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Indian Journal of Health and Well-being © 2018 Indian Association of Health, Research and Welfare

2018, 9(1), 53-59 ISSN-p-2229-5356,e-2321-3698


http://www.iahrw.com/index.php/home/journal_detail/19#list UGC Journal No 42787 and NAAS Ratings 4.13

Examine the relationship between level of aspiration,


believes in just world, psychological well-being
and quality of work-life
Manoj Kumar Pandey and Pankaj Tripathi
Department of Psychology, University of Allahabad, A Central University, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh

The purpose of this study was to (a) to see the role of aspiration in relations to the employee's psychological well-
being and quality of work-life, (b) to see the relationships between beliefs in just world with employee's
psychological well-being and quality of work-life, (c) to see the inter-relationships between beliefs in just world,
quality of work-life and psychological well-being according to the police personnel's level of aspiration, and (d) to
find out the best predictor of the relationships between level of aspiration and beliefs in just world to quality of work-
life and psychological well-being. The study was conducted on 276 (179 male & 97 female) police personnel
working in U.P. Police Organization within the age range of 24 to 59 years with mean score 40.16 years and varies in
designations from Constable to Dy. SP. Following scales were used in this study: Scale of Level of Aspiration: was a
single item scale comprises of four ranks (1. Sub-Inspector, 2. Inspector 3. Dy. SP. 4. S.P.). Believes in just world
was measured by a scale consists of eight items, assessing the belief in just world for the domain of self.
Psychological well-being was a ten items scale used to assess employee's psychological well-being, which
addresses depression, anxiety, and disturbance in social functioning and Quality of work-life scale was a single item
scale assessing the overall evaluation of police personnel quality of their work life. All these scales were based on
Likert 5-point rating scale. The results of the study revealed that: (a) Police personnel whose aspiration level is to
become SP rank officers, have more believes in just world, better psychological well-being and quality of work life
than police personnel whose aspirational level is lower. (b) Believes in just world is positively related with
psychological well-being and quality of work life (c) One of the most important contribution of this study is that the
study revealed a positive relationship between believes in just word and quality of work life that was missing in
review of existing literatures on these two variables.

Keywords: believes in just world, level of aspiration, psychological well-being, quality of work life

Employees the most important asset in the organizations that play a further leads to improves their psychological well-being. Therefore,
key role in success and failure of the organization. Satisfied, highly- these two variables namely level of aspiration and believe in just
motivated and loyal employees are the basis of smooth functioning world has been considered most appropriate in this study for
of any organization. Further, employees with better psychological determining the quality of work-life and psychological well-being
well-being are considered to be a balanced person. He will perform of employees.
his all responsibilities more intelligently, diligently and efficiently
and become successful in the profession and help his organization to
Aspiration level
achieve the goal. The first Systematic investigation of goal-setting behavior was
This study is intended to examine the relationships between some conducted by (Hoppe, 1930; cited in Frank, 1935a). The term level
of the key factors such level of aspiration (as employees personal of aspiration, introduced by (Dembo, 1931; cited in Frank, 1935a)
factors) and believe in a just word (as organizational level factors) was generally adopted as a quasi technical term to refer to
that determines the quality of work-life and psychological well- individuals' goals when engaged in a specific activity or in other
being of employees. word, it is an individual aspiration level represents him not only as is
The rationale behind the study is that aspiration is a personal any particular moment, but also as he would like to be at some point
characteristic which motivates and inspires an individual to fix up his in the future.
life goals and achieve them with their honest efforts and after wards It is a 'measure' of his intentional disposition, an important
again reset the fresh goals to be achieved. Further, this way a person element of his long behavior. It has an important place in the
goes progressing step by step in his professional carrier which psychology of personality because it is intimated to the human self,
provides him a great solace to become a successful person in his specially the individual self-picture, which gives us knowledge of a
professional life. Moreover, if an employee perceived that his/her person not only as he is but as he would like to be. This self is further
surrounding (organization) is fair or just in such a way that people get complicated by the individual's perception of and expectancies
what they deserve, and promotes a better quality of work-life and toward other and by his success or failure in achieving his goals
(Ansari, 2009).
Correspondence should be sent to Dr. Manoj Kumar Pandey The aspiration level, which a person sets up for himself frequently
Guest Faculty, Department of Psychology, University of determine by the amount of his self-esteem, which he needs to
Allahabad, A Central University, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh maintain. A person whose image is wavering (undecided) and
E-mail: dr.manojkumarpandey@yahoo.com unstable will go to extreme length to prop it up. He may deliberately
54 PANDEY AND TRIPATHI/ EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVEL OF ASPIRATION

