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AUGUST 2016 / VOL. 19 / NO. 3 Inspection Trends THE MAGAZINE FOR MATERIALS INSPECTION

AUGUST 2016 / VOL. 19 / NO. 3

Inspection

Trends

THE MAGAZINE FOR MATERIALS INSPECTION AND TESTING PERSONNEL

THE MAGAZINE FOR MATERIALS INSPECTION AND TESTING PERSONNEL AWS.ORG Visual Weld Inspection of Structural Steel

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Visual Weld Inspection of Structural Steel

Ultrasonic Transducers Explained

The CWI Part B Practical Exam

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AUGUST 2016 / VOL. 19 / NO. 3

Inspection

Trends

THE MAGAZINE FOR MATERIALS INSPECTION AND TESTING PERSONNEL

THE MAGAZINE FOR MATERIALS INSPECTION AND TESTING PERSONNEL On the cover: EPOCH® 365 ultrasonic flaw detector.

On the cover:

EPOCH® 365 ultrasonic flaw detector. (Photo courtesy of Olympus Scientific Solutions Ameri-

cas, Waltham, Mass.)

Welding inspection using the

INSPECTION TRENDS (ISSN 1523-7168) is published quarterly by the American Welding Society. Editorial and advertising offices are located at 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353. Printed by R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., Senatobia, Miss. Subscriptions $30.00 per year for noncertified, nonmembers in the United States and its possessions; $50.00 per year in foreign countries; $20.00 per year for noncertified members and students; $10.00 single issue for nonmembers and $7.00 single issue for members. American Welding Society is located at 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353. Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Inspection Trends c/o American Welding Society, 8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166.

Readers of Inspection Trends may make copies of arti- cles for personal, archival, educational, or research purposes, and which are not for sale or resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles, provided customary acknowledgment of authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items excluded from copyright.

AWS MISSION STATEMENT

The mission of the American Welding Society is to advance the science, technology, and application of welding and allied joining processes worldwide, including, brazing, soldering, and thermal spraying.

Featuresincluding, brazing, soldering, and thermal spraying. 14 22 Visual Weld Inspection of Structural Steel Buildings

14
14
22
22

Visual Weld Inspection of Structural Steel Buildings by R. Zaske and T. Price / Visual inspection remains the most common and widely used inspection method for inspecting welds on steel structures / 14

An Introduction to Ultrasonic Transducers Here are some tips for selecting an ultrasonic transducer, which is the starting point for any ultrasonic test setup / 18

Understanding the Updated CWI Practical Exam by K. Coryell / Development and implementation of the updated CWI Part B practical exam are explained / 22

Departmentsthe updated CWI Part B practical exam are explained / 22 Editor’s Note 6 Just the

Editor’s Note

6

Just the Facts

30

News Bulletins

8

The Answer Is

32

Print and Product Showcase

12

Mail Bag

33

Technology Notes

24

Classifieds

36

Mark Your Calendar

26

Advertiser Index

36

Certification Schedule

28

Editor’s Note Mary Ruth Johnsen Dear Readers, Are you all inspectors or examiners? I never

Editor’s Note

Editor’s Note Mary Ruth Johnsen Dear Readers, Are you all inspectors or examiners? I never realized

Mary Ruth Johnsen

Dear Readers,

Are you all inspectors or examiners? I never realized this was a question that needed to be answered until I started working on this issue. After all, you are Certified Welding Inspectors. That’s your title and it’s the name of the program, so in my mind that’s what you are. And when I looked up both terms in my Webster’s New World Thesaurus, they’re synonyms of each other. But I never cease to discover new

things about the inspection profession through the pages of this magazine, and it turns out that while the

terms are often used interchangeably, whether you are an inspector or an examiner and whether you are performing a weld inspection or a weld examination depend upon which code/standard you’re working to.

I learned that because, as promised, the popular Just the Facts

column has returned to the pages of Inspection Trends. Jim Merrill decided he could not continue, but Rich Campbell has volunteered to take on the column beginning with this issue. You can read his first contribution, which covers this topic of inspector vs. examiner,

on pages 30 and 31. I think you’ll find it informative. Over the years, I’ve found it fascinating that each time we get a new contributor to the magazine, we get a new perspective and new areas of concentration. I think that will prove true with Rich’s contributions as well. Here are just some of Rich’s credentials: He is a Bechtel Fellow and Welding Technical Specialist with Bechtel Corp., Houston, Tex., an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector, a Canadian Welding Bureau Level 2 Welding Inspector, an ASNT NDT Level III Visual Testing Inspector, a registered metallurgical engineer, and a member of the AWS D1 Committee on Structural Welding.

