Sie sind auf Seite 1von 78

Ingenieurfakult¨at construction Geo environmental

CHAIR ur Computergest¨ -assisted modeling and simulation

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andr'e Borrmann

Partial Automated modeling of temporary structures and

construction material

Stefan Schirmer

Bachelor Thesis F

for the Bachelor of Science program in Environmental Engineering

Author: Stefan Schirmer


Supervisor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andr'e Borrmann

Alexander Braun, M.Sc.

Date of issue: 01. November 2016

Due date: April 27, 2017


Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a new kind of construction planning. It rings in a new era of digital planning by

generating a 3D model building, as well as parameterization and administration of its data. This digital planning Enables a

better cooperation between companies, Which are Involved in the building process.

The BIM can therefore be used for checking the construction process, in order to gain higher ef fi ciency, security and Earlier

error detection. This serves to minimize delays Concerning time and costs. THEREFORE, a reference model is created,

Which Refers to the 3D building model in its target state. This state is then Compared to a laser scanning point cloud, Which

Refers to the actual state of the building. At the moment the reference model is not including construction objects: such as

formwork, sca ff olding and construction material, For Example reinforcement. This may lead to fewer matches during the

point adjustment, Which can lead to the believe of errors where there are no ones, or worse, actual Deviations might be lost

by inaccuracy. The goal of this bachelor's thesis is to minimize this inaccuracy Compared to the reference model. THUS,

for children, "All which is kindly

provided by the chair of computer aided modeling and simulation, is updated with formworkand reinforcment-speci fi c

objects. This thesis is written in addition to the work of Alexander Braun, M.Sc. (Chair of computer aided modeling and


The thesis Compares di ff erent software solutions Concerning formwork modeling. The solutions used are PERI CAD and

DokaCAD, Which are Compared Concerning Their compatibility with Autodesk Revit, as well as Their ability to perform did

modeling tasks partly automatic and with few e ff ort for the user. Due to errors in the model, the automatic modeling only

works in parts. THEREFORE, this thesis analyzes manual techniques, Which serve to master the required task. The errors

in the model are Caused by the di ff erent interpretations of geometric information, Which are created by the data exchange

of the di ff erent programs. After a successful modeling, this incompatibility of the data formats complicates the resettlement

into the reference model. In the end,


The building information modeling (BIM) is a new type of building design, which by generating a 3D Geb¨audemodells, as
well as parameterization and management of the data of a new ¨

Era of digital planning and especially the collaboration between

rule einl¨autet the companies involved.

BIM can also be used in the construction progress to where a higher E ffi ciency, security and a fr

to achieve and uhere error detection thus

to minimize variations in time and on budget. Here, a reference model gescha ff s, which corresponds to the 3D

Geb¨audemodell in the target state, and compared to a 3DLaserscanning point cloud, the actual state of the structure. So far

the reference model does not include structures such as formwork, GER

ustbau and

Construction materials such as rebar. This can lead to less ¨ Ubereinstimm-

Ungen F at point adjustment clocks, which eventually assumed error in some places

be on what are not, or more serious is that tats¨achliche deviations are lost due to the inaccuracy.

The aim of this thesis is to counter inaccuracy over the reference model to mini-

nimize. Therefore, the existing model of the "house will f for Children, "which the

CHAIR ur Computergest¨ -assisted modeling and simulation features ugung is found

supplemented by formwork and bewehrungsspezi fi c objects. This is done in complement to the research by Alexander

Braun, M.Sc. (CHAIR ur Computergest¨ NEWTs Mo-

model- ling and simulation, te unchen).

Here are several Softwarel¨osungen for formwork modeling, PERI CAD and DokaCAD, based on their compatibility with

Autodesk Revit and their capacity, said modeling and partly automatically little effort of the user durchzuf¨


compared. Since the automated modeling often work only partially due to errors in the model, manual methods are

examined, with which the task Let accomplish. The error in the model arise from the different interpretation of geometric

information when exchanging data between programs. This incompatibility of file formats more difficult following the

successful modeling the r

uckf¨ guidance in the reference model. Ultimately, this is indeed the wt unschte

Result of additionally modeled formwork and reinforcement components achieved in the reference model, but go a lot of

information lost during import.


Table of Contents

1 Introduction guidance and goal of the work 1

1.1 EASY guidance , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 1

1.2 motivation and objective of the work , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 3

1.3 Structural design work , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 4

2 Building Information Modeling 5

2.1 What is BIM? , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 5

2.2 Data exchange format Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) , , , , , , , , , , , 7

2.3 EASY uhrungsstand BIM , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 8th

3 construction progress 12

3.1 Previous approaches , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 12

3.2 Automated construction progress , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 14

4 Design of formwork components 17

5 Modeling of temporary structures and construction material 23

5.1 Modeling of formwork elements , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 23

5.1.1 Softwarel¨osungen: PERI CAD vs. DokaCAD8 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 23 Basic software problems , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 23 Revit and AutoCAD Export Import , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 24 AutoCAD Export and Import Revit , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 27

5.1.2 PERI CAD , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 29 Installation of PERI CAD , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 29 first modeling experiments without HfK model , , , , , , , , 30 Manual modeling on HfK model , , , , , , , , , , , , 34 export from PERI CAD and imported into Revit , , , , , , , , , 41

5.1.3 DokaCAD8 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 43 Installing DokaCAD8 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 44 first modeling experiments , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 44 Formwork modeling on HfK model , , , , , , , , , , , , 48 export from and import into Revit DokaCAD , , , , , , , , , , 54

5.1.4 Comparison of formwork modeling between PERI CAD and DokaCAD 55

5.1.5 formwork of Revit families , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 59

5.2 Modeling of reinforcing elements , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 60

5.2.1 Softwarel¨osungen: Revit internally vs. So fi CAD , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 60

5.2.2 internally Revit , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 60

5.2.3 SOFiCAD , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 62

6 Conclusion and outlook 63

7 Appendix A 65

ABK urzungsverzeichnis

BIM Building Information Modeling

NBIMS National BIM Standard

TGA Technical Geb¨audeausr¨ ustung

LV Bid document

IFC Industry Foundation Classes

NBIMS National BIM Standard

NIBS National Institute of Building Sciences

AIA American Institute of Architects

HOAI Fee Structure F for Architects and Engineers

UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems

RFID Radio Frequency Identi fi cation

BMVBS Federal Ministry for for Transport, Building and Urban Development

Chapter 1

EASYguidance and goal of the work

1.1 EASY guidance

The housing shortage in Germany and especially in the busy Großst¨adten policy and construction industries alike. the R

uckgang of completed flats of

For example, once 406,567 (in 1999 to only 136,518 in 2009 Dorfmeister and Gluch .

2013 ) Meant that in M ​alone unchen to date a de fi cit of 40,200 flats

has set.

over the figures from 2009 not ucksichtigen this course by the migration

tion movements in J ungster time has become experience dictate housing ( Fabricius . 2015 ).

According to studies M ussten in Germany annually by the year 2020 400.000 apartments

be built to meet the needs and de fi cits remanufacturing. Demand from the migration here alone produces a j¨ahrlichen

needs of around 100,000 homes ( Seibel . 2015 ).

the STUFFED F involve uhrten de fi cits for the entire housing industry has great potential. These

Potential lies not only in the enormous increase of Bauauftr¨agen, but also in the restructuring of the market. Here, let new

areas nd example in the area of ​extension of Wertsch¨opfungskette to recycling Bausto ff s, fi. The theme of the smart home,

in which cross-links the functions inside the home and can be controlled best, fall within this range ( Thomas Baumanns . 2016

). the Zuk

However unftig expected construction boom also poses certain requirements. Not only the

Bauprozessgeschwindigkeit will have to be increased, but the company will continue to resist the due internationalization

competition M Ussen

( Girmscheid . 2010 ).
1.1. Introduction 2

to stay Wettbewerbsf¨ahig this means not only the still ongoing Fachkr¨aftemangel to counteract ( Thomas Baumanns . 2016 )

But also to adapt to the demands of the market ver¨andernden as a result of internationalization.

Since the localized economy to international BeschA ff ungs- and sales market ever has Geo ff net, companies focused

recently more on core competencies, Nebent¨atigkeiten were outsourced to entrepreneurs night. This is particularly true F

for the construction sector, which its services to more comprehensive offerings

needs to expand. meanwhile m these must now its services to more comprehensive offerings

expand. Their skills belong planning, exit guiding and operating / maintenance, as well as

life-cycle-oriented Baul¨osungen. In addition to guarantees f for operation and under-

stop over a certain period of use in the investment costs be included ( Girmscheid .

2010 ).

The Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) Offers F for these requirements comprehensive

Slogans, as it ¨ on the consistent further use of digital data over the entire

Life cycle of a building is based. By using prede fi fi c bauspezi ned objects, components can with certain parameters and

characteristics are provided. This allows a wide range of simulation and Kalkulationsm¨oglichkeiten which are mainly used to

estimate the costs and e ff ektivit¨at ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ).

Among the Simulationsm¨oglichkeiten fi to which the design phase already allowed during collisions between the

components of individual systems or static point of view to fix it, the clash detection, friend. While this requires an elevated

planning effort, but guaranteed in the later construction safety BEZ

respect misplanning

as well as schedule and cost security.

The requirements of internationalization are supplemented by the requirements of the general market trends in the

construction industry. To pay especially the area of ​energy conservation and energy e fi ciency ( Thomas Baumanns . 2016 ).

BIM also offers here through energy needs assessment and Geb¨audesimulation a solution. Here can Technical


ustung ( TGA ), Usage patterns and zoning are involved ( Borr-

man et al. . 2015 ).

The digitization of construction and especially the BIM therefore represents a promising approach for solving various

challenges the construction industry. It is this universal applicability with respect to several issues is the F model such a high


for the future gives.

1.2. Motivation and goal of the work 3

1.2 motivation and objective of the work

ff with Vero entlichung the tarpaulin to verp fl maybe end EASY guidance of Building Information

Modeling ( BIM ) In all Õ ff public transport infrastructure projects from 2020 Federal Transport Minister Alexander Dobrindt

has get¨atigt a first major step towards the digitalization of construction at O ​ff public construction. This was done with a

focus on the reduction of time, costs and risks (of major construction projects BMVI . 2017 ).

Costs can be saved mainly to the effect in the infrastructure sector by the hitherto very high design and execute

uhrungsrisiken be reduced ( Girmscheid . 2010 ).

By significantly Increased coordination between the participating trades and businesses of a project, as well as the

computergest¨ ¨-assisted a check ufung on collisions and the

steady consistency of the model, can planning risks are greatly reduced. Error can already during the planning phase are

detected and corrected ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ).

The aforementioned EXEC uhrungsrisiken to reduce, can with BIM 4D-EXEC UH

insurance planning [ 2.1 ] Are generated, thereby recognizing error in the time schedule and an optimum temporal and

substantive adaptation of the individual trades can be shall guarantee ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ). Equally important is the area

of ​the construction progress. This was previously almost exclusively manually by the site manager on site instead and is a

very aufw¨andiger as well fehleranf¨alliger process (usually W

urfele et al. . 2012 ).

A solution here provides the automated construction progress, comparing with recorded by drones digital models the actual

state of the object with a pre-applied reference model. The exact procedure is described in Chapter 3.2 this work erl¨autert


The aim of this work is in this automated process, the reference model both for the geometric modeling of temporary

structures such as formwork and GER Usten, as well as to

Construction materials such as rebar to favorites. Thus, the comparison with the actual condition in relation to the

construction progress is much more accurate, and false Bauausf¨

guides can at sufficiently regelm¨aßiger ¨ a check ufung FR are detected early time.
1.3. Structural design work 4

1.3 Structural design work

The structure of this work is divided into four main areas. Initially, an EASY done

(Guidance in the building information modeling BIM ), Followed by the presentation of

automated construction progress and the general g ultigen standards and guidelines

for the design of formwork components. The connection form the modeling of temporary structures and construction material

for the expansion of the reference model using the example of the model of the "House F

for children "to the automatic adjustment to the actual state of the

PROPERTY improve during construction.

in chapter 2 is a simp guidance in the area of ​the building information modeling, whose

Functionalities, EXQUISITE uge and EASY given uhrungsstand.

