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LAB REPORT

Titration Lab

By

Bhitchayoot Sima-aree (Bhoom) 5961155

Yada Rojanasoontra (Jeen) 5961022

Skypet Saingthong (Gard) 5961209

Krittamet Payuhakiat (Ken) 5961111

Warinthorn Samerpak (Nail) 5961008

Teeranut Sawanyawat (Nut)

Class: 1107

Submitted to Ms.Patraphorn Sanguansat

General Chemistry 11

Mahidol University International Demonstration School


ABSTRACT

Titration is a lab technique used to determine the unknown concentration of an acid or base and is
used in neutralizing HCl acid and NaOH base. In the very beginning of the experiment the NaOH
is added into the buret, and the HCl with indicator Phenolphthalein or Bromophenol blue is added
into the erlenmeyer flask. With these indicator added into the bases we will be able to identify
visually when the bases and acid reached it neutral point. The Phenolphthalein is clear in acid and
turns pink in base solution and stays pink when its neutral, and Bromophenol blue is yellow in acid
and turns grey and stays grey when its neutral. Thus, the record from the experiment we are able to
calculate the unknown concentration of the HCl, about 4.2 mL of base were used in the experiment
with phenolphthalein as the indicator, and about 2.7 mL was used with bromophenol blue as the
indicator. After the calculation for phenolphthalein we were able to indicate the average
concentration of 0.405 M, and Bromophenol blue indicate an average concentration 0.430 M. With
these result it concludes that even though different volume of base were used to titrate but the
result of the acid concentration of both solution is the same.
INTRODUCTION

This lab experiment will be talking about titration which is a lab technique used to
determine the concentration of an acid or base and it is used in neutralizing HCl acid and NaOH
base. When an acid and base react with one another, they neutralize and produce a solution that is
not acidic or basic, but neutral. Thus, this experiment analyst can use a known concentration of
base, 0.01 M NaOH, to neutralize the unknown concentrations of each acid given. The solution of
unknown concentration (the analyte) is placed in an Erlenmeyer flask, while the solution of
known concentration (titrant) is placed in a burette with the indicator added to it. If the experiment
is done correctly the moles of base will be equal to the moles of acid and neutral water and salt are
the products.
HCl + NaOH ⇋NaCl + 𝐻2 𝐻
A + B Salt 𝐻2 𝐻

Thus, equivalence point can be used to determine the initial concentration of an acid. The goal of
the titration is to get as close as possible to the equivalence point by careful addition of the base
since it will need to ensure that calculated acid concentration is as close to the true value as
possible. Calculations are then performed to find the unknown concentration of the analyte using
the equation below anyway the titrant and analyte needs to have a 1:1 mole ratio in order for the
equation to determine the unknown concentration, if the ratio is not 1:1 then a modified version
should be used.
Macid x Vacid = Mbase x Vbase
Macid = Molarity of the acid
Vacid = Volume of the acid
Mbase = Molarity of the base
Vbase = Volume of the base
Two indicator called Bromothymol blue and Phenolphthalein are used in telling if the
solution is in a acidic, neutral, or bases state. As seen above on the chart, when indicator
Bromothymol blue is put into an acidic solution color yellow is visible until base react with it
making the solution become more neutral causing Bromothymol blue to change the solution into a
greyish color, The solution will turn blue when it surpass the neutral state and become a bases
solution. Same theory goes with indicator Phenolphthalein but instead of solution being yellow at
acidic state it is colorless and start turning more into pink when reach neutral anyway the color
pink that should be seen is a very fade pink, The solution will turn into dark pink when it surpass
the neutral state and become a bases solution.
Experiment

