Numerical Simulation of Flow in Open Channels With Bottom Intake Racks

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Numerical Simulation of Flow in Open Channels With Bottom Intake Racks

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Y.T. Zerihun

David & James – Engineering and Environmental Consultancy, 204 Albion Road, Victoria 3350, Australia

e-mail: zyebegaeshet@gmail.com

Abstract: A one-dimensional non-hydrostatic flow model is extended to handle practical, while challenging free surface flow

problem with a spatially-varied discharge. The proposed model incorporates the effect of curvature of the bed and free

surface, in making the pressure distribution non-hydrostatic, and overcomes the accuracy problem of the shallow

water equations when simulating spatially varied flow problems that involve non-hydrostatic pressure distribution.

Spatially varied flows over bottom racks with bars arranged either parallel to or across the flow, and racks with

perforations are considered for assessing the suitability of the model. The predicted global flow characteristics such as

residual discharge distributions and flow surface and bed pressure profiles are compared with experimental data for

super- and sub-critical approach flows. A very good quantitative agreement has been obtained. The predictions of the

proposed model are also compared with the results of the shallow water equation. The comparison result reveals the

inaccuracy of the hydrostatic pressure approach in modelling spatially varied flow situations where the effects of

streamline curvature are significant and essential. The study demonstrates that accurate numerical model can

effectively supplement experimental studies in understanding the global flow characteristics of flow over bottom

intake racks of various bar shape and opening size.

Key words: Hydraulic structures, bottom racks, non-hydrostatic pressure, open channel flow, spatially varied flow.

1. INTRODUCTION

Spatially varied flow is encountered in an open channel which has a non-uniform discharge

resulting from the addition or diminution of water along the channel. Such type of flow situation

occurs in side channel spillways, highways and urban stormwater drainage channels, effluent

channels around sewage treatment tanks, and the main drainage and feeding channels in irrigation

system. An important feature of the spatially-varied flow is the departure from the hydrostatic

pressure distribution caused by the curvature of the streamlines. In the development of one-

dimensional simplified equations, it has been customary in the past to assume that the curvature of

the streamlines and its associated effects do not influence the behaviour of the spatially varied flow

significantly. The numerical results of such modelling equations, however, have often been

compared with experimental data in which such an assumption does not strictly remain valid.

Furthermore, the slope of the bottom rack is not small to be neglected. Any attempts in extending

the dynamic equations, therefore, must be based on including more vertical details in the form of

velocity and non-hydrostatic pressure distributions as well as the effects of the rack slope. From a

practical perspective, an accurate open channel flow simulation model can provide useful

information for developing design guidelines and/or assessing the hydraulic performance of a

bottom intake rack.

Numerous investigations have been carried out on the experimental, analytical and numerical

aspects of spatially varied flow in open channels. The majority of these studies deal with the

experimental investigation of the internal flow features of spatially varied flows and also the

determination of the coefficients of discharge (e.g. Noseda, 1956; Mostkow, 1957; Venkataraman,

1977; Nasser et al., 1980a, b; Brunella et al., 2003; Righetti and Lanzoni, 2008). Compared to the

experimental studies, however, spatially varied flows over various types of bottom racks have not

been thoroughly investigated numerically using higher-order momentum-type governing equations.

50 Y.T. Zerihun

Hinds (1926) was one of the earliest investigator to carry out analytical analysis of the problem

of spatially varied flow with increasing discharge by neglecting frictional resistance. Using the

momentum principle, he developed the dynamic equation applicable to any channel, prismatic and

nonprismatic. However, the momentum flux due to the lateral inflow in the channel was not

considered as the inflow was assumed to enter the main channel at right angles. Favre (1933)

applied both the energy and momentum principles along with the assumption of uniform velocity

and hydrostatic pressure distributions to develop the dynamic equations for the cases of spatially

varied flow with increasing and decreasing discharge. In practice, however, the spatially varied flow

field is characterised by the curvature of the streamlines and, hence, by a departure from the

traditionally linear hydrostatic pressure distribution (Mostkow 1957; Venkataraman et al., 1979;

Hager, 1981; Montes, 1998; Righetti and Lanzoni, 2008). De Marchi (1934) adopted the energy

approach to develop the dynamic equation by assuming constant energy head for the case of steady

flow with decreasing discharge. For large incoming flow Froude number, however the De Marchi’s

approach for side weirs does not give satisfactory results (Hager and Volkart, 1986). Theoretical

and practical investigations of spatially varied flow with decreasing discharge were also performed

by Nakagawa (1969) and El-Kashab and Smith (1976).