The subsequent chapter 3 deals with the construction progress. Here, the automated construction progress is examined by

looking at the previous manual procedures of monitoring of construction processes. The main focus is on the procedure and

the background between the functional trimming of actual and target state of the building project.

in chapter 4 are the basics, and currently g ultige rules and standards for the design

represented by shuttering components. This will in addition to the ¨ Overview about to be observed

Standards, the view of the DAF for calculations applicable sharp, which in the Al

treatment algorithms of the software for automated formwork modeling.

The chapter 5 This three-part structure is concerned with the fi rst comparison of some Softwarem¨oglichkeiten regard to

their compatibility with the program Autodesk Revit in which, in this case created the reference model and gep fl egt is. Since

most of these Softwarel¨osungen based on the program Autodesk AutoCAD, here is a special focus on the exchange of data

between the BIM-based program Autodesk Revit, in which the originally

ungliche reference model was modeled, and said Autodesk

AutoCAD down. Then the model is ¨ in the appropriate software transmitted and

there supplemented by the geometries of temporary structures and construction material. It is advantageous goods here, if these

bear the ORIGINAL unglichen schedule of the model are coupled

could to make possible a preview of the next Bauprozessschritt and thus achieve a better construction progress.

This work St Utzt to the research project by Alexander Braun, M.Sc. TU

m unchen F at the Chair ur Computergest¨ -assisted modeling and simulation (CMS) to loading

sagtem example of the construction project "House F for children. "


Chapter 2

Building Information Modeling

2.1 What is BIM?

Building Information Modeling is the digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a plant
and clam ff t by a sharable pool of relevant data a reliable basis for decisions during the entire life cycle of the
structure, of the FR
uhesten idea to the R uckbau.
( NBIMS . 2016 )

This de fi nition of National BIM Standard ( NBIMS ) includes substantially all of the core statements that BIM account. When

using BIM an object-oriented 3D Geb¨audemodell is created which contains in addition to the geometry data nor such type

information of the components, technical characteristics or costs ( Borrmann et al. .

2015 ).

Sweeping possible applications arise from the fact that this model is equipped with various parameters as additional

information besides the actual 3D model. The time parameter allows, for example, to plan the construction process in detail

and Logistikkon fl icts FR

early time to be recognized. then referred to as 4D BIM with time as the fourth

Dimension. Furthermore, can be different construction or assembly processes simulate (5D-BIM) by providing information

such as quantities, construction costs and resources. Continue to let this through the use of life-cycle aspects such as

material recycling, which statements ¨

about the sustainability of a building GETRO ff s will can (6D

BIM). Last can be called even aspects of facility management, which is then called 7D BIM ( Behaneck . 2015 ).

Thus be box at a consistently held model about cross to planning,

FAIL answer uhrungs- and use-related issues. The focus is on holistic

2.1. What is BIM? 6

che consideration of the building ¨ over the entire life cycle in the foreground and closes

thus also stages such as maintenance, disposal or recycling with a ( Behaneck .

2015 ). By consistently using digital data, the consistency of the model and the possibility to have multiple trades working on

an overall model, it not only avoids multiple entries, but also has the advantage that already during the planning processes

con fl icts or collisions Gepr

can be UFT ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ).

The benefits of a BIM-based operation resulting in summary as follows:

- Derivation of consistent standard-compliant 2D drawings from the model ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 )

- be connected calculations and simulations can (eg quantity determination or W¨armebedarfsermittlung) ( Borrmann et

al. . 2015 )

- Increasing the cost and schedule stability ( Behaneck . 2015 )

- Optimization of planning and execute uhrungsqualit¨at ( Behaneck . 2015 )

- gewerk about cross Kollisionspr¨ ufung ( Behaneck . 2015 )

- Better risk management ( Eschenbruch et al. . 2014 )

- construction progress ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 )

The improved cost stability is knitted by BIM -assisted quantity determination obtained. These

Beg unstigt also companies that F ur want to create a tender a construction project,

because with these exact amounts accurate bills LV can be realized ( Thomas Baumanns . 2016 ).

Another point which is such as Autodesk Revit beneficial in BIM-capable software, the simple and rapid visualization of Dev

urfen or even the entire

Model. This is especially positive F for the client, as this by a better

Understanding of the building task acquires and Dev urfe be understood better and faster

can ( Eschenbruch et al. . 2014 ).

F, according to a study by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Urban Development ( BMVBS )

thereby shifting the effort along the phases from the design phase to the preliminary phase, which result in a higher cost in

the FR uheren project phases

leads ( Eschenbruch et al. . 2014 ). However, F Watch the previously mentioned consistency and

Kollisonsfreiheit zenzgewinnen later to e ffi, not least, especially in the construction phase, since nachtr¨agliche ¨

Changes during the construction process Hau fi collisions F watches.

2.2. Data exchange format Industry Foundation Classes ( IFC ) 7

Figure 2.1: Advancement of planning decisions and -Expenses, source: http: // www. Mzk4NTY5Wg.JPG , Last accessed on 04.07.2017

[ Fig. 2.1: Advancement of planning decisions and -Expenses]

The above-illustrated Gra fi k 2.1 illustrates the shifting of the planning effort in previously herk¨ommlicher procedure (yellow

line) and at the approach to BIM (blue curve). The separation of the individual phases as well as the said displacement in FR


Project phases are clearly visible.

2.2 Data exchange format Industry Foundation Classes ( IFC )

As discussed preceded a major advantage of BIM is the trades ubergreifen-

de cooperation especially in the preliminary design and planning phase. In this context, the notion ff BIG OPEN BIM was

coined. It refers to the use of digital data durchg¨angige of Geb¨audemodells ¨

over the entire life

cycle (BIG BIM) in connection with the use of o ff ener data formats (OPEN BIM) ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ). O ff ene,

manufacturer-independent data format are mandatory, as occur in the use of the variety of functions, Geb¨audemodells by

various software products for use. Under normal circumstances, the file formats of these software products are among

themselves or only Restricted Area compatible. For example, in this case the software products Autodesk AutoCAD and

Autodesk Revit can STUFFED

be carried out. The overall international non-pro fi t organization buildingSmart

long to develop a neutral data format that a comprehensive semantic and

2.3. EASY uhrungsstand BIM 8th

shall guarantee geometrical description of the construction model and at the same time minimizes the loss of data in the

exchange. The IFC quickly established themselves as the standard for the implementation of the OPEN BIM - thought to

reduce with the aim of the lack of interoperability between software products, thereby improving the work fl ow and ultimately

the cooperation of the trades. decisive F

for the rapid development and deployment

into various software products is the free and free accessibility of the IFC standards ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ).

But depends faultless and e ffi cient use of this format, or other neutral file formats such as STEP, on the implementation in

the respective software from. Since the IFC data format is a very complex format in which different geometric

representations in a variety of ways can be modeled software manufacturers often implement only a portion of the import

and Exportm¨oglichkeiten the IFC. Thus, the effort is reduced in that format contribute with all its complexity to the whole to

Ussen. However, arrangements are ¨ about the exact export and import of two

Companies required to avoid incompatibilities that may occur ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ).

2.3 EASY uhrungsstand BIM

Compared to other nations such as Britain, Singapore, Finland and the United States, Germany is in terms of use of BIM far

only one Nachreiterrolle. In Finland it is verp example fl ichtend to create a digital Geb¨audemodell once an o ff entliches

construction projects with a budget of ¨

filed over one million euros

becomes. ¨The same is true in Singapore, where since 2004 verp all o ff public construction projects are fl ichtend digitally

submitted ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ).

In both countries, is a very special importance to the o ff ene data transmission format

IFC placed. This is as described in section 2 described essential to digital Geb¨audemodelle along with their semantics ¨

transmitted, so planners of different trades the same

can edit using a wide variety of software model.

In the UK in 2011 was a 4-step plan to EASY Public guidance of BIM in all Õ ff

Construction projects approved. Seen in the figure below 2.2 , It is the gradual transition from a pure 2D plan to work with

Web-based processes ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ).

2.3. EASY uhrungsstand BIM 9

Figure 2.2: Gradual transition of the British government to BIM, source: http: // , Last accessed on 04.07.2017

[ Fig. 2.2: Procedure for gradual transition of the British government to BIM]

The goal of the British government is through digital technologies in construction a higher e ff ektivit¨at and achieve safety

and lower risks. Although the main benefits of BIM is in the planning phase prior to construction are as demonstrated in

several studies, alone in the area of ​the construction process can be saved 8-10% of the cost. This is not BER

taken into account are the savings in the area of ​operational management and facility management ( Working Group . 2011


The total cost of a construction project can thus be reduced by 15-20% ( Blackwell .

2012 ).

A non vernachl¨assigender factor is also the one that the British government might also reduce by resulting from BIM

measures and savings of greenhouse gas emissions by 50% ( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ).

The most common is the building information modeling in the US. Here, several sets of rules for practical use of BIM already

exist. An essential step here was the EASY

guidance of a National BIM Standard ( NBIMS ) By the National Insti-

tute of Building Sciences ( NIBS ). Under this standard, several otherwise BIM standards GEB

undelt, including data exchange processes and formats ( Borrmann

et al. . 2015 ).

play a key role in the practical implementation while the work of the American Institute of Architects ( AIA ) on. This is F

"templates for the comparison contractual

agreements of BIM projects available.??The ugung "( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ).

2.3. EASY uhrungsstand BIM 10

but are precisely where the gr¨oßten problems with the EASY guidance of BIM in


In Germany, the BIM method is currently used almost fl at cover and also often only partially rather than as a single

procedure. Although so fi nd an in-house using 3D Geb¨audemodellen place, but once data is exchanged with other trades,

will return to the previous format of 2D CAD data

uck overall

gri ff ene ( Eschenbruch et al. . 2014 ).

are still in Germany many H ere legal and technical-economic Na-

close the door before BIM can nd a widespread acceptance and fl at fi broad application in the German construction

industry. When the gr¨oßten barriers are always f the provisions of the Fee Structure

for Architects and Engineers ( HOAI ) And contract

structures discussed.

As shown in Figure 2.1 good to see and Chapter 2.1 short erl¨autert, the effort along the phases moves into the pre-design

phase. The problem here is now that the HOAI :

"With its rigid, oriented to the execution of certain phases VERG

utungsmodell not inherent in the BIM collaborative approach together passe. "( Eschenbruch et

al. . 2014 )

This means that certain inputs such as creating a 3D model Not Forgotten

ood W ere because it is an extra power that the ORIGINAL unglichen

is work phases of HOAI not de fi ned. W So urde the client to Auftragneh-

mer not separately entrust this power, this power, which is essential fabric F

for the further planning, Not Forgotten ood. The HOAI traditionally followed a sequential

System in which a power image based on the other, thus no one in advance F

ur needs to go a different power phase. BIM, however, requires an integral Denkund approach in which all those

involved in planning parallel and jointly develop the project ( Eschenbruch et al. . 2014 ).

More H ere addition to the provisions of the HOAI are:

- Bescha ff ungskosten F for appropriate IT and software licenses ( Eschenbruch et al. .

2014 )

- Education and training of employees ( Eschenbruch et al. . 2014 )

- Ensuring the functioning data interchange ( Eschenbruch et al. . 2014 )

- Training on BIM bezogenene coordination and communication ( Eschenbruch et al. . 2014 )

2.3. EASY uhrungsstand BIM 11

In STUFFED uhrten States, which have been working a lot with BIM, it is the state that "as a

gr¨oßter contracting a SCHL usselrolle in EASY guidance of BIM occupies "( Borrmann

et al. . 2015 ). Therefore, the projects of Federal Transport Minister Alexander Dobrindt, from 2020 auszuf¨ all o ff public

infrastructure projects with BIM watches, the first decisive

Step. These m Ussen still F Standard regulations ur created and the use of existing

VERGutungs- and contract structures to be adjusted.


Chapter 3

construction progress

The following section of the work the general as well as the automated scheme of construction progress is erl¨autert. This

happens imHinblick that the treated in the following chapter on modeling reference model, the functionality will increase just


3.1 Previous approaches

"Construction progress by BTVG is a control of the capital gains and primary no quality control. The
construction progress secures the ERF
ullungsanspruch the purchaser against the real estate development in the construction phase, the Sicherungsp fl
maybe the Bautr¨agers ends "technical" with the ¨ Handing over of the completed

Contract object detected. "( kppk ZT GmbH . 2017 )

Legislators liked with statutory provisions such as these buyers who have get¨atigt payments in advance of construction,

keep from losing them in poor performance on the part of the contractor. Therefore, payments are sought after installment

plan to gew¨ahrleisten to that paid rates correspond to the services provided by the real estate development services in


To this end, the entire building project is divided into individual construction stages at which orientate the payouts

PURSUANT the installment plan ( Mason Kollenz . 2013 ).