set his sights low to convince himself that he has succeeded, or aim so load, vii) participatory management, viii) duration of work, ix) job
high that, although failure is in the cards, he respect own self in his security.
own eyes by impressing other with his high aspirations (Ansari, Quality of working life has been differentiated from the broader
2009). concept of quality of life. To some degree, this may be overly
A person's aspiration level also markedly determines by his self- simplistic, as Elizur and Shye (1990) concluded that quality of work
image specially his ideal self-image. He strives and achieve, not only performance is affected by quality of life as well as quality of
because of an external pressure in the form of group slandered and working life. However, it will be argued here that the specific
other peoples opinion, but also because of his loyalty to his attention to work related aspects of quality of life is valid.
conception of himself as persons. Thus, some individual eminence a In light of previous researches, Ganguli and Joseph (1976)
high-level aspiration with little or no thought of the opinion of other, studied Quality of Working Life among young workers in Air India
and despite repeated failures, such person's goal are self-oriented and with special reference to job satisfaction issues. Findings indicate
not too easily swayed by the pressures of culture experimentation that, expectation and aspiration of young workers affect the quality
(Ansari, 2009). of working life. Hackman and Oldham (1976) drew attention to what
they described as psychological growth needs as relevant to the
Aspiration and quality of work-life
consideration of Quality of working life. Several such needs were
The strength and weakness of an organization are determined by the identified; Skill variety, Task Identity, Task significance, Autonomy
quality of its human resources which play a vital role in success of and Feedback. They suggested that such needs have to be addressed
any organization. Quality of work life (QWL) is an essential requisite if employees are to experience high quality of working life.
for the success of any organization and an organization should be Rao (1986) conducted a study to evaluate the difference between
recognized and improved the quality of work life for their quality of working life of men and women employees doing
employees. The term QWL began to be used in a broader perspective comparable work. The result shows a significantly higher composite
after the Arden house meeting in New York in 1972, which led to the quality of working life of men and women employees. Men
formation of the International Centre for QWL (Gain & Ahmad, employees have significantly higher composite quality of working
1995) and the term was introduced by (Davis, 1975). life score for opportunity to learn new skills, challenge in job and
In general terms, QWL, refers to the favorableness or unfavorable- discretionary element in work. Rao found that age and income had a
ness of a job environment for people (Davis, 1983). It refers to the positive impact on perceived quality of working life of
quality of relationship between employees and the total working women.
environment. Broadly the definition of quality of work life involves
four major parts: safe work environment, occupational health care, Aspiration and psychological well-being
suitable working time and appropriate salary. The concept of QWL is The role of people's priorities, goals and concerns in determining
