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JUNIT 5 PREVIEW 38 | GENERICS IN DEPTH 45 | CEYLON LANGUAGE 50

MAY/JUNE 2016

FROM
BIG DATA
TO INSIGHTS
14 20 26
APACHE SPARK: SPARK FOR 100 GB OF DATA
GETTING PERSONAL IN MEMORY
STARTED PROJECTS BUT OFF HEAP

ORACLE.COM/JAVAMAGAZINE
//table of contents /

20 26 30
USING SPARK BUILDING A BIG DATA BEST
AND BIG DATA FOR MASSIVE OFF-HEAP PRACTICES FOR
HOME PROJECTS DATA QUEUE JDBC AND JPA
By Nic Raboy By Peter Lawrey By Josh Juneau
Create a small personal How one company built Focus on the fundamentals
project using big data a data queue that scales so you’re not overwhelmed
pipelines. to more than 100 GB by large amounts of data.

14
APACHE SPARK 101
By Diana Carroll
Getting up to speed on the popular big data engine
COVER ART BY WES ROWELL

04 38 50 61
From the Editor Testing JVM Languages Cloud
With more companies leaving the busi- JUnit 5: A First Look Ceylon Language: Getting Onboard Oracle
ness and the survivors in an intense price By Mert Çalişkan Say More, More Clearly Java Cloud Service
war, is the model of free open source The long-awaited release of By Stéphane Épardaud By Harshad Oak
hosting sustainable? JUnit 5 is a complete redesign A low-ceremony, high-productivity A hands-on, step-by-step guide
with many useful additions. JVM language that integrates to trying out an enterprise cloud
06
45 easily with Java and also runs
Letters to the Editor on JavaScript VMs
37
Comments, questions, suggestions, New to Java User Groups
and kudos Understanding Generics 56 Barcelona JUG
09 By Michael Kölling Fix This 66
Use generics to increase By Simon Roberts
Events type safety and readability. Our latest code challenges Contact Us
Upcoming Java conferences and events Have a comment? Suggestion?
11 Want to submit an article
proposal? Here’s how.
Java Books
Review of Java Testing with Spock
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02
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//from the editor /

The Miserable Business of


Hosting Projects
With more companies leaving the business and the survivors in an intense price
war, is the model of free open-source hosting sustainable?

I n late April, Oracle announced that it would be


shuttering project-hosting sites Project Kenai
and Java.net at the end of April 2017. The reason
latter group included Codehaus, Tigris.org, and
other sites that required approval before a project
could reside there. Typically, the requirements
was that there was no desire to compete with sites focused on the kind of license, the seriousness of
such as Bitbucket and GitHub, among others. The the project, and whether it had the potential to
closures continue a long-standing phenomenon: catalyze a developer community.
the exiting from open source project hosting by These sites were viewed as the elite stratum.
companies whose principal business is not closely They hosted vetted projects that were likely to
tied to hosting code. succeed. This model worked surprisingly well.
Project hosts did not really begin in earnest Codehaus became the home of Groovy, Maven,
until the open source movement took root in the Sonar, and most of the early IoC (inversion of
late 1990s. control) frameworks—not bad for a site host-
By 1999, two principal models for open source ing a few hundred projects. The Apache Software
project hosts began to emerge: the open-to- Foundation and the Eclipse Foundation today
everyone sites and the more selective hosts. The pursue a similar model (although with important

PHOTOGRAPH BY BOB ADLER/GETTY IMAGES


04
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//from the editor /
structural diferences). For this however, created a double bur- diicult to tell whether the model
model to truly work, the sponsor- den. Not only were hosts obliged of hosting huge numbers of proj-
ing organization must be able to to bear the costs of providing ects at no cost can be sustained
successfully solicit funds to cover services for free, but they also long-term. GitHub, for example,
costs and recruit volunteers to needed to regularly upgrade their has revamped its pricing due to
run operations. Without this kind oferings. Most sites, after sev- head-to-head competition with
of funding support, most of these eral rounds of investing in new GitLab—with each side progres-
curation-based sites have atro- features, decided to throw in the sively ofering more unlimited
phied or disappeared altogether. towel. Google Code, Java.net, features at no cost. Obviously,
Facing of against them are Project Kenai, JavaForge, and oth- that’s a model that cannot con-
hosts that accept all projects. ers have closed or are in the pro- tinue indeinitely.
For much of the previous cess of shutting down. This situation is somewhat
decade, the leader was undeni- Part of the pressure came from reminiscent of where publishing
ably SourceForge. If curating new companies that have a true was ive or six years ago—a time
hosts were the cathedrals, then commercial stake in hosting when sites competed by ofering
SourceForge was the bazaar: projects and are willing to make ever deeper and more-elaborate
active, noisy, illed with large continuous investments in the content at no cost. Eventually,
amounts of low-value projects— services: principally, Bitbucket the model had to self-correct,
projects abandoned immediately (part of Atlassian), GitHub, and and now paid subscriptions are
after setting up the site, class- GitLab. emerging as the new norm.
room projects, and so on—inter- Their oferings are polished I expect that given the long
spersed with occasional jewels. and deep—websites, wikis, code list of companies exiting project
The success of this model review tools, and defect trackers, hosting and the intense compe-
inspired competitors—notably in addition to SCM. (Extensive as tition among the survivors, the
Google Code, which quickly these oferings are, I should point model will eventually need to
became the place to go for devel- out, they are not as complete as evolve to one in which developers
oper-oriented projects. And the early sites, such as Codehaus, pay for some of the services they
model sprouted a hybrid approach which also ofered email and now get for free. Given the high
in which sites welcomed projects mailing lists, hosted user forums, quality of the current oferings,
if they fulilled some minor crite- provided continuous integration, it seems fair to me to ask that we
ria. Java.net was such a site, with and arranged for free licenses to shoulder some of those costs.
the requirement that projects be commercial development tools.)
written in Java. Similar language- While the new market leaders Andrew Binstock, Editor in Chief
speciic sites, such as RubyForge, have earned their places through javamag_us@oracle.com
followed this approach. admirable products and wise @platypusguy
Competition among hosts, community development, it’s still
05
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//letters to the editor /
ENUMS 40 | JPA CRITERIA 45 | GOLO LANGUAGE 54
A Note on Annotations replaced one token with another that’s shorter but
In “Annotations: An Inside Look” (March/April 2016, also less meaningful. You went from “here’s a new
MARCH/APRIL 2016

page 35), Cédric Beust wrote, “Since 2004, there has variable with the speciied type” to “here’s a new
been only one major update to annotations in the JDK: variable.” Yes, the irst approach potentially saves
JSR 308, which added more locations where annota- me a few keystrokes, but for whom are those key-
tions could be placed.” strokes really a problem? I’ve been coding in Java
Inside Java
and the JVM However, it’s worth knowing that Java 8 improves awhile and never thought (or heard anyone else say),
14 20 24 28 35 brevity by allowing multiple annotations of the same “Gee, I wish I didn’t have to deine the type of a local
UNDERSTANDING G1 AND INSIDE THE HOW JAVA PROCESSING

type to be written on an element without the need for variable—that would save me so much time and
WHAT THE JIT IS SHENANDOAH: JVM’S CODE COLLECTIONS ANNOTATIONS
DOING THE NEW GARBAGE CACHE BECAME LAZY
COLLECTORS

a “wrapper” annotation. For example, on page 47 of make debugging easier.”


ORACLE.COM/JAVAMAGAZINE

“What’s New in JPA: The Criteria API,” the code Also, many type names are shorter—sometimes
MARCH/APRIL 2016
signiicantly so—than HaydnSymphony. In fact, I
@NamedQueries({ suspect that the somewhat longish name was delib-
@NamedQuery(name=..., query=...), erately chosen to exaggerate the supposed beneits of
... })
the proposal. Plus there’s also the fact that something
like this is fairly common:
could drop @NamedQueries if NamedQuery was
repeatable, and simply use multiple @NamedQuery Symphony surprise = new HadynSymphony();
annotations directly on the class. The javadoc for
java.lang.reflect.AnnotatedElement has more Using the var approach here would not only elimi-
info for interested readers. nate useful information (the type I really care about
—Alex Buckley versus the implementation that was instantiated), but
Speciication Lead, Java Language and VM, Oracle all I’d get in exchange for the loss of readability is the
time I saved not typing a whopping ive characters.
var vs. val And that, in a nutshell, seems to be the problem with
Re: your editorial on JDK Enhancement Proposal 286 this proposal: the loss of code readability isn’t ofset
(March/April 2016, page 3), I don’t agree that by a comparable gain in the amount of time it takes
to create or maintain the code. It seems like a solu-
var surprise = new HadynSymphony();
tion in search of a problem and a desperate attempt to
ind some way to change Java rather than something
is better than
that will actually be beneicial for either beginning or
HadynSymphony surprise = new HadynSymphony(); experienced programmers.
Regarding val versus const, I have to disagree
In the example you provided, you didn’t really cut there, too. In all honesty, when I irst saw your val
down on the verbosity in a meaningful way; you just example, I wondered what it was that identiied it as a
constant in val normalTemp = 98.6;.
06
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//letters to the editor /
Then I realized that the earlier example (Haydn- Editor Andrew Binstock responds: Thank you for your very
Symphony) used var while this one was using val. thoughtful, detailed note. You make some excellent points,
In other words, without careful scrutiny it’s easy to even though my preferences run counter to yours. However,
get them confused. Part of the problem is the visual I do disagree with your dismissal of the value of fewer
similarity, but it’s also an issue of semantics: the keystrokes. You see little beneit as the initial programmer.
name val by itself doesn’t imply something that’s However, as a reader of code, being faced with long listings
constant. From a Java perspective, var doesn’t just that repeat unneeded type information is a tiring exercise
mean something that can vary, because both oicially that delivers little value. While you view my example as
(that is, in the Java Language Speciication, which talks purposely lengthy to help make my point, my concern at
about “constant variables”) and informally (in your the time was that it was unrealistically short. Developers
editorial), variable is used as an umbrella term that writing enterprise apps, especially ones that rely on frame-
includes both constants and true variables. That’s also works, are familiar with (and tired of) dealing with data
how it’s used in the vernacular by Java programmers, types that carry much longer names. For example, from the
making var a poor choice for indicating something Spring framework: AbstractInterceptorDriven
that’s mutable and noninal. BeanDefinitionDecorator. That, I grant you, is per-
The one thing I do think would be an improvement haps an extreme case; however, long class names are the
is something that wasn’t even presented, speciically norm in those applications.
something like this:
Shorten from the Other End
const normalTemp = 98.6; Regarding your editorial in the March/April issue
about the proposed additions to Java, why is the vari-
This provides the abbreviated grammar without the ability removed from the left side to be inferred from
vagueness of val and seems like a no-brainer when the right to mimic dynamically typed language syn-
compared to its current equivalent: tax? Consider your example:

final float normalTemp = 98.6f; var surprise = new HaydnSymphony();

Here the const keyword stands in for final, and versus my recommendation:
it indicates that the type is to be inferred from the
assigned value. There’s still a loss of explicit infor- HaydnSymphony surprise = new();
mation (the variable being deined is a float), but at
least now you’ve gone from two tokens down to one I prefer the fact that a statically typed language has a
instead of trading one token for a diferent and less strong reference to the type a variable is declared to
meaningful one. be. The verbosity comes in when you have to repeat it
—Brett Spell for the new operator. My approach also makes it easier
in debugging, and not just in local scope use.
07
ORACLE.COM/JAVAMAGAZINE /////////////////////////////////////////////// MAY/JUNE 2016
//letters to the editor /
Similarly for the native or ixed-value types, I am Short Books for Learning Java
less conlicted but still prefer the type information to I’m contemplating becoming a mobile game devel-
be added to the variable declaration: oper, and I’m struggling to grasp Java as a irst-time
programming language. Why is it so diicult to learn?
val normalTemp = 98.6; The books that I have been studying are more than
1,000 pages long. It’s a serious commitment to make.
would convey more information if it used the literal Are most professional Java programmers self-taught?
speciier of f: How should I train my mind for this? What should I be
thinking of?
const normalTemp = 98.6f;
—Frederick Piña
From South Africa, thanks for a wonderful magazine.
—Rudolf Harmse Editor Andrew Binstock responds: Only a fraction of pro-
grammers are formally trained. Many are self-taught, and
Why Not Left-Side “new”? even those who are formally trained eventually need to be
Instead of the var keyword, I propose an idea I sub- self-taught to keep up with advances in software develop-
mitted a long time ago to Project Coin. It’s the use of ment. When learning a new language, a common approach
new on the left side of assignments. Instead of is to begin by writing small programs that do simple tasks.
A classic, for example, is a program that accepts a centi-
HaydnSurprise surprise = new HaydnSymphony(); grade temperature on the command line and displays the
equivalent Fahrenheit temperature. If this approach of
I suggest learning by doing—using small, incremental programs—
appeals to you, then I recommend Murach’s Beginning
new surprise = HaydnSymphony(); Java. It comes in two lavors depending on which develop-
ment environment you use—Eclipse or NetBeans—and it
This avoids an additional keyword and is the simplest weighs in at well under 1,000 pages. I reviewed this book
statement. in the January/February 2016 issue, on page 12.
As for val, I think using the reserved const key-
word is a better solution, if in fact it’s truly a inal Contact Us
constant and not just an initial assignment. I think We welcome comments, suggestions, grumbles,
more Java programmers come from the C and C++ kudos, article proposals, and chocolate chip cookies.
languages than from Scala, although for younger pro- All but the last two might be edited for publication.
grammers, Java or JavaScript is now their initial lan- If your note is private, indicate this in your message.
guage. In any case, there’s less need for simplifying Write to us at javamag_us@oracle.com. For other
constant declarations than object declarations. ways to reach us, see the last page of this issue.
—Barry Kleinman

08
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//events /
O’Reilly OSCON conference in Eastern Europe.
MAY 16–19 The annual conference focuses
AUSTIN, TEXAS on Java technologies for appli-
The popular open source con- cation development. This year
ference moves to Texas this ofers ive tracks and 45 speak-
year, with two days of training ers on modern approaches in
and tutorials before the two- the development of distrib-
day conference. Topics this uted, highly loaded, scalable
year include Go unikernels, enterprise systems with Java,
scaling microservices in Ruby, among other topics.
Apache Spark for Java and Scala
developers, and an Internet jPrime
of Things (IoT) keynote from MAY 26–27
best-selling science iction SOFIA, BULGARIA
author and Creative Commons jPrime is a relatively new con-
champion Cory Doctorow. ference with talks on Java,
various languages on the JVM,
JavaCro mobile and web develop-
MAY 18–20 ment, and best practices. Its
ROVINJ, CROATIA second edition will be held in
JavaOne Latin America JUNE 28–30 GeeCON JavaCro, hosted by the Croatian the Soia Event Center, run
SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL MAY 11–13 Association of Oracle Users by the Bulgarian Java User
The Latin American version of the pre- KRAKOW, POLAND and Croatian Java Users Group, and backed by the big-
mier Java event includes presentations by GeeCON is a conference Association, will once again gest companies in the city.
the core Java team, tutorials by experts, focused on Java and JVM-based be held on St. Andrew Island, Scheduled speakers this year
and numerous information-rich sessions, technologies, with special also known as the Red Island. include former Oracle Java
all focused tightly on Java. attention to dynamic languages Touted as the largest Java com- evangelist Simon Ritter and
such as Groovy and Ruby. The munity event in the region, Java Champion and founder of
event covers topics such as JavaCro is expected to gather 50 JavaLand Markus Eisele.
software development meth- speakers and 300 participants.
odologies, enterprise archi- IndicThreads
tectures, design patterns, and JEEConf JUNE 3–4
distributed computing. More MAY 20–21 PUNE, INDIA
than 80 sessions are slated. KIEV, UKRAINE IndicThreads enters its 10th
JEEConf is the largest Java year featuring sessions on the
PHOTOGRAPH BY DIEGO TORRES SILVESTRE/FLICKR
09
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//events /
JBCNConf JCrete
JUNE 16–18 JULY 31–AUGUST 7
BARCELONA, SPAIN KOLYMBARI, GREECE
The Barcelona Java Users Group This loosely structured “uncon-
hosts this conference dedicated to ference” will take place at the
Java and JVM development. Last Orthodox Academy of Crete. A
year’s highlights included tracks JCrete4Kids component intro-
on microservices and Kubernetes. duces youngsters to programming
and Java. Attendees often bring
The Developer’s Conference (TDC) their families.
JULY 5–9
SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL JavaZone
Celebrating its 10th year, TDC is SEPTEMBER 7–8
one of Brazil’s largest conferences OSLO, NORWAY
for students, developers, and IT This event consists of a day of
professionals. Java-focused content workshops followed by two days
latest in software development More than a dozen sessions are on topics such as IoT, UX design, of presentations and more work-
techniques and technologies, from planned on topics such as Java SE, mobile development, and func- shops. Last year’s event drew
IoT to big data, Java, web technol- JVM languages and new program- tional programming are featured. more than 2,500 attendees and
ogies, and more. ming paradigms, web develop- (No English page available.) featured 150 talks covering a wide
ment and Java enterprise technol- range of Java-related topics.
Devoxx UK ogies, big data, and NoSQL. Java Forum
JUNE 8–10 JULY 6–7 JavaOne
LONDON, ENGLAND Java Enterprise Summit STUTTGART, GERMANY SEPTEMBER 18–22
Devoxx UK focuses on Java, web, JUNE 15–17 Organized by the Stuttgart Java SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
mobile, and JVM languages. The MUNICH, GERMANY User Group, Java Forum typi- The ultimate Java gathering,
conference includes more than Java Enterprise Summit is a large cally draws more than 1,000 par- JavaOne features hundreds of ses-
100 sessions, with tracks devoted enterprise Java training event ticipants. A workshop for Java sions and hands-on labs. Topics
to server-side Java, architecture held in conjunction with a con- decision-makers takes place on include the core Java platform,
and security, cloud and containers, current Micro Services Summit. July 6. The broader forum will security, DevOps, IoT, scalable
big data, IoT, and more. Together, they feature 24 work- be held on July 7, featuring 40 services, and development tools.
shops covering topics such as the exhibitors and including lectures,
JavaDay Lviv best APIs, new architecture pat- presentations, demos, and Birds Send us a link and a description of
JUNE 12 terns, JavaScript frameworks, and of a Feather sessions. (No English your event four months in advance
LVIV, UKRAINE Java EE. (No English page available.) page available.) at javamag_us@oracle.com.
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10
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//java books /
JAVA TESTING WITH SPOCK
By Konstantinos Kapelonis
Manning Publications