In the current form of the building project monitoring the main task at the comparable

irresponsible bauleitenden architect or engineer (hereafter simply referred to as a site manager).

3.1. Previous procedures 13

His responsibilities numbers include:

- ¨ Monitoring the EXEC guidance on the design uhrungsplan, terms of reference and general

common accepted rules of technology ( W urfele et al. . 2012 )

- Setting up and ¨ About monitoring a schedule ( W urfele et al. . 2012 )

- Common allowance with contractors ( W urfele et al. . 2012 )

- Cost management ( W urfele et al. . 2012 )

- Quality control (through identification and elimination of mangling W urfele et al. .

2012 )

- Decrease of works ( W urfele et al. . 2012 )

- Coordination at the object monitoring employees involved ( W urfele et al. .

2012 )

- L uckenlose F guidance of a work register ( W urfele et al. . 2012 )

The inclusion of the client carried However uhrten tasks usually happens always

even by hand. This requires a regelm¨aßige Pr¨asenz of the site, which thereby also any unauthorized deviations can

determine the construction schedule or timetable. In particular, the tasks of the permanent control of quality, Completeness

and accuracy F

watch on construction sites from a certain large still difficulties. The team of employees of the object

monitoring must gr¨oßenm¨aßig adapt and overall

neralbauleiter is at too high a complexity of the object supported by a plurality of construction manager

Utzt ( W urfele et al. . 2012 ).

Just by the Chapter 1.1 addressed demanded increasing the Bauprozessgeschwindigkeit assumes the task of building

project monitoring an increasingly large expectant STEL

lenwert one. By st¨andige control and ¨ is Uberwachungsdruck the EXEC uhrenden under-

do not take the opportunity given until the specifications and conformity with EXEC

departing guidance ( Ansorge . 2011 ).

Although after the reasonable limit no site manager has to be a permanent presence on site and craftsmanship
Selbstverst¨andlichkeiten as painting, laying floors or simple earthworks no exact ¨

Monitoring by the site manager

Bed urfen, the construction manager must not least for Haftungsgr¨ reasons its Obligations very

take seriously ( Alexandra SEEM Muller . 2007 ).

The consequences of inadequate construction are usually clear Baum¨angel which a Nichterf¨ filling

the contractually agreed Bausolls represent. Be lack noticed in time,

3.2. automated construction progress 14

be rectified can this in many cases, but with erh¨ohtem billing technical complexity in the background and with delays in the

construction process. Many lack of roof waterproofing, W¨armed¨ammungen, conduits or moisture protection work on the

whole Geb¨audeh¨

ulle are usually absent or very late notice.

This often takes lengthy and costly litigation by themselves, which often fail at the expense of the purchaser.

It should be the endeavor, m¨oglichst digitized, automates this process and safer.

3.2 Automated construction progress

In the automated construction progress, also called Progress Tracking, an attempt is made digitally map the process of

manual control. the DAF ur reference ben¨otigte

model is the 3D Geb¨audemodell, which is needed as part of the BIM-based working anyway. It repr¨asentiert the

construction SOLL. is essential here is that all the components are subject to a temporal fourth dimension which zul¨asst a

clear assignment to the respective construction and the schedule. F

for the control shall be the actual state of the

called PROPERTY, or "as-built", recorded comparable digital ( Bosch'e et al. . 2010 ).

Possibilities of data collection are here:

- Global Navigation Satellite Systems ( GNSS )

- Radio Frequency Identi fi cation ( RFID )

- laser scanning

- Photogrammetric methods

The possibilities of Progress Tracking ¨ about GNSS and RFID suitable to components

even while to track the supply chain. This already allows a priori (a priori) a check of the schedule. The RFID also facilitates

identi fi cation and control of resource usage to avoid erroneous Lagerbest¨ande and to guarantee the Completeness of

example Schalungss¨atzen ( G

unther .

- ) , What can not these two methods, the exact Objektlagesch¨atzung. The 3D laser scanning, besides the existence of the

component in place even detect its Lagesch¨atzung and thus already make a contribution to better M¨angelerkennung ( Bosch'e

et al. . 2010 ).
3.2. automated construction progress 15

This work focuses hereafter only to photogrammetric methods since the research project also considers only this

methodology. Here screen shots of the building are created as a single image or groups, and then calculates a 3D point

cloud. serves to receive a digital herk¨ommliche Spiegelre fl exkamera, optionally with a Super CCD chip to the possible fl

solution by interpolation to increase again ( Kersten and Acevedo Pardo . 2002 ). The images created are ¨

over control points verkn¨ together upft to all data in the same coordinate system

transform. The selection of the control points to be used here includes various ways. On the one hand can be metered

tachymetrically control points are used, provided that this in the same coordinate system as the model fi nd. On the other

hand, can nat

urliche pass points are used, that is pixels which

have already been measured in the model coordinate system. These should be clearly and can clearly assigned. It emp fi

EHLT right to combine or procedures to be used depending on Baustellenund concealment situation to change.

Äbout verkn¨ these control points can images and image groups together upft be even

when these are little or no ¨ overlap. In-area multi-storey and large FL

Construction sites is called in the construction documentation from the air. For data acquisition also ¨

However, about photogrammetric surveys, the Aufnah-

meger¨at here on the swivel arm of a crane or mounted as possible since newest (at the bottom of an Unmanned Aerial

Vehicle UAV ).

¨ by the image pickup about UAV's is a sufficiently good ¨ Overlapping of recordings

given. If desired, the structure of the drone also ¨ over several Blickwin-

kel undWiederholungen be considered without impair the construction fl uence large. Thus a dense cover is ensured with

photography and ensures higher accuracy in sp¨ateren matching process. "Thief

undelblockausgleichung verkn¨ upft the position

of points in 3D space, the positions and orientations of the observing cameras and their internal Kalibirierparameter any

number of pictures "( Wikipedia .

2017 ).

During the subsequent image matching a score is DAF ur created what extent

the derivatives of structural components from the 3D point cloud ¨ with the reference component

to match. For this purpose ur f for a flat component fl at the points which in a

certain distance around the component fi nd extracted and divided into grid cells. Then a measure f

For each grid fl calculated to determine whether the

Points of the 3D point cloud confirm the component in the respective grid. It is set a threshold value to the calculated degree

must be at least to be considered as a component fl ( Brown et al. . 2015 ).

3.2. automated construction progress 16

The aim of the procedure is an e ffi ciency of the construction process by Fr. uhzeitiges recognition

of delays, errors or mangling. The schedule can through this regelm¨aßige ¨

Monitoring each be updated times therefore and optionally reacted.


Chapter 4

Design of formwork components

This chapter deals with the current G ultigen rules and standards for the design of

Formwork elements. This will be the inferential durchzuf¨ uhrenden calculations er¨ortert,

which f for the subsequent modeling of formwork components ausgew¨ahlten soft-

ware versions, PERI CAD and DokaCAD treat their algorithms of automatic formwork M

Ussen. It provides only a general Erl¨auterung represents and fi nd in the successor

constricting chapters of this work no further input.

to the BER in the calculations ucksichtigenden parameters resulting from Basically

ERF the requirements and objects which form components in the preparation of reinforced concrete components

Ullen m Ussen. This includes the shape of the component to be switched, the

Securing the position of this and, haupts¨achlich decisive F for the calculation of Schalbau-

parts, the power dissipation ( PERI . 2011 ).

covered by the ablated forces:

- Fresh concrete pressure side and concrete weight ( PERI . 2011 )

- Net weight of the formwork and GER uste ( PERI . 2011 )

- Additional loads of wind, GER Usten, Au fl asten ( PERI . 2011 )

The design of formwork components several standards have to BER ucksichtigen. since the

two materials haupts¨achlich steel and wood are used, the formwork planning is accordingly often in Ber

guidance to standards DIN 18800 ( Steel structures) and

DIN 1052 ( Timber structures). Although it was the DIN 18800 by the DIN EN 1090 replaced and DIN 1052 to

retracted and DIN EN 1995, However, access for accession

often still, as the European standards do not cover the standards derogations the relevant DIN completely. In addition, the

standard DIN 1045 ( Reinforced concrete), since the function of formwork is the production of reinforced concrete structures.

The same applies to DIN


1045, which by DIN EN 1992 was replaced. Horizontal and inclined slab formwork and vertical wall and ST

utzenschalungen numbers to the group of Tragger¨ fists,

whereby the DIN EN 12812 ( Tragger¨ to BER uste) is ucksichtigen. If the Scha-

ments and GER uste in any form as well as Arbeitsger¨ uste is to be used,

In addition, the DIN 4420 ( Labor and Schutzger¨ uste) to consult ( Malpricht . 2010 ).

Below are the dimensions of DIN EN 12812 and, if applied to formwork constructions DIN 1052 in the Grundz¨

ugen shown. When dimensioning

after DIN EN 12812 are basically to ERF two proofs Ullen. First, the After-

setting the carrying capacity and secondly, the Detection of serviceability ( Malpricht .
2010 ).

First, the calculations are treated for detecting the bearing capacity. Here, the principle is that "the effects S d less than or

equal to the rated resistance R d M be "

Ussen ( Malpricht . 2010 ). The design value f for the effects Q d must PURSUANT

DIN EN 12812 ( Tragger¨ uste) from the sum of the actions taking into ucksichtigung

various load combinations are calculated according to the following formula:

Q d = Σ γ F, i · ψ i · Q k, i

γ F, i = partial factor F for actions

ψ i = Load combination factor F for actions

Data on effects:

Q 1 Dead loads: Tragger¨ asten ust, formwork, de fl

Q 2 ver¨anderliche permanent vertical loads

Q 3 ver¨anderliche permanent horizontal loads

Q 4 ver¨anderliche transient loads

Q 5 maximum wind

Q 6 working wind

Q 7 fl ießendes water or Seismic

Q 8th indirect effects such as temperature, ratios, biasing

Following is f for the respective Tragger¨ ust determines the tax class. Depending on classical

se join hereafter different calculations and requirements for the design of. Basically, these are divided into two design

classes A and B.

While ¨ in Class A, the "stability through knowledge about the structural behavior of the

Components of the structure "( Malpricht . 2010 ) Is achieved, is in class B F for the Tragger¨ ust

a vollst¨andige assessment made. In Class A the ability is determined to absorb the load solely on the basis of experiences

and practices preserved, which makes this type of assessment only F

ur simply suitable structures. is, however

required a vollst¨andige static calculation and the creation of graphic representations in class B.

The class B is in turn divided into two sub-classes B1 and B2. "If the design in the first place according to European

standards of Euro code Series F

ur design is performed, the Tragger¨ ust assign the rated class B1 "( Malpricht .

2010 ). This leads to the design value of the resistor R d, 1 according to the following formula:

R d, 1 = R k

with R k = characteristic value of the resistor and γ M = Partial safety factor of s

Material s

The following requirements relate to the classification in the tax class B1:

- Written information about the calculation ( Malpricht . 2010 )

- Detailed drawings ( Malpricht . 2010 )

- details f for the site ( Malpricht . 2010 )

- Indication to deformations ( Malpricht . 2010 )

- Calculating the Schnittkr¨afte ( Malpricht . 2010 )

leads and only in

"If the design in the first place according to DIN EN 12812 even carried
second line to the other European standards that will Tragger¨ ust the rated

class B2 associated "( Malpricht . 2010 ). The formula for calculating the design value of the resistor R d, 2 Andert be here

geringf¨ ugig:

R d, = 2 R k
γ M · 1, 15

Insofar the effects S d less than or equal to the design resistance R d are the proof of the bearing capacity is ERF


This is followed by the detection of the suitability for use, are to be examined in which the following points to gew¨ahrleisten

the required shape of the structure:


- The reduction of the GR ignition ( Malpricht . 2010 )

- Elastic deformations and play in the compounds ( Malpricht . 2010 )

- The deflection of the transformer ( Malpricht . 2010 )

w A close look at this calculation However urde ¨ beyond the scope of this work

go out and is not objective of this. To be observed here deformations are as f

for compliance with the flatness requirement for DIN 18202 required.

In the following the requirements PURSUANT the assessment are to DIN 1052 ( Timber structures) shows which

simultaneously DIN EN 12812 ( Tragger¨ advertising implemented uste)

the need.

