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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin

Chapter 1 – Introducing to Organizational Behavior


The Field of Organizational Behavior
1. Organizational behavior is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around
organizations. Its focus is on employee behavior, decisions, perceptions, and emotional
responses. OB encompasses the study of how organizations interact with their external
environments, particulary in the context of employee behavior and decisions.
2. Organizations: groups of people who work interdependently towards some purpose. One
key feature of organizations is that they are collective entities. They consist of human
being and these people interact with each other in an organized way. This organization
relationship requires some minimal level communication, coordination,, and collaboration
to achieve organizational objectives.
3. Why Study OB? it helps to fulfill our need to understand and predict the world in which
we. Building high-performance team, motivating co-workers, handling workplace conflicts,
influencing boss, and changing employee behavior.
Perspectives of Organizational Behavior
4. Organizational Effectiveness: a broad concept represented by several perspectives,
including the organization’s fit with the external environment, intenal-subsystems
cofiguration for high performance, emphasis on organizational learning, and ability to
satisfy the needs of key stakeholders.

Four perspectives of organizational effectiveness:


a. Open System: a perspective which holds that organizations depend on the external
environment for resources, affect that environment thorugh their output, and
consist of internal subsystems that transform inputs to outputs

Internal-Subsystems Effectiveness: Organizatioal efficiency: the amount of


outputs relative to inputs in the organization’s transformation process. Lean
management: a cluster of practices to improve organizational efficiency by
continously reducing waste, unevenness, and overburden in the production process.
Efficiency: doing things right, Effectiveness: doing the right things.
b. Organizational Learning (Knowledge management): a perspective which holds that
organizational effectiveness depends on the oganization’s capacity to acquire,
share, use, and store valuable knowledge.

Knowledge acquisition: information is brougt into the organization from the external
environment

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
Knowledge sharing: refers to the distribution of knowledge throughout the
organization
Knowledge use: application of knowledge to organizational processes in ways that
improve the organization’s effectiveness.
To recognize to the value of new information, assimilate it, and use it for
value-added acitvities, organizations require suficient absorptive capacity (the
ability to recognize the value of new information assimilate it, and use it for value-
added acitvities)
Intellectual Capital: a company’s stock of knowledge, including human capital,
structural capital, and relationship capital. How to retain intellectual capital?
Keeping good employees.
Human Capital: The stock of knowledge, skills, and abilities among employess that
provides economic value to the organization.
Organizational Memory: the storage and preservation of intellectual capital (usually
they are corporate leaders)
c. High-performance work practice: a perspective which holds that effective
organizations incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of
human capital.
d. Stakeholder Perspective: individuals, organizations, and other entities that affect, or
are affected by, the organization’s objectiveness and actions.

Value: relatively stable, evaluative beliefs that guide a person’s preferences for
outcomes of courses of action in a variety of situations
Ethics: study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are rght
or wrong and outcomes are good or bad

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): organizational activities intended to


benefit society and the environment beyond the firm’s immediate financial interests
or legal obligations.
Types of Individual Behavior

a. Task Perfomance: goal-directed behaviors under the individual’s control that support
organizational objectives
b. Organizational Citizenship: Employee needs to engage Organizational Citizenship
Behaviors – various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that support the
organization’s social and psychological context.
c. Counter-productive work behaviors: voluntary behaviors that have the potential to
directly or indirectly harm the organization

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d. Joining and staying with the Organization: Attracting and retaining talented people
isparticularly important as worries about skill short-ages heat up.
e. Maintaining Work Attendance: Employees who experience job dissatisfaction of work-
related stress are more likely to be absent or late for work because taking off is a way to
temporarily withdraw from stressful or dissatisfying conditions.

Contemporary Challenges for Organizations


Globalization: economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the
world.
Increasing Workforce Diversity
a. Surface-level diversity: the observable demographic or physiological
differences in people, such as their race, ethnicity, gender, age, and physical
disabilities.
b. Deep-level diversity: differences in the psychological characterics of
employees, including personalities, beliefs, values, and attitudes.
Consequences of Diversity
Diversity make better decisions on complex problems than do teams whose
members have similar backgrounds. In contrast, teams with diverse employees usually
take longer to perform effectively, brings numerous communication problems.
Emerging Employment Relationships
Work-life balance: the degree to which a person minimizes conflict between work and
nonwork demands.
Virtual work: work performed away from the traditional physical workplace by means of
information technology
Anchors of Organizational Behavior Knowledge

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
Chapter 2 – Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values
MARS Model of Individual Behavior and Performance
Performance = person x situation
Performance = ability x motivation

a. Motivation: forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and
persistence of voluntary behavior
b. Ability: natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a
task. Competencies: skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and other personal characteristics
that lead to superior performance
c. Role perception: the extent to which people understand the job duties assugb assigned
to or expected of them. Three concepts of role perception:
1. Employees have accurate role perceptions when they understand the
specific tasks assigned
2. When they understand the priority of their various tasks.
3. Understanding the preferred behaviors of procedures for accomplishing
the assigned task.
d. Situational Factors: conditions beyond the employee’s immediate control that constrain
or facilitate behavior and performance.

Personality in Organizations
1. Personality: the relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, motions, and behaiors that
characterize a person, along with the psychological processer behind those
characteristics.
Personality Determinants: Nature vs Nurture
Nature: our genetic or hereditary origins – the genes that we inherit from our
parents.
Nurture:: the person’s socialization, life experience, and other forms

Five-Factor Model of Personality


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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin

a. Conscientiousness: personality dimension describing people who are careful,


dependable, and self-disciplined
b. Agreeableness: personality dimension icludes the traits of being courteous, good-
natured, emphatic, and caring.
c. Neuroticism: personaliy dimension describing people with high levels of anxiety,
hostility, depression, and self-consciousness
d. Openness to experience: extent which peole are imaginative, creative, curious, and
aesthetically sensitive
e. Extroversion: personality dimension describing people who are outgoing, talkative,
sociable, and assertive.
Jungian Personality Theory and The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Five-Factor Model is not the most popular practice. That distinction goes to Jungian
personality theory, which is measured through the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
MBTI is an instrument designed to measure the elemens of Jungian personality theory,
particularly preferences regading perceiving and judging information.
How people gather information or perceive: sensing (S) and insitution (N)
How people process information or make decisions: thinking (T) and feeling (F)
How people in their environment: Introversion (I) and extraversion (E)
How people adapt in their environment: Perceiving (P) and Judging (J)
MBTI does a reasonably good job of measuring Jung’s psychological types and
seems to improve self-awareness for career development and mutual understanding. On
other hand, it poorly predicts job performance and is generally not recommended for
employment selection.

Caveats About Personality Testing in Organizations


1. One concern is that most tests are self-report scales, which allow applicants or
employees to fake their answers. Rather than measuring a person’s personality,
many test results might identify the traits that people believe the company
values. This concern is compounded by the fact that test takers often don’t know
what personality traits the company is looking for and may not know which
statements are relevant to each trait.
2. Personality is a relatively weak predictor of a person’s perfomance.

Self-Concept: The “I” in Organizational Behavior


Self-Concept: an individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations. “Who am I?”, “How do I feel
about my self?”. People funcion better when their self-concept has many elements (high

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
complexity) that are compatible with each other (high consistency) and are relatively
clear.
Self-Enhancement: a key ingredient in self-concept is the desire to feel valued.
Individuals tend to rate themselves above average, selectively recall positive feedback
while forgetting negative feedback, attribut their successes to personal motivation or
ability while blamming the situation for their mistakes. (+) individuals have better
personal adjustment and experience better mental and physical health when they view
their self-concept in a positive light. (-) self-enhancement causes managers to
overestimate the probability of success in investment decisions.
Self-Verification: stabilizes an individual’s self-concept, which, in turn, provides an
important anchor that guides his or her thoughts and actions. 1) Self-verification affects
the perceptual process because employees are more likely to remember information that
is consistent with their self-concept. 2) More confident to self-concept, the less they will
accept feedback
Self-Evaluation:
a. Self-Esteem: the extent of which people like, respect, and are satisfied with
themselves.
b. Self-Efficacy: person’s belief that he or she has the ability, motivation, correct
role perceptions, and favorable situation to complete a task successfully.
c. Locus of control: person’s general belief about the amount of control he or she
has over personal life events.
Social Self: a person’s self-concept can be organized into two fairly distinct categories:
a. Personal identity characteristics: consists of characteristics that make us unique and
distinct from people in the social groups which we have a connection.
b. Social identity characteristics: (Social identity theory) a theory that explains self-
concept in terms of the person’s unique characteristics (personal identity) and
membership in various social groups (social identity). People define themselvs by the
groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment.

