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HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION

LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

INDEX

VOLUME – I BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE FOR C-TECH

S. NO. CONTENTS DOCUMENT NO. REV


1. PREFACE A4-2070846-BEP- 3
VOL I (SBR)
2. DESIGN BASIS A4-2070846-BEP- 3
VOL I (SBR)
3. TREATMENT PHILOSOPHY A4-2070846-BEP- 3
VOL I (SBR)
4. PROCESS CHEMISTRY & A4-2070846-BEP- 3
PROCESS DESCRIPTION VOL I (SBR)
5. PROCESS DESIGN AND A4-2070846-BEP- 3
UNIT SIZING VOL I (SBR)
CALCULATIONS
6. CHEMICAL REQUIREMENT A4-2070846-BEP- 3
VOL I (SBR)
7. EQUIPMENT LIST A4-2070846-BEP- 3
VOL I (SBR)
8. CIVIL UNIT LIST A4-2070846-BEP- 3
VOL I (SBR)
9. ANNEXURE I – A4-2070846-BEP- 3
JUSTIFICATION FOR SOTE VOL I (SBR)
OF THE DIFFUSER
10. ANNEXURE II – C-TECH A4-2070846-BEP- 3
BASIN OPERATION VOL I (SBR)
SEQUENCE
11. LINE SCHEDULE A4-2070846-BEP- 3
VOL I (SBR)

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 1 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

1.0 INTRODUCTION

M/s. Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd. have been awarded the job of design, engineering.,
procurement, manufacture, fabrication, inspection, supply, transportation, transit & site
insurance, all civil, mechanical, electrical, piping, instrumentation, construction & all
other works like erection, installation, testing, painting, lining & insulation works, storage
at site, pre-commissioning, commissioning (72 hours of un interrupted and stable
operation), trial runs for 30 days & stabilization of the plant, performance guarantee test
run for 72 hours continuous operation based on design load for New Integrated Effluent
Treatment plant including All inside battery limit (ISBL) works and all outside battery
limit (OSBL) works for Mahul refinery project for M/S Hindustan Petroleum Corporation
Ltd. In State of Maharashtra, India on a Turnkey basis vide EIL Tender No. 6776/T-
056/06-07/PPS/01 Amendment I & Amendment II.

The Basic Engineering Package for the Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) includes
Design Basis, Treatment philosophy, Process chemistry and process Description,
Process designing and Unit sizing Calculations, Chemical requirement, Instrument and
Control philosophy, Equipment List and civil unit list etc. Basic Engineering Drawings
and Data Sheets are also enclosed as a part of this package.

The design and engineering of this total package is based on the flow rates, i.e. hourly
and the raw waste characteristics.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 2 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

2.0 Design Basis

Plant capacity : 300 m3/hr

 Inlet Parameters:

S. No. Parameters Units Inlet


1. pH --- 7- 8
o
2. Temperature C Amb
3. Specific gravity - ~ 1.0
4. Total BOD3days,27Deg.C mg/l 1000
5. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) mg/l 1700
6. Total suspended solids (TSS) mg/l 100
7. Oil, Max mg/l 10
8. Phenols mg/l 100
9. Sulphide mg/l 50
10. Total Nitrogen mg/l 115
11. Ammoniacal Nitrogen mg/l 74
12. Phosphorous mg/l 10

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 3 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

 Outlet Parameters:

S. No. Parameters Units Outlet


1. BOD3days,27Deg.C mg/l <20
2. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) mg/l <100
3. Total suspended solids (TSS) mg/l <10
4. Phenols mg/l < 20
5. Sulphide mg/l < 30
6. Total Nitrogen mg/l <10
7. Ammoniacal Nitrogen mg/l <2
8. Phosphorous mg/l <1
9. Oil mg/l < 10

2.1 Turndown & On-stream factor

The minimum turndown requirement in terms of hydraulic load shall be 30% and
C-Tech shall be designed accordingly. As regards pollutant load, C-Tech shall be
able to operate efficiently at any concentration within the maximum values
indicated in the inlet effluent characteristics. C-Tech shall be able to operate
continuously round the year.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 4 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

3.0 Treatment Philosophy:

Raw effluent after primary treatment comprising API, TPI, Sulphide removal, and
DAF and pH correction will be pumped directly into the C Tech Basins.