A more general equation using both the energy and momentum principles for the case of steady

flow in a prismatic channel with lateral inflow or outflow has been developed by Yen and Wenzel

(1970). Their equations include unspecified velocity and pressure correction coefficients that make

the equations not readily applicable unless the distributions of these correction coefficients are

known in advance (Yen, 1971; Hager and Volkart, 1986). Nasser et al. (1980a, b) pointed out the

importance of these correction coefficients for modelling spatially varied flow situations.

Boussinesq approximation was also employed by Balmforth and Sarginson (1983) for modelling

flow with spatially-decreasing discharge due to side-weir flow. However, their method does not

satisfy the kinematic boundary condition at the free surface. Following the Nakagawa’s (1969)

approach, Castro-Orgaz and Hager (2011) recently generalised the spatially varied flow equations

for increasing as well as decreasing discharges by applying both the energy and momentum

principles. Although their energy approach yields promising solutions to the spatially varied flow

problems, the application of the specific momentum equation to such type of flow over steeply

sloping rough racks becomes slightly more cumbersome.

The above investigative efforts demonstrate the need for developing an alternative higher-order

momentum model which is capable of describing accurately the 2-D structure of the spatially varied

flow situations over bottom racks. This study proposes a one-dimensional non-hydrostatic flow

model that incorporates a higher-order correction for the effect of the dynamic pressure due to the

curvature of the streamline. Unlike the Nakagawa’s (1969) and Castro-Orgaz and Hager’s (2011)

pressure equations, the proposed model is not restricted to simulate pressure distribution profiles

over horizontal racks only. This higher-order flow model is thoroughly investigated herein for

simulating the important aspects of spatially varied flow in a channel with bottom outlets made of

thin perforated metal sheets and of bars placed either parallel to or across the flow. The lines of

flow through these bottom outlets are either nearly vertical or inclined (Chow, 1959), revealing that

the case studies are ideal for examining the performance of the model for super- and sub-critical

inflow conditions. Besides, a numerical experiment is carried out to assess systematically the

impact of the non-hydrostatic pressure distribution on the numerical solutions of the model for such

flows. It is important to note that this study does not consider the transport of sediment over the

intake racks.

The outline of this paper is as follows. In the following sections, the governing equations are

presented and the main features of the extended computational model, namely the spatial

discretisation of the equations and the solution procedures for the resulting nonlinear discretised

equations are outlined. The inclusion of the boundary conditions in this numerical procedure is also

discussed. A brief discussion of the model results is presented by comparing them with

experimental data from the literature. The paper is ended by conclusive remarks.

Water Utility Journal 11 (2015) 51

2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

For an arbitrary channel section, Cartesian coordinates such that x is horizontally along the

channel, y is horizontally in the transverse direction and z is vertically upward are defined as

illustrated in Figure 1. The one-dimensional dynamic equation (Fenton, 1996) which was developed

based on the consideration of momentum in a control volume is given by:

∂Q ∂ " Q2 % 1 ∂p

∂t

+ β $ '+

∂x # A & ρ

∫ ∂x dA − β q U

L L L + gAS f = 0 (1)

A

where S f denotes the friction slope, calculated from the Manning’s equation or smooth boundary

resistance law; Q is the discharge; A is flow cross-sectional area; ρ is the density of the fluid; p is

the pressure; β refers to the Boussinesq coefficient; g is gravitational acceleration; β L q LU L is the

contribution of an inflow of q L volume rate per unit length (negative for an outflow), with

streamwise velocity component U L and t is the time.