based on the assumption that a job is more than just a job. It is the well-being has been emphasized by theorists and researchers (e.g.,
center of a person's life. Bandura, 1997; Emmons, 1999). Several studies have analyzed the
Katzell et al. (1975) viewed quality of work life more broadly as an specific aspects of goals that promote optimal states of well-being;
individual's evaluation of the outcome of the work relationship. They dimensions such as efficacy in achieving goals, commitment to
observed that an employee may be said to enjoy a high quality of goals and conflicts between goals have been found to be important
working life when he has positive feelings towards his job and its parameters in explaining levels of well-being (Emmons, 1986;
future prospects, is motivated to stay on the job and performs well Schmuck & Sheldon, 2001).
and feels his working life fits well with his private life to afford him a In addition to how goals are established and achieved, some lines
balance between the two in terms of his personal values. of investigation have focused on the type of goals that people pursue
Taylor (1979) more practically identified the essential (Grant & Gelety, 2009). For example, research on personal strivings
components of quality of working life as basic extrinsic job factors of has shown that the proportion of intimacy strivings in a person's
wages, hours and working conditions, and the intrinsic job notions of striving system predicts greater levels of well-being, while the
the nature of the work itself. He suggested that a number of other proportion of power strivings is associated with a low degree of
aspects could be added, including: individual power, employee well-being (Emmons, 1996).
participation in the management, fairness and equity, social support, The role of the type of goals in well-being is particularly well
use of one's present skills, use of one's present skills, a meaningful emphasized in the self-determination theory (e.g., Kasser & Ryan,
future at work, social relevance of the work or product, and effect on 1993) in which it is considered that some types of goals favour well-
extra work activities. being, while others have a negative effect. The self-determination
Sirgy et al. (2001) suggested that the key factors in quality of theory proposes that intrinsic goals (e.g., those related to personal
working life are. (a) Need satisfaction based on job requirements, (b) growth, emotional intimacy & community involvement) are
Need satisfaction based on work environment, (c) Need satisfaction inherently rewarding, presumably because they directly satisfy
based on supervisory behavior, (d) Need satisfaction based on innate, basic psychological needs as regards autonomy, competence
supplementary gain. and relatedness. By contrast, extrinsic goals (e.g., financial success,
Ankar and Mohanraj (2013) identified prevailing quality of work appealing appearance & social recognition) involve obtaining
life, conditions in SAGO Mills of Tamil Nadu and sustain a robust rewards and positive evaluation from others, and do not directly
work culture through QWL. They identified nine QWL factors, i) satisfy basic human needs.
physical and working conditions, ii) training facilities, iii) welfare In line with this hypothesis, previous research has confirmed that
facilities, iv) interpersonal relationship, v) recognition, vi) work the distinction between the two types of aspirations is meaningful
Indian Journal of Health and Well-being 2018, 9(1), 53-59 55