Here is first the sum of the Lastf¨alle consisting of st¨andigen loads g k and payloads q k, calculated and following the resulting

moment M Max and the lateral force V Max. To demonstrate the carrying capacity, the evidence of the bending stress and shear

stress are separate to provide. The bending stress detection is F

for the single-axis

Bending and tilting of rectangular cross sections, as well as the shear stress detection F

ur carried out the shear strength of rectangular cross-sections. The precise mathematical calculation is not er¨ortert here.

"Since it is at formwork to tempor¨are constructions, is a proof of the suitability for use within the meaning of DIN 1052 Unnecessary
"( Malpricht . 2010 ). However, the proof of flatness tolerance must be provided, F
for which the calculation of throughput

is required deflection of the individual structural elements. Because after striking the concrete wall no correction of any

deviations, based on the flatness of the components is more possible, it is necessary to form already in advance DAF


to measure. This is to ensure that the concrete upper fl shelled components not PURSUANT the required tolerances in

building construction DIN 18202 ¨ exceeds ( Malpricht . 2010 ).

Ultimately, one of the main points of the formwork, GER Ust and anchor design

the concrete pressure, which must be absorbed by the lining skin and worn. An important role plays the f

ur scheduled the fresh concrete gravity γ. This is loud

DIN 18218 ( Concrete pressure on vertical formwork) with a total value of

γ d = 26 kN / m 3 to be set. Since the fresh concrete pressure for the design of formwork structures, Abst
utzungen and anchors is considered dead load, this can be used as

characteristic value of the action of σ hk be calculated:

σ hd = γ F · σ hk

γ F The partial safety factor and can the DIN EN 12812 be removed.

"The calculation of the characteristic values ​of the maximum possible Frichbetondrucks
σ hk, max F for different rates of climb and consistency classes "( Malpricht . 2010 )
is due to the following table 4.1 possible.

Figure 4.1: Characteristic values ​F ur σ hk, max, Source:

handout / Chapter 2-4.pdf , Last accessed on 04.07.2017

In addition here is the attention to the following table 4.2 required by a factor K1 as a function of the reimbursement end after

t e in [h] to determine.

Figure 4.2: Determination of the factor K1 as a function of the solidification end t e, Source: 2-4.pdf , Last accessed on 04.07.2017

The calculation of the fresh concrete pressure is therefore according to the following scheme:

1) determining the length of the concreting

2) determining the amount of concrete

3) determining the Betonierleistung

4) Calculation of Betonierdauer

5) Calculation of the rate of climb


6) determining the consistency of concrete

ACCORDING 7) calculating the maximum concrete pressure DIN 18218 depending on previously

NEN tables

Chapter 5

Modeling of temporary structures and construction


In this chapter the modeling of the formwork and reinforcement elements in the project as the "house will f

for children "carried leads. This is done with regard to the use

the geometries created characterized in matching alignment of the construction progress.

5.1 Modeling of formwork elements

The focus of the modeling work is in the range of formwork components as these ¨

are installed over a longer time on the site and thus r before the actual concreting the wall

conclusions to on compliance with the schedule and the

Allow scheduling.

5.1.1 Softwarel¨osungen: PERI CAD vs. DokaCAD8

The formwork modeling is carried by the respective CAD application of the two formwork manufacturer PERI and Doka

leads. Here, special emphasis is placed on

that earnings for Autodesk Revit Let export to there can make further edits to the construction progress services. Basic software problems

The two F for the task of Schalungsdmodellierung ausgew¨ahlten software versions,

PERI CAD and DokaCAD8, based on the Autodesk product AutoCAD Architecture. AutoCAD is a vector-oriented drawing

program which is based on the creation of

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 24

Primitives such as lines, polygons, circles, arcs and texts bounded to as a representation of the real world made the

universe, ff s. Revit contrast created geometries based on real data ( Autodesk . 2017 ). Revit is a BIM-supported

utzende software, why not

as is modeled in AutoCAD only lines, but finished components. These components are provided in a high degree with

semantics, such as the material properties of a component to make possible the BIM typical analyzes and simulations.

Although an object-oriented modeling is now possible in AutoCAD, so the direct modeling, for example, t

acids, windows and walls. However, these are not

parameterized as in Revit and are therefore not to f¨ahig analyzes and simulations as W¨armebedarfsberechnung.

AutoCAD uses the ShapeManager as Gemoetrie kernel, whereas Revit uses a completely new, independent of this kernel. A

geometry kernel is a "software module that elementary data structures and operations Repr¨asentation and processing of

geometrical information on the author

ugung represents "( Borrmann et al. . 2015 ). The

Information geometry representation from Revit W ere therefore in AutoCAD otherwise in-

be interpreted or not would be able, certain operations durchzuf¨ watches,

since they are not provided by the geometry kernel.

Because of these reasons, reasons the compatibility, in this case, the processing of a Revit Mo-

dells in AutoCAD is not clearly clarified, will set up a series of experiments which will ultimately integrate into the BIM

workflow de fi ne. The test series is as follows. Fi rst attempts are BEZ

respect of the import of the model to edit software

tested. Then an attempt is made to the model uck to export to Revit to festzu-

ask whether the model after ¨ is at all still fit for use. Following is the

automated formwork modeling fundamentally in terms of its OFFf guidance and

considered approach. This is done fi rst in specially prepared building situations, to avoid being disturbed by any errors in the

imported model. Then the same methods on the model of the "House f

applied for children. " Revit and AutoCAD Export Import

The in Chapter 2.2 mentioned neutral data exchange format IFC, is f for the

This problem pr¨adesitniert. Due to the different geometry kernel, w

ere background information which F for AutoCAD are not relevant when importing

get lost. The consequences thereof are later still EXEC uhrlicher discussed.

In principle, the Revit data format in which it was the model created and saved, not be imported into AutoCAD. The model

must therefore be converted into a AutoCADinterpretierbaren Code and exported. For this reason, in
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 25

first attempt aimed at an IFC export from Revit and a successful import into AutoCAD.

By expanding the app "IFC 2016" F for Revit can export and import

possibilities F for Revit be expanded, creating a very precise adjustment of the export

is made possible to the respective requirements. Basically is an IFC export but possible even without this extension. ¨

About the Home button in the program can directly to the tab "Export" → "IFC" are angew¨ahlt. The file format in this study

the "IFC Coordination View 2.0" is chosen. This format is based on the IFC 2x3 schema and the newer Modellansichtsde fi

nition "Coordination View 2.0" ( Autodesk . 2016 ).

However, the import of the IFC file contains some H ere. Fi rst version was

AutoCAD Architecture 2015 chosen as this system prerequisite for the PE software

RI CAD is that f among others following ur used the formwork modeling

shall be. To the O ff nen an IFC file must be a new drawing in AutoCAD as First

be created, only then is the option to feature ugung. Alternatively, the import may also

b̈e accessed via the command bar by means of the command "IFCIMPORT".

After selecting the file to be imported and the folder, in which a new project is created (in this the drawings While the import
created are stored), the import can be started immediately. Due to a previously unknown fault, importing and the associated
creation of AutoCAD drawings interpretable is canceled. In the following two figures the selection window for ¨

O ff nen IFC file 5.1 and thereby resulting error message 5.2 to


Figure 5.1: Selection window for ¨ O ff nen egg Figure 5.2: Error message when importing an IFC file in AutoCAD
ner IFC

The error messages and reports were forwarded to the support from Autodesk. In a first diagnosis no error in the installation

or use of the software could be recognized, so must fi rst Autodesk itself with this problem involved before this purpose

for a solution can be found.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 26

In order to be able to exclude an error which may occur in the exported IFC file, it is loaded into the Solibri Model Viewer and

controlled there. Here, no errors were detected. This also applies

ur files which in other formats as "co-

ordination view "were exported, such as" 2.0 IFC 2x3 GSA BIM Concept Design 2010 "or" IFC 2x3 Coordination View. "

This betri ff t but only the versions of AutoCAD Architecture 2015 and 2016. In the latest version of 2017, the proceeds ¨

O ff NEN the file according to the same procedure pure

without a hitch. There are COMPLETE layers of the model imported and each of these into a DWGZeichnungsdatei ¨


Due to the fact that are imported via AutoCAD Architecture 2015, IFC file

can m currently would have to detour following the work process carried be carried out when a

Formwork modeling is to take place with the based on AutoCAD 2015 PERI CAD:

1) modeling the model in Revit

2) exporting of the model in weight unschten IFC

3) import the export file into AutoCAD Architecture 2017

4) Edit the created when importing drawings, in this case PERI CAD, O ff nen and

The result of the import in AutoCAD 2015 shows F following the example of the level 0 of the reference model "House

for children "in the illustration 5.3 :

Figure 5.3: Level F 0 of the "house for children, "according ¨ O ff nen in AutoCAD Architecture 2017

Alternatively, a DWG file can be exported directly from Revit. This W urde the

detour ¨ about the IFC file which are first imported into AutoCAD 2017 m would have to comparable,

avoided (in case of use of PERI CAD). This export will work on in Revit
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 27

the same way as with IFC files can be used in AutoCAD, however, directly Geo ff net are. The following figure 5.4 shows in

AutoCAD Geo ff Neten DWG export from Revit:

Figure 5.4: F The exported in DWG format 3D view of the house for children in AutoCAD
Geo ff net AutoCAD Export and Import Revit

To determine whether a model which has been edited in AutoCAD, ¨ at all in

Revit is importable, is following the ¨ O ff nen IFC file in AutoCAD this

again exported in IFC format and in Revit Geo ff net.

The export can in AutoCAD ¨ about the home button → "Export" → started "IFC"

become. Before exporting can ¨ via the button "Options" to export

Objects to be controlled. However, the export format is always "CoordinationView V2.0". After this

O ff nen the exported IFC file can several findings GETRO ff s will.

These are the example of export of the plane F 0 of the House for children, shown in Figure

5.5 And whose import into Revit in Figure 5.6 illustrated.

Figure 5.5: ORIGINAL ungliche representation of Figure 5.6: Representation of the Ebene0 to import the exported
Ebene0 in the Revit file AtuoCAD model in Revit
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 28

Au is FF to faults partial fl at-wide lack of window components. This is very clearly visible on the large façade windows, which

should be available on the west side of the building. The same window on the facade faces S

ud and East are, however, available.

Furthermore, it should be noted that T COMPLETE acids in the inner region of the model, as well as a

Much of the T acids on the outside wall are no longer present.

To recognize also that the wall were fl created by triangulation. The exported IFC model is imported to check back into the

Solibri model viewer to determine if this is a bug in the exported file, or whether it is a reconstruction error of Revit.

As in the figure below 5.7 to see all the parts are here ordnungsgem¨aß reconstructed. It can therefore only be an error in the

reconstruction of the exported data into Revit.

Figure 5.7: an export error AutoCAD exclude import the exported IFC file

The most significant difference is however visible when the properties of objects are compared. In this context, one of the

walls is chosen in which the facade just mentioned are not shown ordnungsgem¨aß. The following are the properties window

the same wall are shown, the one originally from the

unglichen Revit

File shown in Figure 5.8 And the other from the export file from AutoCAD, which in the illustration 5.9 you can see.
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 29

Figure 5.8: Properties window of the Figure 5.9: Properties window the same
sample wall from the originally wall, but here, the export file from
unglichen Revit AutoCAD

information BEZ respect to the dimensions of the structural information and the Abh¨angig-

opportunities zumModell have little or ¨ about non-existent. be a consequence, could,

that the model F ur possibly relied on subsequent simulations or analyzes not

more repr¨asentativ. If the exported IFC file from AutoCAD 2017 produced the result entering Revit is exactly the same.

5.1.2 PERI CAD Installation of PERI CAD

PERI CAD is the in-house CAD modeling tool of the formwork manufacturer PERI and became a professional formwork and

GER ustplanung designed. As already addressed

chen, is charged in addition to other hardware-based System the requirement of AutoCAD Architecture software version

2012 or higher. The latest version of PERI CAD is based on version 2015 of AutoCAD and is principally supplied with an

output of this ( PERI . 2017 ).

Basically, AutoCAD must be installed before you can start the installation of PERI CAD. It has to make sure that when you

initialize the Softwar-

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 30

the installation package "Express Tools" is explicitly anzuw¨ahlen under user-de fi ned settings NINSTALLING of AutoCAD.

Following can proceed by default with the installation of AutoCAD and following with PERI CAD.