The Spock testing framework But as Groovy has grown in principal capabilities and the
has been around for many years. popularity (driven in good part advanced options. To overcome
It was used originally by devel- by Gradle), this design is seen the language barrier for devel-
opers who wanted to leverage increasingly as an advantage. opers mostly familiar with Java,
Groovy’s uniquely good support Correctly written, Spock tests Konstantinos Kapelonis provides
for scripting unit tests. Over can work at the unit level (for a 30-page introduction to Groovy
its lifetime, it has evolved into test-driven development, for that presents the basic knowl-
a comprehensive framework example), for integration tests, edge needed to write and run
that includes a unit-test runner for doing BDD, and for system- tests, even complex ones.
(which drives JUnit), a mock- wide tests. Spock is one of the The author’s style is clear
ing framework, and a behavior- few tools that can be used by and rarely lacking. In addition,
driven development (BDD)–style both developers and QA teams, the examples he provides dis-
testing tool. As a result, you without the excess complexity play his deep familiarity with
can add Spock to your test- such a product would imply. Spock and the role it plays in
ing without the need for sepa- What Spock has lacked, how- modern development. Although
rate mocking/stubbing tools or ever, is good documentation. the book is written for devel-
behavior-testing add-ons. Even today, its website is dei- opers, Kapelonis dips into QA
I irst started using Spock cient in many ways (despite perspectives on testing for the
years ago because of its excel- active product development and issues raised. He also com-
lent support for data-driven fairly active mailing lists). This bines BDD with mocking from
tests (a leadership position it still book ills that gap. It provides which he elaborates an inter-
retains). Since then, my admi- what you need to get started esting mock-based approach to
ration has only grown. The big (including integration with design—all of which gives this
knock on it during the interven- IDEs and build tools) and then book a commendable applicabil-
ing years was the need to learn pushes onward into exploit- ity. Recommended.
Groovy scripting to write tests. ing Spock’s features, both its —Andrew Binstock

11
ORACLE.COM/JAVAMAGAZINE /////////////////////////////////////////////// MAY/JUNE 2016
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From Big Data
to Insights
hile batch processing of data has been part of

W enterprise computing since its earliest days,


so-called big data brings to it the beneits of
considerable scale, good performance, and the
ability to investigate data deeply on comparatively inex-
pensive hardware. The core change that makes this wave
of processing innovation possible is the software that can
exploit runtime advances. Not so long ago, the software
center of the big data universe was Apache Hadoop. Two
years later, other packages such as Apache Spark extend
Hadoop’s original mission. Our irst feature article (page 14)
explains how Spark works and how comparatively easy it is
to understand and use. The second article on Spark (page 20)
is for nonenterprise developers and hobbyists who want to
try out big data on smaller projects.
However, Spark is not the only approach to massive data
sets. Sometimes, you need to do things the old-fashioned
way. Our article on JDBC for large data volume (page 30)
gives handy reminders for not overtaxing the database
server. And our inal article (page 26) explains how one
company designed and built a massive in-memory, of-heap
queue. It’s open source and written strictly in Java, and it
stores tens of gigabytes outside the JVM. (In fact, JVMs can
share data through this queue.)
There are surely more ways than these to be part of the
big data revolution, but these will get you started and enable
you to do some seriously fun experimenting.

ART BY WES ROWELL


13
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//big data /

Apache Spark 101


Getting up to speed on the popular big data engine

DIANA CARROLL
I n recent years, the amount of data that organizations pro-
cess has grown astronomically—as much as hundreds of
terabytes a day in some cases, and dozens or even hundreds
What Is Spark?
Spark is a fast, scalable, general-purpose distributed process-
ing engine. It provides an elegant high-level API for in-
of petabytes in total. This “big data” far exceeds what can be memory processing and signiicant performance improve-
stored or processed on a single computer. Handling the vol- ments over Hadoop MapReduce.
ume, velocity, and variety of data required by modern applica- Spark includes not only the core API but also a rich set of
tions has prompted many organizations to move to distributed libraries, which includes Spark SQL for interacting with struc-
systems, where clusters of dozens or hundreds of computers tured or tabular data; Spark Streaming for processing stream-
work together to solve their data ingestion, processing, and ing data in near real time; MLlib for machine learning; and
analysis needs. GraphX for graph processing.
But distributed programming is challenging: the complex- Spark is written in Scala, a scalable JVM language with a
ity involved with keeping data and processes in sync while Java-inspired syntax. In addition to Scala, the Spark API also
dealing with the reality of limited bandwidth and individual supports Java, Python, and R, making it easy to integrate with
system failures initially meant programmers were spending third-party libraries and accessible to developers with a wide
more time on the plumbing of distributed systems than actu- range of backgrounds.
ally processing or analyzing their data. Spark was originally conceived and developed at Berkeley’s
One of the most successful approaches to solving these AMPLab. Now, it is an Apache project and is available
issues has been Apache Hadoop and its principal core com- directly from Apache or preintegrated with several Apache
ponents: the Hadoop MapReduce data processing engine and Hadoop distributions including those from Cloudera and
the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) data storage plat- other vendors.
form. Hadoop has been widely adopted and is used today by
many organizations. But Hadoop MapReduce has limitations: Spark Architecture Overview
it is cumbersome to program; it fully supports only Java (with Although Spark can be run locally on a single computer for
limited support for other languages); and it is bottlenecked by testing or learning purposes, it is more often deployed on a
the requirement that data be read from disk and then written distributed computing cluster that includes the following:
to disk after each task. ■■ A distributed data storage platform. This is most often

Apache Spark is designed as the next-generation distributed HDFS, but Spark is increasingly being deployed on other
computing framework, and it takes Hadoop to the next level. distributed ile storage systems such as Amazon Simple
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Storage Service (S3). As Spark emerges as the new default YARN Worker Nodes
execution engine for the Hadoop ecosystem, support for
$ spark-submit
it is increasingly included in new projects such as Apache --master yarn-cluster Spark Spark
Kudu (an Apache incubator project). --class MyClass Executor Executor
■■ A cluster resource management platform. Hadoop YARN
MyProgram.jar
(which is part of core Hadoop) is the most common such
platform for enterprise production systems. Spark also Spark
YARN Executor
includes a small built-in cluster system called Spark
Resource
Standalone, which is suitable primarily for small clusters,
Manager
testing, or proof-of-concept deployment. Spark supports
Spark Driver
Apache Mesos as well. Because YARN is the most com- Program
mon, I have chosen to use it with the examples for this $ spark-shell
article, but the concepts are similar for all three supported --master yarn
cluster platforms. Spark
Spark can be invoked interactively using the Spark shell Executor
(available for Scala or Python), or you can submit an appli-
cation to run on the cluster. Both are shown as options in
Figure 1. Spark and YARN working together
Figure 1. In both cases, when the application starts, it connects
with the YARN Resource Manager. The Resource Manager
provides CPU and memory resources on worker nodes within If you want to work through the examples on your own, you
the cluster to run the Spark application, which consists of a irst need to download and run Spark. The easiest approach is
single driver and a number of executors. to download the “Pre-built for Hadoop 2.6 and later” package
The driver is the main program, which distributes and of the latest release of Spark and simply unpack it into your
manages tasks that run on the executors. The driver and each home directory. Once it is unpacked, you can run the spark-
executor run in their own JVM running on cluster worker shell script from the package’s bin directory. For simplic-
nodes. (You can also conigure your application so that the ity, these instructions start the shell locally rather than on
driver runs locally rather than on the cluster, but this is less a Hadoop cluster. Detailed instructions on how to download
common in production environments.) and launch Spark are on the Spark website.
You also need to download and unpack the example data,
Code Examples from the Java Magazine download area. The code examples
To help demonstrate how the Spark API works, I walk through assume that you have unpacked the data directory (weblogs)
two code examples below. While Spark does support Java, the into your home directory.
vast majority of installations use Scala. The examples are writ-
ten in Scala and run in the interactive Spark shell. If you don’t Example 1: Count Unique Visitors
know Scala, don’t worry; the syntax is similar to Java and my The example data set is a collection of web server log iles
explanations will make the function of the code clear. from the customer support site of a ictional mobile provider
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called Loudacre. This is a typical line from the sample data you download Spark as described previously, the default ile
(wrapped here to it): system is simply your computer’s hard drive. If you install
Spark as part of a Hadoop distribution, such as Cloudera’s, the
3.94.78.5 - 69827 [15/Sep/2013:23:58:36 +0100] default ile system is HDFS.)
"GET /KBDOC-00033.html HTTP/1.0" 200 14417 Resilient distributed data sets. RDDs are a key concept in Spark
"http://www.loudacre.com"
programming. They are the fundamental unit of computa-
"Loudacre Mobile Browser iFruit 1"
tion in Spark. RDDs represent a set of data, such as a set of
The task in this irst example is to ind the number of unique weblogs in this example.
site visitors—that is, the number of user IDs in the data set. RDDs are distributed because the data they represent may be
User IDs are in the third ield in the data ile, such as 69827 distributed across multiple executors in the cluster. The tasks
in the example data above. to process that data run locally on the executor JVM where
The Spark context. Every Spark program has a single Spark that data is located.
context object, an instance of the SparkContext class. When RDDs are resilient because the lineage of the data is pre-
using the interactive Spark shell, this object is automati- served and, therefore, the data can be re-created on a new
cally created for you and given the name sc. When writing an node at any time. Lineage is the sequence of operations that
application, you will create one yourself. was applied to the base data set, resulting in its current state.
The Spark context provides access to Spark functional- This is important because one of the challenges of distrib-
ity, such as deining and loading data sets and coniguring uted computing is dealing with the possibility of node failure.
the application. The Spark context is the entry point for all Spark’s answer to this challenge is RDD lineage.
Spark functionality. RDDs can contain any type of data, including objects and
nested data, such as arrays and sets. In this example, the
scala> val weblogs = weblogs RDD contains strings—each element is a string cor-
| sc.textFile("weblogs/*") responding to a single line in the iles from which the data
is loaded.
(Note that the Spark shell scala> prompt is shown at the RDDs provide many methods to transform and interact
beginning of each line. Line continuation is indicated with a with the data they represent. Below are two simple examples:
pipe character: |. Do not enter the prompt or pipe character count(), which returns the number of items in the data set,
in the shell. Also, Microsoft Windows users might need to and take(n), which returns an array of the irst n items in
substitute the full Windows pathname of the example data the data set.
directory, such as C:\\Users\\diana\\weblogs\\*.)
Because my code example uses the interactive Spark scala> weblogs.count()
shell, I can use the precreated Spark context sc. The line of Long = 574023
code above creates a new Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD)
scala> weblogs.take(2)
object for the data in the speciied set of iles, and assigns
» Array[String] = [3.94.78.5 - 69827
it to a new immutable variable called weblogs. The iles are [15/Sep/2013:23:58:36 +0100]
located in your home directory in the default ile system. (If "GET /KBDOC-00033.html HTTP/1.0" 16
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200 14417 "http://www.loudacre.com" immutable. Once loaded, the data associated with an RDD
"Loudacre Mobile Browser iFruit 1", does not change; rather, you perform one or more transfor-
mations to create a new RDD with the data you need in the
19.38.140.62 - 21475 form you need.
[15/Sep/2013:23:58:34 +0100]
Let’s examine one of the most common transformations,
"GET /KBDOC-00277.html HTTP/1.0"
200 15517 "http://www.loudacre.com" map(), continuing with the previous example. map() applies
"Loudacre Mobile Browser Ronin S1"] a function, which is passed to each item in the RDD to pro-
duce a new item:
The character » indicates the result of a command executed
in the Spark shell. [The blank line in the output was added to scala> val userids = weblogs.
| map (item => item.split(" ")(2))
highlight the two array elements. —Ed.]
Transformations and actions. In addition to those shown in this
You might be unfamiliar with the double-arrow operator (=>)
example, Spark provides a rich set of dozens of operations you
in the call to the map method. This is how Scala represents
can perform with an RDD. These operations are categorized
lambda functions. Java 8, which also provides lambda func-
as either actions or transformations.
tions, uses similar syntax with a single arrow (->).
Actions return data from the executors (where data is pro-
In this case, the map() method calls the passed function
cessed) to the driver (such as the Spark shell or the main
once for each item in the RDD. It splits the weblog entry (a
program). For example, you saw above that the count()
String) at each space character, and returns the third string in
action returns the number of data items in the RDD’s data set.
the resulting array. In other words, it returns the user ID for
To do this, the driver initiates a
each item in the data set.
task on each executor to count
its portion of the data, and then
Single-item operations The results of the transformation are returned as a new

it adds those together to produce are powerful, but RDD and assigned to the variable userids. You can take a
look at the results of the new RDD by calling the action meth-
the inal total. Other exam- many types of data ods described above, count() and take():
ples of actions include min(),
max(), first() (which returns
processing and analysis scala> userids.count()
the irst item from the data require aggregating » Long = 574023
set), take() (seen earlier), and data across multiple
takeSample() (which returns a Note that the total count is the same for the new RDD as
random sampling of items from
items. Fortunately, it was for the parent (base) RDD; this is always true when
the data set). the Spark API using the map transformation because map is a one-to-
A transformation is an RDD provides a rich set one function, returning one new item for every item in the
operation that transforms the existing RDD.
data in the base or parent RDDs
of aggregation take(2) returns an array of the irst two items—here, the
to create a new RDD. This is functions. user IDs from the irst two lines of data in the data set:
important because RDDs are 17
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scala> userids.take(2) aggregating data across multiple
» Array[String] = [69827,21475] items. Fortunately, the Spark API Spark is a powerful,
At this point, this example is almost complete; the task was
provides a rich set of aggrega- high-level API
tion functions. The irst step in
to ind the number of unique site visitors. So another step accessing these is to convert the
that provides
is required: to remove duplicates. To do this, I call another RDD representing your data into programmers the
transformation, distinct(), which returns a new RDD
with duplicates iltered out of the original data set. Then
a pair RDD. ability to perform
only a single action, count(), is needed to complete the
A pair RDD is an RDD consist-
ing of key-value pairs. Each ele-
complex big data
example task. ment in a pair RDD is a two-item processing and analysis
scala> userids.distinct().count()
tuple. (A tuple in Scala is a col- tasks on a distributed
» Long = 12582
lection similar to a Java list that
contains a ixed number of items,
cluster, without having
And there’s the answer: there are 12,582 unique site visitors in in this case exactly two.) The irst to be concerned with
the data set. element in the pair is the key, and the “plumbing” that
Note the use of chaining in the previous code snippet. the second is the value. For this
second example, you need to con-
makes distributed
Chaining a sequence of operations is a very common tech-
nique in Spark. Because transformations are methods on an struct an RDD in which the key is processing diicult.
RDD that return another RDD, transformations are chainable. the user ID and the value is the IP
Actions, however, do not return an RDD, so no further trans- address for each item of data.
formations can be appended on a chain that ends with an
scala> val userIPpairs = weblogs.
action, as in this example. | map(item => item.split(" ")).
| map(strings => (strings(2), strings(0)))
Example 2: Analyze Unique Visitors
I’ll move on to a second example task to demonstrate some Several things are going on in the code snippet above. First,
additional Spark features using pair RDDs. The task is to ind note the two calls to map in the same line. This is another
all the IP addresses for each site visitor (that is, each unique example of chaining, this time the chaining of multiple
user ID) who has visited the site. transformations. This technique is very common in Spark. It
Pair RDDs. The previous example (inding the number of does not change how the code executes; it is simply a syntac-
distinct user IDs) involved two transformations: map and tic convenience.
distinct. Both of these transformations work on indi- The irst map call splits up each weblog line by space, simi-
vidual items in the data set, either transforming one item lar to the irst example. But rather than selecting just a single
into another (map), or retaining or iltering out an item element of the array that is returned from the split, the whole
(distinct). Single-item operations such as these are power- array is returned containing all the ields in the current data
ful, but many types of data processing and analysis require item. Therefore, the result of the irst map call is an RDD con-
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sisting of string arrays, one array for each item (weblog line) 190.196.39.14, 67.250.113.209,
in the base RDD. 67.250.113.209, …))
The input to the second map call is the result of the irst map
call—that is, the RDD consisting of string arrays. The second In the snippet above, the groupByKey transformation results
map call generates a pair (tuple) from each array: a key-value in a new pair RDD, in which the pair’s key is the same as it
pair consisting of the user ID (third element) as the key and was before, a user ID, but the pair’s value is a collection of all
the IP address (irst element) as the value. the values (IP addresses) for that key in the data set.
Use first() to view the irst item in the userIPpairs
RDD: Conclusion
As you can see, Spark is a powerful, high-level API that
scala> userIPpairs.first() provides programmers the ability to perform complex big
» (String, String) = (69827,3.94.78.5) data processing and analysis tasks on a distributed clus-
ter, without having to be concerned with the “plumbing”
Note that the irst item is, in fact, a pair consisting of a user that makes distributed processing diicult. This article
ID and an IP address. The userIPpairs RDD consists of the has barely scratched the surface of Spark’s capabilities and
same number of items as the base RDD, each paired with a those of its add-on libraries, such as Spark Streaming and
single IP address. Each pair corresponds to a single line in the Spark SQL. For more information, start at the Apache Spark
weblog ile. website. To explore Spark and the Hadoop stack indepen-
Data aggregation. Now that the RDD is in key-value form, dently, download the Cloudera QuickStart Virtual Machine or
you can use several aggregation transformations, including Docker image. </article>
countByKey (which counts the number of values for each
key), reduceByKey (which applies a function you pass to sum Diana Carroll is a senior curriculum developer at Cloudera. She has
or aggregate all the values for a key), join (which groups been working with and teaching about Spark since version 0.9 in
values associated with keys from two diferent RDDs), and late 2013. Carroll wrote and taught one of the irst commercially
mapValues (which applies a function to transform the value available courses on Java in 1997, and has also produced more than
of each key). To complete the task for the second example, use 20 courses for software developers, system administrators, data
the groupByKey transformation, which groups all the values analysts, and business users on subjects ranging from ecommerce
for each key in the RDD into a single collection: to business process management.