Values in the Workplace


A person’s self-concept is connected to his or her personal values. Values are
stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences for outcomes of action in a variety
of situations. People arrange values into a hierarchy of preferences, called a value
system. Some individuals value new challenges more than they value conformity.
a. Values exist only within indivuals (personal values)
b. Groups of people might hold the same or similar values, so we tend to ascribe
these shared values to the team

Types of Values

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin

Schwart’s Value Circumplex.


Openness to change: the extent to which a person is motivated to pursue
innovative ways.
Conversation: extent to which a person is motivated to preserve the status quo
Self enchancement: how much a person is motivated by self interest includes the
value categories of achievement
Self-transcendence: motivation to promote the welfare of others and nature.

Values and Individual Behavior


3 conditions strengthen the linkage between personal values and behavior:
1) We are more likely to appply values when ae are reminded.
2) We tend to apply our values only when we can think of specific reasons for doing
so.
3) We tend to apply our values in suations that facilitate doing so.
Value Congruence: how similar a person’s value hierarchy is to the value hierarchy of
the organization, a co-worker, or another source of comparison.
Values across Cultures
Individualism: describing the degree to which peopple in a culture emphasize
independence and personal uniqueness
Collectivism: degree to which people in a culture emphasize duty to groups to which
people belong and to group harmony
Power distance: degree to which people in a culture accept unequal distribution of power
in society
Uncertainty Avoidance: degree to which people tolerate ambiguity or feel threatened by
ambiguity and uncertainty.
Achievement-Nurturing Orientation: degree to which people in a culture emphasize
competitive versus cooperative relations with other people
Ethical Values and Behavior
Ethics: study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or
wrong and outcomes are good or bad.
Three Ethical Principles:
1. Utilitarianism: advises us to seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
2. Individual Rights: belief that everyone has entitlements that let her or him act in a
certain way.
3. Distributive justice: principle suggests that people who are similar to each other should
receiver similar benefits and burdens
Moral Intensity, Ethical Sensitivity, and Situational Influences
Moral Intensity: degree to which an issue demands the application of ethical principles
Enthical Senstivitiy: personal characteristic that enables people to recognize the presents
of an ethical issue and determine its relative importance.
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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
Chapter 4 – Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress
Emotions in the Workplace
Emotions: pshysiological, behavioral, and psychiological episodes are experienced toward
an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness
Type of Emotions:

Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior


Atitudes: the cluster of belifes, assessed feelings, and behavioral intentions toward a
person, object, or event called an attitude object)
Model of Emotions, Attitude, and Behavior:
Beliefs: established perceptions about the attitude object – what believe to be true
Feeling: represent our negative or positive evaluations of the same objects
Behavioral Intentions: represent motivation to engage in a particular behavior
regarding the attitude objects.

How emotions Influence Attitudes and Behavior


The Emotional centers of our brain quickly and imprecisely tag emotional markers to
incoming sensory information on the basis of whether that information supports or
threatens our innate drives.
Emotions (emotional episodes) are transmitted to the logical reasoning process,
where they are logically analyzed along with other information about attitude object.
Whus, whil consicously evaluating whether the marger is good or bad, emotions have

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already formed an opinion, which then sways your conscious evaluation. We “listen in” on
our emotions to help us consciously decide whether support or oppose something.
Work attitudes are shaped by the almonst continous bombardment of emotional
experiences people have at work. Those who experience morepositive emotions tend to
have more favorable attitutdes towards their jobs and organizations, even when they
aren’t continously aware of many of these emotional experiences.
Cognitive Dissonance: conditions that occurs when we perceive an inconsistency
between our beliefs, feelings, and behavior
Emotions and Personality: studies report that people with a negative emotional trait
have lower levels of job satisfaction and higher levels of job burnout. While positive and
negative personality traits have som effect, other research concludes that the actual
situation in which people work has a noticeably stronger infuence on their attitudes and
behavior.
Managing Emotions at Work
Emotional Rules: emotional labor — the effort, planning, and control needed to
express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Almost
everyone is expected to abide by display rules —norms requiring us to display specific
emotions and to hide other emotions.
Emotional Dissonance: conflict between required and true emotions.
Emotional Intelligence
EI: A set of abilities to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought,
understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others

(1)Self-Awareness: Self-awareness is the ability to perceive and understand the meaning


of your own emotions
(2)Self-Management: Self-management is the ability to manage your own emotions,
something that we all do to some extent
(3)Social Awareness: Social awareness. Social awareness is the ability to perceive and
understand the emotions of other people.
(4)Relationship Management: Involves managing other people’s emotions

Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction: a person’s evaluation of his or her job and work context.

A useful template for organizing and understanding the consequences of job


dissatisfaction is the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model:
1. Exit: Exit includes leaving the organization, transferring to another work unit, or
at least trying to get away from the dissatisfying situation
2. Voice: Voice is any attempt to change, rather than escape from, the
dissatisfying situation. Could be positive or negative (counterproductive
behavior)
3. Loyalty: In the original version of this model, loyalty was not an outcome of
dissatisfaction. Rather, it determined whether people chose exit or voice (i.e.,
high loyalty resulted in voice; low loyalty produced exit).

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
4. Neglect: Neglect includes reducing work effort, paying less attention to quality,
and increasing absenteeism and lateness
Job Satisfaction and Work Behavior
1. Job satisfaction had a minimal effect on job performance. There is a moderate
relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. In other words, happy
workers really are more productive workers to some extent. Even with a moderate
association between job satisfaction and performance, there are a few underlying
reasons why the relationship isn’t stronger. One argument is that general attitudes
(such as job satisfaction) don’t predict specific behaviors very well.
2. Job performance leads to job satisfaction (rather than vice versa), but only when
performance is linked to valued rewards. Higher performers receive more rewards and,
consequently, are more satisfied than low-performing employees who receive fewer
rewards. The connection between job satisfaction and performance isn’t stronger
because many organizations do not reward good performance.
3. The third explanation is that job satisfaction influences employee motivation but
doesn’t affect performance in jobs where employees have little control over their job
output.
Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction
Another popular belief is that happy customers are the result of happy employees.
Service profit chain model, which proposes that increasing employee satisfaction and
loyalty results in higher customer perceptions of value, thereby improving the company’s
profitability. In other words, job satisfaction has a positive effect on customer service.
There are two main reasons for this relationship:
1. Employees are usually in a more positive mood when they feel satisfied with
their jobs and working conditions. Employees in a good mood display friendliness
and positive emotions more naturally and frequently, and this causes customers
to experience positive emotions.
2. Satisfied employees are less likely to quit their jobs, so they have better
knowledge and skills to serve clients. Lower turnover also enables customers to
have the same employees serve them, so there is more consistent service
Job Ethics of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is also an ethical issue that influences the organization’s reputation
in the community Indeed, employees in several countries closely monitor ratings of the
best companies to work for, an indication that employee satisfaction is a virtue worth
considerable goodwill to employers. This virtue is apparent when an organization has low
job satisfaction. The company tries to hide this fact, and when morale problems become
public, corporate leaders are usually quick to improve the situation.
Organizational Commitment
Organizational (affective) commitment: is the employee’s emotional attachment to,
Identification with, and involvement in a particular organization.
Continuance Commitment: An employee’s calculative attachment to the organization,
whereby the employee is motivated to stay only because leaving would be costly.
Consequences of Organizational Commitment
Organizational (affective) commitment can be a significant competitive
advantage. Loyal employees are less likely to quit their jobs and be absent from work.
They also have higher work motivation and organizational citizenship, as well as
somewhat higher job performance. Organizational commitment also improves customer
satisfaction because long-tenure employees have better knowledge of work practices and
because clients like to do business with the same employees.