FLOWCHART

1. Record the molarity of NaOH solution.


2. Rinse the buret 3 times with 100 ml of NaOH.
3. [Rinse buret] add 5 ml to buret, slowly tilting the buret coating the inside of it, repeat 3
times.
4. Add NaOH into the buret again this time open the stopcock in order to rinse it.
5. Using pipette transfer 10 ml of HCl into erlenmeyer flask, add 2-3 of indicator.
( Phenolphthalein, Bromophenol Blue )
6. Set titration and start controlling the stopcock letting NaOH out of buret with one hand into
HCl while swirling the erlenmeyer with the other hand. (In the case of using
Phenolphthalein as the indicator stop when solution turns from colorless to pink and stays
pink or in the case of using Bromophenol Blue stop when solution turns from yellow to
grey and stays grey )
7. Record and repeat steps 5 and 6 two more times.
8. Repeat every steps by changing Phenolphthalein to Bromophenol blue.
9. Complete the data sheet and lab question.

RESULT

Pre Lab Question

1. How will you know when your titration is finished?


Answer When we see a light pink of the Phenolphthalein experiment for at least 30 seconds.
Bromophenol is a blue indicator. It will change from yellow to between grey and very light blue.
Stay at that stage for 30 seconds.

2. Label the pH scale below with acid, base, and neutral, indicating numbers for each.

3. On the scale above, use an arrow to show where your equivalence point is located.

4. Write the neutralization reaction that occurs between hydrobromic acid (HBr) and lithium
hydroxide (LiOH).

Answer HBr + LiOH ----> LiBr + H2O

5. What is the concentration of 10.00 mL of HBr if it takes 16.73 mL of a 0.253 M LiOH solution
to neutralize it?

Answer
Mol of LiOH = Molarity x Volume 𝐻𝐻𝐻
Molarity of HBr =𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻
16.73
Mol = 0.253 x 4.23269 𝐻 10−3
1000 Molarity = 10
1000
−3
Mol = 4.23269 x10
Molarity of HBr = 0.423269

So, the molarity of HBr is 0.42M


DATA SHEET
Concentration of sodium hydroxide :0.01 M

Balanced Chemical Equation of the titration reaction :

NaOH + HCI ---> H2O + NaCl

Phenolphthalein Bromophenol blue

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2

Initial buret 19.55 27.70 25.95 24.15


volume (mL)

Final buret 23.70 32.10 27.75 27.75


volume (mL)
Volume of 43 38 47 39
base (mL)

Volume of 0.043 0.038 0.047 0.039


base

(L)

Moles of 0.00043 0.00038 0.00047 0.00039


base

(mol)

Acid to Base 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1


Mole Ratio

Moles of 0.00043 0.00038 0.00047 0.00039


acid

(mol)

Volume of 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001


acid

(L)

Acid 0.43 0.38 0.47 0.39


concentratio
n (M)

Average 0.405 0.43


concentratio
n (M)

Calculation of Titration
NaOH + HCI ---> H2O + NaCl
mol = Molarity x Volume
NaOH:
3.65
mol = 0.01M x1000
𝐻𝐻𝐻
Molarity = 𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻
NaOH of mol = 3.65 x10−5
3.65 𝐻 10 −5
Molarity = 10
1000

Molarity of HCl : Molarity = 3.65 x10−3


Find pH of HCl (Phenolphthalein and Bromophenol Blue)
−𝐻𝐻𝐻[𝐻+ ] = −𝐻𝐻𝐻3.65 𝐻 10−3
= 2.44

DISCUSSION

POST‐LAB QUESTIONS

1. How would it affect your results if you used a beaker with residual water in it to measure out
your standardized sodium hydroxide solution?

Answer This might affect the equilibrium of the experiment shift to make it difference which this
could lead to the error of the NaOH concentration that we used more or less until the
Phenolphthalein and Bromophenol blue changed to the color that they needed to be.

2. How would it affect your results if you used a wet Erlenmeyer flask instead of a dry one when
transferring your acid solution from the volumetric pipette?

Answer There might be a mixed substance that could make the equilibrium and amount of NaOH
that we used to drop in the experiment difference and the concentration of HCl will change as well
as the amount of NaOH changed.
3. How do you tell if you have exceeded the equivalence point in your titration?