I hope you enjoy this issue. I look forward to your comments and

ideas. Contact me anytime at mjohnsen@aws.org or (800/305) 443- 9353, ext. 238.

at mjohnsen@aws.org or (800/305) 443- 9353, ext. 238. Publisher Andrew Cullison, cullison@aws.org Editorial

Publisher

Andrew Cullison, cullison@aws.org

Editorial

Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen, mjohnsen@aws.org

Senior Editor Cindy Weihl, cweihl@aws.org

Features Editor Kristin Campbell, kcampbell@aws.org

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Production Editor Zaida Chavez, zaida@aws.org

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Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson, fwilson@aws.org

Subscriptions Representative Evelyn Andino, eandino@aws.org

American Welding Society 8669 NW 36th St., #130 Miami, FL 33166-6672 (800/305) 443-9353

Copyright

Copyright © 2016 by American Welding Society in both printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsi- ble for any statement made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users. 6 Inspection Trends / August
American Welding Society EDUCATION a ws.org ® CAL L FOR PAPERS 40 TH IN TE

American Welding Society

EDUCATION

a ws.org

®

CAL L FOR PAPERS 40 TH IN TE RNATI ONAL BRAZING AND S OL DERIN
CAL L FOR PAPERS
40 TH
IN TE RNATI ONAL
BRAZING AND S OL DERIN G SYMPO SIUM
Presented by the A meri can Weld ing Society (A WS)
November 16, 2 016 - Las Vegas, NV
The AWS C3 Committee on Brazing and Sol dering invites yo u take part in this prest igious
program by submitting a research pap er for co nsideration. Thi s is your opportunity to present your
research to peers and leaders in the in dustry.
The progra m organizers are accept ing 500-600-word abstr acts describing original, previously
unpublished w ork. The work may inclu de current res earch, act ual or potential applicati ons, new
developments, or an outlook into actua l technical are nas. Sub missions must be receiv ed on or
before Septem ber 3, 2016 and authors will be notifie d whether their papers have been accepted
for presentatio n at the Symposium.
For more details a nd to submi t abstrac ts electronically,
visit: g o. a w s.or g / b razeabs t racts
**Note: If you hav e any co-author s on your su bmitted paper,
please m ake sure to supply all name and affiliation d etails throu gh the link above when submitting.
su bmitted paper, please m ake sure to supply all name and affiliation d etails throu
su bmitted paper, please m ake sure to supply all name and affiliation d etails throu
su bmitted paper, please m ake sure to supply all name and affiliation d etails throu
News Bulletins

News Bulletins

Improved Inspection Techniques for Submarine Pressure Hulls Will Save Construction Costs

for Submarine Pressure Hulls Will Save Construction Costs Improved inspection techniques could reduce the cost of

Improved inspection techniques could reduce the cost of inspecting the pressure hull of Virginia Class submarines, such as the one shown here, by as much as $1.2 million per hull per inspection cycle.

The Navy Metalworking Center (NMC) is conducting a Navy ManTech project expected to reduce the cost of the peri- odic inspection of submarine pressure hulls. Current process- es, which include visual and ultrasonic inspection, require sig- nificant amounts of special hull treatment (SHT) be removed to access the hull structure underneath. Afterward, the SHT must be reinstalled.

Technologies that can inspect directly through the SHT, or minimize the amount of SHT that must be removed, will significantly reduce the cost of hull inspection. Technologies of significant interest include the use of ultra-wide-band radar, phased array ultrasonic with reduced contact area, and terahertz imaging. In Phase I, NMC is evaluating the feasibility of these ad- vanced inspection technologies for use in this application. Reducing the amount of SHT that must be removed and re- installed to accommodate hull integrity inspection during availability of the Virginia Class submarines has the oppor- tunity to reduce cost by as much as $1.2 million per hull per inspection cycle, or $6 million over a five-year period. A prototype system to demonstrate/validate the tech- nology will be developed in Phase II. For additional information, contact Dr. Daniel L. Win- terscheidt, senior program director, at winter@ctc.com, or (814) 269-6840.

