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Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 12, No. 2. (May, 1975), pp. 136-141.

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Sat Feb 9 08:54:06 2008

DAVID E. BELL, RALPH L. KEENEY, and JOHN D. C. LITTLE*

Many marketing models use variants of the relationship: Market share equals

marketing effort divided by total marketing effort. Replacing marketing effort

with its resulting "attraction," the relationship is derived from the assumptions:

(1) attraction is nonnegative, (2) equal pttractions imply equal shares, and

(3) a seller's share is affected the same if the attraction of any other seller

increases a fixed amount.

Marketing model builders frequently use relation- the sum as a denominator, a market share is obtained

ships of the form (us)/(us + them) to express the for each seller. The result is a competitive model,

effects of "us" variables on purchase probability and since any seller's market share depends on the actions

market share. For example, Hlavac and Little [2] of every other seller. Time lags, market segmentation,

hypothesize that the probability a car buyer will or other phenomena may subsequently be added so

purchase his car at a given dealer is the ratio of the as better to represent other market features.

dealer's attractiveness (which depends on various This approach to competition solves a dilemma for

dealer characteristics) to the sum of the same quantities the model builder. Suppose he believes, for example,

over all dealers. Urban [lo], in his new product model that salesmen affect sales. He can draw up a relation

SPRINTER, makes the sales rate of a brand in a between sales and sales effort and try to calibrate

store depend on the ratio of a function of certain it with field data. However, competitive actions clearly

brand variables to the sum of such functions across affect what happens and the model builder seems to

brands. Kuehn and Weiss [4] make use of (us)/(us + need a new relationship for each possible level of

them) formulations in a marketing game model, as activity of each competitor. The problem has suddenly

does Kotler [3] in a market simulation. Mills [7] become very complicated. Yet, it seems plausible that

and Friedman [ l ] employ models of this form in the salesmen's efforts can be viewed as enhancing

game-theoretic analyses of competition. Urban [ l l ] the seller's position with the customers on some

and Lambin [5] fit similar models to empirical data, absolute scale. This can then interact with the effects

Urban to a product sold in supermarkets and Lambin created by other sellers' measures on comparable

to a gasoline market. Nakanishi and Cooper [8] present absolute scales. The linear normalization offers a way

a theory for parameter estimation of a large class to represent the interaction.

of such models. Normalized attraction models of this type can be

In all these cases the result of the formulation is postulated directly, but it is of interest to examine

to bring a competitive effect into the model by simple them more closely'and ask what basic assumptions

normalization. That is, a quantity, let us call it attrac- can be used to derive them. We shall demonstrate

tion, is defined that relates only to marketing actions that under certain conditions such a normalization is

and uncontrolled variables of a specific selling entity. mathematically required. While sales are also a needed

output in many marketing models, this article deals

with share. A common approach is to relate total

*David E. Bell and Ralph L. Keeney are research scholars, market sales to total marketing effort, thereby breaking

International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, the model building task into the two parts. However,

Austria; John D. C. Little is Director of the Operations Research

Center and Professor of Operations Research and Management, only the first part will be studied here. It should also

Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technolo- be pointed out that there are other approaches to

gy. This work was supported in part by a grant from NABISCO, modeling competitive interaction (for example, see

Inc. for research in marketing science.

161).

Vol. XI1 (May 1975), 136-41

A MARKET SHARE THEOREM

PROBLEM DEFINITION A3: Two sellers with equal attraction have equal market

share,

Given a finite set S = { s , , ..., s,) of sellers which

includes all sellers from whom a given customer group

makes its purchases, suppose that for each seller s S A4: The market share of a given seller will be affected

an "attraction" value a(si)is calculated. We suppose in the same manner if the attraction of any other

the competitive situation can be completely determined seller is increased by a fixed amount A . Mathemat-

by the vector of attractions: ically ,

a = (a(sl), a(s,), ..., a(sn)) = ( a , , a,, ..., a,,). f ,(a + h e j ) - f ,(a), for j # i ,

That is, the market share m(si) of a seller is fully is independent of j, where e i is the jth unit vector.

determined by a .