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
One warning is that employees with very high loyalty tend to have high conformity,
which results in lower creativity. There are also cases of dedicated employees who violated
laws to defend the organization. However, most companies suffer from too little rather
than too much employee loyalty.

Affective commitment is usually beneficial, whereas continuance commitment tends


to be dysfunctional. In fact, employees with high levels of continuance commitment tend
to have lower performance ratings and are less likely to engage in organizational
citizenship behaviors. Furthermore, unionized employees with high continuance
commitment are more likely to use formal grievances, whereas employees with high
affective commitment engage in more constructive problem solving when employee-
employer relations sour.
Although some level of financial connection may be necessary, employers should
not confuse continuance commitment with employee loyalty. Employers still need to win
employees’ hearts (affective commitment) beyond tying them financially to the
organization (continuance commitment.
Building Organizational Commitment
 Justice and support: Affective commitment is higher in organizations that fulfill
their obligations to employees and abide by humanitarian values, such as fairness,
courtesy, forgiveness, and moral integrity
 Shared values: The definition of affective commitment refers to a person’s
identification with the organization, and that identification is highest when
employees believe their values are congruent with the organization’s dominant
value.
 Trust: refers to positive expectations one person has toward another person in
situations involving risk
 Organizational comprehension: Organizational comprehension refers to how
well employees understand the organization, including its strategic direction,
social dynamics, and physical layout
 Employee involvement: Employee involvement increases affective commitment
by strengthening the employee’s social identity with the organization
Organizational commitment and job satisfaction represent two of the most often
studied and discussed attitudes in the workplace. Each is linked to emotional episodes and
cognitive judgments about the workplace and relationship with the company. Emotions
also play an important role in another concept that is on everyone’s mind these days:
stress.
Work-Related Stress and Its Management
Stress: An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening
to a person’s well-being.
One school of thought suggests that stress is a negative evaluation of the external
environment. However, critics of this cognitive appraisal perspective point out that the
stress experience is an emotional experience, which may occur before or after a
conscious evaluation of the situation.
Stress is typically described as a negative experience. This is known as distress —the
degree of physiological, psychological, and behavioral deviation from healthy functioning.
However, some level of stress—called eustress —is a necessary part of life because it
activates and motivates people to achieve goals, change their environments, and succeed
in life’s challenges.

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General Adaptation Syndrome


A model of the stress experience, consisting of three stages: alarm reaction, resistance,
and exhaustion.

 Alarm reaction: The alarm reaction stage occurs when a threat or challenge
activates the physiological stress responses that were noted above.
 Resistance: activates various biochemical, psychological, and behavioral
mechanisms that give the individual more energy and engage coping
mechanisms to overcome or remove the source of stress.
 Exhaustion: people have a limited resistance capacity, and if the source of
stress persists, the individual will eventually move into the third stage.
Consequences of Distress
Many people experience tension headaches, muscle pain, and related problems
mainly due to muscle contractions from the stress response. Studies have found that high
stress levels also contribute to cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes,
and may be associated with some forms of cancer.
Stress also produces various psychological consequences, such as job
dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, and lower organizational commitment.
Furthermore, various behavioral outcomes have been linked to high or persistent stress,
including lower job performance, poor decision making, and increased workplace accidents
and aggressive behavior. Most people react to stress through “fight or flight”
Job burnout
Job burnout is a particular stress consequence that refers to the process of emotional
exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced feelings of personal accomplishment.
Three stage of Job burnout:
1. Emotional exhaustion, is characterized by a lack of energy, tiredness, and a
feeling that one’s emotional resources are depleted
2. Cynicism (also called depersonalization ), which is characterized by an
indifferent attitude toward work, emotional detachment from clients, a cynical
view of the organization, and a tendency to strictly follow rules and regulations
rather than adapt to the needs of others.
3. Reduced personal accomplishment, entails feelings of diminished confidence in
one’s ability to perform the job well. In such situations, employees develop a
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sense of learned helplessness as they no longer believe that their efforts make a
difference.
Stressors: Any environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on a
person.
Harassment and Incivility
 Psychological harassment: Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct,
verbal comments, actions, or gestures that affect an employee’s dignity or
psychological or physical integrity and that result in a harmful work
environment for the employee.
 Sexual Harassment: Unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature that
detrimentally affects the work environment or leads to adverse jobrelated
consequences for its victims.
Work Overload
Working more hours, and more intensely during those hours, than they can
reasonably manage. Work overload is an important predictor of job burnout. It
is also a major cause of work–family conflicts, because overworked
employees have insufficient time to satisfy their nonwork roles of being a
parent, a spouse, and so forth
Low Task Control
An increasingly popular model of job burnout suggests that emotional
exhaustion depends on both job demands and job resources:
Job demands are aspects of work that require sustained physical or
psychological effort. High workload is one of the more significant job
demands in the contemporary workplace
Job resources: represent aspects of the job that help employees to achieve
work goals, reduce job demands, and/or stimulate personal growth and
development.

Individual Difference in Stress


1. People have different threshold levels of resistance to the stressor
2. Different stress responses is that people use different coping strategies
3. Some have higher resilience (the capability of individuals to cope successfully in the
face of significant change, adversity, or risk)
While resilience helps people to withstand stress, another personal characteristic-
workaholism—attracts more stressors and weakens the capacity to cope with them. The
classic workaholic (also called work addict ) is highly involved in work, feels compelled
or driven to work because of inner pressures, and has a low enjoyment of work.
Managing Work-Related Stress
1. Remove the Stressor
a. Flexible and limited work time
b. Job Sharing
c. Telecommuting
d. Personal leave
e. Child Care support
2. Withdraw from the Stressor
Vacations and holidays are important opportunities for employees to recover
from stress and reenergize for future challenges
3. Change Stress Perceptions
Help employees improve their self-concept so that job challenges are not
perceived as threatening. One study reported that personal goal setting and self-

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reinforcement can also reduce the stress that people experience when they
enter new work settings.
4. Control Stress Sequences
Research indicates that physical exercise reduces the physiological
consequences of stress by helping employees moderate their breathing and
heart rate, muscle tension, and stomach acidity. Research has found that various
forms of meditation reduce anxiety, reduce blood pressure and muscle tension,
and moderate breathing and heart rate.
Many large employers offer employee assistance programs (EAPs) —
counseling services that help employees resolve marital, financial, or work-
related troubles

5. Receive Social Support


It potentially improves the person’s resilience (particularly her or his
optimism and self-confidence) because support makes people feel valued and
worthy. Social support also provides information to help the person interpret,
comprehend, and possibly remove the stressor.