Pipeline Inspection Certification Program Could Prove a Benefit to AWS Certified Welding Inspectors

American Welding Society (AWS) Certified Welding In-

SO Y OU’RE THE NE W WELDING ENGINEER ® American Welding Society Novem ber 16-18,
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EDUCATION
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If you’re interested in expand ing your career knowledge, and ta king on broader responsibility for
welding activity in your company,
this is a unique opportunity to
hear and talk with expe
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Keep an eye on fabteche xpo.c om for registration openin g dates.
This graphic displays the structure of inspection certification programs. (Courtesy of INGAA.) spectors (CWIs) could

This graphic displays the structure of inspection certification programs. (Courtesy of INGAA.)

spectors (CWIs) could potentially benefit from a new pipeline inspection certification program jointly developed by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA), INGAA Foundation, and the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association and its foundation. These pipeline trade associations in the United States and Canada have voted to endorse a program to ensure that all pipeline inspectors doing work for their member compa- nies are certified by 2018. The new certification program uses, as its base require- ment, the American Petroleum Institute (API) 1169 Pipeline Inspector Certification test. This certification has also been revised to meet industry requirements in Canada. Additional certifications are required for specialty in- spectors, such as AWS CWI and Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) Level 2 for welding, plus National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) Level 2 for coating. The program developed by INGAA and its partners will not allow grandfathering into certification from other pro- grams. All inspectors will be required individually to obtain the certifications required by the program. There is no ability to apply for equivalent certifications.

There is no ability to apply for equivalent certifications. For info, go to aws.org/ad­index M F

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

M F it C t t it h the FISCHER FERIT ® • Measurement ran
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For info, go to aws.org/ad­index Training for the appropriate certifications is available from AWS (

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

Training for the appropriate certifications is available from AWS (aws.org) as well as CWB, API, and NACE. This new program could prove beneficial to AWS CWIs as more companies and regulatory bodies adopt these guidelines. Where fully adopted, this will require that all weld inspection be done by an AWS CWI or a CWB Level 2 Inspector. The program is expected to be fully implement- ed over the next two years. In addition, AWS CWIs now doing inspection on pipelines will need to obtain the additional API 1169 certification to continue working where the new guidelines are adopted.

Central Arizona College Adds Inspection Course

Central Arizona College is adding Welding Inspection Technology to its course offerings with the fall semester. The class, listed as WLD 298, will be offered on Monday evenings from 4:30 to 9:30 pm. The course is designed for the welding professional who has an interest in becoming a Certified Welding Inspector, or transitioning from welding to inspection. It will also ben- efit those already in the inspection field who may want to advance or refresh their skills. Brent Couch, welding technology professor, said, “I am recommending all welding students take this course. It will help them better understand the requirements of inspection and meeting the standards of industry codes.” The college offers an associate of applied science degree in Welding Technology, a structural certificate, and is seek- ing approval for a pipe welding certificate.

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

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Pinnacle Expands Advanced Nondestructive Testing Team

Pinnacle Expands Advanced Nondestructive Testing Team PinnacleART’s growing inspection team includes (from left) Jeff

PinnacleART’s growing inspection team includes (from left) Jeff Johnson, Reggie Thomson, Adam Gardner, and Mike Brown.

Pinnacle Advanced Reliability Technologies (Pinna- cleART™) has expanded its advanced nondestructive testing inspection team. According to the company, the team in- cludes two of the 41 American Petroleum Institute (API) Qualification of Ultrasonic Sizing Examiners (QUSE) certifi- cation recipients worldwide. The expansion of the compa- ny’s NDT service line comes as a result of the growing de- mand from clients for highly trained, certified, and educated inspectors to meet rigorous integrity program processes and procedures.

continued on page 35

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index
For info, go to aws.org/ad­index
For info, go to aws.org/ad­index
For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

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Print and Product Showcase

Print and Product Showcase

UT Instrument Offers Large Multitouch Screen and Onboard Software The TOPAZ16 phased array ultra- sonic
UT Instrument Offers Large
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Onboard Software
The TOPAZ16 phased array ultra-
sonic instrument features onboard Ul-
traVision Touch software, an advanced
focal law calculator with visual feed-
back simplifies preparation for com-
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plex inspections, and onboard volu- metric merge and measurement tools to speed up the analysis process. The 16-channel instrument has a wide op- erating temperature range, a rugged aluminum casing with no air intake, and was built to meet a wide range of inspection demands. Common applica- tions include weld inspections, corro- sion mapping, encoded or manual in- spections, and inspections of complex components. It offers a 10.4-in. high- resolution display and a responsive multitouch screen.