The effluent is pumped into the 3 nos. of C Tech basins. The three C Tech basins
work in sequence and influent flow is controlled using Automatic Gates provided in
the Inlet Chamber of Ctech basins. The C-Tech basins are equipped with air
blowers, diffusers, piping, Return Activated Sludge (RAS) pumps, Surplus
Activated Sludge (SAS) pumps, Decanters, Auto valves, PLC etc. All cycles will be
automatically controlled using PLC.

Excess sludge at a consistency level of approx 0.8% will be pumped intermittently


from SAS pump during decanting phase of the C Tech cycle. Pump shall operate
for 25 minutes during each decanting phase to pump out excess sludge. The
sludge is taken for sludge dewatering, after thickening.

The treated effluent from the C Tech Basins will be collected in MBR Feed Sump
from where it will be pumped to down stream treatment units.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 5 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

4. Process Chemistry and Process Description:

4.1 Process Chemistry:

a. Removal of Organics

The combined wastewater shall be taken up for Biological treatment for the
removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus, after pH adjustment by addition
of caustic or acid, as required.

The activated sludge bio system is designed as Sequential Batch Reactors


(SBR) which operates on extended aeration activated sludge principle for the
reduction of carbonaceous BOD, Nitrification, Denitrification as well as
phosphorous removal, using energy efficient fine bubble membrane diffused
aeration system, with automatic control of oxygen uptake rate, resulting in 20 –
30% power savings.

The practice of manipulating activated sludge reaction environments to obtain


maximum nitrogen and phosphorous removal has been optimized, using cyclic
activated sludge technology, by co-current nitrification denitrification mechanism.

In its simplest form, the sequences of fill, aeration, settle and decant are
consecutively and continuously operated all in the same tank, allowing up to 30-
40% space saving. No secondary clarifier system is required to concentrate the
sludge in the reactor. The return sludge is recycled and the surplus sludge is
wasted from the C-Tech basin to the Bio sludge sump.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 6 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

The system makes use of the variable volume treatment in combination with a
biological Selector and operated in a fed-batch reactor mode. The complete
biological operation is divided into cycles. A basic cycle comprises:
 Fill – Aeration
 Settlement
 Decanting

These phases in a sequence constitute a cycle, which is then repeated. During


the period of a cycle, the liquid volume inside the Reactor increases from a set
operating bottom water level. During the Fill- Aeration sequence mixed liquor
from the aeration zone is recycled into the Selector. Aeration ends at a
predetermined period of the cycle to allow the biomass to flocculate and settle
under quiescent conditions. After a specific settling period, the treated
supernatant is decanted, using a moving weir Decanter. The liquid level in the
Reactor is so returned to the bottom water level after which the cycle is
repeated. Solids are wasted from the Reactor during the decanting phase.

The system selected is capable of achieving the following:


i) Anoxic denitrification of nitrates in the Biological Selector zone of C-Tech
(Anoxic Zone) using incoming wastewater
ii) Bio-degradation of organics present in the wastewater by Extended
Aeration Process
iii) Co-current nitrification and denitrification of ammoniacal nitrogen in the
aeration zone of C-Tech basin.
iv) Removal of phosphorous

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 7 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

b. Denitrification
Wastewater enters the Selector zone in the front end of the C-Tech, where anoxic
conditions are maintained. Part of the treated wastewater along with return sludge
from the aeration basin is recycled here, using RAS Pumps. Quantity of return
sludge is 2.16 times inlet flow.

Anoxic mix compartment - Selector


The biological Selector compartment is provided with baffles at regular intervals to
ensure a complete mix regime in this section. Due to the circuitous movement of
return sludge (MLSS) and incoming effluent (high in BOD) complete mixing of the
return sludge takes place. The incoming BOD acts as a carbon source required
during de nitrification reactions. This compartment essentially acts as an anoxic mix
section. The selector compartment in the C Tech basin is a key propriety
component of the design. All C Tech plants worldwide have similar arrangement,
and achieve high degree of nitrification, denitrification and bio _ P removal.

As the microorganisms meet high BOD, low DO condition in the Selector zone,
natural selection of phosphate accumulating microorganisms and floc-forming
microorganisms takes place. This is very effective in containing all of the known low
F/M bulking microorganisms and eliminates the problems of bulking and surface
foaming.