Figure 1 Definition sketch for an arbitrary channel section with a bottom outlet.

For two-dimensional open channel flow, the continuity equation reads as:

∂u ∂w

+ =0 (2)

∂x ∂z

where u and w are the velocity components in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively.

Using the lowest-order approximation, the horizontal velocity in a vertical section is approximated

by its depth-averaged value as:

q

u= (3)

H

Substituting equation (3) in equation (2) and integrating from z to η , the equation for the vertical

velocity distribution can be obtained by employing the free surface kinematic boundary condition,

ws = (dη / dx)u :

w= (η − z) + $1− $ '' + Z b (4)

H dx H dx $# # η − Z b &'& H

52 Y.T. Zerihun

where η is the free surface elevation; w s is the vertical velocity at the free surface; Z b is the

channel bed elevation and Z b' is the first derivative of the bed profile.

For a steady curvilinear free surface flow ( ∂w / ∂t = 0 ), the intensity of the pressure at a point in

the flow field is obtained from the integration of the Euler’s equation (White, 2003):

∂w ∂w 1 ∂p

u +w = Xz − (5)

∂x ∂z ρ ∂z

where X z (= − g ) is the body force per unit mass and ∂p / ∂z is the pressure gradient in the z

direction.

Differentiating equation (4) with respect to x and substituting the result in equation (5) and then

integrating from z to η , the equation for the pressure distribution is obtained as follows:

%

= g (η − z ) + 2 $$$$1− $ ''' 2 + Z b '' (η − z )

ρ H ## 2 # η − Z b && dx &

(6)

q " d 2q %

2

dq " dH ' % 1 " dq %

+ $ (η − z ) + 2 $ + Z ' − $ ' (η − z ) '' (η − z )

2H 2 $# dx 2

b

dx # dx & q # dx & &

The right hand side of this equation consists of the hydrostatic pressure term, the term accounts

for dynamic effects; it depends on the curvatures of the free surface and bed, and the pressure

change brought by the spatially varied discharge. In contrast to the Castro-Orgaz and Hager’s

(2011) pressure equation, equation (6) is not restricted to model spatially varied flows over

horizontal racks only. If the curvatures of the free surface and the bed are neglected, i.e.

d 2η / dx 2 = Z b'' = 0 , this higher-order equation reduces to the zeroth-order pressure distribution

equation for flow with spatially varied discharge.

q " d 2q %

2

p dq " dH ' % 1 " dq %

= g (η − z ) + $ (η − z ) + 2 $ + Z ' − $ ' (η − z ) '' (η − z ) (7)

2H 2 $# dx 2

b

ρ dx # dx & q # dx & &

For the case of open channel flow with constant discharge in the streamwise direction

( dq / dx = 0 ), equation (7) reduces to the well known hydrostatic pressure equation. It is noticed that

the term which accounts for the dynamic effect due to the curvatures of the streamlines shows a

quadratic variation in equation (6). Such an equation is suitable for predicting the pressure

distribution of a strongly curved free surface flow accurately. Replacing z by Z b and then (η − Z b )

by H in equation (6) yields the following equation to predict the bed pressure profile:

pb q2 ! 1 d 2 H ''

$ 1 dq ! q ! dH ' $ 1 dq $ q d 2 q

=H+ # + Z b & + # # + Z b & − &+ (8)

ρg gH " 2 dx 2 % g dx " H " dx % 2 dx % 2g dx 2

Differentiating the pressure distribution equation, equation (6), with respect to x , integrating

across the channel and then substituting into equation (1) yields the following equation for flow in a

rectangular channel after some manipulation using the relationships ∂A / ∂t = B∂H / ∂t = 0 and

∂Q / ∂x = q L :

Water Utility Journal 11 (2015) 53

3 dx 3

+ ( b ) 2H dx 2

Z '

−1 + $ gH − β 2 '

#

+ $ Ω + $ Z b'' +

H & dx # H 2#

' − $ Zb +

9 dx 2 & H #

''

dx && dx

(9)

2

q d 2 q 1 " dq % q 2 " HZ b''' %

− 2

+ $ ' + $ + Z b'' ( Z b' −1) ' + gH ( S f + Z b' ) = 0

3 dx 3 # dx & H # 2 &

where Z b'' and Z b''' are the second and third derivatives of the bed profile respectively and z is the

vertical coordinate of a point in the flow field. The term Ω = 2 β − β L HU L / q in this equation

depends on the magnitude of the momentum change of the main flow and the effluent momentum.

