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Applied Mechanics and Materials Online: 2012-12-13

ISSN: 1662-7482, Vols. 256-259, pp 441-444


doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.256-259.441
© 2013 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

Influencing factors Analysis of Stability of Hole wall of bored Pile in


Seasonal Frozen Ground in the West of China

Zhidong Duan1,a, Yaping Wu1,b and Peiwu Yan2,c


1
College of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou,China
2
Western zhongda Construction Corporation, Lanzhou,China
a
duan_zhidong@163.com, byapingwu58@126.com, c673099007@qq.com

Keywords: bored pile, stability of hole wall, seasonal frozen ground, drilling, finite element, hole
shrinkage

Abstract. Collapsing and shrinkage of hole wall are two troubles to drilling of bored pile. In order to
avoid such troubles, ultimate hole depth of bored pile was deduced with dry excavation technology.
To hydraulic excavation technology, by the method of finite element numerical simulation and finite
element strength reduction, excavation process of hole of bored pile are simulated in ADINA and
ANSYS software, The influences of hole radius, hole depth, power of rotary drilling rig and pressure
of auger boring tool on stability of hole wall are analyzed. The analysis indicate that the major
problem of stability of hole wall of bored pile in seasonal frozen ground in the west of China is hole
shrinkage. the deeper and bigger the hole are or the greater the pressure of auger boring tool is, the
more serious the phenomenon of hole shrinkage is. Under other same conditions, to reduce pressure
of auger boring tool less than to 35KPa, hole shrinkage can be reduced effectively.

Introduction
Stability problem of hole wall is major difficulty to construction of bored pile, quality accidents such
as shrinkage and collapsing would easily take place if had any careless. Construction experiences and
the research results all convinced that formation property, slurry density, hole radius, hole depth and
drill machine, etc have influence on stability of bored pile hole wall. Wang[1] analyzed influencing
factors of stability of hole wall based on a large bridge approaching construction, his research
indicated that without considering the influence of adjacent old pile foundation, aperture, hole depth,
specific gravity of slurry, protective barrel depth and hole forming time are key influencing factors
which affect the stabilization of hole wall of bored pile. Liu [2] deduced a calculation formula of soil
stress in hole wall based on elastic theory and built criteria for stability of hole wall using
Mohr-Coulomb limit equilibrium criteria. By the methods of finite element numerical simulation and
finite element strength reduction, Wang Yungang[3] analyzed influences of soil properties, relative
density of mud, hole depth and hole radius on the stability of bored pile hole-wall.
Researches on bored pile in seasonal frozen ground are not reported. Based on construction of
bridges on road from Ming county Ming to Hezuo city, which is located in seasonal frozen ground in
the west of China, ultimate hole depth of bored pile was deduced under dry excavation technology and
influencing factors of stability of hole wall of bored pile were studied under hydraulic excavation
technology in this paper. A key operating parameters of rotary drilling rig was got which can guide
workers to reduce shrinkage of hole wall of bored pile.

Analysis Model and Material properties


In order to research influencing factors of stability of hole wall, a quarter three dimensional finite
element model was built in ANSYS and an axial symmetry finite element model was built in ADINA.
Analysis model and size ration are shown as Fig.1. region near to hole were fine meshed.
Mohr-Coulomb model was used in 2-D axial symmetry model in ADINA ,while Drucker-Prager
model was used in 3-D quarter model in ANSYS. Excavation process of hole of bored pile were
simulated by element birth and death technology.

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442 Advances in Civil Engineering II

In China, More than 75% land were covered by permanent frozen ground and seasonal frozen
ground. Road from Ming county to Hezuo city is located in seasonal frozen ground in the west of
China, most part is in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Table 1 lists the material properties of
formations in seasonal frozen ground in Gannan.

