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Concave and Flat Expander

Anti-Wrinkle Rollers:
For Better or For Worse?

Timothy J. Walker
tjwalker@tjwa.com
(651) 686-5400 Office
(651) 249-1121 Mobile
(866) 572-3139 Fax

NEW

WWW.TJWA.COM 164 Stonebridge Road St Paul, Minnesota 55118


Concave and Flat Expander Rollers?

Concave Roller

Flat Expander

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Two Roller-Based Tracking Rules

Misaligned Diameter
Roller Variations
Initial
Position
(centered)

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Parallel Entry Rule

A moving web will tend to


shift laterally enter parallel
to the downstream roller’s
surface vector.
The web will shift may fall
short of parallel entry, if
the traction forces are
insufficient.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Bending a Web Uses Lateral Force

-σx +σx

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Bending a Web Uses Lateral Force

-σx +σx

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Bending a Web Uses Lateral Force

-σx +σx

x
-σx +σx

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Bending a Web Uses Lateral Force

-σx +σx

x
-σx +σx

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Diameter-Based Tracking

A reverse crowned Diameter variations The asymmetrical


roller has two strain the web and tension exerts a
opposing tapered induce tension moment or torque
section. variations on the web.
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Tracking & Diameter Variations
web roller

Responding to
the crossweb
tension
variation, the
web bends,
but is not
“parallel.”

With poor traction With good traction


the web stays non- web tracks to
parallel. “parallel.”

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Tracking & Diameter Variations
web roller

A poor traction With good traction


reverse crown web tracks to
roller creates “parallel.”
wrinkles.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Tracking & Diameter Variations


FOR WORSE ☺
FOR BETTER☺

A poor traction A good traction


reverse crown reverse crown roller
roller creates spreads the web,
wrinkles. preventing wrinkles.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Two Roller-Based Tracking Rules

Misaligned Diameter
Roller Variations
Initial
Position
(centered)

Good
Traction
Tight Tight
Tracking Side Side

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Two Roller-Based Tracking Rules

Misaligned Diameter
Roller Variations
Initial
Position
(centered)

Tight Tight
Side Side

Poor
Traction
Tracking

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Two Roller-Based Tracking Rules

Misaligned Diameter
Roller Variations
Initial
Position
(centered)

Good
Traction
Tight Tight
Tracking Side Side

Poor
Traction
Tracking

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Diameter-Based Spreader

Poor Traction
Diameter Diameter
Variations Spreader
Initial
Position
(centered)

Tight
Side

Poor
Traction
Tracking

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Diameter-Based Spreader

Good Traction
Diameter Diameter
Variations Spreader
Initial
Position
(centered)

Good
Traction
Tight
Tracking Side

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Diameter-Based Spreader

Good Traction
Diameter Diameter
Variations Spreader
Initial
Position
(centered)

Good
Traction
Tight
Tracking Side

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Diameter-Based Spreader

Good Traction
Diameter
Spreader Tape Collars

 Reverse Crowned
(Concave) Roller

Good
Traction
Required

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Misalignment-Based Spreader

Good Traction
Misaligned Misalignment
Roller Spreader
Initial
Position
(centered)

Good
Traction
Tight
Tracking Side

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Misalignment-Based Spreader

Good Traction
Misaligned Misalignment
Roller Spreader
Initial
Position
(centered)

Good
Traction
Tight
Tracking Side

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Misalignment-Based Spreader

Good Traction  Bowed Roller


Misalignment
Spreader
 Skewed Edge Nips

 Expander Roller

Good
Traction
Required  Flex Expander Roller

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


The Friction Circle

In driving, you use tire-road friction in two directions:

1. To accelerate or brake 2. To hold the car laterally

In a turn, you may use friction in both directions at once.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


The Friction Circle

The total friction available, F, is equal to µ times N.


µ = coefficient of friction,
+µNY
N = normal load (car weight)

−µNX +µNX

Slip occurs if the applied load


exceeds the friction available in
either direction, −µNY
–OR–
Neither one of these friction demands
If the combined vector sum alone would create slip, but combined
exceeds the limit. they exceed the friction circle limit.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


AW Roller Friction Needs

MD friction required to
develop diameter-induced θ
upstream crossweb
tension variations Machine Direction
Friction

TD friction required to bend


web laterally and follow
parallel entry rule. T

Transverse Direction
Friction
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
How Reverse Crowned Rollers Work

A reverse crowned roller …or created by applying


can be machined into the tape to a standard
roller cylinder… cylindrical roller.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Reverse Crowned Rollers

A cylindrical roller
pulls with uniform
strain and tension.

Width
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Reverse Crowned Rollers

A concave roller
pulls with strain and
tension varied
proportional to the
ε percent diameter
∆ε variations.

Width
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Reverse Crowned Rollers

Greater percent
diameter variations
creates greater strain
and tension variations.

∆ε=∆r/r Be careful not to drive


ε the center to slackness
or
the edge to break or
deformation stresses.
Width
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Reverse Crowned Rollers

Effectiveness of diameter variations is


dependent on roller friction.

Arrows indicate
tension/width
by lane
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Reverse Crowned Rollers

Spreading fails from insufficient traction.