For the case of spatially varied flow problems, the value of Ω can be estimated by calibrating the

computational model using measured flow surface profile data. The calibration process of the model

is further discussed in Section 4 of this paper.

Equation (9) is a generalised higher-order equation for steady two-dimensional spatially varied

flow problems where more vertical details are significant and essential. It includes spatially-varied

discharge terms that originate from the vertical velocity profile for satisfying the boundary

conditions and can be coupled with outflow equation for simulating the important aspects of

curvilinear spatially varied flow. Compared to the Castro-Orgaz and Hager’s (2011) specific

momentum equation, equation (9) is simple to apply and does not require further mathematical

manipulations for handling flows over steeply sloping rough racks. For the case of weakly curved

free surface flow with negligible curvature of streamlines in a constant slope channel, the surface

streamline and bed curvature terms vanish to zero. Under this flow condition, this higher-order

equation reduces to the shallow water equation.

' + $ '' + gH ( S f + Z b ) = 0

'

$ gH − β 2 ' − 2

+ $ Ω − $ Zb + (10)

# H & dx 3 dx # H H# dx & 3 # dx && dx

Equations (9) and (10) will be used in this study for modelling spatially varied open channel

flow with considerable streamline curvature. The numerical solutions of the two equations will be

compared with measurements in order to assess the effect of the non-hydrostatic pressure

distribution on the simulation results of the equations.

The numerical solutions of the spatially varied flow problems using the proposed model require

mixed boundary conditions to be prescribed at the inflow and outflow sections of the computational

domain. These sections are located in a region where the flow is assumed to be nearly uniform, with

hydrostatic pressure distribution and constant discharge. The quasi-uniform flow condition

simplifies the evaluation of the boundary value at the inflow section using the gradually-varied flow

equation:

dH S − Sf

SH = = 0 (11)

dx 1− β Fr 2

where Fr is the Froude number and S 0 is the bed slope. From this, for given depth and discharge at

the inflow section, the corresponding slope of the flow surface S H , can be evaluated numerically.

At the outflow section, the flow depth is specified as a boundary condition and remained

unchanged during the computations.

54 Y.T. Zerihun

The numerical model, presented in the next section, is used for modelling steady flow in a

channel with bottom outlets. As illustrated in Figure 1, this scenario represents a case of spatially

varied flow with decreasing discharge. For such type of flow, the discharge per unit length, dQ / dx ,

through the rack is given by the relationship:

dQ

= −αCq B 2gH (12)

dx

where C q is the discharge coefficient and α is the void ratio, i.e., the ratio of the opening area to

the total area of the rack surface. The discharge coefficient depends on the hydraulic characteristics

of the approach flow, the structure of the rack and geometry of the bars forming the rack. As noted

by Noseda (1956) and Righetti and Lanzoni (2008), the value of the discharge coefficient varies in

the streamwise direction. In this study, discharge equations which are developed based on the

analysis of experimental data are used to determine the discharge coefficients.

Differentiating equation (12) with respect to x and neglecting the contribution of dC q / dx term,

which is small compared to other terms, gives:

d 2Q 1 dQ dH

2

= (13)

dx 2H dx dx

Equations (12) and (13) are numerically coupled with equations (9) and (10) for the complete

solution of the flow surface profile of the problem.