Also, due to the anoxic conditions in the Selector zone, denitrification and
phosphorous removal occurs by co-current nitrification & Denitrification. Complete
nitrification and denitrification pathways take place with nitrification taking place
external to the activated sludge flocs and denitrification taking place within the
interior of the flocs.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 8 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

This denitrification pathway is not bound to the absence of dissolved oxygen in the
liquid phase but requires diffusion of nitrate into the anoxic parts of the floc with a
probable use of stored intracellular carbon or adsorbed organic carbon for
denitrification. During anaerobic conditions, all phosphorous that is released to the
liquid phase is totally contained within the bio solids layer.

Biological denitrification in the Selector zone by recycling of mixed liquor from


aeration zone requires nitrification of all ammoniacal nitrogen in the incoming
wastewater in the aeration zone. This requirement of plant design is met by
operating the C-tech under Extended Aeration Process with higher c values, which
ensure co-current nitrification and denitrification in the aeration zone.

Denitrification releases nitrogen which escapes as an inert gas to the atmospheres,


while the oxygen released stays dissolved in the liquid and thus reduces the
oxygen input needed for the aeration.

The process of denitrification of nitrates is represented as:

NO3- + BOD  N2 + CO2 + H2O + OH- + cells.

c. Carbonaceous BOD removal


The aeration zone of C-Tech is provided with diffused aeration to oxidize the
organic matter by Extended Aeration Process. An extended aeration activated
sludge process operates in the endogenous respiration phase of the growth
curve where the microorganisms are forced to metabolize their own protoplasm
without replacement, since the concentration of food available is at a minimum.
During this phase, the nutrients remaining in the dead cells diffuse out to furnish
the remaining cells with food.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 9 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

This system has been developed for application where minimum solids
production is desirable. Less solids production is achieved by using a larger
fraction of the entering organic material for energy rather than for synthesis. This
means that more oxygen will be consumed per unit mass of organic material
removed.

The activated sludge process is capable of converting most organic wastes to


more stable inorganic forms or to cellular mass. In this process, the soluble and
colloidal organic material is metabolized by a diverse group of microorganisms to
carbon dioxide and water. At the same time, a sizeable fraction of incoming
organic matter is converted to cellular mass that can be separated from the
effluent by settling.

Activated sludge comprises a mixed microbial culture wherein the bacteria are
responsible for oxidizing the organic matter, while protozoa consume the
dispersed un-flocculated bacteria and rotifers consume the unsettled small bio-
flocs in the treated wastewater, performing the role of effluent polishers.
The utilization of substrate by a bacterial cell can be described as a three-step
process:
1. The substrate molecule contacts the cell wall.
2. The substrate molecule is transported into the cell
3. Metabolism of the substrate molecule by the cell

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 10 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

However, as the bacteria require the molecule in the soluble form, colloidal,
spherically incompatible molecules, which cannot be readily biodegradable, have
to be first adsorbed to the cell surface and then broken down or transformed
externally to transportable fractions by exoenzymes or wall-bounded enzymes.
The organic matter will be utilized by the bacteria resulting in cell synthesis and
energy for maintenance.

The following reactions best describe the organic utilization by the aerobic
bacteria:

1. Oxidation
COHNS + O2 + Bacteria  CO2 + NH3 + other End Products + Energy
2. Synthesis
COHNS + O2 + Bacteria  C5H7O2N (New Bacterial Cell)
3. Endogenous Respiration
C5H7O2N + 5O2  5CO2 + NH3 + 2H2O + Energy

Nutrients available in the wastewater or from external source of supplements


cater to the nutrient requirements of the aerobic microorganisms and to enhance
the activity of the aerobic microbes.