Look out for:
• Small wrap angles
• Low tension
• Low traction coefficients
(from slippery materials or lubrication of smooth surfaces
at high speed, large diameters, and low tension)

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Tape Collar Guidelines

• Choose tape with good friction and roughness.


• Tape build up depends on web strain and roller
diameter.
• Try building up roller radius about 2-3 times
web strain (commonly about 0.3%).
Diameter

Width
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Concave Roller Tips #1

Don’t Go Slack or Over-Twist


Avoid creating center slackness and excessive
shear.
A concave roller’s profile should be based on web
width, thickness, modulus, and roller diameter.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Concave Roller Tips #2

Apply Firmly.
Concave roller need to create a crossweb tension
variation in the upstream span.
Design for enough lane-by-lane traction to support
induced upstream-to-downstream tension
variations.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Concave Roller Tips #3

Relieve Excess Gas (Air)


To ensure good traction,…
…especially with increase air lubrication (a function
of speed, diameter, tension, porosity, and
roughness),…
…concave roller need to have an appropriate
surface texture or roughness.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Flat Expander Rollers

A flat expander roller’s surface is made of


polymer bands or a rubber sleeve.

The surface expands


laterally under the
wrapping web.
The result is diverging
surface vectors and two
spreading mechanisms –
pre-roller and on-roller
web spreading.
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Expander Roller Spreading

An expanding surface roller has two strong spreading mechanisms:


1. Pre-Roller Spreading 2. On-Roller Spreading
The web will track outward to align its edges As the roller’s surface expands, it
to enter parallel to surface vector of the will attempt to laterally expand the
roller’s initial contact point (parallel entry rule). web, limited by the available friction.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Flat Expander On-Roller Spreading
α Angle of expander roller end wroller Roller width halfway from min to max, in.
φ Roller vector angle at initial web ∆wweb Web width change from initial to final
edge contact contact point, assuming no web-roller
β1 Wrap angle of web initial contact lateral slip.
β2 Wrap angle to web final contact T Web tension, lbs.
(all angles in radians) µ Coefficient of friction or traction
r Roller radius, in.
α
φ wweb Web width at contact point, in.

wr2

-β wweb = wr1
wroller
(β1 and β2 angles are measured from tangent line halfway between minimum or maximum rubber expansion.
Positive and negative β-angles are upstream and downstream from reference point.)
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Flat Expander Roller Spreading

1. Pre-Roller Spreading

(WR , IN − Wi ) = 2 LIN sin θ R , IN wR,OUT

β
∆WR , IN = 2 LINθ R , IN
wR,IN
wi L
If…
FL3 4 FL3
δ= =
3EI Etw3 θR,IN
F = µTβ ∆WMAX > ∆WR , IN
2µTβ L3
δ1/ 2 =
tw3 E
4 µTβL3
∆WMAX =
tw3 E
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Flat Expander Roller Spreading

Roller setup spreading goes


up with: ∆WR , IN = 2 LINθ R , IN
• Roller Angle (OK)
• Entry Span Length (less well known)

Potential spreading goes up with:


4µTβL 3
• Friction ∆WMAX = 3
• Tension tw E
• Length CUBED
• …and down with increasing lateral stiffness,
(including width CUBED)

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Flat Expander On-Roller Spreading

wroller = wr 0 + r sin β1 sin α The roller vector and web


strain are directly proportional
∆ w roller = r sin α (sin β 1 + sin β 2 ) to web/roller face width ratio.

 w web   w web 
∆ w web =   ∆ w roller φ 1 =  α cos β 1
 wr 0   wr0 
α
φ

wr2

-β wweb = wr1
wroller
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Flat Expander On-Roller Spreading

Q: Will the web and the rubber spread together?


A: Only if applied force exceed TD stress/strain needs.
Force required to follow Force applied by
rubber stretching: tension-created friction:

Y-Force/width required to Y-Force/width available from


follow the rubber covering friction created by web
strain during contact. tension.

T   ∆wweb  T  µT
  =  tE   =
 w  y ,req  wweb   w  avail r

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Flat Expander On-Roller Spreading

Scenario #1: Frictional forces more than sufficient.

T  T 
If…   >   Web y-strain = ∆wroller = r sin α (sin β1 + sin β 2 )
 w avail  w  y,req


FOR BETTER☺

Scenario #2: Frictional forces are insufficient.

T  T  µT (Assumes no friction is
If…   <   Web y-strain =
 avail  w  y,req
w rtE lost to drive the roller.)

Big NEGATIVE scenario #2: Relative motion between web and


roller will cause wear and abrasion.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004



FOR WORSE www.tjwa.com
Flat Expander Tips #1 & 2

Drive Safely
Ensure sufficient traction via friction coefficient,
wrap angle, and tension to provide to turn the high
drag roller and exert spreading forces on the web.
Add a drive belt to reduce web friction load.

Don’t over stretch


Avoid unnecessary wear by stretching the
expanding sleeve beyond the available traction’s
ability to expand the web.

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


Concave and Flat Expander Rollers?

Concave Roller Flat Expander

FOR BETTER☺ ☺?
FOR WORSE ?
It’s up to you …
TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com
Questions?

tjwalker@tjwa.com
651-686-5400

TJWalker+Associates, Inc., Copyright 2004 www.tjwa.com


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