In the following section first modeling experiments are get¨atig. At the beginning without available.??The

ugung set reference model to the Grundz¨ uge of the formwork modeling to

work without being disturbed in this case of any errors in the model. first modeling experiments without HfK model

To understand the function and F a kind of procedure for modeling

elaborate formwork elements to be able, several tests are carried below

leads. These include both manual as well as automated attachment of shuttering elements by means of PERI CAD.

Before these methods on available.??The ugung provided

F reference model of the "house for children "carried be carried out, the experiments restrict

specially created on the wall elements and building applications.

In the first test by means of the specially in PERI CAD available.??Pets ugung standing tools of

"AEC Wall Input" an exemplary straight wall generated and automatically shuttered. After PERI CAD has started, a new
drawing is created. If not present in the tab area, the "PERI Objects" rider must hinzugef¨
will suffices. In

this fi the possibilities of wall input, as well as automated formwork ends.

The input of a wall can most simply ¨ started over the button "AECWandeingabe"

become. Following the outline in the drawing may not inputted, and other settings in the properties window of the wall of the

wall, such as thickness, height and orientation, are ver¨andert. In this example, a wall of 10 meters long, 3 meters high and a

standard thickness of 24 centimeters is created. The generated AEC-wall must be converted into a PERIwand, before it can

be automatically provided by PERI with formwork. "Create PERIwand" After Bet¨atigung the button, the corresponding wall is

angew¨ahlt and confirmed with "Enter".

Before now, the formwork is set, nor the wall situation can be selected. The wall situation describes how the stands being

shuttered wall to other walls and de fi ned thus denWandabschluß. Under the Button "PERIwand situation" can be chosen

from 7 different situations. F

for this example is the first situation of the wall end

selected to give a final wall is peeled.

The command for automated formwork can ¨ via the button "PERIwand stale" issued

become. It Õ ff net a window in which the weight advertising chosen unschte formwork system

the can. In this example, the formwork system MAXIMO is chosen 330th Following M

Ussen are being shuttered walls, in this case the wall specially produced selected.
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 31

After confirming the input PERI calculates the necessary Schalungsw¨ande, required anchors and other accessories, which

are necessary for compliance with applicable rules formwork and brings them to the wall.

The result is shown below in Figure 5.10 :

Figure 5.10: The result of the first experiment for the automated form a wall specially prepared [PERI CAD]

In the second experiment to F for a room repr¨asentativ a square floor plan with Scha-

lung are provided. Special emphasis is placed on creating a partition by the modeled plan, so as to test the joint in the

Schlaungssituationen, as this is an often anzutre in practice ff border situation. For example, when connecting to the

Rauminnenw¨anden jeweilieg surrounding Außenw¨ande.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 32

The layout of the second experiment results from the fact as follows (Figure 5.11 ):

Figure 5.11: Floor plan of the space situation formwork modeling in the second trial [PERI CAD]

There are, as in the first experiment Generated from the AEC walls PERIw¨ande, this time, make sure that all walls

are to be zusammenh¨angend be selected together. If the walls were converted individually wall ends are shown at the

intersections. For these situations, the system can not create a solution. If no other is chosen, the PERIwand situation "wall

connection angles" is by default enabled.

The formwork, as shown in the figure below 5.12 to see modeled properly.

Figure 5.12: The result of the second experiment for the automated form a space situation specially prepared [PERI CAD]
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 33

The third attempt to examine the applicability of the automated modeling on imported model. The procedure, which was used

in the two previous tests, will also be applied once again.

Here, however, the setting of clocks is used. Clocks are placed in the floor plan within the walls. This can changed not only

the order of being shuttered walls, but also the formwork system. DAR

Moreover, can

Wall situations ¨ F over the clock manager For each clock di ff erenziert. After he-

ask questions and De fi ne m of bars Ussen fi rst, as in the experiments previously, PE

RIw¨ande be generated. This happens again ¨ via the button "PERIwand produce".

The walls of the model are anzuw¨ahlen in the corresponding clock according to the same criteria as in previous experiment.

Before starting the automatic formwork can ¨ via the button "PERI components assembly instructions"

the sound system to be used, its components and the corresponding L¨osungsoptionen F

for various Wandanschl¨ influences are adjusted. Then the automatic up

called a window in which can be chosen between the sound systems appears again.

However, the modeling of the formwork elements on imported reference model works only partially. Some of the walls are

modeled correctly, others not at all or only ST

piecewise. A holistic view is automatically constructed too little in sum than that of the remainder would complement

manually. This leaves at indicated below Example 5.13 recognize:

Figure 5.13: Only partially automatically generated formwork elements f the example of the first floor of the "House
for children "[PERI CAD]

After several R ucksprache and coordination with Peris support, are the poor

Results of the automated modeling in part on error within the model for

uck to F watches.
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 34

The following are some of these errors are listed:

- Deviations of the H¨ohenangabe in the attributes of the actual high

→ This results in a waste error

- Offset locations during assembling watches from TW¨anden

- TW¨ande with different Wandst¨arken

→ This case is not covered by the current formwork Automatic → A Sonderl¨osung must be designed by a

Formwork Experts

- Round walls

→ Is not covered by automatic formwork → Combining different formwork systems required

- Imported light wall as a wall identi fi ed

→ This wall was mistakenly identified as a reinforced concrete wall and intended for shells → Removing or hiding

said walls prior to the clocking and modeling is necessary

COMPLETE inconsistencies M ussten cor- before the start of the automated modeling

are alternates. This W require urde a lot of effort for manual control, which

in particular F for large building with many floors and partly unusual geometries

as rounded walls, for example, increasingly used, a lot of time avail w


For this reason, at the present time by means of an automated modeling CAD PERI not e ffi cient. ACCORDING to a

statement from PERI (telephone conversation with employees at 20.03.2017) is the end of a new software version of PERI

CAD appear in 2017, which will also be compatible with AutoCAD Architecture 2017th Whether the algorithms of automatic

formwork better cover in the new version some of the above problems, M

then would have to be tested. Manual modeling on HfK model

The modeling of formwork elements, anchors and ST BENEFITS can also be done manually.

This is, especially from a certain size of the flat to be treated, a very time consuming process. is additionally for this purpose

for a separate level of experience with formwork necessary

in order to achieve a correspondingly repr¨asentatives, compliant result.

The aim of this section is therefore the manual modeling of the formwork elements on a concrete stage of construction

durchzuf¨ watches. This stage of construction is an image to a

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 35

refer to certain sample timing of the construction progress. The figure, which are to be removed being shuttered walls is

shown in the following (Figure 5.14 ):

Figure 5.14: Stage of construction based on which the manual modeling carried formwork leads
shall be

The tests of manual modeling are directly carried amModell leads to immediate

identify various problems. If one of the drawings, which were created in Pioneered when importing IFC file in AutoCAD

Architecture 2017, PERI CAD Geo ff net, the user is prompted to make clean up the drawing of PERI automatically. This is f

for all displayed on O ff nenden drawings and also recommended

which were not created with PERI CAD.

Here, unnecessary layers, blocks, dimension styles, text styles, etc. are removed from the drawing to minimize the memory

requirements on the one hand, and on the other on the drawing when processing ¨

uberschaubarer to make.
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 36

The messages are occurring in the following figures 15.5 and 5.16 see:

Figure 5.15: Occurring signal for automatic cleanup upon ¨ Figure 5.16: Possibilities of drawing setting to start automatic
O ff NEN the drawing cleanup [PERI CAD]

The being shuttered walls fi nd themselves F of the "model house on the first floor for children's

of the". The orientation of the image of the state of construction toward the image from top to bottom corresponds to the

model of the compass from east to west. For a better view, the walls being shuttered in the Revit model, as shown in the

figure below 5.17 , Shown in color.

Figure 5.17: Color marking of manually shuttered walls [PERI CAD]

After the drawing of the first floor in PERI CAD Geo ff net and was cleaned up, you can start modeling. The drawing ¨

about clear to

make the following layers are turned off because they are not needed for processing the formwork task:



5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 37




Although the ben¨otigten formwork elements are manually loaded into the drawing, M Ussen

which are converted to shuttered walls as in the automated tests in PERIw¨ande. This is done in the same way as before. ¨

Over the button "Toolbox" under

the "PERI Objects" tab can feature all PERI CAD ugbare product range according to each

Manufacturer be viewed.

Below the formwork system "Trio Panel Formwork" is applied. From GEO in the toolbox ff Neten catalog component is "/ 4

TRIO PANEL TR 330x240" selected first among the sub-item "Panels TR 330" the shuttering component. The designation

gives the external dimensions of the component with 330 cm high and 240 cm long again. The height of the formwork is

therefore chosen to 330 cm, because the walls in the model have different heights, but all have a Mindesth¨ohe of 300 cm

and more.

Although the modeling process runs from manually but still may in part on the automated modeling to

uck Grilled Foo ff s will. This is very helpful, especially with respect

to the correct setting of anchors and links. Therefore it is important, before the actual modeling, the weight as with the

automatic in "PERI components assembly instructions" that L¨osungsans¨atze and components to be used

unschten formwork system to

de fi ne.

After this is done, and that has been converted to flat wall in a PERIwand, the first formwork component is loaded from the

picture window of the component catalog using drag-and-drop into the model. The Schlaungswand is xed on the mouse fi,

and can be moved with it. As has been converted to flat wall in a PERIwand, this works like a Snap to which the attached to

the mouse formwork component aligns itself once you get into the near the outer border.
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 38

In the following figure 5.18 is to see how the formwork component aligns to the first wall:

Figure 5.18: Automated alignment manually introduced a ugten formwork component [PERI

The formwork component can now by clicking on the weight unschte place to place.

Due to the faulty shown intersections to scarf wall protrudes into the pending outer wall. It is therefore important to ensure

that the formwork is not started at the end which projects into the outer wall. After the first component has been placed, it is

possible for the automated modeling

uckgreifen. If the set Scha-

development component angew¨ahlt are as in the figure below 5.19 to see to see to the ends of several arrows.
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 39

Figure 5.19: Expanding a formwork component [PERI CAD]

the scarf to end range can be expanded by clicking on "Expand". This can be pulled up to the end of the wall, on which is the

end point detected by the object snap. Then the automatic models the two-sided formwork components F completely

for the ausgew¨ahlten area. That being shuttered wall into the outer wall

protrudes, is recognized by the automatic, which, in turn, models a degree from the outer wall, thus avoiding an erroneous

formwork modeling.

The result is shown below in Figure 5.20 :

Figure 5.20: Expanding a formwork component [PERI CAD]

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 40

The same method can be applied to the other being shuttered walls. This results in a rapid and sufficient repr¨asentative to

construction progress illustration of the formwork is achieved at a given time. Minor errors show up on walls, which have an

odd level. Here no one hundred percent right solution can be identified. This results in some wall ends small L


Furthermore, it is not possible to provide corners within a wall which do not have a 90 degree angle, with the appropriate

formwork. In the imported model of the "House F ur

Children "are on a wall being shuttered which an angle of ¨ has more than 90 degrees,

the abutting walls ordnungsgem¨aß not blended. This leaves other person not to. Therefore, a PERI joint is alternatively

introduced at said point suffices. This

let yourself accomplished via the command "PERI joint". The hinge must be installed in each case on the inside and the

outside. The offset, which is established between the two joints, M

would have to still GEF with wooden wedges be filled before the formwork attached

can be.

The result is shown in the following figures 5.21 and 5.22 :

Figure 5.21: Prefabricated wall peeled with a very obtuse angle of the corner connection and PERI joint [PERI CAD]
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 41

Figure 5.22: Prefabricated walls peeled F for the example of a specific construction point [PERI
CAD] export from PERI CAD and imported into Revit

To the converted To test the uhrbarkeit created in PERI CAD formwork, it is made

PERI exported and then imported into Revit. It is attempted, the entire part of the second experiment of the previous section

export model created. Following this attempt will be made if only you can export the geometries of formwork components.

If the IFC export from PERI CAD started out, an internal error occurs. to r

ucksprache with Peris support there DAF for several GR unde. PERI himself to DER

term point of view still difficulties to implement the IFC export fully funktionsf¨ahig. Exporting to an IFC file is therefore only ¨

over detours possible. A

Possibility would, the model for Autodesk Navisworks to ¨ convertedwatches and by means of the li-

zenzp export fl ichtigen "iCONstruct" program as an IFC. Furthermore, you could see the model from AutoCAD upload a

DWG file into Revit and export an IFC file from here. Both variants have the following disadvantage: Because in the current

IFC standard no formwork and GER

uste BER be taken into account, w ere with an export as IFC file

lost object attributes and component information of the formwork elements created.

is tested from Lizenzgr¨ for reasons only the variant of ¨ O ff nen the DWG file into Revit with

any subsequent export to the IFC file format. The finished mold model as usual saved as DWG file. After starting Revit a new
project must first be applied, as otherwise no direct ¨

O ff nen file is possible. this happens

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 42

v̈ia the tab "EASY ugen " → "CAD Import". It is the entire model, including

Formwork components imported.