Attraction may be a function of the seller's advertis- Theorem

ing expenditure and effectiveness, the price of his If a market share is assigned to each seller based

product, the reputation of the company, the service only on the attraction vector and in such a way that

given during and after purchase, location of retail assumptions A1-A4 are satisfied, then market share

stores, and much more. Indeed, the attraction of an is given by:

individual seller can, if we wish, be a function of

these qualities for all the other sellers, or

might indicate seller j's price, and so on. However, Proof

one would hope that most of a seller's attraction would

be the result of his own actions and most model builders Since the vector a completely defines the vector

have treated it this way. ,,

[m(s,), ..., m(s,)], then functions f ..., f , exist

Since, by definition, attraction completely deter- such that

mines market share, it can be said that m(si) = fi(a), for all i = 1, ..., n,

with

for some function f where m(si) is the market share

of seller i. Clearly,

and

(2) fi(a) 2 0 , forall i = I , ..., n.

and

Consider the set

n

but otherwise the functions f i are as yet arbitrary. &' = {a: a , is constant and a i = A for some A > 0 )

The aim here is to give conditions on the relationship i=l

between attraction and market share which force the Let a , a€&, ii # 5 , then it will be shown that

simple linear normalization model

only of a i and Xy=, a i . Let a" = min(i, a ) taken

componentwise and e j be the jth unit vector. Then

if bo is defined as the smallest nonzero component

FORMAL DEVELOPMENT of two vectors (a - a o , a - a o ) , some i and j exist

such that we can define:

The assumptions are:

Al: The attraction vector is nonnegative and nonzero,

and

a 2 0 and ai>O.

i=l

A2: A seller with zero attraction has no market share, where either

a , = O-, m(si) = 0.

JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH, MAY 1975

fl(al)= fl(al). A = kf,(a/k, A),

Now define b ' as the minimum nonzero element of

(a - a ' , a - a ' ) and form

a2= a' + b l e i ,a 2 5 a , Now consider a vector a with

and

a2 = + blej,a 2 5 a,

where either and

a;= a, or i*I = Z..I a n = A - ( n - l)a/k,

f l ( a 2 )= f , ( a 2 ) .

Since the number of zero elements of (a - a k , a - a k, Now,

increases by at least one at each iteration of this

procedure, and

,

f (a k , = ,

f (a k ) , for all k,

= ( n - l ) h / k + f , ( A - ( n - 1)alk)

we have:

a k = a , ; k = =a , for k r n - 1

Hence, there is a contradiction if k and n can be

, ,

Thus, f (a) = f (a) as required, establishing the claim chosen such that:

that the market share M(s,) is constant over the set

d and hence depends only upon the quantities a , and ( n - l ) h / k > 1,

A. So, in general, we will express fi(a) in the form and

fi(ai,A). By A3,

f ,(a,A) = f &a,A)

That is, if

so that

( n - l ) a / A ~k < A ( n - I),

Now suppose by contradiction that, for any fixed a n and k. Hence,

and A,

fi(a,A ) = h # a/A.

Assume A > a / A ; the case A < a / A being similar. and the theorem is proved.

Consider two vectors -

a, a where: DISCUSSION

S i = 0 , i = 1 ,..., k - 1, The key point of the mathematical analysis is that,

subject to certain basic assumptions relating the vector

quantity, attraction, to the scalar quantity, market

share, mathematical consistency implies that market

share is a simple linear normalization of attraction.

Let us look at the implications of the assumptions

used.

Assumptions A1 and A2 are rather inconsequential

and made to simplify the analysis. A2 states that sellers

with zero attraction will have no market share. A1

requires attraction to be nonnegative and says the

attraction of at least one firm must be positive.

Otherwise there would be no active sellers in the

market. Assumption A3 does have some substance.

It says that if two competing sellers have equal

A MARKET SHARE THEOREM

attraction, then they will have an equal share of the increases. The alternatives C1 and C2, on the other

market. If attraction were simply defined as advertis- hand, concern the reaction of the market when total

ing, for instance, then one could argue against A3 attraction remains constant.

in many cases. Clearly, there are other factors which

influence market share. Thus, A3 helps make clear Considerations for Model Builders

to the model builder what he must include in his The basic definitions for the theorem permit the

attraction function to obtain a sensible result from attraction function for a given seller to depend on

the model. the values of the marketing variables for all sellers.

A crucial assumption is A4. It states that if the This brings out the full generality of the theory. Most

attraction of a competitor of s i increases by some authors who have used normalized attraction models,

amount A , then the new market share of s i will not however, have defined each seller's attraction to be

depend on which competitor made the increase. A4 a function only of his own variables. All models cited

does not say the market share of s i would remain in the introduction are of this type. Considerable

fixed. Intuitively, we would expect, in fact, a drop advantage accrues to this approach because the model

in seller i's share if competitors increased their attrac- builder need only worry about one seller at a time.

tion. Is A4 reasonable? Furthermore the number of parameters that require

We can think of two possible sources of deviations estimation can be expected to be drastically less than

from A4: nonlinearity and asymmetry. Nonlinearity if the marketing variables of all sellers affect each

would be evidenced if adding an increment to a small seller's attraction. The class of models for which

attraction produced a different effect (on others) from Nakanishi and Cooper [8] develop an estimation

adding the same amount to a large attraction. To some theory is of this simpler type.

extent, however, this is a matter of the scale along Notice that even if a seller's attraction depends

which attraction is measured. There is a clear advan- only on his own variables, his share still depends on

tage if attraction is additive in the sense of A4. everyone's variables because of the normalization.