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Chapter 5 – Foundations of Employee Motivation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Diagram and discuss the relationship between human drives, needs, and behavior.
MOTIVATION DEFINED
- The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary
behavior
- Contoh kegiatan memotivasi: Rewards, social events, strength-based feedback, and
various celebrations for good performance
- Outcome: Exerting particular effort level (intensity), for a certain amount of time
(persistence), toward a particular goal (direction).
EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
- Is employee’s emotional and cognitive motivation, self-efficacy to perform the job, a clear
understanding of one’s role in the organization’s vision and a belief that one has the
resources to perform the job
- Relates to MARS model (motivation, ability, role perceptions, and situational factors)
DRIVES AND NEEDS
- Drives (aka-primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives) is hardwired
characteristics of the brain that correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium by
producing emotions to energize individuals.
- Drives are the “prime movers” of behavior because they generate emotions, which put
people in a state of readiness to act on their environment
- Needs are goal-directed forces that people experience, are the motivational forces of
emotions channeled toward particular goals to correct deficiencies or imbalances
o Goals formed by self-concept, social norms, and experience

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2. Summarize Maslow’s needs hierarchy and discuss Maslow’s contribution to the field of
motivation.
MASLOW’S NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY (described as innate & universal) by Abraham
Maslow in 1940s

Physiological. The need for food, air, water, shelter, and the like.
Safety. The need for a secure and
stable environment and the
absence of pain, threat, or illness.
Belongingness/love. The need for
love, affection, and interaction with
other people.
Esteem. The need for self-esteem
through personal achievement as
well as social esteem through
recognition and respect from
others.
Self-actualization. The need for self-
fulfillment, realization of one’s
potential.
- Along with developing these
five categories, Maslow
identified the desire to know
and the desire for aesthetic
beauty as two innate drives that do not fit within the hierarchy.
- When lower need is satisfied, next higher need becomes the primary motivator
- The ottom four groups are deficiency needs because they become activated when
unfulfilled, self-actualization is known as a growth need because it continues to develop
even when fulfilled.
- People have different hierarchies – don’t progress through needs in the same order

WHAT MASLOW CONTRIBUTED TO MOTIVATION THEORY


More holistic (Integrative view of needs), more humanistic (Influence of social dynamics, not just
instinct), and more positivistic (Pay attention to strengths, not just deficiencies)

WHAT’S WRONG WITH NEEDS HIERARCHY MODELS?


- Wrongly assume that everyone has the same needs hierarchy (i.e. universal). Instead,
likely that each person has a unique needs hierarchy because it is shaped by our self-
concept -- values and social identity.
- Another hierarchy model, called ERG theory (existence, relatedness, and growth). Unlike
Maslow’s theory, which only explained how people progress up the hierarchy, ERG theory
also describes how people regress down the hierarchy when they fail to fulfill higher
needs.

3. Summarize McClelland’s learned needs theory, including the three needs he studied.
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LEARNED NEEDS THEORY


Needs are amplified or suppressed through self-concept, social norms, and past
experience. Therefore, needs can be “learned” (i.e. strengthened or weakened through training)
1. nAch. Need for achievement : Need to reach goals thru their own effort. Successful
entrep tend to have high nAch bacause they establish challenging goals for themselves
and thrive on competition.
2. nAff. Need for affiliation : Desire to seek approval, conform to their expectations
and wishes, avoid conflict. Effective executives have lower need for social approval.
3. nPow. Need for power : Desire to control one’s environment. Frequently rely on
persuasive communication. 2 types: Personalized (enjoy power for its own sake) versus
socialized power (power to help others)

4. Describe four-drive theory and discuss its implications for motivating employees.
Developed by Harvard Business School
professors.
FEATURES OF FOUR DRIVES:
- Innate and hardwired (everyone
has them)
- Independent of each other
- no hierarchy of drives
- no drives are excluded from the
model
- three of the four drives are
proactive (we regularly try to fulfill
them). Only the drive to defend is
reactive (triggered by threat)

Implications of Four Drive Theory

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5. Diagram the expectancy theory model and discuss its practical implications for motivating
employees.
In expectancy Theory, work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to
desired outcomes. Depends on 3 factors:
1. Increasing E-to-P Expectancies
- Perception that his or her effort will
result in a particular level of
performance
- Assuring employees they have
competencies, person-job matching,
provide role clarification and sufficient
resources, behavioral modeling

2. Increasing P-to-O Expectancies


- Probability that a specific behavior or
performance level will lead to a
particular outcome
- Measure performance accurately, More
rewards for good performance, Explain
how rewards are linked to performance

3. Increasing Outcome Valences


- An outcome valence represents a
person’s anticipated satisfaction with
the outcome.

6. Describe the characteristics of effective goal setting and feedback.


Goal setting: The process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by
establishing performance objectives

EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING CHARACTERISTICS


1. Specific -- measureable change within a time frame
2. Relevant – within employee’s control and responsibilities
3. Challenging – raise level of effort
4. Accepted (commitment) – motivated to accomplish the goal
5. Participative (sometimes) – improves acceptance and goal quality
6. Feedback – information available about progress toward goal
CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK
1. Specific – connected to goal details
2. Relevant – Relates to person’s behavior
3. Timely – to improve link from behavior to outcomes
4. Sufficiently frequent
• Employee’s knowledge/experience
• task cycle
5. Credible – trustworthy source
FEEDBACK THROUGH STRENGTHS-BASED COACHING
 Maximizing the person’s potential by focusing on their strengths rather than weaknesses
 Motivational because:
• people inherently seek feedback about their strengths, not their flaws
• person’s interests, preferences, and competencies stabilize over time

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MULTISOURCE FEEDBACK
 Received from a full circle of people around the employee
 Provides more complete and accurate information
 Several challenges

7. Summarize equity theory and describe how to improve procedural justice.


ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE
1. Distributive justice: Perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions
and the outcomes and contributions of others
2. Procedural justice: Perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of
resources
EQUITY THEORY: employees determine feelings of equity by comparing their own
outcome/input ratio to the outcome/input ratio of some other person.
ELEMENTS OF EQUITY THEORY
Outcome/input ratio, comparison not easily identifiable
- inputs -- what employee contributes (e.g., skill, effort, reputation, performance,
experience, and hours worked)
- outcomes -- what employee receives (e.g., pay, promotion, recognition)
EQUITY SENSITIVITY
is outcome/input preferences and reaction to various outcome/input ratios
1. Benevolents (tolerant of being underrewarded)
2. Equity Sensitives (want ratio to be equal to the comparison other)
3. Entitleds (prefer proportionately more than others)
EVALUATING EQUITY THEORY
- Good at predicting situations unfair distribution of pay/rewards
- Difficult to put into practice because doesn’t identify comparison other, doesn’t indicate
relevant inputs or outcomes, and explains only some feelings of fairness
• procedural justice is as important as distributive justice

8. Identify the factors that influence procedural justice, as well as the consequences of
procedural justice.
Higher procedural fairness with:
1. Voice (encourage them to present their facts and perspectives on the issue)
2. Unbiased decision maker
3. Decision based on all information
4. Existing policies consistently
5. Decision maker listened to all sides
6. Those who complain are treated respectfully
7. Those who complain are given full explanation
CONSEQUENCES
Procedural justice has a strong influence on a person’s emotions and motivation.
Employees tend to experience anger toward the source of the injustice, which generates various
response behaviors that scholars categorize as either withdrawal or aggression.

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CHAPTER 6 – Applied Performance Practices
1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the four reward objectives.
FINANCIAL REWARD PRACTICES
Financial rewards are fundamental part of employment relationship. Studies say, men
value money more than women. Also, cultural values influence the meaning and value of money,
e.g.: “Pay” has multiple meanings symbol of success, reinforcer and motivator, reflection of
performance, can reduce anxiety.

4 TYPES OF REWARDS IN THE WORKPLACE


1. Membership and seniority-Based Rewards aka “Pay For Pulse”
Fixed wages, seniority increases
 Advantages : Guaranteed wages may attract job applicants & Seniority-
based rewards reduce turnover
 Disadvantages : Doesn’t motivate job performance, Discourages poor performers from
leaving, May act as golden handcuffs (tie people to the job)
2. Job status-Based Rewards
Try to improve feelings of fairness by assigning higher pay to people working in jobs with
higher value to the organization. Includes job evaluation and status perks
 Advantages : Job evaluation tries to maintain pay equity & Motivates
competition for promotions
 Disadvantages : Employees exaggerate duties, hoard resources, Reinforces status,
hierarchy, Inconsistent with workplace flexibility
3. Competency-Based Rewards
Pay increases with competencies (adaptability, team orientation, technical expertise,
leadership, etc.) acquired and demonstrated
Variation: Skill-based pay (increases with skill modules learned)
 Advantages : More flexible work force, better quality, consistent with
employability
 Disadvantages : Potentially subjective, higher training costs

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2. Identify several team- and organizational-level performance-based rewards.