In addition to the nutrient requirements, the aerobic microbes require oxygen to


sustain their microbial activity. Oxygen also functions as a terminal electron
acceptor in the energy metabolism of the aerobic heterotrophic organisms
indigenous to the activated sludge process. In other words a portion of the
organic material removed is oxidized to provide energy for the maintenance
function and the synthesis function.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 11 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

d. Nitrification

Any oxidation must be coupled with reduction, and oxygen satisfies this
requirement in the aerobic microorganisms. Extended Aeration system, with high
c values, ensures uniform nitrification performance. Nitrification results from the
oxidation of ammonia present in the sewage by Nitrosomanas to nitrite and the
subsequent oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate by Nitrobacter. The nitrifying
organisms are strict aerobic autotrophes and use carbon source present in the
sewage, in the presence of oxygen, maintained at 2 mg/l in the C-Tech to avoid
oxygen limitation. The nitrification of ammonia can be represented as given
below:

2 NH4+ + 3O2 NITROSOMONAS 2NO2- + 2 H2O + 4 H+ + New Cells

NITROBACTOR
2 NO2- + O2 2NO3- + New Cells

The diffused aeration system is sized so that sufficient oxygen is provided for
carbonaceous treatment, sludge stabilisation, nitrification and maintaining the
DO at the specified level of 2 mg/l, taking into account the reduction in oxygen
demand due to denitrification. The capacity of diffused aeration in each C-Tech
basin will be sufficient to ensure good mixing conditions during Fill Aeration
phase of the cycle of operation.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 12 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

e. Phosphorous removal
The key to Phosphorous removal is exposure of microorganisms to alternating
aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The alternating condition stresses the
microorganism to uptake higher concentration of dissolved phosphorous, from
the effluent thereby reducing the Phosphorous level in the effluent. This
phenomenon is called as Enhanced Phosphorous Uptake. Phosphorous is also
used by the microorganism for cell maintenance, synthesis, energy transport and
is also stored for future requirements.

Hence in C-Tech system, the removal of phosphorous from the wastewater is


accomplished by the enhanced phosphorous uptake rate and consumption of P
for the cell growth with selector/aeration compartments.
f. Sulphides removal
The removal of sulfides from the wastewater is accomplished during the Fill-
Aeration phase in the aeration zone of C-tech, by oxidation with oxygen present
in the diffused air.

The oxidation of sulfides is represented as:

S2- + O2 SO2

g. Phenol removal:
Phenol is a complex organic matter. This can be oxidized in aerobic biological
system with acclimatized biological environment. Ideal treatment conditions such
as maintenance of DO Levels, good settling sludge, higher SRT, good process
control, etc. will further enhance the phenol removal. C-Tech system provides
ideal conditions of biological environment for phenol degradation.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 13 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

4.2 Process Description:

The C-TECH – System is operated in a batch reactor mode, which eliminates all
the inefficiencies of the continuous processes. A batch reactor is a perfect reactor,
which ensures 100% treatment. Three modules are provided to ensure
continuous treatment. The complete process takes place in a single reactor, within
which all biological treatment steps take place sequentially.

No additional settling unit / secondary clarifier is required!

The complete biological operation is divided into cycles. Each cycle is of 3 – 6 hrs
duration (6 hours as design basis), during which all treatment steps take place.

Explanation of cyclic operation:


A basic cycle comprises:
 Fill-Aeration (F/A)
 Settlement (S)
 Decanting (D)

These phases in a sequence constitute a cycle, which is then repeated.

A Typical Cycle
During the period of a cycle, the liquid is filled in the C Tech Basin up to a set
operating water level. Aeration Blowers are started for aeration of the effluent.
After the aeration cycle, the biomass settles under perfect settling conditions.
Once Settled the supernatant is removed from the top using a DECANTER.
Solids are wasted from the tanks during the decanting phase.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 14 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

These phases in a sequence constitute a cycle, which is then repeated.

Fig. 1 A Typical C Tech Cycle

C Tech Components:
The C Tech system comprises the following features,
i) Flow Equalisation
C-TECH CAN HANDLE FLOW FLUCTUATION

ii) Biological Selector zone


ENSURES NO FOAMING AND BULKING PROBLEMS

iii) Dissolved Oxygen Control to automatically control and optimise power


consumption.
ENSURES 20 - 30% POWER SAVINGS.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 15 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