Answer Bromophenol Blue and Phenolphthalein couldn’t identify the equivalence point. For the
suggestion, we should use Bromothymol Blue and Phenol that had the endpoint same as
equivalence point to identify the equivalence point.

4. Vinegar is a solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH) in water. For quality control purposes, it can
be titrated using sodium hydroxide to assure a specific % composition. If 25.00 mL of acetic acid
is titrated with 9.08 mL of a standardized 2.293 M sodium hydroxide solution, what is the molarity
of the vinegar?

CH3COOH + NaOH ------> H2O + CH3COONa

Mol of NaOH:
𝐻𝐻𝐻
M= 𝐻

𝐻𝐻𝐻
2.293 =
9.08 𝐻 10−3

mol = 2.293 x 9.08 x10−3

Mol = 0.0201(3s.f.)

Molarity of Vinegar
0.02082044
M= 0.025

Molarity = 0.8328176

Vinegar molarity: ___0.833M__

Error in the result and Why


Many errors have been made during our lab. Color of the result was not a desirable since
we added too much base NaOH into erlenmeyer flask which changed its color. Stopcock was
handled incorrectly leading to error result.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the main purpose of this lab is to find the the concentration of unknown
hydrochloric acid and find the equivalence point of Phenolphthalein and Bromophenol blue which
in the end we needed to find the pH of the final solution. The concentration of base is 0.01 M and
the average concentration of acid is 0.405 for phenolphthalein and 0.43 for Bromophenol blue.
Base on our learning from the class, it was very importances of rinsing glassware in titration labs
which that will affect the equivalence point of each experiment that we did in class. In this
experiment, we use color indicator to identify the equivalence point. Finally, we expected that in
both acid and base experiment will give us the same amount of pH and concentration,
Bromophenol blue, and Phenolphthalein. We could say that although the amount of bases used in
the experiment is different as the indicators are different in both Bromophenol blue, and
Phenolphthalein, the results of hydrochloric acid concentration should be the same. But our result,
the concentration with the phenolphthalein indicator is just a little higher than.
SUGGESTION

1. Make sure that buret and a pipette are clean, and not contaminated by other substances.
2. Be careful when open the buret to prevent of the amount of NaOH that came out of buret in
the erlenmeyer flask. Moreover, beware the rim of the erlenmeyer flask could touch the
buret that the NaOH might stuck at the rim.
3. Since scale 0 of the buret is on the top therefore the result should be read carefully.
4. To avoid the error of the experiment, the result read from the buret and pipette should be
read at the meniscus point, and at eyes level.
5. Make sure the burets are set vertically, so you can read the scale correctly.

REFERENCES

James R. Fromm (1997). Introduction to Acid Base Titrations: Titration. Retrieved from
http://www.3rd1000.com/chem101/chem103r.htm

Softschool. (n.d.). Titration Formula. Retrieved from


http://www.softschools.com/formulas/chemistry/titration_formula/115/

Bush Tucker, 2015, September 2009. Natural Indicators. Retrieved from


https://bushtuckerchem.wordpress.com/natural-indicators/

American Chemical Society. (2015). pH and color change. Retrieved from


http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter6/lesson8

Khan Academy. (2014). Acid-base titration curves. Retrieved from


https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/chemical-processes/titrations-and-solubility-
equilibria/a/acid-base-titration-curves
Ophardt E. Charles. (2003). Acid Base and Indicators. Retrieved from
http://chemistry.elmhurst.edu/vchembook/186indicator.html

Carpi, P. A. (2017, February 2011). Acids and Bases: Chemistry. Retrieved from
https://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/Acids-and-Bases/58

Carboni G., 2004. Fun Science Gallery. Retrieved from


http://www.funsci.com/fun3_en/acids/acids.htm#13

Worklog

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