Asymmetry could arise if changes in attraction of Thus an attraction model that focuses only on the

one seller were differentially effective on the custom- variables of one seller at a time can describe a fully

ers of another. Aspects of asymmetry can be formally competitive market. It should be emphasized,

considered in the linear normalization model by making however, that this approach makes a strong assumption

attraction of seller i partially dependent on some of whose validity is up for empirical verification.

the qualities of seller j. However, in general, our A criticism that might be leveled at the theory runs

assumptions do not accommodate asymmetry, and, as follows: Attraction is simply sales by another name

an extension of the theory would be required. In some and why bother? In other words, can we not say

situations market segmentation would be sufficient that sales is attraction times a constant? Then, by

to represent asymmetric effects. Thus a marketing definition, share is sales over total sales and the

action may increase attractiveness more in one group theorem follows trivially.

than another (for example, a sportier car may appeal Matters are not that simple and the theory is corre-

more to younger people). The algebra of market spondingly richer. It is true that sales can equal

segmentation is described later in this article. attraction times a constant as a valid special case.

To understand the implications of the theorem However, to show how restrictive this case is, consider

further, we present two corollaries. However, either the most common type of model, one in which the

of them could be made as an assumption to replace seller's attraction depends only on his own variables.

A4. Then A4 would follow as a corollary. Then the attraction of seller i is:

C1: The market share of seller i depends only on his

attraction a i and the sum of all attractions.

C2: If the attraction of seller i increases by an amount where q , , pi, ... are his control variables. Let y i be

A and if the attraction of seller j decreases by his sales. If sales really are attraction times a constant,

the same amount A , while the attraction of all we have

other sellers s ,, k # i , j, remains the same, then

the market share of sellers s,, k # i , j remains

constant.

where yo denotes the constant. Share is then mi =

C1 says that in considering the market share of seller a i /X ja as expected, but notice that sales, and there-

i, one can aggregate the other sellers together, take fore profits, do not depend on competitive marketing

their aggregated attraction to be the sum of their variables and so, from a normative point of view,

individual attractions, and then focus on seller i versus the model is not really competitive.

the rest. C2 is similar in spirit but less encompassing. On the other hand, the theory permits other for-

C2 is local, whereas C1 is global. One point worth mulations. For example, the total market might be

noting is that A4 is an assumption concerned with of fixed size, say Y. Then, using the same attraction

what happens when the total attraction, i.e., the sum, function, the sales of seller i are:

JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH, MAY 1975

C = { c , , ..., c,} = a set of r customer groups,

Sales and profit now depend on competitive actions. a(si1 cj) = attraction of seller s i within customer group

The point is that the seller can be viewed as manipula- j,

ting his control variables to generate a quantity that p(ci) = proportionof total sales coming from cus-

is not sales itself but favorably affects sales. This tomer group ci.

is our attraction concept and our theory develops it Then assuming that Al-A4 hold for each customer

axiomatically into a competitive model. group, the market share of s i within customer group

Notice we have not deduced any specific results j is:

about market behavior, but rather some mathematical

rules of the game. Thus, if someone asserts an attrac-

tion function depending on, say, advertising and price,

and it is wrong, then the calculation of market shares

will be wrong. Once attraction is specified, however, and so the total market share is:

we can answer such questions as what is the impact

on market share of incremental changes in price or

advertising or any of the other factors composing

attraction. By partitioning the population into groups or segments

Another interesting aspect of this model is the a complex model can be built up from simple elements.

quantity A, the total attraction of the sellers. One Different marketing variables, say, price, promotion,

might construct a model of the size of the market advertising, and distribution, may impinge differently

as a function of A. Combining this with the market on different segments, which may, in turn, respond

share, one could calculate for a given seller the total differently. The responses would define a relative

increase in his number of sales generated by increases attraction function which would then be assembled

in attraction. Part of these new sales would be due as shown above. Thus, the adoption of a basic norma-

to an increased market size and part to an increased lized attraction model does not mean that all share

market share. In fact, one could consider A , , A, ..., expressions end up as simple ratios.

A, to be the attractions of a number of different

product classes which compete with each other for APPENDIX

consumers. For instance, A , may represent the total ATTRACTION AS AN UNNORMALIZED

systems, and so on. One might postulate a different An alternative axiomization of the linear normalized

model for computing the share of the electronic media market share model brings out the close mathematical

market held by each of these product classes. Combin- connection between attraction and probability theory.

ing this with our model for individual sellers within Let

a segment provides a more sophisticated competitive

model. Y = { s , , ..., s,} = set of all sellers

normalized probability function on the set of sellers. a(S) = attraction of a subset of sellers.

probability, see the Appendix. Market share, on the A sufficient set of axioms is:

other hand, satisfies all the axioms of probability B 1. Attraction is nonnegative.

theory and so, mathematically speaking, is a probabil-

ity function defined on the set of sellers. The statement

of the assumptions a ~ results

d is in terms of market B2. The attraction of a subset of sellers is the sum

share, but the term "probability of purchase" could of the attractions of the sellers in the subset.

clearly be substituted without affecting the mathemat-

ical development. Notice that the results refer to

probability of purchase from a seller given that a

purchase will be made. In other words, the sum of B3. a(si) is finite for all s i E Y and a(si) > 0 for

the purchase probabilities is presumed to be one. at least one s i .