DECANTER SELECTOR

OUTLET
INLET

AERATION
GRID

RAS/SAS PUMPS

iv) Co Current Nitrification and De nitrification, Phosphorous removal


PROVIDES NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS REMOVAL TO REMOVE
NUTRIENTS MAKING THE WATER SAFE FOR WATER DISCHARGE

v) Decanter assembly in Stainless steel equipped with VFD to automatically


control rate of decanting based on input feed condition.
ENSURES NO CORROSION, LONG EQUIPMENT LIFE, NO
MAINTENANCE

vi) Diffusers for Aeration


HIGHEST AERATION AND OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 16 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

vii)Return sludge (RAS) recycle and Surplus sludge (SAS) pumps for sludge
wasting from reactor only.
REDUCES SPACE REQUIREMENT. NO SECONDARY CLARIFIER IS
USED WHICH DRASTICALLY REDUCES CIVIL COST AND
CONSTRUCTION COST

viii) PLC unit for complete automatic cycle control and operation
REDUCES MANPOWER COST COMPLETE OPERATION CAN BE
HOOKED TO CENTRAL CONTROL DESK

a) Equalization tank

In refinery effluent where wide fluctuations are expected in the feed quality, it is very
critical to provide an equalization tank, which can normalize all input variations. This
equalization facility has been provided inbuilt within the C Tech basins.

Typically, for treating wastewaters with characteristics as mentioned in the inlet


analysis, a Hydraulic detention time of 36 to 40 hours is sufficient for C-Tech.
However, we have provided 42.2 Hours detention time considering additional 2.2
hours to cater to fluctuating load conditions. In effect, the Equalization tank is built
into the C-Tech basin.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 17 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

The C-Tech basin has a fixed volume (for containing the biomass) and a variable
volume (for containing the effluent to be treated). This variable volume is designed
such that it can hold fluctuating flow rates. In effect, this volume acts like a
equalization tank. C-Tech can absorb shock loads, as it is a batch process. Every
batch is completely treated and then discharged.

The C-Tech system can take variable flow rate ranging from 30% to 100% of design
flow.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 18 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

b) Biological SELECTOR zone

The incorporation of a biological SELECTOR in the front end of the C-TECH-


Systems distinguishes it from all other technologies. The raw effluent enters the
SELECTOR zone, where ANOXIC MIX conditions are maintained. Part of the
treated effluent along with return sludge from the aeration basin is recycled in
here, using RAS pumps. As the microorganisms meet high BOD, low DO condition
in the SELECTOR, natural selection of predominantly floc-forming microorganisms
takes place. This is very effective in containing all of the known low F/M bulking
microorganisms, eliminates problems of bulking and sludge foaming. This process
ensures excellent settling characteristics of the bio sludge. SVI of treated effluent
of less than 120 is achieved in all seasons.

A coarse bubble aeration grid is provided in the selector to agitate sludge initially
at the beginning of each cycle. This operation is done for few minutes in each
R
cycle through PLC controlled auto valve. 2

Also due to the anoxic conditions in the SELECTOR zone, Denitrification and
phosphorous removal occurs in case the Ammonical nitrogen and phosphorous
levels are high in the effluent. The figure below shows the experience with SVI
developments in parallel operations with a wastewater that traditionally favours
sludge

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 19 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

Fig: Comparison of the SVI of a conventional AS plant


& a C-TECH plant at parallel operation (Grossarl WWTP)

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 20 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

The instrument and control philosophy of selector zone is as follow:

Selector zone receives flow from the inlet channel. A motorized gate opens
automatically as soon as the tank is ready for next fill cycle based on timer
settings. Once the filling is started, RAS pump starts automatically and sludge
recycle starts. There is no any speed control of the pump. It is again a timer
controlled function linked to time sequence of basin operation. When the filling
period is over, RAS pump also stops. In the present case, the sludge recycle is
maintained at 2.16 times feed flow.

Another function in selector is operation of selector air valve. The selector air valve
is opened during the start of the aeration cycle for a present time (which can be
adjusted through HMI). During the settling and decanting operation, the selector
valve is in continuously open position.

c) Dissolved Oxygen Control


The C Tech process uses measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the
basin to enhance treatment efficiency and optimise power consumption. The DO
concentration in the basin is continuously monitored using a DO sensor. Once DO
level is measured in the basins, a variable frequency drive automatically alters the
aeration blower rpm to maintain desired DO levels in the basin. This methodology
provides a true in-basin method for the efficient use of energy.

d) Decanter Assembly
The clean supernatant is removed from the basin using a Decanter assembly
complete in stainless steel construction. During decanting there is no inflow to the
basin. The moving weir DECANTER is motor driven and travels slowly from its
“park” position to a designated bottom water level. Once the Decanting phase sets

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 21 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

in, the decanter automatically lowers to the required bottom level. Variable
frequency drives are provided to control the rate of movement of the Decanters.

