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In this experiment, the 90⁰ elbow is one of the component included to observe its effect
towards the behavior of the fluid that flow through it. The 90⁰ elbow is observed to be interrupting
the smooth fluid flow and causes additional head loss due to the separation and mixing of the
streams that causes turbulence. The value of coefficient of losses varies across different types of
components in pipe and tube systems. Therefore, experiment is carried out to determine the minor
loss coefficient. Figure 2.1 shows the graph of differential piezometer height, ∆H’ versus the value
of .

Differential Piezometer Head, ∆H'

y = 0.0268x + 1.0707



0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
V2/2g x10-9 (mm)

Figure 2.1: Graph of differential piezometer height, ∆H’ (mm) versus the value of (mm)

From the experimental results, the differential piezometer height, ∆H’ is plotted against the
value of to obtain a graph. The graph shows that the differential piezometer height increases as

𝑉2 𝑉2
the value of 2𝑔 increases. Therefore, ∆H’ increases linearly with .The minor loss coefficient

can be deduced from the gradient (slope) of the ∆H’ versus 2𝑔 graph. This can be proven by the
𝑉2 𝑉2
equation of minor losses, hL=KL2𝑔, which shows that ∆H’ is directly proportional to by a factor

of the value of KL. The value of coefficient of losses, KL is determined to be KL =0.0268.

This experiment measures flow rate using different flow measuring techniques: rotameter,
venture meter and orifice meter. The characteristic and differences between each type of flow
measuring technique can be determined by comparing pressure drop calculated from the results of
the experiment. Although we use the flow rates of rotameter as reference parameter, but the actual
flow rates that we obtain deviates from the rotameter flow rate. The same case goes to the venturi
meter and orifice meter which its flow rate also deviate from the actual flow rate. The experimental
results shows that QRotameter > QActual > QVenturi > QOrifice.
The deviation of each flow measuring device from the actual flow rate could be due to the
friction and no-slip condition as the fluid flow through the flowmeters. The rotameter flow rate
slightly deviates from the actual flow rate as observed in the experiment. This could be happening
due to the float in the rotameter which obstructs the smooth flow of the fluid, thus giving additional
head loss as the fluid flow through it, and causes the actual flow rate to be lower than that observed
on the rotameter.
The results show that Venturi meter suffers a comparably smaller deviation from actual
flow rate as compared to an orifice meter. This is due to its streamlined design which prevents
boundary-layer separation. Its gradual contraction and expansion which prevents flow separation
and swirling also contribute to reduced frictional loss, where the only frictional losses occur in the
inner wall of the Venturi meter. The system has a gradual change in its diameter to avoid drastic
change in direction of fluid as in the orifice meter. Thus, a minimal head loss can be observed
while measuring flow rate using the Venturi meter.
Although the orifice meter has the simplest build and do not take up much space, the
deviation of its measured flow rate is slightly higher as compared to a Venturi meter. This happens
due to the sudden change in the flow area in the orifice meter which causes swirling in the fluid,
hence, increasing the flow velocity. When the volumetric flow rate increases, the vena contracta
(the point in a fluid stream where the diameter of the stream is the least, and fluid velocity is at its
maximum) decreases. The smaller the vena contracta gets, the greater the pressure difference. This
results in higher energy loss and contribute to a larger head loss.
Generally, the Venturi meter has the smallest minor loss coefficient while orifice meter has
the highest.