scala> val userIPs=userIPpairs.groupByKey()


scala> userIPs.first()
» (String, Iterable[String]) =
(52427,CompactBuffer(241.216.103.191,
learn more
241.216.103.191, 70.50.111.153,
70.50.111.153, 174.222.251.149, Wikipedia entry for Apache Spark
174.222.251.149, 20.23.59.237, Another introductory article on Spark
20.23.59.237, 190.196.39.14,
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Using Spark and Big Data


for Home Projects
Create a small personal project using big data pipelines.
NIC RABOY

I n every application, there is a need to move data around, and


the larger the application, the more data is involved in this
process. A mandatory step before using any kind of data is
facilitates experimenting with big data. Although not a need
for me, in many use cases, a common requirement is doing
analysis in real time with a massive amount of input.
to prepare it. You need to clean the data by removing useless In this project, I show how to ingest this unstructured,
parts and then shape or structure it so that it its your pro- dirty, comma-separated values (CSV) data into NoSQL using
cesses. This could include adding a default value for missing Couchbase and process it in real time using RxJava or Apache
data, trimming the whitespace from strings, removing dupli- Spark, so it can later be used in my application.
cates, or anything else. There are many things that can be
done, all tied to what you want to do with the data. The Elements of the Big Data Pipeline
Often, the format of the data you’re working with is sub- As a Java developer, you’ll often need to load CSV data into
ject to change. Being able to remain lexible in the database your database. CSV data is raw data, to an extent, and typi-
layer is critical in these scenarios because, as a developer, you cally must irst be processed to match your data model.
should not spend your development time maintaining data- The baby name data that I am using is raw CSV data. There
base schemas. A NoSQL database is particularly helpful due are several data iles in this data set, but my needs only
to its ability to remain lexible, allowing you to focus on your regard how many times each name was used every year. This
code and work with data instead of worrying about how the information can be found in NationalNames.csv, which is
data exists in the database. structured as follows:
In this article, I present a personal example. As a couple ■■ ID

expecting their irst child, my wife and I came across a situa- ■■ Name

tion that every expecting parent encounters: needing to pick ■■ Year

a name for our baby. Being the software developer that I am, ■■ Gender

it made sense to write an application that could supply ideas ■■ Count

for a name that my wife and I might both like. Before this data can be queried and analyzed, it must irst be
A data set on the Kaggle data science website contains a processed into a more manageable format. There are several
list of baby names that have been chosen in the US for almost ways to transform it. For this example I’m using both RxJava
a century. This data set—one of many on the internet—greatly and Apache Spark.
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What is RxJava? If this is store complex data using JSON, the same data format com-
your irst time hearing of Spark ofers in-memory monly used in public-facing APIs. For example, the following
Reactive Java, otherwise data storage and would be considered a JSON document:
known as RxJava, it is
deined this way in the oi-
processing, which makes {
cial documentation: it significantly faster "first_name": "Nic",
"last_name": "Raboy",
“RxJava is a Java VM imple- than competing big data "address": {
mentation of ReactiveX
(Reactive Extensions): a library
technologies. "city": "San Francisco",
"state": "California",
for composing asynchronous "country": "USA"
and event-based programs by }
using observable sequences.” }
What does this mean? RxJava is reactive programming,
which in this case means programming with asynchronous Notice that nested objects and arrays are fair game in a
data streams. These data streams can be anything from schemaless database such as this. The beneit of using a
application variables to data structures. It doesn’t matter. You schemaless database instead of a relational database is lex-
can listen for these streams and react appropriately when ibility in how the data is stored. You don’t need to declare any
they come in. constraints beforehand, and if the data is irregular you can
In the example of processing a CSV ile, each line of the add or omit ields as needed. Raw data can be a mess, and
CSV ile could be a data stream. When the line is read, RxJava sometimes it’s easier to store it without forcing it into a rela-
reacts and transforms it as necessary. tional schema.
What is Apache Spark? Apache Spark is a data-processing NoSQL document databases are not the only type of NoSQL
engine designed to handle massive amounts of data. While database platforms, and NoSQL is not the only type of data-
RxJava works well, it wasn’t meant to handle the petabytes base platform.
of information in an enterprise application. Spark ofers in- In the NoSQL database market segment, there are several
memory data storage and processing, which makes it signii- kinds of options: document, key-value, tabular databases, and
cantly faster than competing big data technologies. I’ll use specialized products such as graph databases—all of which
it for that purpose. [An accompanying article in this issue, store data diferently. Unlike relational databases, NoSQL
“Apache Spark 101” (page 14), presents a deep dive into using databases store data in an unstructured way, as demonstrated
Apache Spark. —Ed.] in the JSON example.
Before querying and analyzing the loaded and transformed Couchbase is distinguished by its memory-centric architec-
data, the goal is to get the unstructured data into a NoSQL ture. It is composed of a RAM layer and a persisted disk layer.
database. For this example, I’ll use the NoSQL document Data is written to and read from the memory layer and asyn-
database, Couchbase. chronously written to disk. This makes Couchbase very quick
What is Couchbase? Couchbase is an open source NoSQL and a good resource to use with big data.
document database. Document databases such as Couchbase Couchbase Apache Spark Connector. Apache Spark also does
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most of its data processing in new CSVReader(new FileReader("PATH_TO_CSV_FILE"));
memory, using hard disk only Apache Spark was
when necessary. Couchbase uses a designed to process Because the data will eventually be written to the database,
Spark connector to move data into I must connect to my server and open the bucket, which is a
and out of the database directly.
massive amounts collection of NoSQL documents.
This uses a feature of Spark called of data.
resilient distributed data sets, most Bucket bucket =
CouchbaseCluster.create("http://localhost:8091").
often referred to as RDDs.
openBucket("default", "");

Loading and Transforming the CSV Data into Couchbase This code assumes that Couchbase is running locally and the
As mentioned a few times earlier, the CSV data for the baby data will be saved in the default bucket without a password.
names irst needs to be loaded into a database before I start To process the CSV data set, I must create an RxJava
to process it. There are many ways to do this, but when work- Observable:
ing with potentially massive amounts of data, it would make
the most sense to load this data either through RxJava or Observable
Apache Spark. .from(reader)
Coming from a Java background, you might not be famil- .map(
iar with big data tools such as Apache Spark, and that’s not a csvRow -> {
problem. This CSV data set, with roughly 2 million records, JsonObject object = JsonObject.create();
object
can be loaded successfully using Java.
.put("Name", csvRow[1])
The requirements for loading with RxJava. There are a few .put("Year", csvRow[2])
dependencies that must be included in the Java project before .put("Gender", csvRow[3])
attempting to load the CSV data into Couchbase: .put("Count", csvRow[4]);
■■ A CSV reader such as OpenCSV return JsonDocument.create(
■■ RxJava csvRow[0], object);
■■ The Couchbase Java SDK }
You can obtain all of these dependencies through Maven by )
.subscribe(document -> bucket.upsert(document),
including them in the project pom.xml ile.
error -> System.out.println(error));
Developing an RxJava CSV loader. I’ll create a class—it doesn’t
matter what I call it—that represents the RxJava way for pro- Let’s look at what is happening in the Observable. The CSV
cessing the CSV ile. I’ll also create a class for the Apache Reader creates an Iterable<String[]>. The Observable
Spark way later. will use the Iterable<String[]> as the source of data for
To load, but not read, the CSV ile, I’ll create a new the .from() method.
CSVReader object, as follows: The data that is read will be an array of strings, not some-
thing that can be stored directly in the database. Using the
CSVReader reader =
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.map() function, the array of strings can be transformed ■■Couchbase Apache Spark Connector
into whatever I decide. In this case, the goal is to map each You can obtain all of these dependencies through Maven by
line of the CSV ile to a database document. During this including them in your pom.xml ile.
mapping process, I could do some data cleanup. For exam- Developing an Apache Spark CSV loader. To use Apache Spark in
ple, while I don’t do it here, I could use something such as the Java project, I must irst conigure it in the code:
csvRow[*].trim() to strip out any leading and trailing
whitespace in each CSV column. SparkConf conf = new SparkConf()
Finally, I must save to the database each read line that’s pro- .setAppName("Simple Application")
.setMaster("local[*]")
cessed. The .subscribe() method from the previous snip-
.set("com.couchbase.bucket.default", "");
pet of code subscribes to notiications that the Observable JavaSparkContext javaSparkContext =
emits—in this case, the manipulated data record. new JavaSparkContext(conf);
After executing the RxJava class for loading CSV data,
there should be almost 2 million documents created con- The application name will be Simple Application, and the
taining baby names, containing the ields speciied in the master Spark cluster will be the local machine, because Spark
Observable. An example of one of the documents might will be running locally in this example. The Couchbase bucket
be this: I will use is once again the default bucket.
To proceed, I need to create a Spark DataFrame. DataFrames
{ are distributed collections of data that are organized similarly
"Name": "Nicolas",
to a relational database table and are particularly useful
"Year": "1988",
"Gender": "M", when it comes to CSV data because CSV data closely resembles
"Count": 400 a table.
} To create a Spark DataFrame, I need to create a SQL
Context. I can do this by using the JavaSparkContext.
Transforming raw data into JSON using Apache Spark. RxJava The JavaSparkContext represents a connection to the
works great, but what if you’re working with hundreds of mil- Spark cluster, which in this case is being run locally. With
lions of CSV records? Apache Spark was designed to process the JavaSparkContext, a SQLContext can be created
massive amounts of data. that allows for the creation of DataFrames and the usage of
Using the same sample data as in the RxJava segment, I SparkSQL:
give Apache Spark a try.
The requirements for loading with Apache Spark. I must include SQLContext sqlContext =
a few dependencies in the Java project before I attempt to load new SQLContext(javaSparkContext);
the CSV data into Couchbase:
■■ Spark Core
Using the SQLContext, the CSV data can be read like this:
■■ Spark CSV
DataFrame dataFrame = sqlContext.read()
■■ Spark SQL
.format("com.databricks.spark.csv")
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.option("inferSchema", "true") thing like the following:
.option("header", "true")
.load("PATH_TO_CSV_FILE"); /path/to/apache/spark/bin/spark-submit \
--class "com.app.Main" \
The read process will use the Spark CSV package and preserve target/project-jar-with-dependencies.jar
the header information that exists at the top of the CSV ile.
When read into a DataFrame, the CSV data is now something Querying the Data for a Perfect Baby Name
Couchbase can understand. There is no need to map the data, Until now, the raw CSV data containing the baby names has
as was done with RxJava. been transformed and saved as JSON data in the database.
I must make an adjustment to the ID data. Spark will rec- The goal of this project hasn’t been met yet. The goal was to
ognize it as an integer or numeric value because this data set come up with some nice baby name options. The project is in
has only numeric values in the column. Couchbase, however, a good position at the moment, because the data is now in a
expects a string ID, so this bit of Java code using the Spark format that can be easily queried.
API solves the problem: Choosing a great name with RxJava. With the naming data
loaded into Couchbase, it can now be queried. In this
dataFrame = dataFrame.withColumn( instance, I’m going to use RxJava to query the data to try to
"Id", df.col("Id").cast("string")); come up with a good baby name.
Let’s say, for example, that I want to name my baby using
I can now prepare the DataFrame for saving to the database: one of the most popular names. I could create the following
RxJava function:
DataFrameWriterFunctions
dataFrameWriterFunctions =
public void getPopularNames(
new DataFrameWriterFunctions(
String gender, int threshold) {
dataFrame.write());
String queryStr =
Map<String, String> options =
"SELECT Name, Gender, SUM(Count) AS Total " +
new Map.Map1<String, String>("idField", "Id");
"FROM 'default' WHERE Gender = $1 GROUP BY " +
"Name, Gender HAVING SUM(Count) >= $2";
With the DataFrame data piped into the appropriate Data JsonArray parameters = JsonArray.create()
FrameWriterFunctions object, I can map the ID value to a .add(gender)
document ID. At this point, I can save the data: .add(threshold);
ParameterizedN1qlQuery query =
dataFrameWriterFunctions. ParameterizedN1qlQuery.parameterized(
couchbase(options); queryStr, parameters);
this.bucket
By calling the Couchbase function of DataFrameWriter .query(query)
Functions, massive amounts of Couchbase documents will .forEach(System.out::println);
now be saved to the bucket. }
I can execute the project after I package it by doing some-
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In the previous function, two this.couchbaseSparkContext
parameters can be passed: the By using Apache .couchbaseQuery(query)
gender I am looking for and a Spark and Couchbase, .foreach(queryResult ->
System.out.println(queryResult));
threshold to determine popular-
ity. Let’s say, for example, my
you can process }
wife and I ind out we’re having a massive amounts Notice that the setup and parameterization is the same. The
boy (I don’t know yet), and we want of raw data quickly diference comes in where the query is actually executed.
to choose from a list of names that
have been used more than 50,000
even on systems Instead of the built-in RxJava features of the Couchbase Java

times. I could pass M and 50000 designed for personal- SDK, I use the Apache Spark Connector, which makes it pos-
sible to use Spark to run our application.
into the function and the param- scale projects.
eterized query would be executed.
Conclusion
Each row that satisies the
Let me be clear. I haven’t actually chosen a name for my irst-
query would be printed to the
born child, but if I wanted to make a decision in a statistical
console logs.
way through the use of RxJava and Apache Spark, I could.
Because the Couchbase Java SDK supports RxJava and a SQL-
By using big data tools such as Apache Spark combined with
like language called N1QL, there are many more options when
a NoSQL database such as Couchbase, which ofers a memory-
it comes to querying the name data.
centric architecture, you can process massive amounts of raw
Choosing a great name with Apache Spark. What if the data set
data quickly even on systems designed for personal-scale
were in the hundreds of millions of documents? While RxJava
projects. </article>
might perform well, it is probably best to use something such
as Spark because it was designed for massive amounts of data.
Nic Raboy (@nraboy) is a developer advocate for Couchbase in the
To use Spark to get a list of popular baby names based on a San Francisco Bay Area. He has released several native and hybrid
gender and a threshold, I might do something like this: mobile applications to iTunes and Google Play and writes about his
development experiences with a focus on making web and mobile
public void getPopularNames(
app development easier to understand.
String gender, int threshold) {
String queryStr = "SELECT Name, Gender, " +
"SUM(Count) AS Total FROM 'default' " +
"WHERE Gender = $1 GROUP BY Name, " +
"Gender HAVING SUM(Count) >= $2";
JsonArray parameters = JsonArray.create()
.add(gender) learn more
.add(threshold);
ParameterizedN1qlQuery query = Code download from the Java Magazine download area
ParameterizedN1qlQuery.parameterized(
OpenCSV, a Java parser for CSV files
queryStr, parameters);
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Building a Massive Off-Heap


Data Queue
How one company built a data queue that scales to more than 100 GB
PETER LAWREY

M y company develops software for inancial services


irms, particularly for high-frequency trading. This
kind of software requires the ability to store large amounts of
■■ It reduces the requirement for logging almost entirely.
But, of course, it presents the problem of an ever-growing
data set that needs to be managed in memory.
transactional data in memory. By large amounts, I mean tens Designwise, the unbounded queue model removes the
of gigabytes, sometimes more than 100 GB per day in real- need for low control between the writers and readers that is
time systems. For oline reporting, the largest data set we’ve required with traditional queues, so that spikes in data inlow
imported into Java was 100 TB. In this article, I explain how don’t overlow the queue. There is no interaction between the
we built a data structure—a specialized queue—that can man- writers and readers, and you can performance-test them in
age terabytes of data of the heap. This article is intended for isolation and expect to get similar results when they’re run-
intermediate to advanced programmers. ning at the same time.
The queue implementation, called Chronicle Queue, is an Note: There can be a coordination overhead when mul-
open source, persisted journal of messages. It supports con- tiple threads are writing to the same data structure. We have
current writers and readers even across multiple JVMs on the found this overhead to be signiicantly improved in Intel
same machine. Every reader sees every message, and a reader Haswell processors compared with Sandy Bridge processors.
can join at any time and still see every message. In our appli- This coordination is implemented entirely using Java’s atomic
cations, we assume that you can read and scan through mes- compare-and-set operations, without interacting with the
sages fast enough that even if you aren’t interested in most operating system.
messages, getting at the information you want will still be For developers, the retention of messages and absence of
fast enough. the need for low control has these speciic advantages:
In our design, readers are not consumers, so messages don’t ■■ You can reproduce a bug even if it only occurs once in a mil-

disappear after they’re read. This message retention has mul- lion messages, by replaying all the messages that led to the
tiple advantages when compared with the usual queue opera- bug triggering—but, more importantly, you can have coni-
tion of message removal: dence that the bug, rather than a bug, has been ixed.
■■ A message can be replayed as many times as needed. ■■ You can test a microservice replaying from the same input