Performance-Based Rewards <- top company more likely use this

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- Piece-rate systems reward employees according to the number of units produced
- Gainsharing plans are a form of team-based compensation that calculates bonuses from
the work unit’s cost savings and productivity improvement
- Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) encourage employees to buy company stock,
usually at a discounted price or through a no-interest loan
- Profit-sharing plans calculate bonuses from the previous year’s level of corporate profits.
EVALUATING ORGANIZATIONAL REWARDS
 Positive effects
• Creates an “ownership culture”
• Adjusts pay with firm's prosperity
• Scorecards align rewards with several specific organizational outcomes
 Negative effects, concerns with performance pay
• Weak connection between individual effort and rewards
• Reward amounts affected by external forces

3. Describe five ways to improve reward effectiveness.


IMPROVING REWARD EFFECTIVENESS
1. Link rewards to performance
2. Ensure rewards are relevant
3. Use team rewards (than individuals) for interdependent jobs
4. Ensure rewards are valued
5. Watch out for unintended consequences, e.g. PHD that decided to reward its drivers for
on-time delivery, but it also increased the accidentrates of the company’s drivers

4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of job specialization.


JOB DESIGN
- Assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs
- Organization's goal -- to create jobs that can be performed efficiently yet employees are
motivated and engaged
JOB SPECIALIZATION
- Dividing work into separate jobs that include a subset of the tasks required to complete
the product or service
- Scientific management
o Is the practice of systematically partitioning work into its smallest elements and
standardizing tasks to achieve maximum efficiency.
o Frederick Winslow Taylor (advocated job specialization).
 Taylor also emphasized person-job matching, training, goal setting, work
incentives
- Advantages: reduce labor “waste” by improving mechanical efficiency of work (i.e.,
matching skills, fast learning, less switchover time)
- Disadvantages: higher employee turnover and absenteeism because it affects employee
attitudes and motivation, reduce work quality because employees see only in small part of
process, and can undermine motivational potential of jobs (easier to perform but less
interesting)

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5. Diagram the job characteristics model of job design.


JOB DESIGN AND WORK MOTIVATION
- Motivator-hygiene theory Herzberg’s theory that stating employees experience job
satisfaction when they fulfill growth and esteem needs (called motivators) and they
experience dissatisfaction when they have poor working conditions, job security, and other
factors categorized as lower-order needs (called hygienes)
- 1st theory has been rejected due to lack research support so we substitute:
- Job characteristics model is job design model that relates the motivational properties of
jobs to specific personal and organizational consequences of those properties.

CORE JOB CHARACTERISTICS


Employees are more satisfied hen jobs have higher levels of these characteristics:
1. Skill variety: The extent to which employees must use different skills and talents to
perform tasks within their jobs.
2. Task identity: The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or an identifiable
piece of work.
3. Task significance: The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the organization
and/or larger society.
4. Autonomy: The degree to which a job gives employees the freedom, independence, and
discretion to schedule their work and determine the procedures used in completing it.
5. Job feedback: degree to which employees can tell how well they are doing on the basis of
direct sensory information from the job itself

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6. Identify three strategies for improving employee motivation through job design.
JOB DESIGN PRACTICES THAT MOTIVATE
1. Job Rotation: moving from one job to another
o Benefits
 Minimizes repetitive strain injury
 Multiskills the workforce
 Potentially reduces job boredom
2. Job Enlargement: adding tasks to an existing job (e.g. video journalist)

3. Job Enrichment: given more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating, and planning one’s
own work
1. Clustering tasks into natural groups
• Stitching highly interdependent tasks into one job (e.g., video journalist, assembling
entire product)
2. Establishing client relationships
• Directly responsible for specific clients
• Communicate directly with those clients

7. Define empowerment and identify strategies that support empowerment.


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EMPOWERMENT PRACTICES
Empowerment is psychological concept in which people experience more self-
determination, meaning, competence, and impact regarding their role in the organization.
Dimensions of Empowerment:

SUPPORTING EMPOWERMENT
- Individual factors: possess required competencies, able to perform the work
- Job design factors: autonomy, task identity, task significance, job feedback
- Organizational factors: resources, learning orientation, trust

8. Describe the five elements of self-leadership.


SELF-LEADERSHIP PRACTICES
Is the process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed
to perform a task. Includes concepts/practices from: goal setting, social learning theory, sports
psychology
SELF-LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES, elements of Self-Leadership:
1. Personal goal setting
o Employees set their own goals, apply effective goal setting practices
2. Constructive thought patterns
o Positive self-talk (is process talking to ourselves about thoughts/actions, potentially
increases self-efficacy)
o Mental imagery (is process of mentally practicing a task, visualizing successful task
completion)
3. Designing natural rewards
o Finding ways to make the job itself more motivating (e.g. altering the way the task
is accomplished)
4. Self-monitoring
o Keeping track of your progress toward the self-set goal (looking for naturally-
occurring feedback, designing artificial feedback)
5. Self-reinforcement
o “Taking” a reinforcer only after completing a self-set goal (e.g. watching a movie
after writing two more sections of a report or starting a fun task after completing a
task that you don’t like)

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9. Identify specific personal and work environment influences on self-leadership.


SELF-LEADERSHIP CONTINGENCIES
1. Individual factors
o Higher levels of conscientiousness and extroversion
o Positive self-evaluation (self-esteem, self-efficacy, internal locus)
2. Organizational factors
o Job autonomy
o Participative leadership
o Measurement-oriented culture

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Chapter 10 – Developing High Performance Teams
1. Identify the characteristics of self-directed work teams (SDWTs).
SELF DIRECTED WORK TEAMS (SDWTs)
- Cross-functional work groups organized around work processes that complete an entire
piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and that have substantial autonomy
over the execution of those tasks
- Initially designed around production processes but also found in administrative and service
activities banking services, city government administration, and customer assistance
teams in courier services.

2. Describe the four conditions in sociotechnical systems theory that support SDWTs.
SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS THEORY
- A theory stating that effective work sites have joint optimization of their social and
technological systems, and that teams should have sufficient autonomy to control key
variances in the work process.
- Main sources of SDWT
- 4 main conditions for high performance SDWTs:
1. Responsible for entire work process
2. Sufficient autonomy to control work process (able to work more quickly and effectively)
3. Control key variances (disturbances/interruptions in work process that affect quality of
performance)
4. Operate under joint optimization (key requirement in sociotechnical systems theory
that a balance must be struck between social and technical systems to maximize an
operation’s effectiveness.)