and relevant (Grouzet et al., 2005). Studies involving the hypothesis believers. They also found that these attributions lead strong
of Kasser and Ryan (1996) have used measures of self-perceived believers in a just world to perceive the negative outcome as less
importance, expectancies and achievement of intrinsic/extrinsic unjust, and to have more positive and fewer negative emotions. In
goals. The results of such studies have shown that valuing, expecting terms of Dalbert's (2001) three functions of the BTW, the
to attain and perceiving oneself as having attained intrinsic goals is relationship between BJW' and mental health would be mediated by
positively related to well-being (e.g., Kasser, 1996; Kasser & Ryan, an interpretation of the event that preserves the victim's BJW.
1993-1996; Schmuck, Kasser, & Ryan, 2000). However, a
predominance of extrinsic aspirations does not favour well-being
Beliefs in just world and quality of work life
and may even have a negative effect. Extrinsic goals have also been As per the researcher review of literature, there is no studies found
suggested to have deleterious effects on psychosocial adjustment, in any relationships between beliefs in just world and quality of work
studies on adolescents (Lo´pez-Romero & Romero, 2010; Williams, life. Therefore, this study will try to find out the relationship between
Cox, Hedberg, & Deci, 2000). the variables i.e. beliefs in just world and quality of work life.
On the basis of current literature review, researcher has proposed
Belief in Just World (BJW)
following model this study:
The just world hypothesis, a scientific theory first developed by the
social psychologist Melvin Lerner based on his experiment Level of
conducted in 1965. He refers to the conviction that world is just and aspiration
individuals get what they deserve and deserve what they get (Lerner, Quality of
work life
1980). Beliefs in just
world
For example, if a person with a high belief in a just world sees a Psychological
colleague promoted, he will think that his colleague receives a proper well-being
reward for his labors or efforts. On the other hand, if the same
individual sees a colleague punished, he will likely behave that his Diagrammatic framework of the stuyd
colleague deserves him right. In other words, a person with high
belief in a just world considers the world fairness and he believes that
Objectives of the study
anyone who works hard will get a commensurate reward, which ● To see the role of aspiration in relations to the employee's
means, “You reap what you sow”. psychological well-being and quality of work-life.
The belief-in-a-just-world theory (Lerner, 1980) states that the ● To see the relationships between beliefs in just world with
BJW, according to which all of us get what we deserve, is a employee's psychological well-being and quality of work-life.
fundamental delusion that enables the feeling of invulnerability to ● To see the inter-relationships between beliefs in just world,
persist, even when people are confronted with injustice. According to quality of work-life and psychological well-being according to
Lerner, 'People want to and have to believe they live in a just world so the police personnel's level of aspiration, and
that they can go about their daily lives with a sense of trust, hope, and ● To find out the best predictor of the relationships between level of
confidence in their future (1980). The BTW is therefore aspiration and beliefs in just world to quality of work-life and
hypothesized to have the adaptive function of instilling people with psychological well-being.
confidence and giving meaning to events, which is especially
important when people face new tasks. Hypotheses of the study
● H1: There will be positive role of different level of aspiration in
Belief in just world and psychological well-being
relation to police personnel's psychological well-being and
Studies have shown that the belief in a just world serves as buffer that quality of work life.
protects subjective well-being (e.g., Dalbert, 1997, 1998, 2002; ● H2: There will be a positive correlation between beliefs in just
Dzuka & Dalbert, 2002; Libow & Doty, 1979; Lipkus, Dalbert, & world with police personnel's psychological well-being and
Siegler, 1996). There are some empirical evidences shows an quality of work life.
associations between BTW and several dimensions of mental health
● H3: There will be a positive correlation between the variables:
(Dalbert, 2001) such as it mediate the effect of injustice on mental
beliefs in just world, psychological well-being and quality of
health.
work life as police personnel's level of aspiration become higher.
Lipkus et al. (1996) found that a higher BJW is correlates
negatively with depression and stress and positively with life Method
satisfaction. Psychologically, BJW is perceived as a cognitive bias
that affects our subjective well-being. It has been described as a Participants
positive illusion (see Dalbert, 1992) which permits us to feel that we The study was conducted on 276 (179 male & 97 female) police
have more control over a situation, provides us with the opportunity personnel working in U.P. Police Organization within the age range
for favorable self-evaluations, and helps us perceive a more positive of 24 to 59 years with mean score 40.16 years. They belong from
future. Further, in a study John Neal (1998) has found that belief in a different departments of police organization and varies in
just world for the self is relates to negatively with depression, stress, designations from Constable to Dy. SP. The incidental sampling
and positively related to psychological well-being. technique was used for selecting the sample of this research. The
Hafer and Correy (1999) have shown that when high just world whole study was conducted in 12 districts of Uttar Pradesh. The non-
believers face a negative outcome, they make more internal proportional quota sampling was used to select the respondents for
attributions and fewer external attributions than low just-world the current study.
56 PANDEY AND TRIPATHI/ EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVEL OF ASPIRATION