■■ A day of production messages can be replayed in testing ile repeatedly without the producer or downstream con-
months later. sumers running.
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■■ You can test every microservice independently because there memory limit of your machine, which is usually between
is no low control interaction between them. If you have 128 TB and 256 TB, depending on your operating system.
low control between, let’s say, 20 services, any one of those How do you load data into memory and save data? This is
services could slow down any producer and, in turn, its what the operating system does for you. It zeroes out memory
producer until the entire system locks up. This is something pages you haven’t used, loads from disk pages that have been
you need to test for. Without low control, this can’t happen. used before, and saves data to disk asynchronously without
the JVM being involved or even running. For example, if
Inside Chronicle Queue you write some data and your process dies, the data will still
What might be surprising is that Chronicle Queue is written appear in cache and be written to disk. (That is, if the operat-
entirely in pure Java. It can outperform many data storage ing system didn’t also die. To protect from operating system
solutions written in C. You might be wondering how that’s failure, we use TCP replication.)
possible, given that well-written C is usually faster than Java. Linux (and Windows similarly) allows up to 10 percent of
One problem with any complex application is that you need main memory to be dirty/written to, but not saved to disk
a degree of protection between your services and your data (with the default setting). A machine with 512 GB of main
storage to minimize the risk of corruption. As Java uses a memory can have up to 51 GB of data uncommitted to disk.
JVM, it already has an abstraction layer and a degree of pro- This is an enormous amount of data—and you can accept a
tection. If an application throws an exception, this doesn’t burst of data this size with minimal impact on the application.
mean the data structure is corrupted. To get a degree of iso- Once this threshold is reached, the application is prevented
lation in C, many data storage solutions use TCP to commu- from dirtying any new pages before some are written to disk.
nicate with large data structures. The overhead of using TCP
(even over loopback) can exceed the performance beneit of Other Design Considerations
using C. Because Chronicle Queue supports sharing of the What if you don’t have a big server? Even a PC with 8 GB will
data structure in memory for multiple JVMs, it eliminates the allow up to 800 MB of unwritten data. If your typical message
need to use TCP to share data. size is 200 bytes, this is still a capacity for a sudden burst of
Memory management. Chronicle Queue is built on a class 4 million messages. Even while these messages are being
called MappedBytes in the package Chronicle-Bytes. It captured, data will be written to disk asynchronously. As
implements the message queue as a memory-mapped ile. writes are generally sequential, you can achieve the maxi-
MappedBytes in turn maps the underlying ile into mem- mum write throughput of your disk subsystem.
ory in chunks, with an overlapping region to allow messages Chronicle Queue also supports a memory-mapped Hash-
to easily pass from one chunk to another. The default chunk Map. This is a good option if you need random access and
size is 64 MB, and the overlap is 16 MB. When you write just your data set its in memory; however, once your working set
one byte, 80 MB (64 + 16) of virtual memory is allocated. of data exceeds the main memory size, performance can drop
When you get to the end of the irst 64 MB, another region is by an order of magnitude.
mapped in and you get another 64 MB. It drops mappings on a A feature of the JVM that was essential for building this
least recently used (LRU) basis. The result is a region of mem- library was the use of sun.misc.Unsafe. While its use is
ory that appears to be unbounded and can exceed the virtual highly discouraged, there wasn’t a practical alternative up to
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Java 8. In Java 9, I hope, we will see tions and use of-heap memory as the storage and transport
a replacement in the form of cus- By using a between processes. For example, the header of the Chronicle
tom intrinsics, which promise to be transparent Queue has a ield for the last acknowledged index so replica-
a more powerful approach. What tion can be monitored. This is wrapped as a LongValue inter-
makes intrinsics so important for
format, we can face. When this object is read, written, or atomically updated,
performance is that you don’t pay validate the the of-heap memory it points to is accessed. This value is
the cost of using the Java Native data structure both shared between processes and persisted by the operat-
Interface (JNI). While the cost is low, ing system without the need for a system call.
it’s not low enough if you’re calling
and focus on The data structure in detail. Each entry is a blob with a preix of
it around a billion times per second. portions of it at four bytes. The preix contains one bit indicating whether the
An intrinsic is a method that the a time, allowing us entry is user data or metadata needed to support the queue
JVM recognizes and replaces with
machine code to do the same thing.
to implement much itself, another bit indicates whether the message in the entry
is complete or not, and the remaining 30 bits contain the
Usually this is a native method, but it more complex data length of the message.
can even be a Java method. structures. When the message is not complete, it cannot be read. But
The key beneit of using memory- if the length is known, a writer can skip such messages and
mapped iles is that you are no lon- attempt to write after them. If Thread1 is in the middle of
ger limited by the size of your heap, writing a message but it doesn’t know how long it will be, it
or even the size of your main memory. You are limited only by can write four bytes, which contains the length. Thread2 can
the amount of disk space you have. The cost of disk space is see that there will be a message and skip over it looking for
usually still much lower than main memory. a place to write. This way multiple threads can write to the
A surprising beneit of memory-mapped iles is that you can queue concurrently. Any message that is detected as bad, such
use them in a mode in which there is only one copy in mem- as a thread that died while writing, can be marked as bad
ory. This means that in the operating system’s disk cache, metadata and skipped by the reader.
the memory in process A and the memory in process B are As the iles grow without limit, you may need to compress
shared. There is only one copy. If process A updates it, not only or delete portions while the data structure is still in use. To
is this visible to process B in the time it takes the L2 caches to support this, we have time-based ile rolling. By default you
become coherent (that is, synchronize the data, which today get one ile per day. This allows you to manage data simply by
typically takes around 25 nanoseconds), but the operating compressing, copying, and deleting this daily ile. The rolling
system can asynchronously write the data to disk. In addition, can also be performed more or less often, as required.
the operating system can predictively read ahead, loading data There is a special value that is a “poison pill” value, which
from disk when you access the memory (or iles) sequentially. indicates that the ile has been rolled. This ensures that all
Finally, an important beneit of using a memory-mapped writers and readers roll to the new ile at the same point in a
ile is the ability to bind a portion of memory to an object. Java timely manner.
doesn’t have support for pointers to random areas of memory. For the message data itself, we use a binary form of YAML
We turn to an interface of getters, setters, and atomic opera- to store the messages because it’s a format that is designed to
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//big data /
be human-readable. We view JSON and XML as technologies
aligned with JavaScript and SGML, respectively, and not as
readable. We support JSON for messaging with browsers. The
binary form of YAML is used for performance reasons, and it
can be automatically translated to YAML for viewing.
Learn Java 8
We didn’t always use such a transparent format, and that
placed a limit on how complex the data structure could be. By
From the Source
using a transparent format, we can validate the data structure
and focus on portions of it at a time, allowing us to imple-
ment much more complex data structures as well as support
backward compatibility for older formats.
Oracle University
Append-only benefits. Chronicle Queue is designed for sequen-
tial writes and reads. It also supports random access and
updates in place, although you can’t change the size of an
existing entry. You can minimize this limitation by padding
an entry for future use. New Java SE 8 training and certification
Sequential reads and writes are more eicient for per-
sistence to HDD and SSD disks. The append-only structure Available online or in the classroom
makes replication much simpler as well.
Taught by Oracle experts
Conclusion
Using native memory to complement managed, on-heap
memory can allow your Java application to exploit all the
memory of your server. It can even extend the available data
structure to exceed main memory by lushing to disk.
By using a simple data lifecycle and a transparent data
structure, you can move a signiicant portion of your data out
of the heap. This can improve the performance, stability, and
scalability of your application. </article>
Learn More
Peter Lawrey (@PeterLawrey) has answered the most ques-
tions about Java, JVM, concurrency, memory, performance, and
ile I/O on StackOverlow.com (roughly 12,000), and he writes the
Vanilla Java blog. He is the architect of Chronicle Software and a
Java Champion.
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Big Data Best Practices


for JDBC and JPA
Focus on the fundamentals so you’re not overwhelmed by large amounts of data.
JOSH JUNEAU

W hen it comes to handling big data in applications, there


are several pitfalls to avoid. An application that runs
perfectly ine on a small or medium-size database can fail
contain a variety of built-in functions and procedures for
performing processing of data directly within the database,
whereas many NoSQL databases don’t ofer stored procedures.
once the database has increased in size. Failure points for However, many NoSQL databases ofer some type of func-
applications working with large amounts of data can encom- tion or stored code capability, although they’re not often as
pass a broad spectrum of areas, including memory, poor data- capable as those ofered by a standard database. Many data-
base transaction performance, and bad architecture. Whether base solutions also contain a language that enables you to
your development team chooses to use JDBC or an object- develop procedures that can be executed directly within the
relational mapping framework, the architecture of your appli- database. For example, Oracle Database contains its own pro-
cation can mean the diference between success and failure. cedural language known as PL/SQL, which safely extends the
In this article, I cover some best practices to be used for SQL language. When working with big data, you can achieve
working with data via JDBC or the Java Persistence API (JPA), huge performance gains by allowing the database, rather than
so that your application does not fail under the pressure of big the application, to perform analytical processing—unless, of
data. I don’t delve into any proprietary APIs or frameworks course, there is an analytical processing requirement that can
for working with big data or target any particular database only be performed outside of the database.
options available via standard RDBMS or NoSQL. Rather, I The JDBC API and JPA both contain solutions for calling
provide basic strategies for coniguring environments and upon a database’s stored procedures. It’s also easy to pass or
tuning code, as well as best practices for working with large retrieve values with stored procedures, and the best part is
amounts of data via a Java application. that a single connection can be made to call upon the proce-
dure, which can in turn process thousands of records. Listing 1
First Things First: Stored Procedures demonstrates how to call a database stored procedure using
Ask yourself this question: Why am I pulling this large either JDBC or JPA.
amount of data into my application? If the answer is that you
are trying to perform some calculations, analysis, or other Listing 1.
// Using JDBC to call upon a database stored
processing on a very large result set, you might want to recon-
// procedure
sider your technique. Most databases (speciically RDBMSs)
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CallableStatement cs = null; base? There are trade-ofs, though, because working with a
Java stored procedure still requires connection code to access
try { data, albeit inside the database rather than in an application.
cs = conn.prepareCall("{call DUMMY_PROC(?,?)}"); Therefore, coding stored procedures in Java might prove to
cs.setString(1, "This is a test");
be more cumbersome than doing so with a language that is
cs.registerOutParameter(2, Types.VARCHAR);
cs.executeQuery(); written for the database.
Sure, in the end any database-driven application will need
// Do something with result to work directly with data in some manner. But be mindful of
String returnStr = cs.getString(2); the diference between the work that can be performed in the
database and that which truly needs to be performed within a
} catch (SQLException ex){ Java application.
ex.printStackTrace();
}
Getting the Configuration Correct
// Utilize JPA to call a database stored procedure Typically, in their default coniguration, application servers
// Add @NamedStoredProcedureQuery to entity class are conigured for use with applications utilizing average I/O.
@NamedStoredProcedureQuery( Any coniguration that might afect performance should be
name="createEmp", procedureName="CREATE_EMP", reviewed and conigured appropriately before you attempt to
parameters = { use it on an application with large amounts of data.
@StoredProcedureParameter( Application-specific configurations. By default the JDBC driver
mode= ParameterMode.IN, will retrieve a ixed number of rows with each fetch. For
type=String.class,
example, the default number of rows fetched from Oracle
name="first"),
@StoredProcedureParamter( Database is 10. That means if you are trying to return 1,000
mode = ParameterMode.IN, rows, your application will need to perform 100 fetch opera-
type=String.class, tions to retrieve all rows. Now imagine if you had to mul-
name="last") tiply that by 1,000—that could produce quite a bottleneck.
}) The JDBC setFetchSize() can
be used to provide a hint as to
// Calling upon stored procedure
StoredProcedureQuery qry =
If you need to work the number of rows that should

em.createStoredProcedureQuery("createEmp"); with a specific set of be fetched. Listing 2 demon-


strates how to specify the hint. If
qry.setParameter("first", "JOSH");
qry.setParameter("last","JUNEAU");
data multiple times, zero is speciied, then the JDBC
qry.execute(); connections can driver will ignore the value. As
be easily managed can be seen in the code, once the
Many database solutions also support stored procedures writ- Statement has been created, sim-
ten in Java. What better way to make the most of your Java by caching data. ply set the desired fetch size. The
programming skills than to put them to work inside the data- ResultSet fetch size can also be
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speciied. This value overrides the Statement fetch size. it. Keep in mind that setting
a larger fetch size will afect Memory can also
Listing 2.
String qry = "select …";
the amount of memory that an become a concern if
CreateConnection.loadProperties();
application requires. Be mind-
ful when setting the fetch size,
you are caching a very
issuesList = new ArrayList();
try (Connection conn = and also be sure to conigure large amount of data,
CreateConnection.getConnection(); the amount of memory for your so be sure to have your
Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery(qry);) {
application server accordingly.
Also be mindful of the other
environment up to par.
stmt.setFetchSize(300); JDBC driver conigurations that
might come into play when
while (rs.next())
working with large amounts of data.
. . .
}
Connection management. Connections can be very expensive,
} catch (SQLException e) { so a good practice when working with databases is to limit the
// Log the exception number of connections that are required. This means that an
} application should make the most of each connection rather
than being wasteful and performing only small amounts of
The same coniguration can be speciied utilizing JPA. Rather work with each connection. If you need to work with a spe-
than explicitly setting the fetch size for JPA, you can provide ciic set of data multiple times, connections can be easily
a hint to “guide” the JDBC driver to fetch the desired number managed by caching data, where possible. If many inserts,
of rows to improve performance. The code in Listing 3 dem- updates, or deletes will be occurring, then you might need to
onstrates how to specify the fetch size for a JPA query when perform transactions or bulk updates rather than opening a
using the EclipseLink driver. The fetch size in this example is connection and disposing of it each time an update is made.
speciied as a String value. Connection pools that are managed by an application server
play an important role in management of data, in general.
Listing 3. Typically, there are default connection pool sizes put into
public List<DukeIssues> findAllConfigureFetchSize(
place by an application server. Once all the connections are
String fetchSize){
Query qry = em.createQuery( utilized, the application server will request more connections.
"select object(o) from DukeIssues o"); Likewise, if a connection is not being utilized, it’s placed back
qry.setHint( into the pool. Sizing a connection pool appropriately for the
"eclipselink.JDBC_FETCH_SIZE", fetchSize); number of connections that an application will utilize is criti-
return qry.getResultList(); cal to good performance.
} There are several ways to conigure a connection pool. An
application server connection pool can usually be conigured
It is imperative to test a big data application with diferent via an administrative console, XML, or a command-line util-
values to determine the value that provides the most bene- ity. For instance, in the case of GlassFish, you can modify
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connection pool conigurations using the administrative Another thing to keep in mind is the isolation level, which
console or the asadmin command line utility. Listing 4 dem- is how a database helps maintain data integrity. The lower
onstrates how to create a JDBC Connection Pool and JDBC the isolation level, the less uniform the system will become.
Connection Pool Resource via the utility. Diferent isolation levels have their own use cases, and some
also provide better performance than others. Study the
Listing 4. impact of each isolation level on the application to determine
asadmin create-jdbc-connection-pool \
the one that is best suited. Table 1 lists the diferent isolation
--datasourceclassname \
levels, from least consistent to most consistent, along with
oracle.jdbc.pool.OracleDataSource \
--restype javax.sql.DataSource \ their performance impact.
--property user=dbuser:password=dbpassword:url= A full overview of each isolation level is out of the scope of
"jdbc:oracle\:thin\:@localhost\:1521\:MYDB" \ this article, but I mention this because it could be a factor in
jdbc_conn-pool performance and data integrity.