Zetec, Inc.

zetec.com

Video Borescopes Updated

screen. Zetec, Inc. zetec.com Video Borescopes Updated The update to the XL Vu™ video borescope includes

The update to the XL Vu™ video borescope includes improved light out-

put for enhanced image quality, stereo measurement, 4 GB of internal memo-

ry, video output, and multiple USB ports. The durable, field-ready product is rated to IP55 and tested to tempera- tures up to 212°F. In addition, the company’s XL Lv™ video borescope is now available globally. This utility videoprobe offers high-quality still and video images. Both instruments weigh 3.9 lb and offer multiple probe lengths and diameters with interchangeable tip optics.

GE Inspection Technologies

gemeasurement.com/inspection-

and-non-destructive-testing

Gauge Measures Coatings

Up to 20 mm Thick

When the probe is exchanged on the Multigauge 5650 Surveyor thick- ness gauge, it automatically switches to single echo mode for measuring uncoat-

ed metal, glass-reinforced plastic, or plastic. For metal measurement, the gauge utilizes the multiple echo

ed metal, glass-reinforced plastic, or plastic. For metal measurement, the gauge utilizes the multiple echo tech- nique to ignore coatings up to 20 mm thick and just measure the metal sub- strate without the need to grind or oth- erwise remove the coatings. Either probe can also be used in echo-echo mode by selecting the option from the keypad during measurement, which negates the need for special probes. All probes have Intelligent Probe Recogni- tion, which automatically adjusts set- tings in the gauge when connected to match the probe and the gauge. The gauge uses only single crystal probes. The gauge comes as a complete, ready- to-use kit with a three-year warranty and free calibration for the life of the gauge.

Tritex NDT

tritexndt.com

System Inspects Weld Nozzles

gauge. Tritex NDT tritexndt.com System Inspects Weld Nozzles NozzleScan, a manual scanning instrument for the inspection

NozzleScan, a manual scanning instrument for the inspection of noz- zle welds, works with both set-through and set-on configurations. The instru- ment comes in both two- and three- axis configurations and is adaptable to cover a wide range of 90-deg nozzle sizes, from 3-in. OD upward, on ferrit- ic and austenitic materials. It features an overhead gimballed probe holder that allows the operator to hold the transducer conventionally for a more tactile inspection. Probe skew orienta- tion is also changeable, which is criti- cal for inspecting many nozzles. In that orientation, it can be free running or accurately adjustable with the addi-

tional option of being encoded as a third axis, if required.

Phoenix Inspection Systems Ltd. phoenixisl.com

Report Forecasts NDT and Inspection Markets

The report Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection Market by Technique, Serv- ice, Vertical, and Geography – Global Fore- cast to 2022 details that the NDT mar- ket is expected to reach $11.39 billion by 2022 at a compounded annual growth rate of 8.3%. The report pro-

vides a description of each of the appli- cation areas of the nondestructive in- spection market, which includes the fol- lowing testing techniques: visual, mag- netic particle, liquid penetrant, eddy current, ultrasonic, radiography, acoustic emission, and terahertz imag- ing. Ultrasonic testing is expected to hold the largest market share between 2016 and 2022. Applications in the oil and gas industries are expected to hold the largest market share to 2022.

Research and Markets researchandmarkets.com

share to 2022. Research and Markets researchandmarkets.com For info, go to aws.org/ad­index Inspection Trends / Summer
share to 2022. Research and Markets researchandmarkets.com For info, go to aws.org/ad­index Inspection Trends / Summer

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Feature By Ricky Zaske and Tim Price

Feature

By Ricky Zaske and Tim Price

Visual Weld Inspection of Structural Steel Buildings

Following specific sequential steps with properly trained and certified weld inspectors are key elements of a sound quality control program

are key elements of a sound quality control program NASA test stand 4693, which was designed

NASA test stand 4693, which was designed to test the hydrogen tank for the new NASA SLS Rocket program. The tank will be tested to failure.