VFD in decanter controls and adjusts the speed of the decanter as per system
requirements. During aeration and settling phase, decanter is stationed at PARK
position. At the start of the decanting period, decanter moves up to few
centimetres above Top Water Level (TWL) at maximum speed so that the time
taken is minimum. As soon as it reaches TWL (sensed by float switch attached to
decanter), it moves down at specified speed till it reaches Bottom Water Level
(BWL). During decanting, it moves at very slow speed to achieve desired
decanting rate.

After the required level of supernatant is removed the Decanter is returned to its
“park” position through reversal of the drive. The basin is now ready for the next
cycle to begin.

Fig.: DECANTER of the C-TECH process

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 22 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

e) Operational Simplicity - Fully PLC based intelligent control


The complete CTech plant operation is controlled automatically through a PLC
system, which is a major factor in reducing operating costs. This also prevents mal
operation of the various set process parameters within the plant. All key functions
like, RAS, sludge wasting, aeration intensity, cycle time control, decanting rate etc
are automatically controlled without operator intervention as well as data logged.
Complete historical records of plant operation are available on touch of a button.
All interlocks are shown in the P&I drawing.

f) Turndown ratio
C-Tech can be operated at 30% turndown without compromising on the treated
water quality. The control system detects the level in the C-Tech basin and
automatically controls the decanter speed during the decant phase.
During maintenance shutdown of one of the C-Tech basins, the other basin can
continue to run in isolation.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 23 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

5.0 Process Design and Unit Sizing Calculations (3 Basin operation):

1. Design Basis
Inlet Flow 7200 m3/d

Inlet parameters
Total BOD3 days, 27 Deg. C 1000 mg/l
Sulphide 50 mg/l
Total Nitrogen 115 mg/l
Ammoniacal Nitrogen 74 mg/l
pH 7- 8 ---
o
Temperature Amb C
Specific gravity ~ 1.0 -
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 1700 mg/l
Total suspended solids (TSS) 100 mg/l
Oil 10 mg/l
Phenols 100 mg/l
Phosphorous 10 mg/l

Outlet parameters
BOD3 days, 27 Deg. C ≤20 mg/l
Sulphide ≤ 30 mg/l
Total Nitrogen ≤10 mg/l
Ammoniacal Nitrogen ≤2 mg/l
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ≤100 mg/l
Total suspended solids (TSS) ≤10 mg/l
Phenols ≤ 20 mg/l
Phosphorous ≤1 mg/l
Oil ≤10 mg/l

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 24 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

2. Treatment Sequence per Batch (Also refer Annexure II)


Aeration Phase 4.0 hrs
Settling Phase 1.0 hrs
Decanting Phase 1.0 hrs
Fill time (During aeration phase) 2.0 hrs
Total Cycle Time/cycle 6.0 hrs
No. of Cycles per day/basin 4.0 nos.
Total aeration time/day/basin 16.0 hrs
No. of basins required 3.0 nos.

Note : The cycle time mentioned above is indicative. Actual cycle time
will be finalized based on plant operating conditions. SBR design
is flexible to accept this variation.

3. Basin Sizing (Each Basin)


Volume of water treated / basin – A 2400 m3/d
BOD applied – B 1000 ppm
MLVSS – C 4400 ppm
MLSS 6000 ppm
F/M – D 0.130
Volume of aeration basin – (A x B) / (C x D) 4196 m3
SWD 6.5 m
Length 38.2 m
Width 17.0 m

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 25 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