3. Summarize three challenges to SDWTs.


CHALLENGES TO SELF-DIRECTED WORK TEAMS
1. Cross cultural issues
o More difficult to implement in high power distance (they’re more comfortable when
supervisors give them directions)
2. Management resistance
o Higher level management tend to resist because they’re scared of losing power
when employees gain power through empowered teams
3. Employee and labor union resistance
o Because they require new skills or appear to require more work

4. Explain why organizations rely increasingly on virtual teams.


VIRTUAL TEAMS
- Are teams whose members operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries and
are linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks
- Similar to face-to-face teams that consist 2 or more people that interact and influence
each other
- Reason for their popularity is that the Internet, intranets, instant messaging, virtual
whiteboards, and other products have made it easier to communicate with and coordinate
people at a distance

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5. Describe the roles of communication systems, task structure, team size, and team
composition in virtual team effectiveness.
DESIGNING HIGH-PERFORMANCE VIRTUAL TEAMS

6. Summarize the three foundations of trust in teams.


TEAM TRUST
- Trust is a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based on
positive expectations of the intent or behavior of another person
- People trust other based on 3 foundations: calculus, knowledge, identification
- Calculus-based trust offers the lowest potential trust and is easily broken by a violation of
expectations.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN TRUST


- Depends on person’s general propensity to trust
- Our willingness to trust other also varies with emotions experienced at the moment, we
trust people more when experiencing pleasant emotions than when angry even if those
emotions aren’t connected with other person
DYNAMICS OF TRUST IN TEAMS

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- A common misconception is that team members build trust from a low level when they
first join the team. In truth, people typically join a virtual or conventional team with a
moderate or high level
- Recent studies of virtual teams report that trust tends to decrease rather than increase
over time

7. Identify five constraints on team decision making.


CONSTRAINTS ON TEAM DECISION MAKING
1. Time constraints
o Teams take longer time than individual to make decision
o Production blocking (time constraint in team decision making due to the
procedural requirement that only one person may speak at a time.)
2. Evaluation apprehension (ketakutan mengungkapkan pendapat)
o When individuals are reluctant to mention ideas that seem silly because they
believe (often correctly) that other team members are silently evaluating them.
3. Pressure to conform
4. Groupthink
o Is the tendency of highly cohesive groups to value consensus at the price of
decision quality.
5. Group polarization
o Is the tendency of teams to make more extreme decisions than individual working
alone
o Why occurs:
 First, team members become comfortable with more extreme positions when
they realize that co-workers also generally support the same position.
 Second, persuasive arguments favoring the dominant position convince
doubtful members and help form a consensus around the extreme option.
 Finally, individuals feel less personally responsible for the decision
consequences because the decision is made by the team.

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9. Discuss the potential benefits and limitations of brainstorming.
TEAM STRUCTURES TO IMPROVE CREATIVITY AND DECISION MAKING
1. Constructive conflict
o Refers to conflict in which team members debate their different perceptions about
an issue in a way that keeps the conflict focused on the task rather than people
o “constructive” because participants pay attention to facts and logic and avoid
statements that generate emotional conflict
o Problems: difficult to apply, healthy debate can slide into personal attacks,
inconsistent decision making
2. Brainstorming
o Is a free-wheeling, face to-face meeting where team members aren’t allowed to
criticize, but are encouraged to speak freely, generate as many ideas as possible,
and build on the ideas of others (“piggyback” or “hitchhike” that combine and
improve on ideas already presented).
o More creative idea generated, provide valuable nonverbal communication that
spreads enthusiasm, also produce higher customer satisfaction than people are
working alone in the product
3. Electronic brainstorming
o Using special computer software, participants share ideas while minimizing the
team dynamics problems inherent in traditional brainstorming sessions
o Not widely used because too structured and technology-bound for some executives.
Also, it may work best for certain types of decisions but not for others (e.g. it is less
effective than face to face meeting where decision making is less important than
social bonding and emotional interaction)
4. Delphi method
o A structured team decision-making process of systematically pooling the collective
knowledge of experts on a particular subject to make decisions, predict the future,
or identify opposing views.
5. Nominal group technique
o Structured team decision-making process whereby team members independently
write down ideas, describe and clarify them to the group, and then independently
rank or vote on them
o Combine individual efficiencies with team dynamics
o Generate better quality ideas

10. Outline the four types of team building.


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TEAM BUILDING is formal activities intended to improve the development and functioning of a
work team. Also reshape team norms and strengthen cohesiveness.

TYPES OF TEAM BUILDING


1. Goal setting
o Clarify the team’s performance goals, increase the team’s motivation to accomplish
these goals, and establish a mechanism for systematic feedback on the team’s goal
performance
2. Role definition
o Involves clarifying and reconstructing members’ perceptions of their roles as well as
the role expectations they have of other team members
o Encompasses team mental models (internal representation of external world)
3. Interpersonal processes
o Conflict management, direct confrontation, rebuilding trust among team members
4. Problem solving
o Focuses on decision making

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Chapter 9 – Communicating in Teams and Organizations
1. Communication  The process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more
people
Effective communication  transmitting the sender’s intended meaning
2. Importance of Communication
a. Coordinating work activities  Frequent, timely, and accurate communication is the primary means through
which employees and work units synchronize their work
b. Vehicle for organizational learning  Means for knowledge to enter the organization and be distributed to
employees
c. Decision making  Critical ingredient for decision making
d. Influencing others – changing their behavior  May be passive e.g. describing the situation or may be a
deliberate attempt to change someone’s thoughts/actions
e. Employee well-being  Fulfills the drive to bond; validates self-worth; maintain social identity
3. Model of Communication

Noise  Psychological, social, and structural barriers that distort and obscure the sender's intended message

4. Improving Communication Coding/Decoding


a. Communication channel proficiency  Sender and receiver are both motivated and able to communicate
through the communication channel
b. Similar codebooks  Codebooks are symbols used to convey message content, e.g. speak the same
language
c. Shared context mental models  Share common understanding relating to the information so less
communication is needed to clarify meaning
d. Experience encoding the message  As a person gains more experience with the subject matter, he/she
becomes more proficient at conveying the message
5. Computer-Mediated Communication
a. Email
1) How email has altered communication
a) Preferred medium for coordinating work e.g. scheduling;
b) Often increases the volume of communication;
c) Significantly alters the flow of information within groups and throughout the organization;
d) Reduces some face-to-face and telephone communication;
e) Increases communication with people up the hierarchy;
f) Social and organizational status differences are somewhat less apparent;
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g) Reduces stereotype biases (hides age, race, etc.), however, it also tends to increase reliance on
stereotypes when we are already aware of the other person’s personal characteristics.
2) Problems with email
a) Poor medium for communicating emotions
b) Reduces politeness and respect
c) Poor medium for ambiguous, complex, and novel situations
d) Contributes to information overload
b. Social Networking Communication
1) User-generated content
a) Users, not professionals, create the content
b) Usually interactive and dynamic—can respond vs. passive reading or watching
c) Many forms, e.g. blogs, wikis, instant messages, tweets, personal presentation sites (e.g. Facebook)
2) Serves diverse functions
a) Presenting individual’s identity, enabling conversations, sharing information, sensing others’ online
presence, maintaining relationships, revealing status, supporting interest communities.
c. Nonverbal Communication  influences meaning of verbal symbols that include actions, facial gestures,
physical distance, and even silence
1) Nonverbal differs from communication in a couple of ways:
a) Less rule bound than verbal communication;
b) Most is automatic and nonconscious.
d. Emotional Contagion  The automatic process of sharing another person’s emotions by mimicking their
facial expressions and other nonverbal behavior
Serves three purposes:
1) Provides continuous feedback to speaker;
2) Increases emotional understanding of the other person’s experience;
3) Communicates a collective sentiment – sharing the experience as part of drive to bond
6. Choosing the Best Communication Channel  there are two important elements to consider are social
acceptance and media richness
a. Social acceptance  The automatic process of sharing another person’s emotions by mimicking their facial
expressions and other nonverbal behavior, depends on:
1) Firm norms for using the channel, e.g. email or text messaging
2) Individual preferences for using the channel, e.g. some co-workers ignore voice mail, but quickly
respond to email
3) Symbolic meaning of the channel, e.g. some form might be considered professional vs. casual.
b. Media richness  a medium’s data-carrying capacity, i.e. the volume and variety of information that can be
transmitted during a specific time, communication has high richness when:
1) It is able to convey multiple cues, e.g. both verbal and nonverbal information
2) Allows timely feedback from receiver to sender
3) Allow the sender to customize the message
4) Makes use of complex symbols, e.g. words with multiple meanings

c. Media-Richness Hierarchy

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1) Contingencies of Media Richness


a) Routine situations  lean media works because the sender and receiver have common
expectations through shared mental models
b) Ambiguous situations  requires rich media because the parties must share large amounts of
information with immediate feedback to resolve multiple and conflicting interpretations
2) Evaluating Media-Richness Theory  Media richness theory less applicable to computer-mediated
channels because:
a) The ability to multicommunicate, e.g. write text message while listening to a discussion at a
large meeting
b) More varied proficiency levels, e.g. experienced smartphone users can deal with messages
quickly
c) Social distractions of rich channels  Lean channels have less social distraction than do media
rich channels
3) Communication Channels and Persuasion
a) Persuasion  The use of facts, logical arguments, and emotional appeals to change another
person’s beliefs and attitudes, usually for the purpose of changing the person’s behavior.