Technical and scientific advances over the past century have provided many options for inspecting structural welds when erecting steel-framed struc- tures and buildings. Radiography, dye penetrant testing, and standard ultra- sonic testing right through to the most recent advances in phased array are only a few of these technologies. Even with these advances, by far the most com- mon and widely used inspection method for inspecting welds on steel structures is the good old human eye. Visual weld inspection is always the first inspection method used to

ensure the quality of any weld, and in many, many instances visual inspec- tion is the final means of approval to ensure the integrity and compliance of the weld in question. Nevertheless, as simple as it may sound, just as with many other things in life, there is much more to visual weld inspection than there may seem. There are certain sequenced steps an erector must take and very strict criteria that a responsi- ble steel erector must meet to ensure not only the integrity of the weld be- ing inspected, but also to maintain compliance with project requirements,

governing codes, and the steel erec- tor’s own quality control program. The first step prior to any welding activities being performed on a project is to review the contract documents, which include the erection drawings. These documents will provide you the information of what codes and stan- dards to which the structural steel is to be erected and welded. The erection drawings also provide details of the welded connections. These details will provide the information necessary for determining what prequalified welding procedures will be required for the weld- ing activities or if you need to perform procedure qualification for developing a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) for a welded joint connection. Often, after review of the contract documents, it is identified that the steel shall be welded and inspected in accordance with AWS D1.1: 2015, Structural Welding Code — Steel (Ref. 1), and AISC 360-10, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (Ref. 2). Within AWS D1.1 and AISC 360, there are requirements for inspection that shall be met by the erector.

Erector’s Responsibility

When reviewing AISC 360, you’ll find Chapter N provides the minimum requirements for quality control (QC), quality assurance (QA), and nonde- structive testing (NDT). Quality control in this chapter is defined as provided by the fabricator and erector. AISC 360 N2 requires the erector maintain quality control procedures and perform inspec-

R. Michael Whitten, PE, performs fitup inspection of a W40  431 CJP single bevel

R. Michael Whitten, PE, performs fitup inspection of a W40 431 CJP single bevel groove with a copper backing bar. He is verifying alignment.

tions in accordance with the specifica- tion and contract documents. The field welding is to be inspected by the erec- tor’s quality control inspector (QCI). AISC N4 describes the requirements that need to be met for qualification of the QCI. There are two options within N4: 1) qualified and certified to a level of Associate Welding Inspector (CAWI) or higher in accordance with AWS B5.1, Standard for the Qualification of Welding Inspectors (Ref. 3), and 2) qualified in accordance to AWS D1.1 Clause 6.1.4. Note: AISC 360 Chapter N also re- quires other inspections to be per- formed or observed by the erector that are not listed in this article. The reader must review AISC 360 Chapter N for other inspection requirements that pertain to erection of structural steel.

Weld Inspector Qualification

AWS B5.1 is an employer-based qualification standard that “establishes the requirements for qualification and defines the body of knowledge applica- ble to welding inspection personnel.” AWS B5.1 has three levels of qualifica- tion: Certified Associate Welding In- spectors (CAWI), Certified Welding In- spector (CWI), and Senior Certified Welding Inspector (SCWI). Each of these qualification levels has defined du- ties as specified in AWS B5.1. When qualifying welding inspectors in accor- dance to the standard, the erector must determine its needs in regard to the welding inspector’s capabilities based on

regard to the welding inspector’s capabilities based on In-process weld inspection. As the welder works, the

In-process weld inspection. As the welder works, the weld inspector, R. Michael Whitten, is verifying weld technique and travel speed.

qualification level. Along with ensuring the qualification level meets the erec- tor’s inspection requirements, the weld inspection personnel who are to be qualified must meet education and ex- perience requirements, pass a written examination, have the ability to pass a Jaeger 2 eye exam in at least one eye with or without correction, take a color perception test, and a contrast differen- tiation shades of grey test. AWS D1.1 Clause 6.1.4 has three acceptable options for the qualification of welding inspection personnel: 1) The welding inspector has a “current or pre- vious certification as an AWS Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) in confor- mance with AWS QC1, Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors,” 2) “current or previous qualification by the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) in conformance with requirements of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) Standard W178.2, Certification of Weld- ing Inspectors,” or 3) “an individual who, by training or experience, or both, in metal fabrication, inspection, and test- ing, is competent to perform inspection of the work.” AWS D1.1 also requires that the weld inspector pass an eye exam with or without correction to a Jaeger 2 every three years. The contract documents should be reviewed carefully on the subject of the welding inspector’s qualification level. The contract documents may state the level of qualification that is required for the project and may exceed the mini- mum requirements stated within AISC 360 and AWS D1.1. Once the erector determines the level of qualification for the welding in- spector, AISC 360 N5 lists the mini-