Instruments taken as outcome variables.


Following measures were used in this study: Procedure and data collection
Scale of Level of Aspiration: It is a single item scale comprises of four Written consent was obtained from the respondents before collecting
ranks i.e. 1. Sub-Inspector, 2. Inspector 3. Dy. SP. 4. S.P. This scale is the data. Permission for data collection was sought in person or
measuring the level of aspiration among police personnel (To who they through telephonic talks with officer-in-charge at various units of the
would like to become before end of their service). For example, constable police force. After, the initial talks to the participants regarding the
were ask to rate on the rank that is closer to their aspiration level. purpose of the research, researcher ask the items of questionnaire one
Level of aspiration by one to the participants of this research work or ask to fill the
S.P. questionnaire in front of researcher, so that no chance of missing data
Dy. S.P.
and false response. They didn't allow to take the questionnaire home or
Inspector
Sub-Inspector returned it next day. The obtained data were further analyzed with the
help of IBM SPSS-23 (Statistical Packages for Social Science).
Believes in Just World: It was defined as a belief that we do live in a just
world and that life is really fair (i.e., good thing happens to good people Results and discussion
& bad things happen to bad people). It was measured by using a scale
developed by Lipkus et al. (1996). This scale measured the belief in just Role of level of aspiration in believes in just world, psychological
world for the domain of self. The scale consists of eight items. A 5-point well-being, and quality of work life
scale was used where 1=Very Much, and 5=Not at all. A higher score It was hypothesized that different level of aspiration (1=Sub-
indicates less believes in just world while a lower score indicated Inspector 2= Inspector, 3= Dy. SP, & 4= SP) will have a significant
higher level of belief in just world perceived by perceived by police role in beliefs in just world, psychological well-being and quality of
personnel. The alpha co-efficient of the scale was found to be 0.94. work life of police personnel.
Quality of Work-Life: it is a single item scale assessing the overall Table 1 (a): Mean comparisons of believes in just world,
evaluation of police personnel quality of their work life. A 5-point psychological well-being, and quality of work life of police
scale was used where 1=Very Poor, and 5=Superior. A high score personnel having different aspiration level in their current career
indicates superior level of quality of work life. The scale was the
Outcome variables
Hindi Adaptation of the General Health Questionnaire 11-item (six
positive & six negative items) version (GHQ12, Goldberg & Aspiration Believe in Psychological Quality of
Williams, 1988) was used to assess respondents' psychological well- level just world well-being work life
being, which addresses depression, anxiety, and disturbance in social SI Rank Mean 2.790 3.186 3.490
functioning. It was rated on a 5 point rating scale from (1) very less to SD 0.165 0.315 0.534
(5) very much. In item analysis, two items were deleted from the final Inspector Rank Mean 2.857 3.536 3.410
scale i.e. item no 4 and 8 due to not showing the significant SD 0.182 0.460 0.537
correlation with other items of the scale. The Cronbach's Alpha Dy. SP. Rank Mean 2.831 3.488 3.440
coefficient of this adapted scale is .796 on final 10 items. SD 0.229 0.499 0.499
Research design SP Rank Mean 2.659 3.949 3.850
SD 0.366 0.609 0.712
Researcher has used 2x2 independent factorial design in which level F 7.913*** 27.169*** 8.193***
of aspiration and believes in just world were taken as predictor
Note: *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.000
variables and psychological well-being and quality of work-life were

Table 1 (b): Multiple comparisons based on fisher's least significant difference (LSD) was applied to
identify the pairs of means which are statistically different as a post-hoc tests
Dependent variable (I) Aspiration (J) Aspiration Mean difference (I-J) Sig.
Believe in just world SI Rank SP Rank -.13077* .003
Inspector Rank SP Rank -.19753* .000
Dy. SP Rank SP Rank -.17157* .000
Psychological well-being SI Rank Inspector Rank -.35058* .000
Dy. SP Rank -.30251* .000
SP Rank -.76308* .000
Inspector Rank SP Rank -.41250* .000
Dy. SP Rank SP Rank -.46057* .000
Quality of Work Life SI Rank SP Rank -.35400* .000
Inspector Rank SP Rank -.43800* .000
Dy. SP Rank SP Rank -.40300* .000
p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.000, Note: Higher Scores on Believes in Just World indicates less Believes in Just
World, Higher Scores on Psychological Well-Being indicates higher Psychological Well-Being, igher Scores on
Quality of Work Life indicates Superior Quality of Work Life.
Indian Journal of Health and Well-being 2018, 9(1), 53-59 57