Three main reasons for the persuasive effect:

a) Accompanied by nonverbal communication  hand gestures


b) Has high quality immediate feedback
c) Has high social presence

7. Communication barriers
a. Perception
1) Receivers don’t listen as well as senders assume
2) Senders overestimate how well other people understand the message
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b. Filtering
1) May involve deleting or delaying negative information or using less harsh words so the message sounds
more favorable
c. Language
1) Jargon  specialized words and phrases may become a source of noise when transmitted to people
who do not have the jargon codebook
2) Ambiguity  language has built-in ambiguities that cause misunderstandings; may be used to minimize
the risk of conflict e.g. using a phrase such as “rightsizing”
d. Information Overload

The volume of information received exceeds the person’s capacity to process it

1) Information processing capacity – the amount of information an employee is able to process in a fixed
unit of time
2) Information load – the amount of information to be processed per unit of time (jobs have a varying
information load)
3) Information overload creates noise in the communication system – information gets overlooked or
misinterpreted when people can’t process it fast enough, resulting in poorer quality decisions and
higher stress
e. Managing Information Overload
1) Increase information processing capacity
a) Learn to read faster
b) Scan through documents more efficiently
c) Remove distractions
d) Time management
e) Temporarily work longer hours

2) Reduce information load


a) Buffering – having incoming information filtered
b) Omitting – overlooking messages
c) Summarizing – reading executive summaries
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8. Cross-Cultural Communication
a. Verbal differences  language, voice intonation, silence/conversational overlaps
b. Nonverbal differences  Nonconscious or involuntary nonverbal cues tend to have
the same meaning but deliberate gestures often have different interpretation
9. Gender Communication Differences
a. Men consider more power, status, and functionality
1) Report talk
2) Give advice directly
3) Dominate the talk time in conversations with women
b. Women consider more interpersonal relations
1) Engage in rapport talk
2) Indirect advice/requests
3) Sensitive to nonverbal cues
10. Improving Interpersonal Communication
a. Getting your message across
1) Empathize
2) Repeat the message
3) Use timing effectively
4) Focus on the problem not the person
b. Active Listening Process & Strategies

11. Improving Communication throughout the Hierarchy


a. Workspace design
1) Open offices – all employees (including management) work together; increase communication;
potentially increases noise, distractions, loss of privacy
2) Cluster employees into team spaces
b. Web-based organizational communication
1) Wikis – collaborative document creation
2) E-zines – rapid distribution of company news

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
c. Direct communication with management
1) Management by walking around (MBWA)
2) Town hall meetings/roundtable forums to hear opinions
12. Communicating through Grapevine
a. Grapevine - an unstructured and informal network founded onsocial relationships rather than organizational
charts or job descriptions
b. Early research finding
1) Transmits information very rapidly in all directions
2) Follows a cluster chain pattern
3) More active in homogeneous groups
4) Transmits some degree of truth
c. Changes due to internet
1) Email, social networking sites, tweets becoming the main grapevine mediums
2) Social networks are now global
d. Benefits and Limitation
1) Benefits
a) Fills in missing information not available through formal channels
b) Strengthens corporate culture e.g. communicates stories
c) Relieves anxiety – most active during times of uncertainty
d) Associated with drive to bond – drive for social interaction
2) Limitations
a) Distortions might escalate rather than reduce anxiety
b) Employees develop more negative attitudes toward the organization when management is slower
than the grapevine; What should corporate leaders do with the grapevine?
c) Listen to the grapevine as a signal of employee anxiety, then correct the cause of this anxiety
d) Directly inform employees of news before it spreads through the grapevine

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
Chapter 11 – Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace and Work-Related Stress
1. Definition of Conflict
A process in which one party perceives that his or her interests are being opposed or negatively affected by
another party.
2. Is Conflict Good or Bad?

3. Consequences of Workplace Conflict

POSITIVE NEGATIVE
Better decision making Uses productive time
 Tests ogic of arguments; and Less information sharing
 Questions assumption. Higher stress, dissatisfaction, and turnover
More responsive to changing environment Increases organizational politics
Stronger team cohesion Wastes resources
Weakens team cohension
4. Task (Constructive) vs. Relationship Conflict
a. Task (constructive) conflict
1) Conflict due to disagreements about how a task should be accomplished while maintaining
respect for people having other points of view.
2) Focuses on task as a source of conflict.
3) Try to understad the logic and assumptions of each position.
b. Relationship conflict
1) Conflict due to differences in personal values, individuals’ styles, and personality
(characteristics of other individual) rather than on the issues.
2) Focuses on people as a source of conflict.
3) Accompanied by strong negative emotions (drive to defend).
5. Separating Task Conflict from Relationship Conflict
Goal  encourage constructive conflict and to minimize relationship conflict
Problem  relationship conflict often develops when engagng in constructive conflict.
Three conditions that minimize relationship conflict:
a. Emotional intelligence  Emotionally intelligent employees are better able to regulate their emotions
during debate, thus reducing the risk of escalating perceptions of interpersonal hostility.
b. Cohesive team  Highly cohesive team will show their emotion towards each other without being
personally offended. Produces stronger social identity  motivated to avoid escalating relationship
conflict.
c. Supportive team norms  Team norms can suppress relationship conflict during debate  openness,
discourage displaying negative emotions toward co-workers, and humor to maintain positive group
emotions.
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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
6. Conflict Process Model

7. Structural Sources of Conflict in Organizations  leads on or both parties to perceive that conflict exists
a. Incompatible goals  Goals of one party perceived to interfere with other’s goals e.g. cost efficiency vs.
customer service.
b. Differentiation  Divergent beliefs – may agree on a common goal but have different beliefs about how
to achieve that goal. Also explains about cross-cultural and intergenerational conflicts  tension during
mergers.
c. Interdependence  Conflict increases with interdependence  greater chance that each side will
disrupt or interfere with the other’s goals.
Three levels of interdependence:
1) Pooled interdependence  work units rely on a common resource or authority, e.g. shared
administrative support
2) Sequential interdependence  one person’s output is next person’s input, e.g. assembly line
3) Reciprocal interdependence  output is exchanged so employees are highly dependent on
each other, e.g. medical team
d. Scarce resources  Motivates competition for the resource – may udermine others who also need that
resource to fulfill their goals
e. Ambiguous rules  Creates uncertainty  threatens goals, and also encourages political tactics
(because there are no underlying rules)
f. Communication problems  Rely on stereotypes when parties lack opportunity to communicate; Less
motivated to communicate because relationship is uncomfortable; and arrogant communication
escalates perceptions of conflict – escalates conflict when other party reciprocates.