3. NUMERICAL MODEL

Numerical solution is necessary since closed-form solutions are not available for these nonlinear

differential equations. The numerical model which was developed for the simulation of flow over

curved beds (Zerihun, 2004; Zerihun and Fenton, 2007) is extended here to handle free surface flow

problem with a spatially-varied discharge. For the purpose of discretisation, equation (9) can be

represented by a simple general equation as:

d 3H d 2H dH

3

+ ξ 0 2

+ ξ1 + ξ 2 + ξ3 = 0 (14)

dx dx dx

where ξ 0 , ξ1, ξ 2 and ξ 3 are the nonlinear coefficients associated with the model equation and the

corresponding expressions can be obtained by comparing this equation with the respective flow

equation. Using the finite difference equations (Abramowitz and Stegun, 1972), the nonlinear terms

accounting for the effects of the spatially-varied discharge are discretised to:

ξ 2, j = %% Ω+ % Z b, j + 2 ( H j−1 − 2H j + H j+1 ) (((% (

$ qjH j 2q j $ 9h ''$ dx ' j

(15)

3 # ' 1 &# dq &

− % Z b, j + ( H j−2 − 6H j−1 + 3H j + 2H j+1 ) (% (

qjH j $ 6h '$ dx ' j

2

3 " H j Z b, j % 3gH

'''

1 " d 2 q % 1 " dq %

ξ 3, j =− $ 2 ' + 2$ ' + $$ + Z b,'' j ( Z b,' j −1) '' + 2 j ( S f , j + Z b,' j ) (16)

q j # dx & j q j # dx & j H j # 2 & qj

Water Utility Journal 11 (2015) 55

where h is the step size. After replacing the derivative terms in equation (14) by the upwind and

central finite difference approximations and combining similar terms together, the final equivalent

finite difference equation reads as:

(17)

+H j+1 ( 6 + 6ξ 0, j h + 2ξ1, j h 2 ) + 6ξ 2, j h 3 + 6ξ 3, j h 3 = 0

Since the value of the nodal point at j = 0 (inflow section) is known, the value of the imaginary

node at j = −1 can be determined from the estimated flow surface slope, S H , at the inflow section.

Using the discretised equation for the flow surface slope at inflow section and the expanded form of

equation (17) at j = 0 , the following implicit finite difference equation in terms of the nodal values

at j = −1 , 0 and 1 is obtained:

H −1 (−18 + 6ξ 0,0 h ) − H 0 (12ξ 0,0 h ) + H1 (18 + 6ξ 0,0 h ) + 6SH (−6h + ξ1,0 h 3 ) + 6ξ 2,0 h 3 = 0 (18)

Equations (17) and (18) constitute the one-dimensional finite difference scheme corresponding to

the third-order ordinary differential equation, which is to be solved as a two-point boundary value

problem. Generally, such problems must be solved by iterative methods, which proceed from an

assumed initial free surface position and residual discharges estimated from it. In this work, the

initial flow surface profile is calculated by linearly interpolating the boundary values at the inflow

and outflow sections. Then, to simulate the flow surface profile, equations (12), (13) and (17) are

applied at different nodal points within the solution domain and results in a sparse system of non-

linear algebraic equations. These equations together with equation (18), and the two boundary

values at the inflow and outflow sections, are solved by the Newton-Raphson iterative method with

a numerical Jacobian matrix. The convergence of the solution is assessed using the following

criterion:

"m m %

$$∑ δ H j ∑ j '' ≤ tolerance

H (19)

# j=1 j=1 &

where δH j is the correction depth to the solution of the nodal point j at any stage in the iteration;

m is the total number of nodes in the solution domain excluding nodes having known values. In

this study, a tolerance of 10-6 is used for the convergence of the numerical solution.

For the solution of the pressure equation, a similar finite difference approximation is inserted

into equation (8) to discretise the derivative term in the equation. Since the nodal flow depth values

are known from the solution of the flow profile equation, this discretised equation yields the bed

pressure at different nodal points.

A discussion of the simulation results for flows over racks with bars arranged parallel and

transverse to the flow direction, and racks with perforations is presented in this section.

Experiments were performed for all test cases in plexiglass laboratory flumes. For the simulation of

flow over such boundary, a smooth boundary resistance law, which was developed based on the

Darcy-Weisbach equation and Haaland (1983) friction factor formula, was applied for computing

the friction slope (Zerihun, 2004; Castro-Orgaz and Chanson, 2011). This method basically

developed for a flow of constant discharge is assumed to provide a reasonable approximation for

the friction slope in spatially varied flow. For computational simplicity, β was assumed as unity in

56 Y.T. Zerihun

the model. As noted by Zerihun and Fenton (2007), such simplifying assumption does not cause any

significant discrepancies between the predictions and the experimental data for uniform discharge

conditions.