The result of the table (1a) shows that the means of different level of maximum power and control over other police personnel in a
aspiration are showing a significant difference between different district. A person's aspiration level also significantly determines by
levels of aspiration in perception of beliefs in just world, his self-image specially his ideal self-image. He strives and achieve,
psychological well-being and quality of work life which supports the not only because of an external pressure in the form of group
hypothesis H1, but it is not clear that which level of aspiration (in slandered and other peoples opinion, but also because of his loyalty
terms of different ranks) is more important in contributing beliefs in to his conception of himself as persons. Thus, some individual
just world, psychological well-being and quality of work life of eminence a high-level aspiration with little or no thought of the
police personnel. Therefore, Fisher's Least Significant Difference opinion of other, and despite repeated failures, such person's goal are
(LSD) was applied to identify which pairs of means are statistically self-oriented and not too easily swayed by the pressures of culture
different as a Post-Hoc Tests. experimentation (Ansari, 2009).
The results of table 1(b) shows that the mean differences on
Relationships between believe in just world with
believes in just world measure is found significant in police
personnel whose aspiration level following groups such as sub- psychological well-being, quality of work life
inspector and SP; Inspect and SP; Dy. SP. and SP Rank officers It was hypothesized that there will be a positive correlation between
● In case of believes in just world, police personnel whose aspiration beliefs in just world with police personnel's psychological well-
level is to become SP in future have more believes in just world than being and quality of work life.
in compare to the police personnel whose career aspiration is to Table 2: Coefficient of correlation between believes in just world
become sub-inspector or inspector or Dy. SP. rank officers and psychological well-being, and quality of work-life measures
respectively. used in police personnel having different carrier aspiration level
● In case of psychological well-being, police personnel whose
Believes in just world Psychological well-being Quality of work life
aspiration level is to become SP in future have more better
psychological well-being than in compare to the police personnel -.206** -.381**
whose career aspiration is to become inspector or Dy. SP. or sub- Note: **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
inspector rank officers respectively. Higher Scores on Believes in just world indicates less believes in just world.
● In case of quality of work life, police personnel whose aspiration higher scores on psychological well-being indicates higher psychological
level is to become SP in future have better quality of work life than in well-being. higher scores on quality of work life indicates superior quality
compare to the police personnel whose career aspiration is to become of work life.
sub-inspector or Dy. SP. or inspector rank officers respectively. Results of the table shows that believes in just world is positively
In short, It can be said that police personnel whose aspiration level related with psychological well-being and quality of work life which
is to become SP rank officers have more believes in just world, better indicates that believes in just world in police personnel leads to high
psychological well-being and quality of live than police personnel level of psychological well-being and superior level of quality of
whose aspirational level is lower. work life in them, supports the hypothesis H2.
The result can be understood in light of people need, satisfaction, Inter-correlation of believes in just world, psychological well-being,
and desire to have power and control over others. A SP rank is one of and quality of work life
the most powerful designation in police department. He/she has the

Table 3: Inter-correlation of believes in just world, psychological well-being and quality of work life
Level of aspiration Believes in just world Psychological well-being Quality of work life
Sub Inspector Believes in Just World -1 -0.079 -0.162
Psychological Well-Being -0.079 -1 -0.134
Quality of Work Life -0.162 -0.134 -1
Inspector Believes in Just World -1 -0.334* -0.137
Psychological Well-Being -0.334* -1 -0.180
Quality of Work Life -0.137 -0.180 -1
Dy. SP Believes in Just World -1 -0.288** -0.113
Psychological Well-Being -0.288** -1 -0.029
Quality of Work Life -0.113 -0.029 -1
SP Believes in Just World -1 -0.604** -0.592**
Psychological Well-Being -0.604** -1 -0.608**
Quality of Work Life -0.592** -0.608** -1
Note: **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) & *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Higher Scores on Believes in Just World indicates less Believes in Just World
Higher Scores on Psychological Well-Being indicates higher Psychological Well-Being
Higher Scores on Quality of Work Life indicates Superior Quality of Work Life.
58 PANDEY AND TRIPATHI/ EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVEL OF ASPIRATION

