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An electrical transformer is a static device which is used for the transformation of

AC electrical signal in one circuit to the electrical signal of the same frequency in
another circuit with a little loss of power. The voltage in a circuit can be increased
or decreased, but with a proportional increase or decrease in the current ratings.

There are different types of transformers and it can be classified based on

different criteria like function, core, etc.

Types of Transformers:

Step-Up Transformer

Step Up Transformer
A step up transformer is the one in which the primary voltage of the coil is lesser
than secondary voltage. A Step-up transformer can be used for increasing voltage
in the circuit.

Step-Down Transformer

Step down transformer

A step-down transformer is used for reducing the voltage. The type of
transformer in which the primary voltage of the coil is greater than the secondary
voltage is termed as step down transformer. Most power supplies use a step-
down transformer to reduce the dangerously high voltage to a safer low voltage.

Classification according to core

Core Type Transformer

Core Type Transformer

In this type of transformer, the windings are given to the considerable part of the
circuit in the core type of the transformer. The coils used are of form-wound and
cylindrical type on the core type. It has a single magnetic circuit. In core type
transformer, the coils are wounded in helical layers with different layers insulated
from each other by materials like mica. The core is having two rectangular limbs
and the coils are placed on both the limbs in the core type.
Shell Type Transformer

Shell type transformer

In this type of transformer, the windings are given to the considerable part of the
circuit in the core type of the transformer. The coils used are of form-wound and
cylindrical type on the core type. It has a single magnetic circuit. Each high voltage
coil is in between two low voltage coils and low voltage coils are nearest to top
and bottom of the yokes. The shell type construction is mostly preferred for
operating at very high voltage of transformer. Natural cooling does not exist in
the shell type transformer as the winding in the shell type is surrounded by the
core itself. A large number of winding are needed to be removed for better
Other Types of Transformers

The types of transformers differ in the manner in which the primary and
secondary coils are provided around the laminated steel core of the transformer:

• Based on winding, the transformer can be of three types

1. Two winding transformer (ordinary type)

2. Single winding (auto type)

3. Three winding (power transformer)

• Based on the arrangement of the coils the transformers are classified as:

1. Cylindrical type

2. Disc type

• According to use

1. Power transformer

2. Distribution transformer

3. Instrument transformer

Instrument transformer can subdivided into two types:

a) Current transformer

b) Potential transformer
• According to the type of cooling the transformer can be of two types

1. Natural cooling

2. Oil immersed natural cooled

3. Oil immersed natural cooled with forced oil circulation

Summary on How a Transformer Works

The operation of transformer mainly works on the principle of mutual inductance

between two circuits linked by a common magnetic flux. A transformer is basically
used for transformation of electrical energy.

Transformers consist of types of conducting coils as primary winding and

secondary windings. The input coil is called the primary winding and the output
coil is called the secondary winding of the transformer. There is no electrical
connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an alternating
magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in
the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core. Transformers waste very little
power so the power out is almost equal to the power in. The primary coil and the
secondary coil posses high mutual inductances. If one of the coils is connected to
the source of alternating voltage, then an alternating flux will set up in the
laminated core. This flux gets linked up with the other coil and an electromagnetic
force is induced, as per Faraday’s law of electromagnetic inductance. e = M di/dt
Where e is induced EMF M is mutual inductance If the second coil is closed then
the current in the coil is transferred from primary coil of the transformer to the
secondary coil.
Ideal power equation of transformer

While we focus on our query of how do transformers work, the basic we need to
know is about the ideal power equation of transformer.

Ideal power equation of transformer

If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow in the circuit,
electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit.

Ideally, the transformer is perfectly efficient; all the incoming energy is

transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary
circuit. If this condition is met, the incoming electric power must equal the
outgoing power:

Giving the ideal transformer equation

Transformers normally have high efficiency, so this formula is a reasonable

approximation.If the voltage is increased, then the current is decreased by the
same factor. The impedance in one circuit is transformed by the square of the
turn’s ratio.
1) We construct our preffered design of transformer to find the availability factor and cost
of the materials.

Specification and available material:

Input voltage: 220V

Output voltage: 110V

Current needed: 1.7A-2A

Available core (Area): 2.6cm x 3cm (7.8cm2)

2) We Compute for the Power of the transformer using the acquired data from step no. 1

Power of transformer:

P= IVout P= IVout

P= 1.7A (110V) P= 2A (110V)

P= 187W P= 220W

Therefore, Power= 180W-220W

3) For the core size,we based the computation to the table available in this site

For core size, in table of formulas,

Core Turns by Volt Area (cm2)

2.2x2.8 7 6.16
2.5x1.8 9.3 4.5
2.5x2.8 6 7
2.8x1.5 10 4.2
2.8x2.5 6 7

We have a core of 7.8cm2 and almost the same of 7cm2 in the table, therefore the turns
by volt of the transformer is 6 turns.
4) For magnetic wire needed (output),

In table; (note: we need a current of 1.7A-2A)

For magnetic wire needed (output),

In table; (note: we need a current of 1.7A-2A)

Caliber Circular Mills Diameter mm. Amperage

20 1.022 0.81 2.6
21 810 0.72 2.0
22 642 0.65 1.6
23 6.58 0.57 1.2

Therefore we used a 21 size of magnetic wire for the output windings..

For computing the number of windings first summarize the computed/ specification.

Input voltage= 220V

Output voltage= 110V

Current range= 1.7A-2A

Power range= 180W-220W

Available core= 7.8cm2 (2.6cm x 3cm)

Number of turns= 6 turns/ volt

Compute for primary winding: Compute for secondary windings:

n= 220V (6turns/1V) n= 110V (6turns/1V)

n primary= 1320 turns n secondary = 660t urns

5) Preparation of Materials (based on the computation and availability of

6) Winding of the wire to the bobbin. (Primary and Secondary)

Note: We use an adhesive tape to mark the no.s of turn to avoid confusion and
manual and technical errors to the result.
7) Application of I and E core.

Initial Application

Final Application (For Toughness and Durability & for polishing)