For all cases of flow simulations, the size of the steps was designed to vary between 8 and 25%

of the flow depth at the inflow section. All computational results presented here were independent

of the effect of spatial step size. Besides, experimentally determined discharge coefficients were

used to assess the validity of the numerical model.

For each test case, the influence of the magnitude of Ω on the solutions of the proposed model

was assessed. Due to space limitation only the comparison of the results of equation (9) with

Righetti and Lanzoni’s (2008) experimental data for flow over a bottom rack made of parallel bars

are depicted in Figure 2. A 45 cm long rack with a void ratio and bar spacing of 0.2 and 5 mm

respectively was used to conduct the experiment. It can be seen from this figure that using Ω = 0.5

and Ω = 2 (ignoring the effluent momentum flux) were less accurate than other results. As the value

of Ω became smaller (less than 1.35), the numerical model overestimated the flow surface

elevations. A close examination of the computational results showed that, using a physically

reasonable value of Ω = 1.35 , the closest approximation to experiments was obtained. From the

analysis of the free surface profile results, it is concluded that a mean value of Ω equal to 1.35 for

this type of diversion structure does not cause any significant errors on the numerical results.

Figure 2 Comparison of numerical results for various values of Ω with Righetti and Lanzoni’s (2008) experimental

data.

Numerical experiment was performed using equations (9) and (10) in order to examine the effect

of the non-hydrostatic pressure distribution on the simulation results of the equations. As described

before, equation (10) does not include terms related to the curvature of the bed and free surface. For

this test case, flow in a channel with a bottom rack made of longitudinal bars was considered.

Figure 3 illustrates the comparison of the flow surface profiles predicted by the equations for

different main flow discharges with Righetti and Lanzoni’s (2008) experimental data. The variation

of the relative flow surface curvature, κ s H ( κ s = free surface curvature), in the streamwise

direction which was computed based on the numerical results of these equations is also depicted in

Figure 4. As can be seen from Figures 3 and 4, the solutions of equation (10) show concave flow

surface profiles ( κ s > 0 ) throughout the non-uniform discharge zone and are not in good agreement

Water Utility Journal 11 (2015) 57

with the measured data. Consequently, this hydrostatic model underestimates the total diverted

discharge through the bottom rack (mean absolute error = 12%). Contrary to this, equation (9)

simulates the convex ( κ s < 0 ) and concave flow surface profile features accurately. The comparison

results of equation (10) indicate the inaccuracies of the hydrostatic pressure approach in modelling

detailed features in a flow field where the effects of non-hydrostatic pressure distribution is

predominant. For the test case considered here, equation (9) predicts the flow surface profile

satisfactorily. However, a minor discrepancy between the numerical and experimental results can be

seen from Figure 3 in the flow region near the downstream end of the bottom rack ( x > 0.43m ). In

this region, the measured data might have some systematic errors due to the localised effect of the

stagnation point at the end of the rack (Righetti and Lanzoni, 2008, 2009).

Figure 3 Comparison of the results of numerical models with measured data for flows over a bottom rack with

supercritical approach flow.

The results of the experiments conducted by Venkataraman (1977) were selected to test the

predictions of the model. The experiments were conducted in a glass-walled, rectangular, horizontal

flume of 12 m length and 30 cm width. Racks with bars arranged transverse to the flow direction

and racks with perforation were tested for supercritical approach flow. The flow surface profile

measurements of different tests were used to validate the numerical model.

The performance of equation (9) was further assessed by considering test cases with different

main flow discharges and the results are depicted in Figure 5. The numerical model results for flow

surface profile over racks with transverse bars showed good agreement with the measured data and

captured the pattern of the flow surface curvature satisfactorily (see Figure 5a). Figure 5b showed

the comparison of the experimental data with the numerical results for flow surface profile over

racks with perforated screen. As can be seen from this figure, the numerical results correctly

reproduced the free surface profile throughout the computational domain for low flow condition.