8. Interpersonal Conflict-Handling Styles

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin

9. Five Conlict-Handling Styles


a. Problem-solving  Win-win orientation – tries to find a mutually beneficial solution, i.e. both parties
collaborate to identify common ground and potential solutions that satisfy everyone.
Best when:
1) Interest are not perfectly opposing;
2) Parties have trust/openness; and
3) Issues are complex.
Problem:
1) Sharing infrmation that the other party might use to their advantage;
2) Takes time.
b. Forcing  Win-lose orientation – tries to win the conflict at the other’s expense; relies on “hard”
influence tactics, particularly assertiveness to get one’s own way.
Best when:
1) You have a deep conviction about your position;
2) Quick resolution required;
3) Other party would take advantage of cooperation.
Problem:
1) Highest risk of relationship conflict;
2) May damage long-term relations;
3) Reduce future problem-solving.

c. Avoiding  Smooth over or avoid conflict situations; low concern for both self and the other party –
avoiders try to find ways to avoid thinking about the conflict.
Best when:
1) Conflict has become emotionally-charged (relationship conflict);
2) Conflict resolution cost is higher than its benefits.
Problem:
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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
1) Doesn’t usually resolve the coflict;
2) May increase the other party’s frustration.
d. Yielding  Giving in completely to the other side’s wishes – making unilateral concessions and offering
help with no expectation of reciprocal help.
Best when:
1) Other party has much more power;
2) Issue is much less important to you than to the other party;
3) Value/logic of your position is imperfect.
Problem:
1) Increases other party’s expectations for the future.
e. Compromising  Reach a middle ground between the interests of the parties
Best when:
1) Parties have equal power;
2) Quick solution is required i.e. time pressures;
3) Parties lack trust/openness for problem solving.
Problem:
1) Sub-optimal solution where mutual gains are possible.
10. Cultural and Gender Differences in Conflict-Handling Styles  Each and every cultural and gender has their own
preferred conflict-handling style
11. Structural Approaches to Conflict Management
a. Emphasize superordinate goals  superordinate goal – a broad goal that all parties to a dispute value
and agree is important
1) Emphasize common strategic objecive rather than objectives specific to the individual or work-
unit;
2) Reduce goal incompatibility and differentiation.
b. Reduce differentiation
1) Reduce differences that generate conflict;
2) Create common experiences, e.g. moving staff across merged companies.
c. Improve communication/understanding  Conflicting parties are given more opportunities to
communicate and understand each other communication
1) Conflicting parties are given more opportunities to communicate and understand each other
2) Relates to contact hypothesis
3) This should be applied only when differentiation is sufficiently low/after differentiation ha
been reduced (or could escalate conflict); people in collectivist and high power distance
cultures are less comfortable with using direct communication.
d. Reduce interdependence
1) Create buffers – decoupling the relationship, e.g. build up inventories in assembly line vs. just-
in-time inventory system
2) Use integrators, i.e. employees (human buffers) who coordinate the activities of differentiated
work units toward completion of a common task, e.g. coordinate efforts of several
departments to launch a new product
3) Combine jobs – reduces task interdependence and is a form of job enrichment, e.g. each
person assembles an entire product.
e. Increase resources
1) Increases the aount of resources available.
f. Clarify rules and procedures
1) Establish rules and procedures, e.g. create a schedule;
2) Clarifying roles and responsibilities.

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
12. Resolving Conflict through Negotiation
Negotiation  The process whereby two or more conflicting parties attempt to resolve their divergent goals by
redefining the terms of their interdependence.
a. Bargaining-Zone Model of Negotiations  Bargaining zone – negotiation process involves each party
moving along a continuum in opposite directions with an area of potential overlap called the bargaining
zone

1) Initial offer point  Your opening offer – best expectation


2) Target point  Your realistic goal or expectation for a final agreement
3) Resistance point  The point beyond which you will make no further concessions
b. Situational Influences on Negotiations
1) Location
a) Advantages of ‘home turf’, i.e. you are familiar with the negotiating environment; no
travel-related stress;
b) Easier access to resources.
c) Problem – you can’t walk out of negotiations
d) Neutral territory, e.g. phone calls, videoconferencing but skilled negotiators usually
prefer media richness of face-to-face
2) Physical setting
a) Physical distance between the parties and formality of the setting can affect
negotiations, e.g. convey win-win orientation by dispersing people around the table.

3) Time passage and deadlines


a) The more time people invest in negotiations, the stronger is their commitment to
reaching an agreement.
b) Increases the motivation to resolve the conflict, but it also fuels the escalation of
commitment problems.
4) Audience characteristics  Audience - anyone with a vested interest in the negotiation
Outcomes, e.g. executives, other team members, general public.
a) When observed, negotiators tend to be more competitive, less willing to make
concessions, and more likely to engage in political tactics against the other party, i.e.
saving face and taking “hardline” approach.
c. Negotiator Skills

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
1) Preparation and goal setting  Negotiators should carefully think through their initial-offer,
target, and resistance points. They need to consider alternative strategies in case the
negotiation fails.
2) Gathering information  “Seek to understand before you seek to be understood”  we
should spend more time listening closely to the other party and asking for details.
3) Communicating effectively  Effective negotiators communicate in a way that maintains
effective relationships between the parties
4) Making concessions
a) Enable the parties to move toward the area of potential agreement;
b) Symbolize each party’s motivation to bargain in good faith;
c) Tell the other party of the relative importance of the negotiating items.
13. Third-Party Conflict Resolution  Any attempt by a relatively neutral person to help conflicting parties resolve
their differences.

a. Types of Third-Party Interventions


1) Arbitration
a) High control over final decision – low control over process
b) Final stage of grievances by unionized employees in many countries – becoming more
common in nonunion conflicts.

2) Inquisition
a) Control all discussion about the conflict
b) High decision control and high process control
3) Mediation
a) Mediators have high control over the intervention process, but little to no control over
the conflict resolution decision
b. Choosing the Best Third-Party Strategy
1) Managers prefer inquisitional strategy
a) Consistent with decision-oriented nature of managerial jobs
b) Usually the least effective third-party conflict resolution method
c) Conflicts with procedural justice principles

2) Mediation potentially offers highest satisfaction with process and outcomes


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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
a) Gives employees more responsibility for resolving disputes
b) When mediation fails – arbitration seems to work best due to procedural fairness i.e.
applies predetermined rules of evidence and other processes

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
Chapter 4 – Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress
Work-Related Stress and Its Management

1. Stress  An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to a person’s


well-being.
2. General Adaptation Syndrome  A model of the stress experience

Model of the stress experience consisting of 3 stages:


a. Alarm reaction
1) Threat or challenge activates the physiological stress responses
2) Individual’s energy and coping effectiveness decrease
b. Resistance
1) Activates biochemical, psychological, and behavioral mechanisms giving the individual more energy
and coping mechanisms to overcome or remove the source of stress
2) Body reduces resources to the immune system
c. Exhaustion
1) Usually able to remove the stressor or remove ourselves before becoming too exhausted
2) People who frequently reach exhaustion have increased risk of long-term physiological and
psychological damage
3. Consequences of Distress
a. Physiological  headaches, cardiovascular disease, hypertension
b. Psychological  dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue
c. Behavioral  work performance, accidents, absenteeism, aggression, poor decision
d. Job Burnout  The process of emotional exhaustion (stage 1), cynicism (stage 2), and reduced personal
accomplishment (stage 3) that results from prolonged exposure to stressors.
4. Stressors  Any environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on a person.
a. Harassment and incivility
1) Psychological harassment  Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments,
actions, or gestures that affect an employee’s dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that
result in a harmful work environment for the employee.
2) Sexual harassment  Unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature that detrimentally affects the work
environment or leads to adverse jobrelated consequences for its victims.
b. Work overload  Working more hours, more intensely than one can cope; affected by globalization,
consumerism, ideal worker norm.
c. Low task control  Due to lack of control over how and when tasks are performed; stress increases with
responsibility

5. Individual Differences in Stress

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RANGKUMAN UTS MPSDM – Alvania Safira, Fahriandra Adiwisesa, dan Huda Aulia Arifin
a. Resilience  The capability of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change, adversity,
or risk
b. Workaholic  A person who is highly involved in work, feels compelled to work, and has a low
enjoyment of work
6. Managing Work-Related Stress
a. Remove the stressor  minimize/remove stressor, work-life balance
b. Withdraw from the stressor  vacation, rest breaks
c. Change stress perceptions  positive self-concept, humor
d. Control stress consequences  healthy lifestyle, fitness, wellness

e. Receive social support  others provide emotional and/or informational support.

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