asadmin create-jdbc-connection-pool \ Best Practices for Data Access Code


--connectionpoolid myjdbc_oracle-pool jdbc/resource
Once the coniguration for an application and environment
is correct, the query and statement code is the next place
[The –-property user= line and the one after it should be
to look for signs of potential trouble. There are several best
entered as a single item. —Ed.]
practices to follow when coding an application, and any code
To obtain connections from a pool, the javax.sql
speciically dealing with data can have a major impact on the
.ConnectionPoolDataSource interface can be utilized. The
performance of an application if it deals with large amounts
ConnectionPoolDataSource returns a PooledConnection
of data.
object, which can then be utilized to obtain a Connection.
One of the irst things to keep in mind is caching data.
Typically a ConnectionPoolDataSource is implemented by
If an application will be utilizing a large number of records
a Java Naming and Directory Interface connection object, and
for read-only purposes, then it makes sense to cache the
a PooledConnection object can be retrieved by invoking the
data so that it can be quickly accessed from memory rather
getConnection() method, as shown in Listing 5. If you’re
than fetched from the database. Of course, memory can also
using JPA, the EntityManager will handle obtaining connec-
tions, although there might need to be some coniguration
made within the Persistence Unit. ISOLATION LEVEL PERFORMANCE IMPACT
TRANSACTION_NONE MAXIMUM SPEED
Listing 5.
ConnectionPoolDataSource cpds = TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED MAXIMUM SPEED
(ConnectionPoolDataSource) TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED FAST SPEED
initialCtx.lookup(jndiName);
PooledConnection pooledConn = TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ MEDIUM SPEED
ConnectionPoolDataSource.getConnection(); TRANSACTION_SERIALIZABLE SLOW SPEED
Connection conn = pooledConn.getConnection();
Table 1. Transaction isolation levels
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become a concern if you are is passed containing the query. If the object will be used for
caching a very large amount of It is important to get making updates, then the primary keys of the table need to
data, so be sure to have your the correct JDBC driver be speciied. Lastly, the statement can be executed, return-
environment up to par. Another
coding practice that is impor-
for your environment. ing the data. Listing 6 demonstrates how to make use of a
CachedRowSet.
tant to get correct is utilizing
the proper JDBC code for your Listing 6.
RowSetFactory factory;
application requirements. I will
delve into some pointers to keep in mind when coding JDBC
try {
and JPA queries for large data access. Lastly, managing opera- // Create RowSetFactory
tions when performing updates and deletes can be detri- factory = RowSetProvider.newFactory();
mental to an application’s success, and in this section I touch // Create a CachedRowSet object using the factory
upon some techniques for performing bulk operations. crs = factory.createCachedRowSet();
Caching data. When an application is required to work with // Populate the CachedRowSet connection settings,
the same data more than once, it makes sense to keep it // if needed
// crs.setUsername(username);
in memory rather than incur additional database round-
// crs.setPassword(password);
trips. There are several ways to cache data that is frequently
// crs.setUrl(jdbc_url);
accessed into memory. One such solution is to utilize an in- // Populate a query
memory data grid, such as Hazelcast. Another solution is to crs.setCommand("select id, request_date, "+
make use of built-in JDBC caching solutions, which often "priority, description from duke_issues");
provide a more lean but less robust alternative to a data grid. // Set key columns
In-memory data grids make it easy to store data in dis- int[] keys = {1};
tributed Maps, Lists, and Queues so that it can be utilized crs.setKeyColumns(keys);
// Execute query
many times without making multiple trips to the database.
crs.execute(conn);
This solution, in particular, is easy to get started with, yet
// Manipulate the object contents in a
it’s advanced enough to provide an abundance of options // disconnected state
for scaling, partitioning, and balancing your data. To make while (crs.next()) {
things nicer, Payara has built-in Hazelcast solutions. // perform some work on the resultset
If you are leaning toward bare-metal JDBC caching, utiliza- }
tion of JDBC solutions such as javax.sql.CachedRowSet } catch (SQLException ex) {
make it possible to store smaller amounts of data for repeated ex.printStackTrace();
}
access. Data within a CachedRowSet can be modiied and
later synchronized back to the database. A CachedRowSet
In JDBC, use PreparedStatements. First and foremost, if you
can be generated from a RowSetFactory or a CachedRowSet
are writing JDBC, use PreparedStatements rather than
default constructor. A Connection is then conigured for
normal Statements. A PreparedStatement can be pre-
the CachedRowSet object, and a String-based SQL command
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//big data /
compiled, so if it is executed multiple times, it will not need e.printStackTrace();
to be recompiled each time. Not only will your application }
gain performance beneits but security beneits as well. return issueList;
PreparedStatements are advantageous for guarding against }
SQL injection. Listing 7 demonstrates the typical use of a
It might be obvious, but make sure that Statements and
PreparedStatement for retrieving a ResultSet.
PreparedStatements are closed once they’ve been used.
Listing 7. Doing so gives the garbage collector an opportunity to recycle
public List<DukeIssues> the memory.
queryIssues(String assignedTo) { Use bulk operations. If an application is performing many
String qry = subsequent updates or deletes, then it might be best to per-
"SELECT ID, REQUEST_DATE, PRIORITY, DESCRIPTION " form these operations in bulk. Both JDBC and JPA provide
+ "FROM DUKE_ISSUES "
the means for using bulk write and delete operations when
+ "WHERE assigned_to = ?";
needed. To fully understand if bulk operations will be help-
List<DukeIssues> issueList = new ArrayList(); ful to your application, it’s important to understand how they
try (Connection conn = work. There are a couple of diferent types of batch writing:
CreateConnection.getConnection(); parameterized and dynamic.
PreparedStatement stmt = Parameterized batch writing essentially takes a bulk num-
conn.prepareStatement(qry)) ber of identical inserts, updates, or deletes and chains them
{ together, using bind variables for parameters. In other words,
stmt.setString(1, assignedTo);
the only thing that changes throughout the bulk of the oper-
try (ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery();) {
ation is the parameters—the SQL for the operation remains
while (rs.next()) {
int id = rs.getInt("ID"); the same. The chain of operations is then sent to the database
java.util.Date requestDate = in a single call and executed in bulk. Parameterized batch
rs.getDate("REQUEST_DATE"); writing improves performance twofold because the same
int priority = rs.getInt("PRIORITY"); statement is utilized for each operation, so the SQL doesn’t
String description = need to be parsed each time,
rs.getString("DESCRIPTION"); and only one network connec-
DukeIssues issue = new DukeIssues(); Data management tion is used because everything is
issue.setId(id);
issue.setRequestDate(requestDate);
is the first step sent in bulk.
issue.setPriority(priority); toward writing an Dynamic batch writing allows
issue.setDescription(description);
issueList.add(issue);
application to work each SQL statement in a bulk
operation to contain diferent SQL,
} with large amounts so more than one heterogeneous
}
} catch (SQLException e) {
of data. statement can be sent in bulk to
the database. Parameter binding is
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//big data /
not allowed with dynamic batch writing, so the SQL must be conn.setAutoCommit(false);
parsed for each statement. Therefore, the net gain on perfor-
mance is only database connection-related, and it might not // Perform loop here to add statements to the
be as beneicial as that of a parameterized batch operation. // batch transaction, if needed.
Determining which type of bulk operation is being used by
stmt.addBatch(insStmt1);
your JDBC driver involves some amount of testing and inves- stmt.addBatch(insStmt2);
tigation. JDBC contains a standard API that allows you to stmt.addBatch(updStmt);
determine which type of bulk operation you can perform. To int[] count = stmt.executeBatch();
utilize batch operations with raw JDBC, irst set auto-commit
on the connection to false. By default, each operation is com- conn.commit();
mitted automatically, and by setting auto-commit to false conn.setAutoCommit(true);
the operations will be executed but not committed until an } catch (SQLException e) {
// Log the exception
explicit commit is issued. Listing 8 shows a simple example
}
of how to perform a group of inserts and updates in a batch
operation. In a big data environment where many rows are There is no prescribed standard for performing batch opera-
being inserted at a time, the insert statements may be issued tions using JPA. However, most of the JPA providers do sup-
in a looping construct: irst opening the connection, next port some type of batching. To enable batch operations to
looping through the inserts, and inally committing at the occur within a JPA environment, typically conigurations
end and closing the connection. must be made within the persistence unit. Most JPA drivers
accommodate parameterized and dynamic batch writing, so
Listing 8.
List<DukeIssues> issueList = queryIssues("JUNEAU"); you must conigure accordingly. Listing 9 demonstrates how to
conigure for EclipseLink within the persistence unit.
String insStmt1 =
"insert into duke_issues (id, request_date," + Listing 9.
"priority, description) values " + <persistence-unit>
"(908472, '2016-01-01',0,'QUERY NOT WORKING')"; . . .
<property name="eclipselink.jdbc.batch-writing"
String insStmt2 = "insert into duke_issues " + value="JDBC"/>
"(id, request_date, priority, description) values " <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.batch-writing.size"
+ value="1000"/>
"(908473, '2016-01-01',0,'RESULTS NOT POSTING')"; . . .
</persistence-unit>
String updStmt = "insert duke_issues " +
"set status = ? where assigned_to = ?"; Consider a specialized driver or API. It is important to get the
correct JDBC driver for your environment. Although the data-
try (Connection conn = getConnection(); base vendor may provide a JDBC driver, it might not be the
Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();) { most optimal driver for your application’s use case. There are
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//big data / //user groups /
many drivers that have been speciically tuned for working
with large amounts of data. Make sure to choose one of those.
In other words, do your homework with respect to the data-
BARCELONA JUG
base platform and the environment you’ll be working in to Barcelona, Spain, has a
ensure you have the best driver for the job. vibrant startup ecosystem
and many business
Conclusion communities related to
Before digging into the nuts and bolts of speciic APIs, data software. It’s a beautiful
management is the irst step toward writing an application to city with lots of places
work with large amounts of data. Data management strategies to visit and some of the
include coniguring JDBC and JPA environments accordingly, best urban beaches in the
coding for the best performance, and caching as needed. Get world. It’s also home to the
the fundamentals of the application working correctly to Barcelona Java Users Group
avoid developing an application that doesn’t scale or perform (@barcelonajug), a non-
well. In this article, I looked at the basics. But once those proit association built around a team with broad experience
items are in place, it’s important that JDBC and JPA environ- in Java technologies. Since 2012, it has been organizing talks
ments constantly be monitored for performance to get the and other get-togethers focused on Java topics, usually once a
best possible performance for a given data load. </article> month. Most of the meetings are held in English.
Some past topics include developer tools, testing techniques,
Josh Juneau (@javajuneau) works as an application developer, API design, and high-performance messaging. The group has
system analyst, and database administrator. He is a technical hosted talks from Stephen Chin (Oracle); Claus Ibsen, Mario
writer for Oracle Technology Network and Java Magazine. He has Fusco, Gavin King, and Mauricio Salatino (Red Hat); Jean-
written books on Java and Java EE for Apress and is also a JCP Baptiste Onofré (Talend); Alex Soto (CloudBees); Peter Kriens
Expert Group member for JSR 372 and JSR 378. (OSGi Alliance); and Norberto Leite (MongoDB), among others.
Its big event last year was the Java Barcelona Conference, a
two-day event focused on Java, JVM, and related technologies,
as well as open source technologies. Developers from several
countries came to learn and explore software development in
a unique environment. The talks given at the 2015 event can
be viewed online.
learn more The group is organizing this year’s event, which will take
place June 16 to 18, with even more topics and networking
Oracle’s JDBC tutorial
opportunities. This year, the event will take place at Pompeu
Oracle’s JPA tutorial Fabra University and include hands-on workshops. You can
Background on database isolation learn more and buy tickets here.
For more about the Barcelona JUG, see Meetup or YouTube.
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//testing /

JUnit 5: A First Look


The long-awaited release of JUnit 5 is a complete redesign with many useful additions.

MERT ÇALIŞKAN
J Unit, the widely used Java unit testing framework, has
just seen the irst alpha release of version 5 after 10 years
on version 4. JUnit 5 consists of a revamped codebase with
Configuring Tools to Use JUnit 5
JUnit 5 dependency deinitions are available for both Maven
and Gradle. For this article, I used Maven and its dependency
a modular architecture, a new set of annotations, an exten- deinition for the JUnit 5 API. The following shows the Maven
sible model for third-party library integration, and the ability inclusion of JUnit 5:
to use lambda expressions in assertions. The predecessor of
JUnit 5 was the JUnit Lambda project, which sowed the irst <dependency>
ideas for the next generation of unit testing and was crowd- <groupId>org.junit</groupId>
<artifactId>junit5-api</artifactId>
funded until October 2015.
<version>5.0.0-ALPHA</version>
Through the years, JUnit has captured the essence of what <scope>test</scope>
a unit testing framework should be. However, its core mostly </dependency>
stayed intact, which made it diicult for it to evolve. This new
version is a complete rewrite of the whole product that aims JUnit 5 now consists of multiple modules including the
to provide a suicient and stable API for running and report- junit5-api module, which provides a transitive depen-
ing tests. Implementing unit tests with JUnit 5 requires Java 8 dency, and opentest4j, which is named after the Open Test
at a minimum, but it can run tests on code written for earlier Alliance for the JVM project. Its aim is to provide a minimal
versions of Java. common foundation for testing libraries, IDEs, and other
In this article, I describe the principal features of this early tools such as TestNG, Hamcrest, Spock, Eclipse, Gradle,
release of JUnit 5, illustrating them with detailed examples. Maven, and many others.
All the code in this article is based on JUnit version 5.0.0- In addition, JUnit 5 has the following modules:
ALPHA, which was released in February 2016. The complete ■■ junit5-api, an API module that contains classes for

source code for the examples in this article is available at the implementing tests.
Java Magazine download area. ■■ junit4-engine, a JUnit 4 engine implementation. It

The JUnit team is planning to ship a release candidate of locates and runs JUnit 4–based tests.
the framework in the third quarter of 2016. Milestone 1 is ■■ junit5-engine, a JUnit 5 engine implementation module.

one of the last steps before JUnit 5 oicially ships. This will It locates and runs JUnit 5-based tests.
surely be one of the most consequential releases ever in the ■■ junit-engine-api, an abstraction API module for test-

Java ecosystem. ing engines. It provides an extensible mechanism with 38


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//testing /
which current and feature testing frameworks can integrate @Test
themselves by registering their test engines. Test engines void simpleTestIsPassing() {
are identiied by an ID string, and the engines are located org.junit.gen5.api.Assertions.
via relection through the class loader. Test engines register assertTrue(true);
}
themselves via the JDK’s ServiceLoader class.
}
■■ junit-launcher, an integration module that is used by

build tools and IDEs to run tests. It makes it possible to run For a simple JUnit 5 test class, such as the one shown in
JUnit 4 and JUnit 5 tests in a single run. Listing 1, there is almost no diference to be seen at irst
■■ junit-console, an API module for running JUnit 4 and
glance when compared with a JUnit 4 test class. The main dif-
JUnit 5 tests from the command line. It prints execution ference is that there is no need to have test classes and
results to the console. methods deined with the public modiier. Also, the @Test
■■ junit-commons, a common API module that is being used
annotation—along with the rest of the annotations—has
by all modules. moved to a new package named org.junit.gen5.api,
■■ junit4-runner, an API module for running JUnit 5 tests
which must be imported.
on JUnit 4. This eases the migration of JUnit 4–based imple-
mentations to JUnit 5, because the IDEs and the build tools Capitalizing on the Power of Annotations
don’t support JUnit 5 tests yet. JUnit 5 ofers a revised set of annotations, which, in my view,
■■ surefire-junit5, a module that contains JUnitGen5
provide essential features for implementing tests. The anno-
Provider, which integrates with the Maven Sureire plugin tations can be declared individually or they can be composed
for running JUnit 5 tests on JUnit 4. to create custom annotations. In the following section, I
■■ junit-gradle, a module that contains JUnit5Plugin,
describe each annotation and give details with examples.
which integrates with Gradle builds for running JUnit 5 @DisplayName. It’s now possible to display a name for a test
tests on JUnit 4. class or its methods by using the @DisplayName annotation.
One of the main goals of JUnit 5 modules is to decouple the As shown in Listing 2, the description can contain spaces and
API for executing the tests from the APIs for implementing special characters. It can even contain emojis such as J.
the tests.
Listing 2.
Anatomy of a JUnit 5 Test @DisplayName("This is my awesome test class")
Let’s look at some JUnit 5 tests, starting with the simple JUnit class SimpleNamedTest {
test shown in Listing 1.
@DisplayName("This is my lonely test method")
Listing 1. @Test
import org.junit.gen5.api.Test; void simpleTestIsPassing() {
assertTrue(true);
class SimpleTest { }
}
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@Disabled. The @Disabled annotation is analogous to the is described in detail shortly. With ConsoleRunner, you can
@Ignore annotation of JUnit 4, and it can be used to disable use the –t parameter for providing required tag names or the
the whole test class or one of its methods from execution. The –T parameter for excluding tag names.
reason for disabling the test can be added as description to @BeforeAll, @BeforeEach, @AfterEach, and @AfterAll. The
the annotation, as shown in Listing 3. behavior of these annotations is exactly the same as the
behavior of JUnit 4’s @BeforeClass, @Before, @After, and
Listing 3. @AfterClass, respectively. The method annotated with
class DisabledTest {
@BeforeEach will be executed before each @Test method,
and the method annotated with @AfterEach will be exe-
@Test
@Disabled("test is skipped") cuted after each @Test method. The methods annotated with
void skippedTest() { @BeforeAll and @AfterAll will be executed before and
fail("feature not implemented yet"); after the execution of all @Test methods. These four annota-
} tions are applied to the @Test methods of the class in which
} they reside and they will also be applied to the class hierar-
chy, if any exists. (See the next section on test hierarchies.)
@Tags and @Tag. It’s possible to tag test classes, their meth- The methods annotated with @BeforeAll and @AfterAll
ods, or both. Tagging provides a way of iltering tests for exe- need to be deined as static.
cution. This approach is analogous to JUnit 4’s Categories. @Nested test hierarchies. JUnit 5 supports creating hierarchies
Listing 4 shows a sample test class that uses tags. of test classes by nesting them inside each other. This option
enables you to group tests logically and have them under the
Listing 4.
@Tag("marvelous-test") same parent, which facilitates applying the same initializa-
@Tags({@Tag("fantastic-test"), tion methods for each test. Listing 5 shows an example.
@Tag("awesome-test")})
class TagTest { Listing 5.
class NestedTest {
@Test
void normalTest() { private Queue<String> items;
}
@BeforeEach
@Test void setup() {
@Tag("fast-test") items = new LinkedList<>();
void fastTest() { }
}
} @Test
void isEmpty() {
assertTrue(items.isEmpty());
You can ilter tests for execution or exclusion by providing tag
}
names to the test runners. The way of running ConsoleRunner
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@Nested assertEquals(2 == 2, true);
class WhenEmpty { }
@Test
public void removeShouldThrowException() { @Test
expectThrows( void assertionShouldBeTrueWithLambda() {
NoSuchElementException.class, assertEquals(3 == 2, true,
items::remove); () -> "3 not equals to 2!");
} }
} }

@Nested The org.junit.gen5.Assumptions class provides assume


class WhenWithOneElement { True, assumeFalse, and assumingThat static methods.
@Test As stated in the documentation, these methods are use-
void addingOneElementShouldIncreaseSize() {
ful for stating assumptions about the conditions in which a
items.add("Item");
assertEquals(items.size(), 1); test is meaningful. If an assumption fails, it does not mean
} the code is broken, but only that the test provides no use-
} ful information. The default JUnit runner ignores such fail-
} ing tests. This approach enables other tests in the series to
be executed.
Assertions and Assumptions
The org.junit.gen5.Assertions class of JUnit 5 con- Grouping Assertions
tains static assertion methods—such as assertEquals, It’s also possible to group a list of assertions together. Using
assertTrue, assertNull, and assertSame—and their cor- the assertAll static method, which is shown in Listing 7,
responding negative versions for handling the conditions causes all assertions to be executed together and all failures
in test methods. JUnit 5 leverages the use of lambda expres- to be reported together.
sions with these assertion methods by providing overloaded
versions that take an instance of java.util.function Listing 7.
class GroupedAssertionsTest {
.Supplier. This enables the evaluation of the assertion
message lazily, meaning that potentially complex calculations
@Test
are delayed until a failed assertion. Listing 6 shows using a void groupedAssertionsAreValid() {
lambda expression in an assertion. assertAll(
() -> assertTrue(true),
Listing 6. () -> assertFalse(false)
class AssertionsTest { );
}
@Test }
void assertionShouldBeTrue() {
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//testing /
Expecting the Unexpected "String index out of range: -1");
JUnit 4 provides a way for handling exceptions by declar- }
ing them as an attribute to the @Test annotation. This is }
an enhancement compared with previous versions that
required the use of try-catch blocks for handling excep- Parameterized Test Methods
tions. JUnit 5 introduces the usage of lambda expressions With JUnit 5, it’s now possible to have test methods with
for deining the exception inside the assertion statement. parameters for the default runner implementation. This
Listing 8 shows the placement of the exception directly into option enables dynamically resolved parameters to be
the assertion. injected at the method level. TestInfoParameterResolver
and TestReporterParameterResolver are two built-in
Listing 8. resolvers shipping with JUnit 5 that achieve this.
class ExceptionsTest { If the method parameter is an instance of org.junit
.gen5.api.TestInfo, then TestInfoParameter
@Test
Resolver will supply an instance of it as a parameter.
void expectingArithmeticException() {
The test name or its display name can be retrieved from a
assertThrows(ArithmeticException.class,
() -> divideByZero()); TestInfo instance.
} If the method parameter is an instance of org.junit.gen5
.api.TestReporter, then TestReporterParameter
int divideByZero() { Resolver will supply an instance of it as a parameter. Key-
return 3/0; value pairs could be published to the reporter instance in
} order to be used by IDEs or reporting tools, as in the example
}
shown in Listing 10.