It was hypothesized that there will be a positive correlation between rights as compare to higher rank officers. Due to this (lack of lesser
beliefs in just world, psychological well-being and quality of work power, control, & rights), sub inspectors rank officers didn't get
life as police personnel's level of aspiration become higher. affected by believes in just world.
The result of the table shows that: (a) In case of aspiration level of Psychologically, believes in just world is perceived as a cognitive
Sub Inspectors, there is a no significant relations found between bias that affects our subjective well-being. It has been described as a
believes in just world with psychological well-being and quality of positive illusion (Lerner, 1980; Dalbert, 1992) which permits us to
work life. This indicates that police personnel whose career feel that we have more control over a situation, provides us with the
aspiration is to become at least sub inspector rank, have perceived opportunity for favorable self-evaluations, and helps us perceive a
low believes in just world that further decline their overall evaluation more positive future. Further the findings were also supported by
of psychological well-being and quality of work-life. (b) In case of John Neal (1998) study in which he has found that belief in a just
aspiration level of Inspectors and Dy. SP., there is a significant world for the self is relates to negatively with depression, stress, and
positive correlations found between believes in just world with positively related to psychological well-being.
psychological well-being and but no correlation with quality of work Studies have shown that the belief in a just world serves as buffer
life. This specifies that police personnel whose career aspiration is to that protects subjective well-being (e.g., Dalbert, 1997, 1998, 2002;
get inspector or Dy. SP rank, have more believes in just world and Dzuka & Dalbert, 2002; Libow & Doty, 1979; Lipkus, Dalbert, &
that further, improve their psychological well-being (r= .334*; Siegler, 1996). There are some empirical evidences shows an
r=.288**) but there is no improvement in quality of work life and associations between BTW and several dimensions of mental health
vice versa. (c) In case of aspiration level of SP, believes in just world (Dalbert, 2001) such as it mediate the effect of injustice on mental
is positively related with psychological well-being and quality of health.
work life of police personnel which specifies that police personnel
whose career aspiration is to get SP rank, have more believes in just Predictors of the psychological well-being and quality
world and that further, advances their psychological well-being (r= - of work-life
.604**) and quality of work life (r=-.592**). It was also found that Since, on the basis of bivariate correlational analysis, it may be said
Psychological Well-Being is also positively related to quality of that police personnel's aspiration level and believes in just world
work life (r= .608**) and vice versa, supports the hypothesis were significantly correlated with better psychological well-being
H3. and quality of work life, but it is not sure that which one is the best
Above results can be understood in terms of the power and rights predictors for the outcome variables. So that the stepwise
that is centralized towards the higher authorizes in this terms sub regression analysis is used for predicting the outcome variable
inspectors rank officers have less power, control (Dalbert, 1992) and more accurately.

Table 4: Stepwise regression analysis of level of aspiration and believe in just world on psychological well-being and quality of work
life in police personnel
Predictor Variable Criterion Variables R Adjusted R Square R Square Change Standardized Coefficient (β) t
Level of Aspiration Psychological .436 .187 .190 -.414 -7.600***
Believe in Just World Well-Being .458 .204 .019 -.140 -2.573*
Believe in Just World Quality of .381 .145 .145 -.361 -6.434***
Level of Aspiration Work-Life .402 .162 .016 -.128 -2.289*
***p< .001 level, **p< .01 level, *p<.05 level (2-tailed test)
Note : Higher Scores on Believes in Just World indicates less Believes in Just World
Higher Scores on Psychological Well-Being indicates higher Psychological Well-Being
Higher Scores on Quality of Work Life indicates Superior Quality of Work Life.