mum requirements for inspection of structural steel buildings and states “QC inspection tasks shall be performed by the erector’s quality control inspector (QCI) as applicable, in accordance with AISC N5.4, N5.6, and N5.7.” Inspection of welding is addressed in AISC N5.4 and Tables N5.4-1 through N5.4-3. The erector is responsible for the observa- tion of the welding operation, in- process weld inspection, and final weld inspection. All the provisions of AWS D1.1 for statically loaded structures apply to structural steel.

Weld Inspection Requirements and Frequency

AISC Tables N5.4-1 through N5.4-3 list the inspection require- ments for the erector’s QCI. These re- quirements will either be a perform (P) as defined “perform these tasks for each welded joint or member” or ob- serve (O) as defined “observe these items on a random basis, operation need not be delayed pending these ob- servations.” AISC Table N5.4-1 lists the in- spection tasks that must be done prior to welding being performed. Following are the eight items that need to be ei- ther performed or observed by the erector’s QCI:

1. Welding Procedure Specifica-

tion (WPS) available (Perform)

2. Manufacturer’s certifications

for welding consumables available (Perform)

3. Material identification

(type/grade) (Observe)

R. Micheal Whitten performs final weld inspection of a W40  431 CJP groove weld.

R. Micheal Whitten performs final weld inspection of a W40 431 CJP groove weld. The inspector is verifying weld reinforcement height.

4. Welder identification system

(Observe)

5. Fitup of groove welds (Observe)

6. Configuration and finish of ac-

cess holes (Observe). This item is nor- mally a function of the fabricator, but

in some cases the erector may have to field fabricate beams.

7. Fitup of fillet welds (Observe)

8. Check the welding machine

(Observe). AISC Table N5.4-2 lists the inspec- tion tasks that must be done during

welding. Following are the six items the erector’s QCI needs to observe:

1. Use of qualified welders

2. Control and handling of weld-

ing consumables; packaging, exposure control

within 3 in. of the weld when welding doubler plates, continuity plates, or

stiffeners

6. Backing and weld tabs removed

when required

7. Repair activities

8. Document the acceptance or re-

jection of the welded joint. Again, the contract documents

should be reviewed carefully. The con-

tract documents may stipulate weld in- spection requirements that are more stringent than what is listed within AISC Tables N5.4-1 through N5.4-3 and work cannot proceed until the weld in-

spections are completed by a Quality

Assurance Inspector (QAI) and meet the requirement of AWS D1.1 and contract documents. The QCI may not need to

3.

No welding over cracked tack

perform these inspections, but ensure

welds

work does not progress until these in-

4.

Environmental conditions —

spections are complete and in accor-

wind speed, precipitation, and temper- ature

dance with the contract documents and referencing code. Examples may include

5. WPS being followed — setting

on welding machine, travel speed, se-

lected welding materials, shielding gas type/flow rate, preheat, interpass temperature maintained, and proper position

6. Welding techniques — inter-

pass and final cleaning, each pass within profile limitations, and each pass meets quality requirements. AISC Table N5.4-3 lists the inspec- tion tasks after welding. Following are the eight items that need to be exam-

ined or performed by the erector’s QCI:

but not be limited to the following:

1. Perform fitup inspections for all

complete-joint-penetration (CJP) welds

2. Perform root inspection on all

CJP welds

3. Perform magnetic particle test-

ing (MT) on all root welds of CJP welds. You may be thinking “where did all these requirements come from?” The answer is they have always been re- quired by AWS D1.1. When reviewing the commentary to the tables listed above in AISC 360, there are references to AWS D1.1 sections for each of these

1.

Welds cleaned

tasks excluding inspection of the K-area.

2.

Size, length, and location of

What is useful about these tables is that

welds

they are easy to understand and specific

3.