With JUnit 5, it’s also possible to assign the exception to a Listing 10.
variable in order to assert conditions on its values, as shown class ResolversTest {
in Listing 9.
@Test
Listing 9. @DisplayName("my awesome test")
class Exceptions2Test { void shouldAssertTrue(
TestInfo info, TestReporter reporter)
@Test {
void expectingArithmeticException() { System.out.println(
StringIndexOutOfBoundsException exception = "Test " + info.getDisplayName() +
expectThrows( " is executed.");
StringIndexOutOfBoundsException.class,
() -> "JUnit5 Rocks!".substring(-1)); assertTrue(true);
reporter.publishEntry(
assertEquals(exception.getMessage(), "a key", "a value");
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} for dynamically resolving method parameters at runtime.
} So the parameter annotated with the marker annotation
@InjectMock will be mocked and stored through methods
Instances of TestInfo or TestReporter can also be injected annotated with @BeforeEach and @Test.
into methods annotated with @BeforeAll, @BeforeEach, You can access the source code for MockitoExtension and
@AfterEach, and @AfterAll. @InjectMock online.

The New Extension Model Running JUnit 5


JUnit 5 provides an extensible API for combining various Currently, there is no support for directly running JUnit 5–
extension points. It gives new options to third parties for inte- based tests in IDEs and build tools, although there soon
grating their own frameworks with the testing mechanism of will be. JUnit 5 ofers two ways for integrating and running
JUnit. With JUnit 4, this was possible with Runner, @Rule, and JUnit 5–based tests. One is the ConsoleRunner, which is a
@ClassRule, but JUnit 5 ofers a uniied API with which mul- command-line application for running tests, and the other is
tiple extensions can be deined with @ExtendWith. Listing 11 the JUnit 4 runner, which handles running tests on JUnit 4–
is an example that employs Mockito framework integration. integrated IDEs and build tools. The JUnit 4 runner provides
integration with both Gradle and Maven build systems.
Listing 11.
public interface User { The ConsoleRunner can be executed with the Java com-
String getName(); mand shown below. Building the classpath with the needed
} JAR iles is a prerequisite for having the ConsoleRunner
execute successfully, so ensure that you have correct version
@ExtendWith(MockitoExtension.class) of the artifacts.
class ExtensionsTest {
java -cp
@BeforeEach /path/to/junit-console-5.0.0-ALPHA.jar:
void init(@InjectMock User user) { /path/to/jopt-simple-4.9.jar:
when(user.getName()).thenReturn("Mert"); /path/to/junit-commons-5.0.0-ALPHA.jar:
} /path/to/junit-launcher-5.0.0-ALPHA.jar:
/path/to/junit-engine-api-5.0.0-ALPHA.jar
@Test org.junit.gen5.console.ConsoleRunner
void parameterInjectionWorksOk(
@InjectMock User user) { [Note that the command above should be entered as a single
assertEquals("Mert", user.getName());
command. —Ed.]
}
It’s also possible to run JUnit 5 tests in an IDE that supports
}
only JUnit 4. To enable this, the org.junit.gen5.junit4
The MockitoExtension class is an implementation of .runner.JUnit5 class should be deined with the @RunWith
MethodParameterResolver, which is an extension point annotation, as shown in Listing 12.

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Listing 12.
@RunWith(JUnit5.class)
public class RunWithTest {

@Test
public void simpleTestIsPassing() {
org.junit.gen5.api.Assertions.
assertTrue(true);
}
}

The junit4-runner and junit5-engine module depen-


dency should be deined in the classpath along with the
JUnit 4 dependency.

Conclusion
The JUnit team has succeeded in ofering a new, redesigned
version of JUnit that addresses nearly all the limitations
of previous versions. Note that the JUnit 5 API is still sub-
ject to change; the team is annotating the public types
with the @API annotation and assigning values such as
Experimental, Maintained, and Stable.
Give JUnit 5 a spin, and be prepared for the release
that’ll hit the streets in late 2016. Keep your green bar
always on! </article>

Mert Çalişkan (@mertcal) is a Java Champion and coauthor


of PrimeFaces Cookbook (irst edition, Packt Publishing, 2013;
second edition, 2015) and Beginning Spring (Wiley Publications,
2015). He is the founder of AnkaraJUG, which is the most active
Java user group in Turkey.

learn more
JUnit 5 oicial documentation
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//new to java /

Understanding Generics
Use generics to increase type safety and readability.

MICHAEL KÖLLING
I n this installment of the “New to Java” series, I want to talk
about generics.
If you have programmed for a little while in Java, it is
A Bit of History
Before Java 5 was released in 2004, Java did not have generic
types. Instead, it had what are called heterogeneous collections.
likely that you have come across generics, and you have Here is what an example of a heterogeneous list looked like in
probably used them. (They are hard to avoid when using those days:
collections, and it is hard to do anything really interesting
without collections.) If you are coming to Java from C++, you List students = new ArrayList();
might have encountered the same concept as generics under
the name of parameterized types or templates. (Templates in (Knowing this history is important, because you can still
C++ are not the same as generics in all aspects, but they are write this code in Java today—even though you shouldn’t.
closely related.) And you might come across these collections in legacy code
Many novice Java programmers use generics without a full you maintain.)
understanding of how they work and what they can do. This In the example above, I intend to create a list of Student
gap is what I address in this article. objects. I am using subtyping—the declared type of the vari-
In Java, the concept of generics is simple and straight- able is the interface List, a supertype of ArrayList, which
forward in principle but tricky in the details. There is much is the actual object type created. This approach is a good idea
to say about the corner cases, and it is also interesting to look because it increases lexibility. I can then add my student
into how generics are implemented in the Java compiler and objects to the list:
the JVM. This knowledge helps you understand and anticipate
students.add(new Student("Fred"));
some of the more surprising behaviors.
My discussion is spread over two parts. In this issue, I When the time comes to get the student object out of my list
discuss the principles and fundamental ideas of generic again, the most natural thing to write would be this:
types. I look at the deinition and use of generics and pro-
vide a basic, overall understanding. In the next issue of Java Student s = students.get(0);
Magazine, I will look at the more subtle parts, advanced uses,
and implementation. If you read both articles, you will arrive This, however, does not work. In Java, in order to give the
at a good understanding of how generics can help you write List type the ability to hold elements of any type, the add
PHOTOGRAPH BY
JOHN BLYTHE better code. method was deined to take a parameter of type Object, and
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//new to java /
the get method equally returns an Object type. This makes (at runtime, when the application might already have been
the previous statement an attempt to assign an expression delivered to a customer), but also that the source location
of type Object to a variable of type Student—which is of the detected error might be far removed from the actual
an error. mistake: you are notiied about the problem when getting the
In the early days of Java, this was ixed with a cast: element out, while the actual error was made when putting
the element in. This might well be in a diferent part of the
Student s = (Student) students.get(0); program entirely.

Now, writing this cast was always a mild annoyance. You usu- Java and Type Safety
ally know what types of objects are stored in any particular Java was always intended to be a type-safe language. This
list—why can’t the compiler keep track of them as well? means that type errors should be detected at compile time,
But the problem goes deeper than mere annoyance. and runtime type errors should not be possible. This aim was
Because the element type of the list is declared to be Object, never achieved completely, but it’s a goal that the language
you can actually add objects of any type to the same list: designers strove for as much as possible. Casting breaks this
goal: every time you use a cast, you punch a hole in type
students.add(new Integer(42));
students.add("a string"); safety. You tell the type checker to look the other way and
just trust you. But there is no guarantee that you will get
The fact that this is possible—that the same list can hold things right.
objects of diferent types—is the reason it is referred to as Many times, when a cast is used, the code can be rewrit-
heterogeneous: a list can contain mixed element types. ten: often better object-oriented techniques can be used to
Having lists of diferent, unrelated element types is rarely avoid casting and maintain type safety. However, collections
useful, but it is easily done in error. presented a diferent problem. There was no way to use them
The problem with heterogeneous without casting, and this jarred with the philosophy of Java.
lists is that this error cannot be It is useful to That such an important area of programming could not be
used in a type-safe way was a real annoyance. Thus in 2004,
detected until runtime. Nothing
prevents you from accidentally
understand one the Java language team ixed this problem by adding generics
inserting the wrong element aspect that changed to the Java language.
type into the student list. Worse, slightly when
Type Loss
even if you get the element out of
the list and cast it to a Student,
generics entered The term for the problem with heterogeneous collections is
the code compiles. The error sur- the Java language: type loss. In order to construct collections of any type, the ele-
faces only at runtime, when the the relationship ment type of all collections was deined to be Object. The
cast fails. Then a runtime type add method, for example, might be deined as follows:
error is generated.
between classes
The problem with this runtime and types. public void add(Object element)
error is not only that it occurs late 46
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This works very well to put elements—say, objects of type new ArrayList<Student>()
Student—into the collection, but it creates a problem when When generics
you want to get them out again. Even though the runtime Just as with parameters for were introduced,
system will know that the element is of type Student, the methods, you have a formal
compiler does not keep track of this. When you later use a parameter speciication in the
a useful shortcut
get method to retrieve the element, all the compiler knows is deinition (the E) and an actual notation—the
that the element type is Object. The compiler loses track of parameter at the point of use diamond notation—
(Student). Unlike method
the actual element type—thus the term type loss.
parameters, the actual parameter
was provided to ensure
Introduction to Generics is not a value but a type. that the increased
The solution to avoid type loss was to give the compiler By creating an ArrayList readability does not
<Student> (which is usually
enough information about the element type. This was done
by adding a type parameter to the class or interface deini- read out loud as “an ArrayList of
lead to unnecessary
tion. Consider an (incomplete and simpliied) deinition of an Student”), the other mentions verboseness.
ArrayList. Before generics, it might have looked like this: of the type parameter E in the
speciication are also replaced
class ArrayList { with the actual type parameter
public void add(Object element); Student. Thus, the parameter type of the add method and
public Object get(int index); the return type of the get method are now both Student.
}
This is very useful: now only Student objects can be added
as elements, and you retrieve Student objects when you get
The element type here is Object. Now, with the generic
them out again—no casting is needed.
parameter, the deinition looks as follows:

class ArrayList<E> { Abstraction over Types


public void add(E element); It is useful to understand one aspect that changed slightly
public E get(int index); when generics entered the Java language: the relationship
} between classes and types. Prior to generics, each class
deined a type. For example, if you deine a class Hexagon,
The E in the angle brackets is a type parameter: here, you can then you automatically get a type called Hexagon to use in
specify what the element type of the list should be. You no variable and parameter deinitions. There is a very simple
longer create an ArrayList object for the Student elements one-to-one relationship.
by writing this: With generic classes, this is diferent. A generic
class does not deine a type—it deines a set of types.
new ArrayList()
For example, the class ArrayList<E> deines the
types ArrayList<Student>, ArrayList<Integer>,
Instead, you now write this:
ArrayList<String>, ArrayList<ArrayList<String>>,
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and any other type that can be speciied by replacing the type In some generic types, especially when there is more than
parameter E with a concrete type. one generic parameter, this line can get rather long:
In other words, generics introduce an abstraction over
types—a powerful new feature. HashSet<Integer, String> mySet =
new HashSet<Integer, String>();
The Benefits
And it can get worse if a type parameter itself is generic:
One beneit of using generic classes should now be obvious:
improved correctness. Incorrect types of objects can no lon- HashSet<Integer, ArrayList<String>> mySet =
ger be entered into a list. While erroneous attempts to insert new HashSet<Integer, ArrayList<String>>();
an element could previously be detected only during testing
(and testing can never be complete), they are now detected at In each of these examples, the same lengthy generic type is
compile time, and type correctness is guaranteed. In addition, spelled out twice: once on the left for the variable declaration
if there is such an error, it will be reported at the point of the and once on the right for the object creation. In this situation,
incorrect insertion—not at the the Java compiler allows you to omit part of the second men-
point of retrieving the element, tion of the type and instead write this:
which is far removed from the The use of generics
actual error location. can make code safer and HashSet<Integer, String> mySet = new HashSet<>();
There is, however, a sec-
ond beneit: readability. By
easier to read. Here, the generic parameters are omitted from the right side
explicitly specifying the ele- (leaving the angle brackets to form a diamond shape, thus the
ment type of collections, term diamond notation). This is allowed in this situation and
you are providing useful information to human readers of means that the generic parameters on the right are the same
your program as well. Explicitly saying what type of ele- as those on the left. It just saves some typing and makes the
ment a collection is intended for can make life easier for a line easier to read. The semantics are exactly the same as
maintenance programmer. they would be had you written out the types in full.

The Diamond Notation Summary—So Far


When generics were introduced, a useful shortcut nota- This was the easy part. The use of generics can make code
tion—the diamond notation—was provided to ensure that safer and easier to read. Writing a simple generic class is
the increased readability does not lead to unnecessary quite straightforward, and creating objects of generic types
verboseness. is as well. You should also be able to read the documentation
Consider the very common case of declaring a variable and of simple generic types, such as the List interface’s Javadoc
initializing it with a newly created object: page or the Javadoc page of the Collection interface.
However, the story does not end here. So far, I have ignored
ArrayList<String> myList = some problems that arise with generics, and understand-
new ArrayList<String>(); ing the mechanisms to solve them gets a little trickier. This
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is where things become really interesting. Let’s look at the ing lists of subtypes and lists of supertypes to be in a sub-
problem irst. type/supertype relationship themselves. In other words,
List<Student> is not a subtype of List<Person>.
Generics and Subtyping
Assume that you have a small inheritance hierarchy. To Conclusion
model people in a university, you have classes Student and There are many situations in which you need subtyping with
Faculty, and a common superclass Person (Student and generic types, such as the above attempt to deine the gen-
Faculty are both subclasses of Person). So far, so good. eralized printList method. You have seen that it does not
Now you also create types for lists of each of these: work with the constructs I have discussed so far, but just
List<Student>, List<Faculty>, and List<Person>. saying it can’t be done is not good enough—you do need to be
The student and faculty lists are held in the parts of able to write such code.
your program that hold and process the student and fac- The solutions entail additional constructs for generics:
ulty objects. The Person list type can be useful as a formal bounded types and wildcards. These concepts are powerful, but
parameter for a method that you want to use with both fac- have some rather tricky corner cases. I will discuss them in
ulty and students, for example: the upcoming installment in the next issue of Java Magazine.
Until then, study the generic classes available in the Java
private void printList(List<Person> list) library—especially the collections—and get used to the
notation discussed in this article. I will dive deeper next
The idea is that you want to be able to call printList with time! </article>
both the student and faculty lists as actual parameters.
This will work if the types of these lists are subtypes of Michael Kölling is a Java Champion and a professor at the
List<Person>. But are they? University of Kent, England. He has published two Java textbooks
In other words, if Student is a subtype of Person, is then and numerous papers on object orientation and computing educa-
List<Student> a subtype of List<Person>? tion topics, and he is the lead developer of BlueJ and Greenfoot,
Intuitively, you might say yes. Unfortunately, the correct two educational programming environments. Kölling is also a
answer is no. Distinguished Educator of the ACM.
You can see the problem when you imagine that the
printList method not only prints, but also modiies the
list passed as a parameter. Assume that this method inserts
an object of type Faculty into the list. (Because the list is
declared in the parameter as List<Person>, and Faculty
is a subtype of Person, this is perfectly legal.) However, learn more
the actual list passed in to this method might have been a
List<Student>. Then, suddenly, a Faculty object has been Oracle’s Java tutorial on generics
inserted into the student list! This is clearly a problem. Wikipedia article on Java generics
The only way to avoid this problem is to avoid consider-
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Ceylon Language: Say More,


More Clearly
A low-ceremony, high-productivity JVM language that integrates easily with Java
STÉPHANE ÉPARDAUD and also runs on JavaScript VMs

C eylon is a modern statically typed JVM language, designed


for readability and maintainability, while at the same
time being expressive enough to allow eicient constructs
About Modularity
Ceylon has featured a modular architecture from the start.
Every Ceylon package belongs to a module. If you declare your
with very little boilerplate. People familiar with Java or C# will module, you can import other modules. If you do not, your
have an easy time getting used to Ceylon because its syntax code will be part of the default module. This code is what you
is familiar. need to write to start a trivial “Hello World” web application:
When I joined the project (led by Gavin King and Red Hat)
almost ive years ago, I was blown away by its ideas and goals. module hello "1" {
Finally, here was a new language made with the same philos- import ceylon.net "1.2.2";
}
ophy that I loved in Java when it was created: a new language
made to be familiar, yet more powerful, more expressive, with shared void run() {
higher-level abstractions, leading to less and clearer code. But // create the server
on top of that Ceylon also promised great tooling, a brand- value server = newServer {
new modern SDK, and features (at the time) missing from my Endpoint {
other favorite language, Java—modularity, irst-class func- path = startsWith("/");
tions, and reiied generics. And it promised to remove lots of service(Request request, Response response)
other frustrations. => response.writeString("hello world");
}
Since that time, thanks to the many contributors who
};
joined the project, the Ceylon team has delivered on its
promises. Its irst production-ready release was completed // start it on port 8080
two years ago, with two new releases since then, and server.start(SocketAddress("127.0.0.1", 8080));
improvements and new features keep coming steadily. }
It is impossible to cover the entire language in this article,
so I highlight only a few important features to give you a The module descriptor is simple: I’m declaring version 1 of a
sense of the language. module called hello, and I am importing the ceylon.net
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module from the Ceylon SDK. tems, Ceylon modules include the necessary Maven and OSGi
The rest is the run function, Ceylon compiles (Open Service Gateway initiative) metadata (soon npm, too).
which creates a web server with a to both Java They even support the Java 9 Jigsaw project (although cur-
single endpoint and starts it. The rently a lag is required to turn it on), because Ceylon already
shared annotation means that
bytecode and supports Java 9 modules. On JavaScript, Ceylon modules are
this function is visible to clients JavaScript. This compatible with the Require.js module system.
that can view its container pack- multiplatform support Thanks to modularity, the Ceylon distribution ships with
age (note that in Ceylon, func-
tions can belong to packages, not
enables you to run only the ceylon.language module, which contains the basic
Ceylon types; functions; and the metamodel, which is pretty
just to classes and interfaces). The Ceylon programs not small. Modules from the SDK are automatically obtained from
value keyword means “infer the just on the JVMs you online repositories when they are imported, and they are
type of that value by looking at
the right side of the assignment.”
are used to, but also on cached locally thereafter.