Obviously, the probability of no purchase can be B4. If two subsets of sellers have equal attractions,

introduced as an extension of the model. their market shares are equal.

The fact that market share has the mathematical

properties of a probability can be helpful in various

ways. For example, if several customer groups or The proof of the market share theorem is much

markets segments are identified, the concept of condi- the same as before. The intermediate result

A MARKET SHARE THEOREM

of a set of sellers. The concept of the attraction of

can be obtained as follows. Define: a set seems a little artificial. This is because attraction

has been discussed as a property of an individual

seller and, although our final result implies that the

For a = 5, concept can be extended to sets, it seems more natural

to have this as a deduction than an assumption. The

approach chosen is to use A4, which expresses addi-

tivity in terms of increments of an individual sellers'

For a = a, attraction so that no concept of collective attraction

is required.

REFERENCES

1. Friedman, Lawrence. "Game Theory in the Allocation

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by m (S/a = a ' / , (September 1958), 699-709.

2. Hlavac, Theodore E., Jr. and John D. C. Little. "A

Geographic Model of an Urban Automobile Market,"

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we can extend the notation to f, (a,A) and f, = fi (January 1965), 5 1-67.

= fi for all i, j, S. 5. Lambin, Jean-Jacques. "A Computer On-Line Market-

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Management Working Paper 687173, Massachusetts

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example, [9, p. 181.) The third probability axiom is Estimation for a Multiplicative Competitive Interaction

that the probability of a certain event is 1. B3 states Model-Least Squares Approach," Journal of Market-

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at least one positive value, but stops short of the Applications. New York: Wiley, 1960.

unity normalization. Thus B1-B3 create attraction as 10. Urban, Glen, "An On-Line Technique for Estimating

an unnormalized probability function. B4 makes the and Analyzing Complex Models," in Reed Moyer, ed.,

connection to share. Share itself satisfies all the axioms Changing Marketing Systems. Chicago: American Mar-

of probability and so is a probability function defined keting Association, 1968, 322-7.

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The axiomization B1-B4 is very appealing but was of New Frequently Purchased Consumer Products,"

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http://www.jstor.org

LINKED CITATIONS

- Page 1 of 2 -

A Market Share Theorem

David E. Bell; Ralph L. Keeney; John D. C. Little

Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 12, No. 2. (May, 1975), pp. 136-141.

Stable URL:

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This article references the following linked citations. If you are trying to access articles from an

off-campus location, you may be required to first logon via your library web site to access JSTOR. Please

visit your library's website or contact a librarian to learn about options for remote access to JSTOR.

References

1

Game-Theory Models in the Allocation of Advertising Expenditures

Lawrence Friedman

Operations Research, Vol. 6, No. 5. (Sep. - Oct., 1958), pp. 699-709.

Stable URL:

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0030-364X%28195809%2F10%296%3A5%3C699%3AGMITAO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4

3

Competitive Strategies for New Product Marketing over the Life Cycle

Philip Kotler

Management Science, Vol. 12, No. 4, Series B, Managerial. (Dec., 1965), pp. B104-B119.

Stable URL:

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0025-1909%28196512%2912%3A4%3CB104%3ACSFNPM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0

5

A Computer On-Line Marketing Mix Model

Jean-Jacques Lambin

Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 9, No. 2. (May, 1972), pp. 119-126.

Stable URL:

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2437%28197205%299%3A2%3C119%3AACOMMM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U

8

Parameter Estimation for a Multiplicative Competitive Interaction Model: Least Squares

Approach

Masao Nakanishi; Lee G. Cooper

Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 11, No. 3. (Aug., 1974), pp. 303-311.

Stable URL:

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2437%28197408%2911%3A3%3C303%3APEFAMC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0

NOTE: The reference numbering from the original has been maintained in this citation list.

http://www.jstor.org

LINKED CITATIONS

- Page 2 of 2 -

11

Sprinter Mod III: A Model for the Analysis of New Frequently Purchased Consumer

Products

Glen L. Urban

Operations Research, Vol. 18, No. 5. (Sep. - Oct., 1970), pp. 805-854.

Stable URL:

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0030-364X%28197009%2F10%2918%3A5%3C805%3ASMIAMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

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