The result is shown below in Figure 5.23 :

Figure 5.23: Revit Geo ff designated DWG file from Revit, which includes the modeled formwork components [PERI CAD]

The imported model behaves as a component, whereby no direct selections of the shuttering components is possible. This

falls one percent unschtes aim of the now subsequent

Working away. This was, of each formwork member, or at least divide the Schalw¨ande in phases and this agreed with the

phases of being shuttered walls. The phases of the formwork components W

ere accordingly ¨ via which the walls extend. This has the

Background that the formwork must be set up before the actual construction of the reinforced concrete wall, while remains of

Aush¨artungsprozesses, and is degraded only after completion of the construction of the wall itself.

In order not ¨ Other detour about exporting to an IFC file to tread M Ussen,

is attempted below to load the DWG file directly into the Revit model and arrange accordingly. For this, the ORIG

ungliche Revit model Geo ff net and the CAD file

as previously imported.

Once imported, you can see the formwork model below the reference model. Shifting its drag-and-drop is however prevented

from Revit. Since the formwork model is already richitg oriented, can be set in the properties window under "dependencies",

the base level to "level 1", as the formwork components of the model on the first floor to be placed.

Since the model is thus properly oriented, the Modellw¨ande which are no formwork components, with the walls in the
reference model cover. This is a ¨ About superimposing
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 43

the two models optimally so that only the zus¨atzlichen Schalungsw¨ande are visible. Below (Figure 5.24 ) are the

about superimposed models shown:

Figure 5.24: ¨ About Layering Reference Model and formwork model [PERI CAD]

In summary, ¨ via the modeling of shuttering elements by means of the software

PERI CAD software following statements tre ff s. The automatic modeling Do not be accomplished due to software-related

Verschneidungsfehlern, inaccuracies and situations, such as round walls, which are not abegedeckt of the automatic can be.

Whether the Verschneidungsfehler were model already exists in Revit, or incur when imported into AutoCAD is not clearly

clarified. However, formwork components with relatively little effort can also manually load into the model and automatically

extract the Modellw¨anden. This is a sufficiently good modeling possible. Exports to

uck after Revit is not ¨ the current position via the IFC

File format possible, due to lack of de fi nition in the IFC itself. However the formwork result can be imported as a CAD file

into the Revit model and ¨ overlaps

are thereby zus¨atzlichen formwork elements can be seen.

5.1.3 DokaCAD8

This section deals with DokaCAD, the second variant software for modeling formwork components. This is going round its

operation and the shuttering result which gives it considered.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 44 Installing DokaCAD8

Doka promises its new planning software DokaCAD8 that the rapid and automatic formwork planning Let's unite with the

flexibility of a CAD system, creating a perfect handling and increased e ffi ciency to be achieved. The software is available

for free download on Dokas homepage features


Unlike PERI CAD, the software is already DokaCAD8 F for the 2017er version of

AutoCAD Architecure author ugbar. This means just as PERI CAD preinstalled

AutoCAD Architecture needed in 2015, is the same DokaCAD8 ahead with the version 2017th The software F

for AutoCAD Architecture 2017 as well as the relevant field license

m Ussen be independently acquired by DokaCAD8. After AutoCAD has been installed, you can begin installing DokaCAD8.

Here, a 30-day trial version can either be started or a licensing process be applied. The software installation can be

completed independently from the licensing process with the full-fledged trial. The user is Dar each time

about informed how many

Days nor G trial is ultig. Here also the License issued by Doka ussel

be entered. first modeling experiments

As in in this section is a general procedure for automated formwork modeling, here by means of DokaCAD8

elaborated. As a basis DokaCAD needed a 2D building model on de fi ned layers to automatically can model formwork

components afterwards.

Therefore, in the first trial, a two-dimensional floor plan is created and ¨ about the car

matics provided with formwork. Under the "DokaCAD" in the "Structure", the function "walls produce" are selected. Then, the
window of the "2DWandeingabe" geo ff net, which can be set in which the wall thickness of the subsequently drawn line to
be generated to the left or right. ¨

can via "Create"

the wall Input be started. For example, a square ground plan aimed at can be produced by drawing the third wall, the floor

plan are automatically closed. This ensures that a closed geometry is produced and thus no error occurs in the formwork

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 45

The plan arises from the fact, as in the following figure 5.25 see:

Figure 5.25: Plan view of the first attempt for automated formwork modeling [DokaCAD]

After end of "2D panel input" can see "DokaCAD" → "Automatic" automated formwork modeling bet¨atigt. Earlier still has the

sound system to be used are selected in the "Settings". In this example, the "eco Framax panel formwork" is chosen.

Since the walls created were created in the floor plan by DokaCAD itself, fi nd you are already on the layer "ACwt

WALL-OUTLINE". This is essential because otherwise the walls can not be detected by the automatic system. After starting

the automatic M

Ussen the being shuttered walls are selected and

confirmed by pressing Enter. Now formwork components including all NECESSARY anchors and fasteners are modeled.

The modeled formwork is so far only created in 2D space, as in the project options the setting for outputting the article is

activated only in 2D.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 46

The result of the formwork Automatic appears in the following figure 5.26 :

Figure 5.26: First automated formwork modeling means DokaCAD in 2D space [DokaCAD]

In the second trial is to take place the modeling of a possible partition in so far qudratisch arranged floor plan, as already in


One advantage of Dokas wall entry that additionally introduced walls are automatically blended with the existing ones. This is

independently executed by the subsequent angle properly

leads. However, to be of the automatic F For certain scarf

systems covered such as "eco Framax formwork" no her or more obtuse angle than 90 degrees.

If you try any of these situations be shuttered, a protocol in which appears noted is that F

for a certain number of scarf fl no solution could be found. As a possible cause too much or too little known

angle in a corner. The remaining wall surfaces FL are still shuttered, the other corners, however, as in the figure below 5.27 visible,

except of the formwork.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 47

Figure 5.27: Formwork wall intersection with an angle other than 90 degrees [DokaCAD]

It is therefore important to ensure that walls are always blended with a 90 degree angle. F

for problems in which this is not the case, a Sonderl¨osung

be found because of the formwork experts.

Unlike PERI CAD but no wall termination situation must be de fi ned. The wall ends are independently recognized by

possibly occurring mold problems in corners and shuttered. This fact is illustrated in Figure 5.28 clearly visible.

Figure 5.28: Formwork wall intersection with an angle equal to 90 degrees [DokaCAD]
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 48

The two-dimensional representation of the form can also ¨ in the 3D space transmit advertising

the. This can be under the "DokaCAD" → "General" → be changed "project options". For this purpose must be angew¨ahlt the

"3D" option under the paragraph "edition of the article" to map modeled directly in three-dimensional form. If the previously

created 2D formwork are extruded in 3D, "said conversion 2D-3D" sales here must also be angew¨ahlt.

In the context of the first experiment Formwork created can now be converted from 2D to 3D. For this, the "function

2D ↔ 3D launched "under the tab" DokaCAD "in the" Presentation ". After selecting the extruded formwork and their

Confirmation, Doka converts these into the 3D space. Once was changed into a spatial view three-dimensional form can be

considered. To clarify the presentation, is set to "realistic" in "view" of the "visual style". In the following figure 5.29 the result

of the extrusion is shown.

Figure 5.29: Representation of the formwork created by Doka after extrusion in three-dimensional space [DokaCAD] Formwork modeling on HfK model

In the third experiment, the methods developed in the imported model of the "House f ur

implemented children. " To Modellw¨ande F for making the formwork Automatic recognized

m these must be placed on the layer "ACwt WALL-OUTLINE". For this purpose, fi rst of all other layers which F

for this modeling are needed, disabled.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 49

Data on disabled layers:

- A-door- -OTLN


- A pile -OTLN


- I-Wall- -OTLN


There is only one layer of the imported model enabled, which comprises COMPLETE wall contours. For this all the walls are

angew¨ahlt by dragging a selection window. These can be in angew¨ahlten state only by selection of another layer, move on

this. The walls are ¨

about this method on the already mentioned

"ACwt WALL-OUTLINE" layer to move. Since the model is a 3D image that the output of the products in 3D option is already

After starting the shuttering automatic and choice of being shuttered walls, the error message that appears PR,

testing of the Bauwerksde Definitions not been successful. It is the

Note STUFFED out such that construction lines the wall contours intersect inadmissible. The

Problem can be noisy error message manually using the function "Bauwerksde fi nition PR Ufen "

be resolved. In EXEC guidance this is aufgelis- a list of errors in the model

tet. This is always about the same mistake the wrong gra fi c form of a floor plan, wall Ansichts or assignment contour. The

Erl¨auterung is that contours consist only of lines (lines), and circles d Kreisb¨ogen

urfen. As a measure is recommended

to shift the contours on a layer that does not f ur DokaCAD reserved. So

no Layer, which begins with a ACwt identifier. but it is necessary that the wall contours on the layer "ACwt WALL-OUTLINE"

fi nd. Otherwise, the formwork control can not be used. It f the possibility of a automatic correction

for the respective aufgef¨ durchzuf¨ uhrten error watches.

Tentatively it will be automatic correction F for the first aufgef¨ uhrten error Switch

GEFleads. Here, the options of L can ucken- and angle correction, as well as the "Li-

be adapted nienabst¨ande rounds ". Regardless of the exact con fi guration of the correction parameters, the entire model is
removed once the calculated by the correction ¨

Changes are applied. It is therefore not possible to use the 3D model, the automated formwork modeling.

When using the interactive formwork, wherein manually formwork component F

for formwork component can be selected, occurs

The same error and is therefore also not applicable.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 50

Therefore, in a fourth experiment, the 3D building model is attempted to be reduced to a 2DAbbildung and then provide

these with formwork. Since the option to derive a 2D image directly from the 3D model not DokaCAD available.??The


is, it must be created in AutoCAD Architecture 2017th Here, the layers are previously F

for glass, stairs, t acids, disabled floor and columns, so that only the layer

Fur walls remains activated. Subsequently, ¨ via the tab "section and views" a

create "2D image". To create the right image, the right angle must first be set in the 3D view. The most gew¨ahlten EASY
ugepunkt created

2D image that can then be exported to a new drawing and stored separately. For automated formwork in DokaCAD, the 2D

image must once again on the Layer "ACwt WALL-OUTLINE" be moved. Here, however, the individual walls can no longer

be angew¨ahlt separately because after creating the display of everything as an object is viewed. After calling the shuttering

automatic error message stating that no contours on the wall contour layers to fi are ends. However, since this is the "ACwt

WALL-OUTLINE" layer on which the 2D contour has been moved, it is clear that Dokas automatic does not cover the

problem with a branched contour.

in F fifth attempt therefore created the created in the fourth attempt 2D image wall contours and then peeled. Fi rst, the

production of wall contours bounded only to the Außenw¨ande the building. To this end, it is essential ¨ the 2D image

to zoom about the scaling function by a factor of 1000 to use the same unit as the function for wall production and the

formwork automatic. Furthermore, should the height of the walls to be prepared to be adjusted. 3D model of the level 1 of the

reference model "House Import F on the basis of the third test

for children's

the "to let the pure Wandh¨ohe measure without a floor at 3.25 meters. In Dokas project options the wall level can thus

above 3250 (attention, here mm Unit) specify if the wall level remains below 0.

After the closed contour of the Außenw¨ande has been generated, the shuttering control can be started. This time the

formwork system "Framax Xlife formwork" is used because it is capable of automatic ball joints to attach at corners with an

angle other than 90 degrees.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 51

The result of the shuttering automatic is in the figure below 5.30 see:

Figure 5.30: Automated modeling formwork after manual generation of Begrenzungsw¨ande [DokaCAD]

To test the possibilities of large-FL-area formwork automated modeling, some of the Innenw¨ande be generated in addition

to the already modeled Außenw¨anden. Walls which are recognizable as Leichtbauw¨ande due to their construction, are not

produced because they are created not by reinforced concrete and therefore no formwork Bed

urfen. Although the Innenw¨anden have a lower Wandst¨arke, but still be properly blended with the wall

generation and integrated. Since the function of the wall production does not include rounded walls, this can as in the

following figure 5.31 illustrated not be created.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 52

Figure 5.31: Rounded out walls are which are not modeled by a function of wall production can [DokaCAD]

If the wall ends of rounded corners tries diagonal to the straight Wandst pressures

to connect, an error occurs in the subsequent shuttering modeling. For this reason, geradenWandst¨ are only

pressures generated and omitted rounded corners.