B A
d W
Ft P=Pz-Pa

3d
10d R
O
Fig.2 Force diagram of wedge
Fig.1 2-D,3-D finite element model and size ratio

Table 1, Material properties of formations in seasonal frozen ground in Gannan


order Formation depth density moisture Pore space Compression Friction cohesion
[ m] [kg/m3] [%] ration module[Pa] angle [°] [KPa]
1 mucky silt 0.5~2 1470 44.2 0.94 4.6e6 15 20.1
2 silt 0.8~3.2 1590 65.4 1.67 3.2 e6 18.5 23
3 clayey silt 2~5 1550 40.1 0.36 4.74e6 16 14
4 silt 5~10 1610 40.15 0.85 4.66e6 15.4 22.1
5 clay 2~10 1650 40.1 0.32 5.71e6 24 210

Ultimate depth with Dry Excavation Technology


Dry excavation construction of bore pile can drill without slurry, hole wall easy to collapse once earth
pressure is great than sustenance of circle arc of hole structure. So, dry excavation technology can
only be used in strong cohesion formation. A wedge OAB was selected as free-body analysis object,
it's force diagram was shown in Fig.2, where OA represents hole wall, OB represents slide face. When
soil of hole wall was in critical state of collapsing, arc support force Pz of hole structure was equal to
active earth pressure Pa. So, OB direction balance can be expressed as Eq.1
φ 1 φ
Ft = W cos(45 − ) = γH 2 sin(45 − ) (1)
2 2 2
where Ft is slide force, W is gravity of wedge soil, γ is unit weight, product of density and
acceleration of gravity, φ is friction angle, H is hole depth. According to classical slide theory of soil
mechanics, slide force Ft is also expressed as Eq.2
cH
Ft = (2)
φ
cos(45 − )
2
From Eq.1 and Eq.2, ultimate depth of hole to keep stability, H σ , can be calculated as follow:
2c
Hσ = (3)
φ
γ tan(45 − )
2
According to material properties list in table 1, the maximum of hole depth with dry excavation to
keep stability of hole wall is only about 4.14m for clayey silt, which is much less than design
requirement, so dry excavation technology can't fit for seasonal frozen ground. Eq.3 was derived from
ideal and very simple model, ultimate depth was decided just only by cohesion, angle of friction and
unit weight, isn't concerned with hole size, variety of deformation, so it's result can't rely on.
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 256-259 443

A hole of bored pile, with depth 18m, hole radium vary from 0.4m to 1.2m, suppose excavation
depth one time is 0.5, neglect rotation loads of drill tool, choice 2-D axial symmetry model with dry
excavation to simulate, each excavation step corresponds to a time step and was divided into 10
substeps. Simulation results show that in a certain range, hole radium vary from 0.4m to 0.8m, the
bigger the radium is ,the smaller the excavated depth is, exceed this range, excavated depth does not
vary with radium. Relationship between excavation depth and hole radium is shown in Fig.3. To
radium of 0.4m, excavated depth calculated by numerical method is only 3.9m.

Fig.3 The impact of radium on Fig.4 The impect of radium on Fig.5 The impect of radium on
excavated depth safe cooeficient safe cooeficient

Influencing Factors Analysis of stability with hydraulic excavation


Program of hydraulic excavation technology is much more complex than dry excavation's, hydraulic
pressure of slurry resist earth pressure, gelatinization of slurry form mud skin on the surface of hole
wall, which block water of slurry to infiltrate into soil around hole, enhance resistance to earth
pressure. Slurry properties is very important to stability of hole wall, to finite element analysis,
density of slurry, concerned with hydraulic pressure loads, is a key influencing factor. In this paper, an
optimum density parameter of slurry has already provided, focus on discuss are hole radium, hole
depth, power of rotary drilling rig, pressure of auger boring tool and excavation depth one time. 3-D
quarter finite element model was Analysis model, calculation of safe factor of stability is same to
literature 6 listed in reference.