This greatly reduces verbosity browsers and Node.js A Novel Friendly Type System
while remaining statically typed. virtual machines. Ceylon features a powerful type system based on the follow-
In Ceylon, functions can be ing parts:
invoked either with parenthe- ■■ Most types will be inferred (you’ve already seen this with

ses and ordered arguments, as in the value declaration).


Java, or with curly braces, which allows you to specify argu- ■■ For low typing, once you have checked that a value is of a

ments by name (path and service, in this code). In this certain type or is not null, the type checker will remember
case, the service argument is passed a trivial function that it and allow you to treat it as such.
writes hello world to the client. ■■ The type of null and of object values should be distinct.

Something unique to Ceylon is that out of the box, the tools An Object can never be null, and its type is distinct from
know how to compile and run this module. The IDE and even Null (the type of null).
the command-line version know how to deal with modules; ■■ Union types allow you to specify that a value should be of

resolve and fetch dependencies; set up classpaths; compile one of several types. For example, you can say that a value
and package modules—locally or even to remote module is of type String or of type Null with the String|Null
repositories; and all the tasks that other languages usually union type. You can access members common to both
need many tools to perform. This is all you need to do on the types, or narrow the type to one of the cases with low
command line to compile and run your module: typing: if(is String foo) then foo.lowercased
else "<null>".
$ ceylon compile,run hello ■■ Intersection types let you describe a value that should

inherit from several types. An object of type Appendable


The tools are smart enough that you don’t need build tools for & Closeable will be guaranteed to have all methods of
trivial matters. each interface, no matter if it is a File or a Logger.
When it comes to interoperability with other module sys- These features, along with some syntax sugar, allow you to
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prevent NullPointerExceptions in Ceylon. If you have a message = "gee";
value of type String, it cannot be null. If you have a value of };
type String|Null (sugared as String?), you cannot access
its members until you have used low typing to ascertain its Ceylon also does away with the verbosity of ield and Java
existence. (In Ceylon, existence refers to whether a data item is bean property accessors with a single attribute construct that
non-null as determined by using the exists predicate.) can be inal or dynamic:

class Counter(){
Optional Parameters // starts at zero, does not change on access
There are many great reasons to love Java. However, one fea- shared variable Integer count = 0;
ture I miss is the lack of optional parameters. Consider this // increments count every time it is accessed
Java code: shared Integer increase => ++count;
}
void log(String message){
log(message, Priority.INFO); // no need for "new":
} // classes are functions in Ceylon
void log(String message, Priority priority){ value counter = Counter();
log(message, priority, null); print(counter.count); // 0
} print(counter.increase); // 1
void log(String message, Priority priority, print(counter.count); // 1
Exception exception){
... There are many such examples of common Java itches that
} Ceylon scratches—and I haven’t even talked about how awe-
some function types are.
log("foo");
log("bar", debug);
// ouch, need to know the default The Ceylon SDK and Interoperability with
// value of "priority" Other Languages
log("gee", info, x); Ceylon compiles to both Java bytecode and JavaScript (a Dart
back end is nearing completion, too). This multiplatform
The corresponding code in Ceylon is this: support enables you to run Ceylon programs not just on the
JVMs you are used to, but also on browsers and Node.js virtual
void log(String message, Priority priority = info, machines (VMs). Once you have learned the Ceylon language
Exception? exception = null){
(which was designed to be easy to learn), you can reuse that
}
knowledge in your web applications on both the front and
log("foo"); back ends.
log("bar", debug); Even better, you’re not limited by what APIs you ind in
log{ a particular back end. When running on the JVM, you have
exception = x;
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excellent interoperability with every library out there: not Reified Generics
just the JDK, but also every OSGi and Maven module. (Ceylon When using generics in languages that erase type-argument
also knows how to resolve Maven modules from the Maven information at compile time (that is, languages such as Java
central repository.) People have run Ceylon code interacting without reiied generics), it is often frustrating that all this
with Spring, WildFly, Vert.x, and even Apache Spark (written information is lost at runtime. For example, you cannot
in Scala). When compiled for the JVM, Ceylon produces idio- use those type arguments anymore to reason about them.
matic Java APIs that adhere to conventions (JavaBeans, for Without reiied generics, you cannot ask if a value is of an
example) in most cases, which makes interoperability from argument’s type, or use introspection on that type argument.
Java to Ceylon easy. For example, the following code can only be implemented in
When running on JavaScript VMs, you can easily access languages that have reiied generics, such as Ceylon:
whatever APIs your browser provides, by using dynamic
blocks, which relax the type checker to access untyped APIs. shared ObjectArray<T> toArray<T>(List<T> list){
At the moment, the Ceylon team is working on npm integra- // if you have a List<Foo>, you create a
//JVM array of Foo[], not just Object[]
tion (allowing you to use npm modules and publish to npm
value ret = ObjectArray<T>(list.size);
repositories) and on TypeScript interfacing, so that you can
variable value x = 0;
provide a typed interface to many JavaScript APIs, such as the for(elem in list){
DOM and browser APIs. ret.set(x++, elem);
If you want to write libraries that work on both JVM and }
JavaScript VMs, though, interoperability is not always enough return ret;
(although it is possible to write a module that delegates to }
diferent interoperability code depending on the back end). If
you had to limit yourself to the JDK for collections, or to the Nor is it possible to write the following without reiied
corresponding Node.js module, you would never be able to generics:
write portable Ceylon modules. For that reason, Ceylon comes
shared List<Subtype>
with a full-ledged modern SDK containing most of what you
narrow<Type,Subtype>(List<Type> origin)
need to write portable Ceylon applications. given SubType extends Type {
Ceylon runs out of the box on OpenShift, Vert.x (where you
can even write your verticles in Ceylon), WildFly (produce a value ret = ArrayList<Subtype>(origin.size);
WAR ile from your Ceylon modules with the ceylon war for(elem in origin){
command), and OSGi environments, or simply from the java // Here we can check that the run-time
command line. // type is an instance of Subtype, which
// is a type parameter
Additionally, because the Ceylon JVM back end is based on
if(is Subtype elem){
the Java compiler (javac), it can compile both Java and Ceylon
ret.add(elem);
source iles at the same time, allowing parts of your project to }
be written in both languages. }
return ret;
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} javaClassFromDeclaration(klass));
}
Or to write this more simply using a comprehension, which in return cfg.buildSessionFactory();
Ceylon is a way to declare Iterable literals whose elements }
are generated by procedural code:
value s = createSessionFactory('package');
shared List<Subtype>
narrow<Type,Subtype>(List<Type> origin) Good Tooling
given SubType extends Type { Ceylon tooling does an excellent job, and many tools designed
// return an ArrayList whose elements for Ceylon will make development easier. The irst tool is the
// consist of every element of origin Ceylon IDE for Eclipse, which is a full-featured IDE for Ceylon
// that is an instance of Subtype with interoperability with Eclipse Java development tools.
return ArrayList<Subtype>{
This IDE is what I use every day to develop Ceylon modules. It
for (elem in origin)
if (is Subtype elem) is very solid and supports more refactorings, quick ixes, and
elem features than the Eclipse Java plugin. Naturally, like the rest
}; of the Ceylon tools, it knows how to deal with modules and
} module repositories, because they are irst-class citizens of
the language.
Metamodel In a few months, the Ceylon team will release the irst ver-
Ceylon also features a metamodel, which enables you to sion of the Ceylon IDE for IntelliJ IDEA. The team has been
inspect all running modules, their packages, and their mem- abstracting all the Eclipse plugin code into an IDE-agnostic
bers (types, functions, and values), optionally iltered by module for the last few months, rewriting it in Ceylon at the
annotation. This is very useful when creating frameworks. same time, so that it can be used in both IntelliJ and Eclipse
In order to point a framework to your packages, modules, without having to maintain quick ixes and refactorings for
or types, you can even use metamodel literals, which are both platforms. In the end, most of both IDEs will be writ-
similar to Foo.class literals in Java, except they can point ten in Ceylon—a task for which the easy interoperability with
to any element of the Ceylon program. For example, here is Java helps a lot.
how you can scan the current package for Java Persistence If you just want to try Ceylon without installing anything,
API (JPA) entities: there is a great Ceylon web IDE. It features several code
examples and will let you write your own code, too, and it
shared SessionFactory provides code completion, error markers, and documentation.
createSessionFactory(Package modelPackage){ So don’t hesitate to throw your Ceylon code at it until you
value cfg = Configuration();
need a full-ledged IDE.
for (klass in modelPackage
The other programmer’s best friend is the command line.
.annotatedMembers<ClassDeclaration,
Entity>()) { Ceylon has an extensive command line, inspired by Git,
cfg.addAnnotatedClass( with a single ceylon command, from which you can dis-
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cover every other subcommand via completion or via the Since the release of version 1.2.2, you can also ship a
--help argument. With it, you can compile and run on Ceylon autoinstaller with your projects. This installer uses
both back ends, document your modules, list available ver- the ceylon bootstrap command, which functions like the
sions of a module, search for modules, copy modules or famous Gradle Wrapper, gradlew: it is a very small library
module repositories, and even package and install new that autoinstalls the right version of Ceylon for users who do
command-line plugins. not have it installed locally.
For example, if you want to install and use the ceylon
format command, just type: Conclusion
It is impossible to cover the entire language and ecosystem
$ ceylon plugin install ceylon.formatter/1.2.2 in one article. But if this introduction has made you curious,
# now you can use it! check out a good tour of Ceylon online.
$ ceylon format ...
Ceylon 1.0 was released two years ago. Ceylon is now at the
mature version of 1.2.2, with a release cycle of around two
The Ceylon API documentation generator outputs beautiful,
or three months, to bring you bug ixes and features as fast
usable documentation, as you can observe from the language
as possible. The team has already merged two big feature
module documentation online. One of the features I like most
branches bringing support for writing Android applications
is the ability to search and navigate results from the keyboard
in Ceylon, as well as rebasing the JVM back end on the Java 8
by typing s, searching, and then using the keyboard arrows.
compiler, which allows you to produce Java 8 bytecode on top
Try it!
of the existing Java 7 bytecode that Ceylon already supports.
The Ceylon distribution ships with Ant plugins for all
Join the friendly Ceylon community online and feel free to
standard command-line subcommands. Maven and Gradle
post your questions. </article>
plugins for Ceylon have been written by the community and
are available, too, in case you want to include Ceylon as part
From deep in the mountains of Nice, France, Stéphane Épardaud
of an existing Java application.
(@UnFroMage) works for Red Hat on the Ceylon project, including
As your Ceylon modules mature, they can graduate from
the JVM compiler back end, various SDK modules, and the Herd
your computer to Herd: the online module repository for module repository. He is a frequent speaker and is the co-lead of
Ceylon. This open source web application functions as the the Riviera Java User Group.
central repository for every public Ceylon module. This is
where you will ind the Ceylon SDK, for example (it does not
need to be bundled with the distribution). Anyone can have
an account on Herd to publish modules, but if you want pri-
vate deployments, you can also download the web appli-
cation and run your own instance of it. By default, Ceylon learn more
tools attempt to fetch modules from the Herd repository
if they cannot be found locally, but it’s very easy to add
The oicial, in-depth tour of Ceylon
other repositories.
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//fix this /

Quiz Yourself
More questions from an author of the Java certification tests

rusting that you’re inding value in quiz questions with c.