Simple regression analysis was carried out by using level of believes in just world has contributed only 14.0 % variation in
aspiration and believes in just world as predictive variables and psychological well-being. (b) In case of quality of work life, again
psychological well-being and quality of work life as criterion both predictive variable were found as significant predictors of
variables. Since it was not possible to establish any theoretical quality of work life, but believes in just world was emerged as the
hierarchy of variables, a step-wise regression was done. Findings best predictor (β=-.361, t=-6.434***, p<.000) of quality of work life
revealed that (a) In case of psychological well-being, both were in police personnel. It specifies that believes in just world has
found as predictor variable of psychological well-being. In other accounted for maximum variation in quality of work life (36.10 %)
word, level of aspiration of police personnel was found the best while aspiration level has contributed only 12.80% variation in
predictor for maximizing psychological well-being of police psychological well-being.
personnel (β=.414, t=7.600, p<.001) and has accounted for Results can be interpreted in light of studies done by (Bandura,
maximum variation in psychological well-being (41.40%) while 1997; Emmons, 1999). According to them, the role of people's
Indian Journal of Health and Well-being 2018, 9(1), 53-59 59

priorities, goals and concerns in determining today's well-being. Emmons, R. A. (1986). Personal strivings: An approach to personality and subjective
well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1058-1068.
Studies have shown that valuing, expecting to attain and perceiving
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oneself as having attained intrinsic goals is positively related to well- spirituality in personality. New York: Guilford.
being (e.g., Kasser, 1996; Kasser & Ryan, 1993-1996; Schmuck, Frank, J. D. (1935a). Individual differences in certain aspect of the level of aspiration.
Kasser, & Ryan, 2000). However, a predominance of extrinsic American Journal of Psychology, 47, 119-128.
aspirations does not favour well-being and may even have a negative Gain, A., & Ahmed, R. (1995). Correlates of QWL: An analytical study. Indian Journal
of Industrial Research, 31(1), 1-17.
effect. Extrinsic goals have also been suggested to have deleterious
Ganguly, O.N., & Joseph, J.S. (1976). Quality of working life: Work prospects and
effects on psychosocial adjustment, in studies on adolescents aspirations of young workers in air India. Bombay, Central Labour Institute.
(Lo´pez-Romero & Romero, 2010; Williams, Cox, Hedberg, & Deci, Goldberg, D., & Williams, P. (1988). A users guide to the general health questionnaire.
2000). Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
Grant, H., & Gelety, L. (2009). Goal content theories: Why differences in what we are
On the other hand, studies have shown that the belief in a just
striving for matter. In B. Moskowitz and H. Grant (Eds.), The psychology of goals
world serves as buffer that protects subjective well-being (e.g., (pp. 77-97). New York: Guilford.
Dalbert, 1997, 1998, 2002; Dzuka & Dalbert, 2002; Libow & Doty, Grouzet, F. M. E., Kasser, T., Ahuvia, A., Fernandez-Dols, J. M., Kim, Y., Lau, S., Ryan,
1979; Lipkus, Dalbert, & Siegler, 1996). There are some empirical R.M., Saunders, S., Schmuck, P., & Sheldon, K.M. (2005). The structure of goal
contents across 15 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 800-
evidences shows an associations between BTW and several
816.
dimensions of mental health (Dalbert, 2001) such as it mediate the Hackman, J.R., & Oldham, G.R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of
effect of injustice on mental health. It was found more as a mediating a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279.
variable rather than a direct effect. Hafer, C.L., & Correy, B.L. (1999). Mediators of the relation between beliefs in a just
world and emotional responses to negative outcomes. Social justice Research,12,
Conclusion 189-202.
Hoppe, F. (1930). Erfolg und misserfolg. Psychologische Forschung, 14, 1-62.
There is no significant difference was found on the basis of gender. Kasser, T. (1996). Aspirations and well-being in a prison setting. Journal of Applied
One of the most important contribution of this study is that the study Social Psychology, 26, 1367-1372.
Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of
revealed a positive relationship between believes in just word and
financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social
quality of work life that was missing in review of existing literature Psychology, 65, 410-422.
on these two variables. Believes in the just world was also found the Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential
best predictor of quality of work life and explained the variation of correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology
Bulletin, 22, 280-287.
36.10 %.
Katzell, R.A., Yankelovich, D., Fein M., Ornate, D.A., & Nash, A. (1975). Work
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