Fig.7 The impact of power of Fig.8 The impact of pressure of


Fig.6 The impact of hole depth on auger boring tool on maximum
rotary drilling rig on maximum
shrinkage displacemnet of hole shrinkage of hole wall
shrinkage of hole wall
wall

The impact of hole radium. Hole depth of 18 m, power of rig is 220 KW, pressure of auger boring
tool is 80 Kpa, density of slurry is 1160 Kg/m3, excavation depth one time is 1.0 m, hole radium vary
from 0.4m to 1.2m. Fig. 4 describe response of safe coefficient of stability very with aperture, Fig. 5
show the impact of aperture on shrinkage of node 1447 away 12.6 m to orifice. When radium is 1.2 m,
shrinkage is 62.85mm, impact a bit on motion of auger boring tool in hole. Safe coefficients are
satisfied.
444 Advances in Civil Engineering II

The impact of hole depth. Select above mentioned analysis model with radius 0.75m, hole depth
are 10.4,18.4 and 24. after excavation, shrinkage of hole wall along hole depth is shown in Fig 6.
Results indicate maximum shrinkage is about location away 2 times height of auger boring tool from
hole bottom. Due to same radium, Fig 6 shows that the deeper the hole is, the more serious the
phenomenon of hole shrinkage is.
The impact of power of rotary drilling rig. Power of rotary drilling rig decide value of torque
acted on excavating surface,it's influence on stability of hole wall is not clear now. Select above
mentioned analysis model with radius 0.75m, hole depth 18 m, power of rotary drilling rig vary from
180KW to 420KW. Analysis results indicate power has a few influence on maximum shrinkage of
hole wall when power is less than 370Kw,but when power is above 370K, the maximum shrinkage
increase sharply. Response curve, maximun shrinkage of hle wall vary with power of rotary drilling
rig, is shown in Fig. 7.
The impact of pressure of auger boring tool. When drill with rotary drilling rig, besides
deadweight of auger boring tool and weight of cutting soil loaded in auger boring tool, hydraulic
pressure system of rotary drilling rig need to provide auger boring tool enough pressure for cutting.
Construction experience convinced that pressure has obvious influence on shrinkage of hole wall in
silt formation, and researches on this object is not concerned now. Select above mentioned analysis
model with radius 0.75m, hole depth 18m,power 220KW, pressure of auger boring tool vary from
10KPa to 100KPa. The impact of pressure of auger boring tool on maximum shrinkage of hole wall is
shown in Fig.8. To silt formation, the bigger the pressure is, the bigger the maximum shrinkage is, if
pressure of auger boring tool exceed 60 KPa, the maximum shrinkage of hole wall is bigger than
67.55mm, not permitted in construction. To excavation of silt formation, pressure of auger boring tool
is better less than 35KPa.

Conclusions
(1) To formations of seasonal frozen ground in the west of China, dry excavation technology is not
appropriate, . The major problem of stability of bored pile hole wall is hole shrinkage
(3) The deeper and bigger the hole are or the greater the pressure of auger boring tool is, the more
serious the phenomenon of hole shrinkage is.
(3) To keep stability of hole wall, power of rotary drilling rig, pressure of auger boring are better less
than 370KW, 35KPa.

Acknowledgements
This work was financially supported by the State Key Program of National Natural Science of
China(Grant No.51236003), the National Sciences Foundation of Gansu Province, China
(1107RJZA122), Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University
(IRT1139) (PCSIRT) and the Lanzhou Jiaotong University Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded
project.

References
[1] WANG Zhongwen. Research of Factors Affecting Stabilization of Hole Wall of Bored
Pile[J],Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development,2011,28(1):86-90, (in
Chinese).
[2] LIU Zhikui, LIANG Jincheng, HUANG Yingdi. Stability of hole-wall in artificial drill hole
piles[J].Mineral Resources and Geology,2003,17(5):648–650.(in Chinese)
[3] WANG Yungang, ZHANG Guang, HU Qi. Analysis of stability of Bored Pile Hole-Wall [J]
Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering. 2011, 30(1):3281-3287. (in Chinese)
Advances in Civil Engineering II
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.256-259

Influencing Factors Analysis of Stability of Hole Wall of Bored Pile in Seasonal Frozen Ground in the
West of China
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.256-259.441