4. Selector (Anoxic) Zone


Retention time 2.7 Hrs
Volume Required 810 m3
No. of selector 1 per basin

5. Oxygen Calculations:
Kg O2/Kg BOD -Standard Condition (0 0C, 1 atm) 1.45 As per tender
Kg O2/Kg BOD -Field Condition (Minimum) 2.0 As per tender
Kg O2/Kg BOD -Field Condition considered 2.54
=1.45 /(Alpha x Beta) = 1.45 /(0.6*0.95)
KgO2/hr reqd. for BOD load (A) (Std. Cond.) 435 kg/hr
Kg O2/Kg NH3-N 4.6
Kg NH3-N Removed = (Inlet NH3-N – Outlet NH3-N) x
Flow (m3/hr)/1000 21.6 kg/hr
= (74 – 2) x 300/1000 (Standard condition)
KgO2/hr reqd. for NH3-N removal (B) (Std.cond.) 99.4 kg/hr
Kg O2/Kg Sulfides 2
Kg Sulfides Removed = (Inlet Sulfides – Outlet
Sulfides) x Flow (m3/hr)/1000 6 kg/hr
= (50 – 30) x 300/1000 (Standard condition)
KgO2/hr reqd. for Sulfides removal (C) 12 kg/hr
KgO2 released per Kg of Nitrates-Nitrogen during
denitrification 2.86
Kg Nitrates-Nitrogen = (Inlet Total Nitrogen – Outlet
Total Nitrogen) x Flow (m3/hr)/1000 31.5 kg/hr
= (115 – 10) x 300/1000 (Standard condition)
KgO2 released during Denitrification (D) (Std. Cond.) 90.1 kg/hr
Total KgO2 required/hr = A+B+C-D 456.3 kg/hr
Total KgO2 required (At standard conditions) 10951.2 Kg/d

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 26 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

6. Air Requirements: R3
Effective aeration depth 5.74 m
Standard OTE (for above depth)
Please see attached Graph and calculations in
Annexure - I 29.4 %
Alpha 0.60
Beta 0.95
Actual OTE under normal condition
(= 29.4% * 0.6 *0.95) 16.76 %
% of O2 in air @ NPT 23.2 %
Density of air @ NPT 1.293
Air required at field condition
=Total Kg O2 (10951.2) / (AOTE of 16.8% x % of O2
in air of 23.2% x Density of air 1.293) 217822 Nm3/d
Hours of Aeration time per basin per day 16 Hrs./d
Number of basins 3
Air required per hour per basin 4538 Nm3/h
Number of operating Blowers per basin 2 Nos.
Capacity of Blowers required 2269 Nm3/hr
Capacity of Blowers offered 2500 Nm3/hr
Number of standby blowers per basin 1 Nos.
Total Nos of blowers 6 (4 W + 2 S)

7. Sludge Wasting:
Sludge wasted/basin (@0.26 kg/kg BOD) 624 kg/d/basin
Total sludge wasted per day 1872 Kg/d
Sludge Wasted/cycle/basin 156 kg/Cycle/Basin
Solids Consistency 0.8%
Sludge Wasted/cycle/basin 19.5 m3/Cycle/Basin
Pump running time / cycle 25 min
Pump Capacity 46.8 m3/hr
Pump Capacity provided 50.0 m3/hr

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 27 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

8. Sludge Recirculation:
(Based on guidelines of
Return Sludge ratio 2.16 technology provider)
Incoming flow rate per basin 300 m3/hr
Sludge Recirculation flow 650 m3/hr

9. Solid Retention Time (SRT)

SRT, days Volume of C-Tech basin x MLSS


(Outlet flow x outlet SS)+(Sludge flow x Sludge concentration)
(12588 x 6 Kg/cm3)/((7200 x 0.01 =39 Days
Kg/cm3)+(1872))

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 28 of 31


HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION
LTD., MUMBAI

300 m3/h EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


SFC Environmental Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
1201, Krishna Residency, Sector 30 Vashi,
Navimumbai 400705
BASIC ENGINEERING PACKAGE - C-TECH

6.0 Chemical Requirement

Nitrogen and Phosphorous are present in the effluent at concentrations of 115


ppm and 10 ppm respectively. This is adequate for cell growth considering that
the inlet BOD is 1000 ppm. However, provision is made for dosing of Nutrients
(Urea and DAP) as 10% solution in the ratio of BOD:N:P = 100:5:1. A dosing
facility is provided to prepare and dose a 10% solution of 640 kg/d Urea and 313
kg/d DAP as per the Technical Datasheet for dosing at the common inlet of the
SBR, in case Nutrients are required.

Document No. A4-2070846-BEP-VOL I (SBR) REV.3 Page 29 of 31