After starting the shuttering automatic, some error messages are displayed after the modeling. These include a minimum

deviation from the right angle and the resulting fact that thereby only 2 edges are nearly parallel to each other. However, this

impairs not the formwork modeling sites by means of. The following illustrations are firstly the mold situation on the rounded

corners 5:32 and secondly, the overall view of the modeled formwork in 3D display

5:33 to see.
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 53

Figure 5.32: Formwork situation on the wall ends of rounded corners [DokaCAD]

Figure 5.33: 3D representation of the entire modeled form: Foreign and Innenw¨ande [DokaCAD]
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 54

Under the representation of so many formwork components and accessories in 3D performance of DokaCAD suffers

considerably. It is therefore advisable to vollf¨ all modeling work in 2D

watches and display to use only the fi nal view in 3D. export from and import into Revit DokaCAD

Since the objective of this work is the presentation of formwork components in Autodesk Revit, the under research

fifth experiment generated modeling means DokaCAD

formwork ( ) Now to the piece exported to Revit. Exporting to a IFC data format

from DokaCAD out impossible.

For this reason, as in section the drawing file of the formwork components imported into Revit without contours of the

walls. The procedure here is the same as when importing the PERI drawing file. In Geo ff NetEm project in Revit, ¨ can

on the

EASY tab " ugen "a CAD file to be imported. When you select the file to be downloaded

Note the following settings of the options. With the option "positioning" must set to "Auto - Center-to-center" are set so that

the introduced eyeing the drawing

same orientation and arrangement in space such as the receipt Revit model. This guarantees that the Schalungsw¨ande the

right place fi nd. When placing on import only the reference plane "Level -1" can be chosen. However, this can be manually

set in the properties of the CAD drawing on "level 1" immediately after the import. The result is shown in the following figure 5:34

Figure 5.34: ¨ Overlap of the drawing of the formwork elements with the originally unglichen Revit
Model [DokaCAD]
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 55

In subsequent Detail 5:35 can be seen that in contrast to the drawing file from PERI CAD formwork elements from DokaCAD

be displayed in a solid model rather than a line-like flat.

Figure 5.35: Detail of the imported in RVIT formwork drawings [DokaCAD]

F for the upcoming in the next chapter comparing the two software variants, with DokaCAD as supplements to the image of

the entire form of the level 1 of the "House F ur

Children "still the same Bauprozessschritt modeled as with PERI CAD section ,

5.1.4 Comparison of formwork modeling between PERI CAD and DokaCAD

This chapter describes the two software variants for modeling formwork components, PERI CAD and DokaCAD be

compared with each other both in terms of results orientation, as well as in terms of their Bedienf¨ahigkeit.

It is fundamental to note that both versions are based on the AutoCAD Architecture software. This reduces the outset, the

compatibility with Autodesk Revit, AutoCAD there is a vector-oriented drawing program that can not interpret project data

from Revit and has no interface to this. Therefore, the data exchange format IFC was in both cases for data

transmission chosen. although based

the current version of DokaCAD already on AutoCAD 2017, which import and the
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 56

Converting IFC files easier, however, to assume that this transfer still a lot of data lost. In PERI CAD, which is still based on

currently AutoCAD 2015 came here already the first complications.

The modeling in two variants by means of the respective integrated formwork automatic proves to be difficult and

gr¨oßtenteils not applicable. Fi rst to allow the following statements ¨

about PERI CAD tre ff s. A big advantage here

is that existing wall contours from the imported model in F PERI for inter-

pretierbare walls can be converted. Then the Schalungsautoamtik can easily be applied afterwards. However, this is usually

only if individual walls are to be converted and shuttered. however, when several walls are being formed at the same time,

so there are often difficulties. Cause here are often Verschneidungsfehler which are not solved by the automatic can. These

errors occur by converting the project data in the IFC data format and the subsequent ¨

converted guidance in AutoCAD drawing files. Alternatively, can form components are also loaded manually in the drawing and

positioned at the PERIW¨anden. Along these walls, the formwork can then be attached partially automated. Problem here is

that hybrids overcame not be mapped in this way. A formwork expert m

would have For

to f each joint develop a Sonderl¨osung.

DokaCAD differs from its application about PERI CAD in several punk

th. Theoretically could be also existing wall contours using the automatic shells. For this purpose, m

ussten this advertising merely postponed to a specific layer in Doka

the. However, this possibility does not work because PURSUANT the upstream Bauwerkspr¨

ufung the wall contour is not of lines and circles consist D urfen. Alternatively, let

to create a derived 2D image of the model manually wall elements. This has that this de fi nitv can be detected by the

automatic and are blended ordnungsgem¨aß the advantage. Dokas Schalungsautoamtik can selbst¨andig solutions unlike

Peris F

ur problem situations such as wall connection angle un-

equal to 90 degrees, create by the attachment of ball joints. PERI CAD M Ussen

they are placed manually.

Both Softwarel¨osungen not rounded wall corners can be covered by the automatic. it m

ussten be modeled in both cases Sonderl¨osungen.

With regard to the exemplary Let guidance ultimately in both cases almost the same results-

achieve nis. In the converted guidance to However uck in Revit is the LARGEST difference.

in both programs because no export is possible in the IFC data format, the CAD drawing of the respective formwork result in

Revit must be imported into both cases. The drawings can be in the model fit based on this and position. However, the

formwork created in PERI in Revit is only represented as line-like Strukture. The functionality in terms of the construction

progress are hereby loading

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 57


For imported drawings which have been prepared with DokaCAD, the formwork in Revit is represented as three-dimensional

volume model and thereby enables a construction progress with the expected E ff ect that in addition to the volume elements

of the Stahlbetonw¨ande the formwork to be involved K may.

The following figures for the purpose of this comparison is a detail of the modeling Bauprozessschrittes the one hand with

PERI CAD (Figure 5:36 ) And the other (with DokaCAD Figure 5:36 ) Shown. From this, the line-like structure and the drawing

created by the three-dimensional PERI Volumenk¨orpermodell the drawing created by Doka becomes clear.

Figure 5:36: Detail of the imported Revit formwork drawing of a certain Bauprozessschrittes [PERI CAD]
5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 58

Figure 5.37: Detail of the formwork imported in Revit drawing of a particular Bauprozessschrittes [DokaCAD]

Although the imported model automatic can be shuttered in DokaCAD immediately and for this purpose

for the plan to be created manually M Ussen so this Softwarel¨osung

but the preferred option. Mainly for the reason that the ¨ converteduhrte result

be pulled in to other arrangements Revit zoom. It was with comparatively little effort F

for a plurality of recording times of the construction progress a Scha-

built development model and in a kind of library. In this way could be individually formwork components Append or to present

different Bauprozessschritte also remove.

5.1. Modeling of formwork elements 59

The following are the advantages and disadvantages of the two software versions will once again summarized:

Table 5.1: Advantages and disadvantages of PERI CAD and compared DokaCAD


direct formwork modeling on imported model automatic intersection of walls created


automated formwork walls of selected automated formwork to specially created walls


detailed three-dimensional representation of detailed three-dimensional representation of

formwork components Schalunsgbauteilen

automatic Probleml¨osung of wall connection

angle other than 90 degrees

AutoCAD Architecture 2015 is based AutoCAD Architecture 2017 is based


Export to Revit is only line-like structure no formwork modeling on imported 3D model


no IFC export possible no IFC export possible

no import IFC files possible

5.1.5 formwork of Revit families

The simplest and most convenient solution would direct modeling of formwork components in Autodesk Revit itself.

Components which do not yet feature by default here are ugbar,

can be ADD about so-called component families ugen.

On the web there are some component libraries that free various component families available.??The

make ugung. The following libraries were marked to content with formwork runs:

- bimobject ( )

- smartbim ( )

- ( )

- ( )
5.2. Modeling of reinforcing elements 60

- NBS National BIM Library ( )

Unfortunately, none of these libraries suitable products have been found which can be imported as a component family in

Revit. Alternatively, it is also possible to create Revit families of their own, which can then be loaded into a project. This,

however, goods, especially F

for detailed and complex components, such Schalungsw¨ande and their accessories to a Hochst aufw¨andiger

process. Moreover M would have to then each component by hand into the

Project are charged and placed correctly because this purpose is for no automatic available.

therefore this step until further notice telling to one of the libraries or other manufacturers at least appropriate component

families available.??The ugung provided.

5.2 Modeling of reinforcing elements

5.2.1 Softwarel¨osungen: Revit internally vs. So fi CAD

In the get¨atigten image recordings to construction progress, in addition to shuttering components also Bewehrungsk¨orbe

can be seen. To this the matching adjustment with BER ucksichtigen to

can, m Ussen they are first shown in the reference model. To this end, two software variants are selected. For one,

Autodesk Revit can model reinforcement itself. Second, the software SOFiCAD SOFiSTiK was auserw¨ahlt.

5.2.2 internally Revit

Revit itself has under the "engineering" the field of "reinforcement". The process of reinforcement modeling can carried

almost automatically here be carried out because the

Option of Fl¨achenbewehrung available.??The ugung stands. Here, after determining the

Limiting fl at, for example, a wall models the Bewehrungsk¨orper within this flat.

F for the exact procedure, must be "flat" are angew¨ahlt in the area of ​reinforcement of the button. The message that F

for the coordination of the bending mold reinforcement hook

be included. This option can also be set manually in "reinforcement Settings". However, it is essential that decision tre ff s,

since the beginning of the modeling can not be ver¨andert.

Subsequently, the fl-like component is selected, which is to be provided with reinforcement. As an example, the marked wall

in the figure below 5:38 chosen to map the recordable adhere Bauprozessschirtt.
5.2. Modeling of reinforcing elements 61

Figure 5:38: Marked wall is to be provided in the project with reinforcement

Once the wall has been selected, the reinforcement lines set to limit the modeling in the component to be drawn into it. After

confirming the entry will be automatically attached to four reinforcement mats. The result of the modeling can be seen in the

figure below. For better illustration, is the wall itself, in which the reinforcement was modeled hidden.

Figure 5:39: Automated Fl¨achenbewehrung in the f ur ausgew¨ahlten the Bauprozessschritt

5.2. Modeling of reinforcing elements 62

The NECESSARY Bewehrungselemte can also be modeled manually. For this purpose ur are aller-

recently sectional views ALLOWABLE components required. However characterized bends may not exact and arrangements

are determined.

5.2.3 SOFiCAD

SOFiCAD is an AutoCAD-based program. it m Ussen therefore as with the Scha-

lung modeling can be derived from the imported file IFC drawing files. SOFiCAD has no automatic, which is why each

reinforcing element has to be modeled by hand. However, an extensive component catalog allows an exact adjustment of

the bending molds, the selection of the steel bar, and the generation of own forms to your own bed


SOFiSTiK is on his Youtube channel more tutorial videos to feature ugung which

However, often in a high speed and with no or inadequate Erl¨auterung the process steps a reinforcement example

PASSAGE watches. Therefore, it is unfortunately difficult possible

to develop a precise procedure within a short time.

By means of a SOFiSTiK available.??Pets ugung provided written instructions, let a

guess work. To fi nd these instructions at this link: http: // public. fi stic / so fi cad / ALTALANOS / so fi cad

162-163 d.pdf

Chapter 6

Conclusion and outlook

The purpose of this thesis to model by means of suitable Softwarel¨osungen primarily formwork components to represent

this in the model, and then was Revit F for the

to make construction progress available. The DAF ur auserw¨ahlten software variants

PERI CAD and DokaCAD is to achieve this only limited to the current point of view.

Both programs allow in their own software environment to design an accurate and detailed formwork model. However, the
goal of ¨ converted guidance in Revit only

satisfactorily achieved by means DokaCAD. While the imported drawing file from DokaCAD produces a 3D Volumenk¨orper

the formwork model, so only a line-based structure is created when you import the file from PERI CAD. This line model is not

ur suitable the further steps of SET-ACTUAL balance the construction progress. The LARGEST obstacle here is that
AutoCAD on which both are based Softwarel¨osungen, geometry information differently interpreted as Revit. a ¨

converted guidance has only been ¨ about

the IFC data exchange format possible.

