3.09 0.8
40 C 0.066 3.251 0.89 0.0108 1.877 0.97 2.262 1.037 0.97
60 C* 0.0397 1.88825 0.93 0.0139 1.076 0.98 0.039 0.054 0.97
80 C* 0.0229 1.7866 0.99 0.0091 0.995 0.99 0.0006 0.019 0.99

Pectin
20 C 0.0476 2.733 0.99 0.019 1.156 0.98 1.38 0.442 1
40 C 0.0247 2.652 0.99 0.0106 1.081 0.98 0.953 0.231 0.95
60 C 0.0148 2.519 0.98 0.0063 1.047 0.99 0.895 0.185 0.84

Starch
20 C 0.00075 5.546 0.99 0.01855 1.126 0.99 4.824 1.192 0.97
40 C 0.0004 5.683 0.99 0.00985 1.155 0.99 3.171 0.754 0.97
60 C 0.0002 5.718 0.99 0.00545 1.161 0.99 2.023 0.459 0.98
80 C 0.0002 5.351 1 0.00495 1.085 0.99 1.273 0.271 0.98

Xanthan
20 C 5.612 1.332 0.92 2.695 0.765 0.98 0.196 2.908 0.97
40 C 4.826 1.352 0.97 2.348 0.765 0.99 0.889 2.179 0.99
60 C 4.254 1.448 0.96 1.968 0.818 0.99 0.031 2.435 0.99
80 C 3.582 1.695 1 1.541 0.929 0.97 0.749 2.219 1
a
The number of replicates is 2 for each experimental condition.
* The polynomial model was been changed to =aC+bC*C for this case.
M. Marcotte et al. / Food Research International 34 (2001) 695–703 701

intermediate values. Szczesniak (1985) showed that gum tonian hydrocolloids. Gelatin data were not included
solutions with a high value of n tend to feel slimy in the because it was found that it was not affected by its con-
mouth. When high viscosity and a good mouth feel centration within the range studied. The coefficients of
characteristics are desired, the choice should be a gum determination obtained were high indicating that the
system having a low n value. It has also been reported models adequately describe the associated variability.
that, for a given gum type, the value of flow behavior For the power model, the parameter ‘‘a’’ decreased with
index (n or n0 ) and its change with concentration are temperature for all hydrocolloids. Parameter ‘‘b’’ also
highly dependent on the molecular size (Hamza-Chaffai, decreased with increasing temperatures for carrageenan
1990; Rao and Kenny, 1975; Speers and Tung, 1986). and pectin whereas for xanthan and starch the asso-
Table 4 summarizes the regression model parameters ciated changes were very small. For the exponential
a and b (Eqs. 5–7) for apparent viscosity at 50 s1, model, parameters a and b were very similar for pectin
obtained from the upward curves, for all non-New- and starch. Polynomial models were successful in

Fig. 2. Arrhenius plots for apparent viscosity of selected hydrocolloids.


702 M. Marcotte et al. / Food Research International 34 (2001) 695–703

Table 5 gave the lowest Ea values. The model was not good for
Arrhenius model (=Aexp(Ea/RT) ) for temperature dependency of the 2% concentration yielding an R2 value of 0.2. At
apparent viscosity (at 50 s1) for selected hydrocolloids (viscosity for
3% concentration, the apparent viscosity showed even a
gelatin) at different concentrationsa
small increase in viscosity with temperature. The model
Samples Concentration (%) A (Pa s) Ea (kJ/mole) R2 was not applied for this later situation since it would
Carrageenan 1 2.991010 30.3 0.85
give a negative Ea. Carrageenan solutions showed the
2 3.381010 51.8 0.83 highest values of activation energy. Their apparent
3 2.64107 54.9 0.98 viscosity was most affected by the temperature, with the
influence increasing with concentration. Starch, pectin
Xanthan 1 1.42102 5.74 0.88 and gelatin had intermediate values of activation ener-
2 1.72102 0.36 0.20
3 nc nc
gies and their viscosity was less affected by temperature
as compared to carrageenan.
Starch 4 1.59104 18.7 0.99
5 3.49104 19.4 0.99
6 6.46104 20.1 0.99 4. Conclusions
6
Pectin 1 8.9310 19.6 0.99
3 1.51105 33.4 0.99 The concentration and temperature dependency of
5 1.74104 22.7 0.97 rheological characteristics were determined for selected
hydrocolloids. Higher gum concentrations resulted in
Gelatin 2 3.84106 19.6 0.93 an increase of both Newtonian and apparent (at 50 s1)
3 1.36105 16.8 0.88
4 2.14105 15.8 0.85
viscosities. Xanthan was found to be the most pseudo-
plastic and the least temperature dependent of all
a
A, frequency factor; Ea, activation energy; nc, not computed. hydrocolloids studied. Gelatin viscosities were indepen-
Number of replicates is 2 for each experimental condition. dent of shear rate (Newtonian) and slightly affected by
concentration. Carrageenan was mostly affected by
temperature and exhibited an enormous yield stress at
describing the concentration dependency of apparent low temperature. Starch and pectin showed an inter-
viscosity, except that for carrageenan at 60 and 80 C, mediate behavior as compared to carrageenan and xan-
the model had to be used without the intercept 1 (Eq. 7). than with respect to concentration and temperature
A clear linear and quadratic effect of concentration on dependency of rheological properties.
apparent viscosity was found for carrageenan, pectin
and starch. Parameters a and b were also decreasing at
high temperatures indicating a lower dependency of Acknowledgements
apparent viscosity on concentration. There was no defi-
nite trend for xanthan for the polynomial model indi- The authors would like to sincerely thank Nicolas
cating that there might be a strong interaction between Elazhary and François Brunet for their valuable help in
the temperature and the concentration. Similar trends carrying out the experimental work.
were observed for downward curves (results not shown).
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