T complete and detailed explanations of the answers, I’ve
put together more interesting problems that simulate ques-
public long hashCode() {
long hash = 7L;
SIMON ROBERTS hash = 47 * hash + Objects.hashCode(name);
tions from the 1Z0-809 Programmer II exam.
hash = 47 * hash + Objects.hashCode(color);
Question 1. Given that the following methods are deined in
return hash;
an enclosing class called Fruit, which has the ields that
}
support these method deinitions, which pair of equals and
d.
hashCode methods work together correctly to support the use public int hashCode() {
of Fruit objects in collections? Choose two. return Objects.hashCode(name);
Note: The Objects class is a core Java SE utility class that }
provides null-safe convenience methods that work as their e.
names suggest. public int hashCode() {
a. int hash = 7;
public boolean equals(Fruit other) { hash = 47 * hash + Objects.hashCode(name);
if (other == null) return false; hash = 47 * hash + Objects.hashCode(color);
if (!Objects.equals(name, other.name)) hash = 47 * hash + this.weight;
return false; return hash;
if (!Objects.equals(color, other.color)) }
return false;
return true; Question 2. Given this:
} Set<Fee> sf = new TreeSet<>();
b.
public final boolean equals(Object o) { Which of the following is required of Fee if the set is to behave
if (o == null) return false; properly? Choose one.
if (!(o instanceof Fruit)) return false; a. Fee must override the equals method of Object.
final Fruit other = (Fruit) o;
b. Fee must override the hashCode method of Object.
if (!Objects.equals(name, other.name))
return false; c. Fee must implement Cloneable.
if (!Objects.equals(color, other.color)) d. Fee must implement Comparable<Fee>.
return false; e. Fee must implement Comparator<Fee>.
return true;
} 56
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//ix this /
Question 3. Given this code:
public class Goat { Answers
public static String getIt(String a, String b) {
return "Hello " + a + " " + b;
}
public String getIt(Goat a, String b) {
return "Goodbye " + a + " " + b; Question 1. The correct answers are options B and D. This
}
question delves into the meaning of equality and the nature
public String getIt() { return "Goated! "; }
public String getIt(String b) { of hashCode. Let’s consider the matter of equality irst. This
return "Really " + b + "!"; } seemingly simple notion can get quite complicated and trou-
blesome in an object-oriented language.
public static <E extends CharSequence> First, let’s ind an equals method. To choose between
void show(BinaryOperator<E> op, E e1, E e2) { options A and B, we can look at the argument types. The
System.out.println("> " + op.apply(e1, e2)); equals method is deined in the Object class, and the
} argument type is Object. An equals method such as is
public static <E extends Goat, F>
deined in option A, which takes another argument type,
void show(Function<E, F> op, E e, F f) {
System.out.println(">> " + op.apply(e) + f); is an overload of the equals name, not an override of the
} equals(Object) method. Because of this, option A is incor-
public String toString() { return "Goat"; } rect, and option B must be the equals method we select.
Now let’s consider the hashCode behavior that pairs cor-
public static void main(String[] args) { rectly with this equals test. This method, also deined in
show(Goat::getIt, new Goat(), "baaa"); Object, must return an int, and so we can reject option
} C, which returns a long. Now we have to choose between
}
Options D and E. We can see that our chosen equals method
(actually, either of them) tests the contents of name and
What is the result? Choose one.
color in determining equality, but the two hashCode meth-
a. > Hello Goat baaa
ods we must choose between difer in this respect: option D
b. > Goodbye Goat baaa
considers only name, while option E considers name, color,
c. >> Goodbye Goat baaa
and weight.
d. >> Goated! baaa
e. >> Really baaa! The requirement for a hashCode method is that if two
objects, a and b, test as being equal using the equals method,
then the hashCode values of each must be the same. That is,
if a.equals(b), then a.hashCode() == b.hashCode()
must be true. Importantly, however, the inverse is not
required. That is, just because two objects return false when
tested with equals does not require diferent hashCode
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values. Certainly it’s better (from a performance perspective) For example, consider two such structures. One initially
if they are in fact diferent, but that’s not required for correct- contains "Hello world!" and the other contains "Hello
ness. It’s interesting to note that it’s both legal and function- father" and both have a length value of 12. Clearly at this
ally correct to deine a hashCode method that simply returns point, they’re not equal to one another. But if we truncate
the value 1. Doing so would result in the performance of all both to a length of 5, the character arrays still contain the
hash-based data structures containing such an object degen- same characters as before—that is, the two arrays contain
erating to the performance of something such as a linked list, dissimilar values—but the diferences are irrelevant because
but the containers would still work correctly. the two objects now both represent "Hello" and should
So, our hashCode is not required to consider all the ields compare as equal.
considered by the equality test, but it absolutely must not From this, we can see that it’s totally proper for an equals
consider ields that are not part of the equality test. Because method to ignore some ields in an object.
of this, we can reject option E, which considers the weight In fact, equality testing is even more complicated when
ield, and we’re left with the correct answer being option D, inheritance rears its head in object-oriented languages. Is
even though it might produce a suboptimal hash value. a TruckTire of the same size “equal to” a regular Tire?
By the way, failing to test all the relevant elements in a All kinds of problems can arise here. Anyway, imagine that
hashCode method is not just an esoteric laziness for the sake we have class A, that class B extends A, and that we have
of asking “tricky” questions. The purpose of hashCode is to instances of these called a and b. Then if class B overrides the
speed up searching, and sometimes a less choosy hashCode deinition of equals in class A, b.equals(a) uses diferent
implementation that works faster might be preferable to a behavior from a.equals(b). That’s very dangerous, because
more discriminating method that takes longer to execute. In it allows the possibility that b.equals(a) could be false
fact, the early versions of java.lang.String took exactly when a.equals(b) is true. That in turn breaks the relexive
this approach. property that is expected for equality and can result in very
Before we leave this question, let’s consider a couple strange bugs. As a result, it’s not unreasonable to deine an
more points about the equality. Why did the equality test equals method as final, even if the class itself is not.
not have to consider weight, if that ield exists? Where For a very succinct listing of requirements, see the oicial
structured data types are concerned equality is, to some documentation for equals and hashCode. If you want more
extent, a domain-speciic concept. Imagine, for example, discussion on these issues, with practical code-level advice
an implementation of a class similar in function to the on addressing the complex problems, take a look at the book
StringBuilder. It’s likely that this class would contain an Efective Java by Joshua Bloch.
array of characters holding the text and an integer indicating Question 2. The correct answer is option D. This answer is
how many of the characters are part of the text. In this way, perhaps a little surprising, but that’s what makes it inter-
it’s not necessary to resize the array every time the length of esting. The basic behavior of a set is that it is an unordered
the text changes. But this also means that most of the time collection that does not permit duplicates. The normal
some of the characters in the array are not part of the text expectation in Java is that duplicates will be detected using
being represented, and they should not be considered in an the equals method of the objects, which suggests that the
equality comparison. answer would be option A.
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Meanwhile, a tree is a structure that depends on ordering. A explicitly states that the equals method will not be used;
set difers from a list in that the list should respect the order the only comparisons will be done using the compareTo
deined by the user of the list; but a set may use any internal behavior. So, the only answer is in fact option D. Clone, of
order it likes, including one designed to allow inding items course, is a meaningless space iller in this case, because
more quickly. That’s exactly what a TreeSet does. Of course, duplicating an object has nothing to do with being able to
if we’re ordering the items to facilitate inding them, then store it in a collection.
some kind of ordering must exist for the objects in the set. It’s interesting to ask whether this would be a fair exam
There are two ways this ordering can be provided. One question. Should you have to learn this much about an API
option is that an external Comparator can be given to the when you can look it up? To be fair, the exam writers prob-
TreeSet when it’s created (which isn’t an option for this ably would be a bit circumspect about a question that seems
question, because no such argument is provided in the setup to depend on this much API detail (which is not to say such
code). The other option is that the object itself must imple- detail will not be asked, just that there won’t be many ques-
ment Comparable so that it has what the Java documentation tions depending on such knowledge). However, this particu-
refers to as a “natural order.” In this case, that means that lar answer can be worked out from an understanding of the
option D is the correct answer. meaning of a set, tree, and Comparable. You are expected to
Now, because the question permits only one answer, it understand these things, and so answering the question does
might seem that we have a problem. Doesn’t the Fee class not, despite initial appearances, depend on rote learning, and
also have to implement equals (and probably hashCode) is almost certainly valid. Here, I hope the question proved
to work properly? It turns out that the compareTo method, interesting and instructive. In a real exam, don’t hesitate to
declared in the Comparable interface, can represent equality use logic and understanding to eliminate items, or to deter-
of a kind. The return from compareTo is an int value, with mine that—as in this case—one particular answer is sui-
positive and negative results indicating that the argument cient or “better.”
value is ordered after or before the this value. Question 3. The correct answer is option D. There are two
However, a return of zero from compareTo means that things that must be determined to decide how this code
the two values being tested are at the same position in the behaves. First, which show method will be executed? One of
ordering, and that’s a form of equality. Indeed, if you think the methods takes three arguments that are constrained by
about this, you’ll see that if the compareTo method says two the generics mechanism to be, for any given type variable E
objects are at the same point in the ordering, but they’re not that extends CharSequence, a BinaryOperator<E> and two
equal, we have a problem. We certainly don’t know what to do more parameters of the same type E. Because we call show
with such values in a tree structure. To address the potential with a method reference, a Goat, and a String, it should be
confusion in the general case, the documentation discusses clear that this cannot be the target method because Goat
the idea that a compareTo might be “consistent with equals” does not implement CharSequence.
or not consistent (and strongly recommends that ordering The second show method also takes three arguments. The
be consistent with equals, but acknowledges that this is irst is a Function that takes a Goat-like thing (that’s the
often impossible). <E extends Goat... part) and returns something else.
To resolve the ambiguity, the TreeSet documentation The second argument is also a Goat-like thing, and the
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third is something else. This second show method then The third possibility is that the method reference might
is the valid target of the call in the main method, and it translate into a lambda that’s implemented using an instance
tells us that the method reference must be formed into a method like this:
Function<Goat-like, String>. That information tells us
that the output must begin with >>, eliminating options A SomeClass::aMethod implementing Function<A,B>
and B, and it is important for the next step in deducing the becomes (a)->a.aMethod()
behavior, too.
So, how does the method reference get converted into a In this situation, the input type to the function must be the
lambda that invokes one of the four getIt methods deined type that precedes the double colon (Goat-like, in our ques-
in this question? There are four distinct forms of method tion), and the return type of the method being referred to
reference. These four forms invoke static methods, instance becomes the return type of the lambda (String). These types
methods on objects deined in the method reference, instance must be compatible with what the lambda must fulill. In this
methods on objects extracted from the lambda argument list, case, we would need to make this translation:
or a constructor. We can rule out the constructor version here,
because the method reference uses the name getIt, not new. Goat::getIt becomes (Goat a) -> a.getIt()
If we have a method reference of the form ClassName::
methodName, then it can create a lambda of the form And the return type of getIt must be String. That’s the
(a,b,c) -> d if the class ClassName has a static method one that returns Goated! and, therefore, option D is the
that takes three arguments that are compatible with the correct answer. </article>
lambda’s formal parameters (a, b, and c) and the static
method has a return type that matches the return required
Simon Roberts joined Sun Microsystems in time to teach Sun’s
for the lambda. In this question, we’re trying to create a
irst Java classes in the UK. He created the Sun Certiied Java
Programmer and Sun Certiied Java Developer exams. He wrote
lambda that implements Function<Goat-like, String>.
several Java certiication guides and is currently a freelance edu-
That would require a static method that takes a Goat-like
cator who teaches at many large companies in Silicon Valley and
argument and returns a String. The only static getIt around the world. He remains involved with Oracle’s Java certiica-
method takes two String arguments, so it cannot be applied tion projects.
in this case. That allows us to reject option A (which, of
course, we already rejected, because it has only a single > at
the beginning).
If we had a method reference of the form aGoatInstance::
getIt, we’d have an exactly parallel discussion about param-
learn more
eter mapping as for the static case, but searching for a com-
patible instance method. The method would be invoked on
Javadoc for Comparable
the instance aGoatInstance. However, that’s not the form Oracle tutorial on Comparable and comparators
of the method reference, so we don’t have to pursue that Introduction to Java 8 lambdas by Cay Horstmann
thought process.
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Getting Onboard
Oracle Java Cloud Service
A hands-on, step-by-step guide to trying out an enterprise cloud
HARSHAD OAK

T he Java cloud market is evolving quickly. Many vendors


ofer myriad cloud products and a lot of new terminology
and jargon to go with them. In their early days, cloud solutions
Oracle Java Cloud Service and Variants
Oracle Java Cloud Service began life a few years ago as a
shared PaaS environment that ofered support for commonly
were mostly lightweight slivers of traditional server solutions. used Java EE technologies. Back then, it did not ofer any ine
But today, we have pretty much all the functionality of large control over the environment or the ability to tweak and cus-
server-side products—often split into many specialized cloud tomize based on requirements.
solutions. This model comes with the beneit that developers My previous Java cloud articles in Java Magazine (“Hands
are able to pick and choose enterprise options, and use only On with Oracle Java Cloud Service,” September/October 2013,
what’s required. and “Build with NetBeans IDE, Deploy to Oracle Java Cloud
Cloud solutions are commonly classiied as follows: Service,” May/June 2014) discussed earlier versions of Oracle
■■ IaaS. Infrastructure as a service, or basic virtualized hard- Java Cloud Service. Since then, Oracle has signiicantly
ware and an operating system enhanced its Oracle Java Cloud Service solutions.
■■ PaaS. Platform as a service, or IaaS with additional services, Today, Oracle has the following three Oracle Java Cloud
such as a database Service oferings:
■■ SaaS. Software as a service, or full applications on top of a Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension. This is the Oracle
PaaS stack Java Cloud Service ofering that has been available the lon-
Within these categories, there are dozens of specialized cloud gest. It was renamed with SaaS Extension appended after the
solutions. For example, Oracle ofers many diferent cloud other two cloud services were launched.
services in each of these categories. While at irst this might As the name suggests, the primary use case this solution
appear overwhelming, the good news is that almost all cloud addresses is that of an Oracle SaaS user who needs to extend
solutions are not “new” technology as such, which would the capabilities of a SaaS ofering. Because Oracle Java Cloud
require an understanding of new core technology. The chal- Service - SaaS Extension is primarily designed for this pur-
lenge is more about getting accustomed to new interfaces, pose, it ofers easy integration with Oracle’s SaaS solutions.
worklows, and terminology. Note that although the name includes SaaS Extension, noth-
In this article, I explain what Oracle Java Cloud Service is ing in the product restricts you from deploying a standalone
and how to get onboard. Java EE application that is not an extension of a SaaS cloud.
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Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension, but you can get exactly what you require, and
Extension provides a shared PaaS The primary also have the freedom to further tweak things if needed in
environment where you can easily diferentiator the future.
deploy Java EE applications with- Oracle Java Cloud Service - Virtual Image. Oracle Java Cloud
out having to worry about any of the
for Oracle Java Service - Virtual Image is a similar environment to Oracle
underlying hardware setup, server Cloud Service is Java Cloud Service and also ofers control over many
installations, patching, management, that you can use the aspects of the underlying environment. Oracle Java Cloud
and more. Oracle Java Cloud Service
- SaaS Extension supports all the
self-service portal Service - Virtual Image is designed for use in development
and testing, so it does not support backup and restoration,
commonly used Java EE technologies to easily provision patching, or scaling. Setting it up is a little simpler because it
such as servlets, JavaServer Pages, your environment has fewer prerequisites than does Oracle Java Cloud Service.
JavaServer Faces, and Enterprise
JavaBeans. It supports JAX-WS and
to best suit your Note: The similar names of these cloud solutions can be
somewhat confusing. So in the rest of the article, I treat these
REST web services. It also supports requirements. as three distinct products; notice carefully which one I am
Oracle Application Development referring to in a particular context.
Framework, which is widely used
among Oracle developers. It has most Getting Started with Oracle Java Cloud Service
of the things Java EE applications require and is certainly a Let’s look at how to conigure and provision a new Oracle
solution to consider when you are looking for a no-hassle, Java Cloud Service instance. The irst step is to request a free
out-of-the-box shared PaaS environment for Java EE. trial. Full-featured 30-day trials for Oracle Java Cloud Service
Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension does not let and Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension are currently
you conigure the application server, the JVM, or the operat- available. I examine Oracle Java Cloud Service here.
ing system to your exact requirements. This can work as an Once your trial is approved, you ill out forms to set up your
advantage in cases where the user does not want to be both- identity domain and login credentials. The identity domain
ered by those things. However, in some enterprise applica- is used to control the authentication, authorization, and fea-
tions, especially, greater control might be desired. Enter tures available to users. Users in an identity domain can be
Oracle Java Cloud Service and Oracle Java Cloud Service - granted diferent levels of access to diferent cloud services.
Virtual Image. Once that has been set up, you can get down to provisioning
Oracle Java Cloud Service. The primary diferentiator for the environment.
Oracle Java Cloud Service is that you can use the self-service Log in to Oracle Cloud by entering your identity domain
portal to easily provision your environment to best suit your and login credentials. You will see a dashboard listing all
requirements. You also have control of the underlying infra- services. As shown in Figure 1, you can use the drop-downs
structure and can choose Oracle WebLogic Server, memory, to show only particular services in a particular identity
clustering, load balancing, virtual machines, and more. Set- domain. In this case, I have marked a few services as favor-
ting up Oracle Java Cloud Service involves a lot more work ites by clicking on the star icon and then only displayed those
and decision-making than Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS favorite services.
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[Due to size constraints, other large images in this article on that page to set up prerequisites.
are provided as links/downloads, which allows the images to The prerequisites are a Secure Shell (SSH) public/private
be viewed at full size. —Ed.] Click the Service Console link for key, an active Oracle Storage Cloud Service, and an active
Oracle Java Cloud Service, and you will get to a welcome page Oracle Database Cloud Service. The Oracle Java Cloud Service
for Oracle Java Cloud Service. Click the Services link (Figure 2) trial includes the trial versions of the other cloud services on
which it depends, so you don’t need to request any additional
trials. Let’s look at these prerequisites in more detail.

SSH Public/Private Key


Oracle Java Cloud Service requires an SSH public/private key
pair for authenticating, so you need to generate one. I used
the PuTTYgen tool (Windows .exe) to generate the key pair,
but there are alternative ways as well. The public key is also
required when provisioning Oracle Database Cloud Service
and Oracle Java Cloud Service.

Oracle Storage Cloud Service


Oracle Storage Cloud Service ofers a secure and scalable
storage capability. Oracle Java Cloud Service requires Oracle
Storage Cloud Service as it stores backups of service instances
to a container in Oracle Storage Cloud Service.
You can see in Figure 1 that Replication Policy Not Set is
highlighted against Oracle Storage Cloud Service. So irst,
you need to set a replication policy for Oracle Storage Cloud
Service by clicking the Set Replication Policy link. For faster

Figure 1. Configuration dashboard Figure 3. Storage replication policy


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data transfers during replication, I recommend that you select that I created earlier.
the same primary data center to host the Oracle cloud ser- Note: If you are creating Oracle Database Cloud Service -
vices and Oracle Storage Cloud Service. Legal and security Virtual Image, you can select the backup destination as none,
requirements also need to be considered. so that you don’t need to also set up an Oracle Storage Cloud
As shown in Figure 3, I selected the same primary data cen- Service container for Oracle Database Cloud Service backup
ter for Oracle Java Cloud Service. and restore.
Next, you need to create the required Oracle Storage Cloud Select the basic shape with 1 OCPU and 7.5 GB RAM. The
Service containers for Oracle Java Cloud Service and Oracle coniguration can go up to 16 OCPUs and 240 GB RAM. (OCPU
Database Cloud Service. These containers can be created here stands for CPU capacity equivalent to one physical core
using the REST API or a Java library. of an indeterminate Intel Xeon processor with hyperthread-
Note: If you are using the Virtual Image option of both ing enabled.)
Oracle Java Cloud Service and Oracle Database Cloud Service, Click Next and conirm the details. In a few minutes, the
you do not need to create the Oracle Storage Cloud Service javamagDBWithStorage database is provisioned and run-
containers. Because the Virtual Image is a development and ning, as shown in Figure 6.
testing environment, you have the option of not using Oracle
Storage Cloud Service containers for backup and recovery. Oracle Java Cloud Service Details
Once the javamagDBWithStorage database is up and run-
Oracle Database Cloud Service ning, head back to the Oracle Java Cloud Service console,
Oracle Java Cloud Service needs Oracle Database Cloud Service as shown in Figure 2, and click Create Service. As shown
to be working. So, before you can create the Oracle Java Cloud in Figure 7, select Oracle Java Cloud Service. Then select the
Service instance, you need to irst create the Oracle Database enterprise edition of the latest available version of Oracle
Cloud Service instance. Click the Service Console link for WebLogic Server.
Oracle Database Cloud Service, as shown in Figure 1. On the On the Service Details page, as shown in Figure 8, select
following welcome page, click the Services link. You now get the basic shape with 1 OCPU and 7.5 GB RAM, and specify
to the page shown in Figure 4. the Oracle Database Cloud Service coniguration and the
Click Create Service. Next Oracle Storage Cloud Service coniguration for Backup and
create Oracle Database Cloud
Using Oracle Java Recovery Coniguration. Also specify the Oracle WebLogic
Service by selecting the Cloud Service is Server username and password and choose to deploy a
options for monthly billing and
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise
simple enough and sample application.
Conirm the service information as shown in the summary
Edition on the Service Details
gets you scale and in Figure 9. In a few minutes, the Oracle Java Cloud Service
page, as shown in Figure 5. I the other benefits instance is provisioned and ready for use. Once that’s done,
provided the service name
javamagDBWithStorage, the
that make the cloud a you can use the instance of Oracle WebLogic Server similarly
to an on-premises Oracle WebLogic Server. You can also log
description, and passwords. I
compelling proposition. in to the Oracle WebLogic Administration Console to deploy
also provided the SSH public key applications to Oracle Java Cloud Service.
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You now have Oracle Java Cloud Service set up, with an
enterprise Oracle WebLogic Server and a database on the
cloud. You also have backups and recovery set up on Oracle
Storage Cloud Service.

Conclusion
As this article has shown, using Oracle Java Cloud Service
is simple enough and gets you scale and the other beneits
that make the cloud a compelling proposition, especially for
enterprise applications.
The Java cloud space has matured rapidly over the past few
years. In its early days, many developers had concerns: “Can
the cloud be tweaked to get exactly what I want? Will the
cloud bring all the power and functionality that I am used
to getting from my on-premises server? Will it be lexible
enough for my business?” And so on. In my experience, the
newer Oracle Java Cloud Service solutions enable you to do all
that and more. </article>

Harshad Oak is a Java Champion and the founder of IndicThreads


and Rightrix Solutions. He is the author of Pro Jakarta Commons
(Apress, 2004) and has written several books on Java EE. Oak
has spoken at conferences in India, the United States, Sri Lanka,
Thailand, and China.

learn more
Oracle Developer Cloud Service
Oracle Managed Cloud Services
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