An import of the formwork model in Revit is not yet possible only as a DWG drawing file because the IFC export function in

PERI CAD and DokaCAD still has implementation errors. In addition, the IFC format itself provided no standards for

interpreting formwork information includes, so that their information will be lost when exporting W


By importing the drawing file, the formwork model is only recognized as an object. To edit the function auszuw¨ahlen each

formwork component individually and divide into a construction falls away as a result. The division into phases would be a

major step F

ur been the construction progress, as it filters through the construction phases

in K a very short time the weight can read had unschten target state of the building.

However, the modeling with DokaCAD is quick and uncomplicated in its applicability, which F with relatively little time

for a more de fi ned phases


separate formwork model could be generated. These models then were maintained and loaded as needed into the Revit

reference model in a kind of library. This makes goods to reach the target figure of formwork elements in dependence of the

construction progress.

The modeling in PERI CAD is similar and just as quickly durchzuf¨ of DokaCAD

watches. However, since the Revit ¨ converteduhrte result is not detailed enough to make it

Fur to make the automated construction progress available, it is not suitable f ur

this claim. be able to interpret this error when importing into Revit identi fi ed and eliminated so PERI CAD would be a

promising alternative.

Promising F for both goods Softwarel¨osungen the full functional implementation

the IFC format, in combination with the EASY guidance of standards F for formwork components.

This W urde ¨ import about DWG files replaced, thus COMPLETE formwork components

were individually machined after the import. This makes the erkl¨arte aim of the division would be possible in de fi ned


The Bewehrungsodellierung in Revit and SOFiCAD works perfectly in both cases, however, require a high allowance of

knowledge and time. This applies in particular ur SOFi-

CAD, DAF for the result but very detailed and perfectly adapted to the respective Bed urfnisse


Chapter 7

Appendix A

On the beigef¨ ugten Datentr¨ager includes the following documents:

- The written report of the Bachelor's Thesis [PDF]

- The project data of the adjusted reference model

- COMPLETE started in this work and project files used

- ken all files of Gra used in this work fi and illustrations

- Digital available.??The ugung related literature



[1] Dorfmeister, L .; Gluch, E. housing development in Germany

until 2016. 2013; Wuestenrot housing hourly 2016.pdf , Last:


[2] Fabricius, M. in the cities is the housing shortage on gr¨oßten. Web, 2015; fi nance / property / article146669755 / In these cities--istdie-Housing-on-groessten.html ,

Last: 04.07.2017.

[3] Seibel, K. Thus, FL uchtlinge vesch¨arfen the housing shortage. 2015; https:

// fi nance / property / article149997352 / Thus-refugees--dieWohnungsnot-verschaerfen.html , Last:


[4] Thomas Baumanns, DK-SSDFK, Dr. Philipp-Stephan Freber construction industry

changing trends and potential to 2020. 2016; publications / publication pdf / roland

berger hvb study construction 20160415 1 .pdf , Last: 04.07.2017.

[5] Girmscheid, G. project management in the construction industry ways to win-win situation F ur

Client and contractor. 2010; , Last: 04.07.2017.

[6] Borrmann, A .; Konig, M .; Koch, C .; Beetz, J. Building Information Modeling: tech-

cal basics and industrial practice; VDI-book; Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2015; Last: 07.04.2017.

[7] BMVI, master plan submitted Build 4.0. 2017;

Press releases / 2017/009-Dobrindt-bim-gipfel.html , Last: 04.07.2017.

[8] W urfele, F .; Bielefeld, B .; Gralla, M. building project monitoring: cost - Qualit¨aten - ter-
mine - Organization - Performance Content - Legal basis - Liability - VERG utung; View-
eg + Teubner Verlag, 2012; Last: 07.04.2017.

[9] NBIMS, Building Information Modeling Standard. Web, 2016; https: // www. , Last: 04.07.2017.


[10] Behaneck, M. Building Information Modeling Only digital, then real. 2015;

CJvzs8qvutECFUMSGwodFn4KWA , Last: 04.07.2017.

[11] Eschenbruch, K .; Malkwitz, A .; GR uner, J .; Poloczek, A .; Karl, C. measures

took Catalog for the use of BIM in the O ff public works department, taking into

consideration of the legal and regulatory Rahmenbedingungen- opinion on BIM implementation. 2014;

Digital / bim-massnahmenkatalog.pdf? blob = publication file , Last: 04.07.2017.

[12] Working Group B. I. A report for the Government Construction Client

Group Building Information Modeling (BIM) Working Party Strategy Paper. 2011;

, Last: 04.07.2017.

[13] Blackwell, B. Industrial strategy: government and industry in partnership. 2012; strategy government and industry in partnership , Last: 04.07.2017.

[14] kppk ZT GmbH, construction progress by BTVG. Web, 2017; http:


, Last: 04.07.2017.

[15] Mason Kollenz, M. The progress after Bautr¨agervertragsgesetz (BTVG)

Which defect or failures hinder the assessment of a construction phase to be completed? Web, 2013;

, Last: 04.07.2017.

[16] Ansorge, D. botched construction General notes to prevent shoddy construction.

2011; AllgemeineHinweise.pdf , Last: 04.07.2017.

[17] Alexandra SEEM Muller, MP caution in Phase 8, 2007;

caution-in-phase-8 / , Last: 04.07.2017.

[18] Bosch'e, F .; Turkan, Y .; Haas, CT; Haas, R. Fusing 4D modeling and laser scanning for

construction schedule control. Proc. of the 26th Annual Conf. Association of Researchers in Construction

Management (ARCOM 2010). 2010; pp 1229-1238, Last: 07.04.2017.

[19] G unther, SO, WA RFID use in the construction industry. -; fml / index.php? id = 261 Set ,

Last: 04.07.2017.

[20] Kersten, T .; Acevedo Pardo, C. 3D object recording of historical buildings

F by digital architectural photogrammetry for visualization tasks and FA

cility management. 2002; fi le / Thomas Kersten / publication / 259621022 3-D object

intake of historic buildings by digital architectural photogrammetry for visualization tasks and for facility management /

left / 0deec52ceb3de72336000000 / 3-D object recording by-historischenGebaeuden-by -digital-architectural

photogrammetry-for-Visualisierungsaufgabenund-for-facility Management.pdf , Last: 04.07.2017.

[21] Wikipedia, B undelblockausgleichung - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2017; 161224322 , Last: 02.22.2017.

[22] Brown, A .; Tuttas, S .; Borrmann, A .; Stilla, U. A concept for automated construc-

tion progress monitoring using BIM-based geometric constraints and photogrammetric metric point clouds. 2015;

5.content.00001.pdf , Last:


[23] PERI, TE basics of Schalungsbaues. WEB, 2011; http: //www.hochschule- fi leadmin / groups / 11 / Civil Engineering / people / Ebner / Construction II / Basics Formwork neu.pdf ,

Last: 04.07.2017.

[24] Malpricht, W. In Formwork planning: an instructional and ¨ Ubungsbuch; Hanser ,, Ed .; Subject-

Book laughed. Leipzig, of 2010.

[25] Autodesk, Revit and AutoCAD compared. Web, 2017;

solutions / revit-vs-autocad , Last: 01.04.2017.

[26] Autodesk, export a project in IFC. Web, 2016; https: //knowledge.autodesk.

com / en / support / revit-products / learn-explore / caas / Cloud Help / cloud help / 2016 / ENG / Revit Document

Presentment / fi les / GUID 14037C31-EBAD-41A8-9099-E6DD65BB626Ehtm.html , Last: 04.07.2017.

[27] PERI, system requirements PERI CAD. 2017;

planning software apps Tools / Software / peri-cad-planning software-formwork-geruest. html , Last: 03.15.2017.

List of Figures

2.1 advancement of planning decisions and -Expenses, source: http: // Mzk4NTY5Wg.JPG , Last

accessed on 04.07.2017 , , , , , , , , , , , , , 7

2.2 Gradual transition of the British government to BIM, source: http: // www. , Last accessed on 04.07.2017 ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 9

4.1 Characteristic values ​f ur σ hk, max, Source: http: //www.schalungsplanung.

de / handout / Chapter 2-4.pdf , Last accessed on 04.07.2017 , , , , , , , , 21

4.2 Determination of the factor K1 as a function of the solidification end t e

. Source: 2-4.pdf , Last accessed on 04.07.2017 , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 21

5.1 selection window for ¨ O ff NEN an IFC , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 25

5.2 Error message when you import an IFC file into AutoCAD , , , , , , , , , , , 25

5.3 Level 0 of the "House F for children, "according ¨ O ff nen in AutoCAD Architecture 2017 , 26

5.4 F The exported in DWG format 3D view of the house for children in AutoCAD

Geo ff net , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 27

5.5 ORIG ungliche representation of Ebene0 in the Revit file , , , , , , , , , , , 27

5.6 representation of Ebene0 to import the exported AtuoCAD model in Revit , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,, 27

an export error AutoCAD exclude 07.05 import the exported IFC file , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

, 28

5.8 Properties window as wall from the originally unglichen Revit file , , 29

5.9 Properties window the same wall, but here, the export file from AutoCAD , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,, 29

5.10 The result of the first experiment for the automated form a wall specially prepared [PERI CAD] , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 31

5:11 floor plan of the space situation formwork modeling in the second trial [PERI CAD]

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 32

5.12 The result of the second experiment for the automated form a space situation specially prepared [PERI

CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 32

5:13 formwork elements using the example of the first floor of the "House only partially automatically generated F

for children "[PERI CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 33

14.5 stage of construction based on which the manual modeling carried formwork

should be carried , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 35

5:15 Occurring signal for automatic cleanup upon ¨ O ff NEN the drawing

planning PERI [PERI CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 36

5.16 possibilities of drawing setting to start automatic cleanup [PERI CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

,, 36

5.17 Colored marking the manually shuttered walls [PERI CAD] , , , , , 36

5.18 Automated alignment manually introduced a ugten formwork component [PE

RI CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 38

5:19 expanding a formwork component [PERI CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 39

5:20 expanding a formwork component [PERI CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 39

5.21 finished peeled wall with very obtuse angle of the corner connection and PERI joint [PERI CAD] , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 40

5.22 Ready peeled walls F for the example of a specific construction point [PE

RI CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 41

5.23 Revit Geo ff designated DWG file from Revit, which includes the modeled formwork components [PERI

CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 42

5/24 ¨ About Layering Reference Model and formwork model [PERI CAD] , , 43

5.25 plan view of the first attempt for automated formwork modeling [DokaCAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,, 45

5.26 First automated formwork modeling means DokaCAD in 2D space [DokaCAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 46

5.27 formwork wall intersection with an angle other than 90 degrees [DokaCAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,, 47

5.28 formwork wall intersection with an angle equal to 90 degrees [DokaCAD]

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 47

29.5 representation of the formwork created by Doka after extrusion in three-dimensional space [DokaCAD] , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 48

30.5 Automatic formwork modeling after manual generation of Begrenzungsw¨ande [DokaCAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 51

5:31 On the Rounded walls which are not modeled by a function of wall production can [DokaCAD] , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 52

5:32 formwork situation on the wall ends of rounded corners [DokaCAD] , , , 53

5:33 3D representation of the entire modeled form: Foreign and Innenw¨ande [DokaCAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 53

5:34 ¨ Overlap of the drawing of the formwork elements with the originally unglichen

Revit model [DokaCAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 54

5:35 Detail of the imported in RVIT formwork drawings [DokaCAD] , , 55

5:36 Detail of the imported Revit formwork drawing of a certain Bauprozessschrittes [PERI CAD] , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,, 57

5:37 Detail of the formwork imported in Revit drawing of a particular Bauprozessschrittes [DokaCAD] , , , , , , , , ,

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 58

5:38 Marked wall is to be provided in the project with reinforcement , , , , , , , 61

5:39 Automated Fl¨achenbewehrung in the f ur turn the Bauprozessschritt

gew¨ahlten wall , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 61
Statutory declaration

I hereby erkl¨are that I have prepared the present bachelor thesis selbststandig. There were only expressions at work

used ucklich designated sources and tools.

Literally or sinngem¨aß ¨ about exempt thought I made identified as such.

I assure also that the present work is not yet another PR ufungs-

process has underlain.

Unterhaching, April 27, 2017

Stefan Schirmer

Stefan Schirmer