However, the prediction of the numerical model slightly departed from measurements for medium

and high flow conditions near the downstream end of the rack ( x > 0.15m ). The maximum

difference between the experimental data and the corresponding numerically simulated values was

only 3.6%.

58 Y.T. Zerihun

Figure 4 Variation of the relative flow surface curvature along the bottom rack.

Figure 5 Comparison of measured and predicted flow surface profiles over bottom racks: a) transverse bars; b)

perforated screen.

The experimental results of Nakagawa (1969) were invoked to test the ability of the proposed

model (equations (8) and (9)) to simulate flow surface and bed pressure profiles over a bottom rack

made of perforated screen. The test run with discharge 13.21 L/s and α = 0.036 was chosen for the

verification of the model results. Figure 6 shows the comparison of the numerical results with

measured data for supercritical approach flow. It can be seen that the computed results for flow

surface and bed pressure profiles showed excellent agreement with measured data. The numerical

model was able to simulate the bed pressure near the upstream and downstream ends of the bottom

rack where high negative and positive dynamic bed pressures developed due to the convex and

concave shapes of the free surface profile. It is clear from Figure 6(b) that the pressure distribution

is definitely non-hydrostatic in the flow region along the bottom rack.

The experimental data, consisting of flow depth and discharge distributions, for flow in a

channel with bottom racks were obtained from Noseda (1956). The experiments were performed in

Water Utility Journal 11 (2015) 59

a 50 cm width channel with bottom slopes 0%, 10% and 20%, and racks made of T and L profile

bars. The length of the rack and spacing of the T bars were 90 and 5.7 mm respectively. Results for

the flow surface profile and residual discharge measurements from these tests were used for the

verification of the numerical model solutions.

Figure 6 Comparison of numerical results with measured data: a) flow surface profile; b) bed pressure distribution.

Figure 7 compares the computed results of equation (9) for flow surface and residual discharge

profiles against the experimental data points. The validation showed good correlation between the

numerical result and the measured data for flow surface profile, with maximum absolute error being

less than 3.5%. A minor discrepancy between the predicted and measured values of the residual

discharge was observed in the flow region near the downstream end of the rack ( x > 0.6 m ). In

general, the overall qualities of the numerical solutions of the residual discharge were good and

showed good agreement with the experimental data (mean absolute error = 1%).

Figure 7 Comparison of predicted flow surface and residual discharge profiles with measured data for subcritical

approach flow.

A generalized one-dimensional non-hydrostatic flow model has been developed for spatially

varied free surface flow problems. It includes the effect of curvature of the bed and free surface, in

making the pressure distribution non-hydrostatic, and overcomes the accuracy problem of the

shallow water equations when simulating flow situations that involve non-hydrostatic pressure

distribution. The equation is demonstrated to be a higher-order one-dimensional model that includes

60 Y.T. Zerihun

terms accounting for spatially-varied discharge. Finite difference approximations were employed to

discretise the flow equation. The Newton-Raphson iterative method with a numerical Jacobian

matrix was used for the solution of the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations. Spatially varied

flows over bottom racks with bars arranged either parallel to or across the flow, and racks with

perforations were considered for assessing the suitability of the model. Comparison of the

numerical prediction results with experimental data for spatially varied flows with super- and sub-

critical approach flows was also presented.

Generally speaking, the overall performance of the proposed model for spatially varied flow with

considerable streamline curvature was reasonably good. Compared to the higher-order equation (9)

model, the shallow water equation (10) model poorly described the shapes of the flow surface

profiles over the bottom racks. The comparison result reveals the inaccuracy of the hydrostatic

pressure approach in modelling spatially varied flow situations where the effects of streamline

curvature are significant and essential. The study demonstrates that accurate numerical model can

effectively supplement experimental studies in understanding the global flow characteristics of flow

over bottom intake racks of various bar shape and opening size.

REFERENCES

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