Welds meet the visual accept-

to what inspections are required by the

ance criteria with regard to crack pro-

erector when welding structural steel in

hibition, weld/base metal fusion,

accordance with AISC 360.

crater cross section, weld profiles, weld size, undercut, and porosity

To perform the weld inspection tasks required within AISC Tables

4. Arc strikes

5. K-area — inspect for cracks

N5.4-1 through N5.4-3, you will need

to reference the following at a mini-

mum: AWS D1.1, Prequalified Welding Procedure Specifications (PWPSs), WPSs, and the contract documents for acceptance criteria. When the erector’s weld inspector

is performing weld inspection, it is im- portant that an inspection procedure be available detailing how to perform the weld inspection. AISC 360 and AWS D1.1 only state what needs to be inspected, frequency of inspection, and acceptance criteria of the item that is to be inspected. The inspection procedure should address but is not limited to the following:

1.

Personnel qualification require-

ments

2.

Scope of the procedure

3.

Use of visual aids

4.

Light intensity

5.

Lighting equipment

6.

Methods or tools for surface

preparation

7. Distance and angle of the eye to

item being inspected

8. Sequence of inspection

9. Required documentation.

Summary

It is very well defined in the re- quirements of AISC 360 and AWS D1.1 that weld inspection of structural steel is the responsibility of the steel erector, but it is not overly difficult nor need it be excessively confusing. By following specific sequential steps with properly trained and certified weld inspectors through a sound quali- ty control program, the steel erector

can confidently assure the client and the building owner that they are re-

ceiving quality welds.

References

owner that they are re- ceiving quality welds. References 1. AWS D1.1: 2015, Structural Welding Code

1. AWS D1.1: 2015, Structural

Welding Code Steel. Miami, Fla.:

American Welding Society.

2. AISC 360-10, Specification for

Structural Steel Buildings. Chicago, Ill.:

American Institute for Steel Construc- tion.

3. AWS B5.1, Standard for the

Qualification of Welding Inspectors. Mia- mi, Fla.: American Welding Society.

RICKY ZASKE (rzaske@lprconstruction.com) is corporate quality manager, and TIM PRICE is executive director, LPR Construction, Loveland, Colo.

Feature

Feature

An Introduction to Ultrasonic Transducers

These tips will help you select the type of ultrasonic transducer best suited for your NDE application

The high-frequency sound waves used for flaw detection and thickness gauging in ultrasonic nondestructive examination (NDE) applications are generated and received by small probes called ultrasonic transducers. Transducers are the starting point for any ultrasonic test setup, and they come in a wide variety of frequencies, sizes, and case styles to meet inspec- tion needs ranging from flaw detec- tion in enormous multi-ton steel forgings to thickness measurement of paper-thin coatings. A transducer is generally defined as any device that converts one form of energy into another. In ultrasonic NDE, transducers convert a pulse of electrical energy from the test instrument into me- chanical energy in the form of sound waves that travel through the test piece. Sound waves reflecting from the test piece are, in turn, converted by the transducer into a pulse of electrical energy that can be processed and dis- played by the test instrument. In ef- fect, the transducer acts as an ultra- sonic speaker and microphone, gener- ating and receiving pulses of sound waves at frequencies much higher than the range of human hearing. Typically, the active element of an NDE transducer is a thin disk, square, or rectangle of piezoelectric ceramic or composite that converts electrical energy into mechanical en- ergy, and vice versa. This element is sometimes informally called the crys-

tal because, in the early days of ultra- sonic NDE, elements were made from quartz crystals; however, ceramics such as lead metaniobate and lead zir- conium titanate have long been used in most transducers. Recent years have seen an increasing use of com- posite elements where the traditional solid ceramic disk or plate is replaced by a micro-machined element in which tiny cylinders of piezoelectric ceramic are embedded in an epoxy matrix. Composite elements can pro- vide increased bandwidth and im- proved sensitivity in many flaw de- tection applications. When it is excited by an electrical pulse, this piezoelectric element gen- erates sound waves, and when it is vi- brated by returning echoes, it gener- ates a voltage. The active element is protected from damage by a wearplate or acoustic lens and backed by a block of damping material that quiets the transducer after the sound pulse has been generated. This ultra- sonic subassembly is mounted in a case with appropriate electrical con- nections. All common contact, angle beam, delay line, and immersion transducers utilize this basic design. The phased array probes used in im- aging applications simply combine a number of individual transducer ele- ments in a single assembly. Dual- element transducers, commonly used in corrosion survey applications, dif- fer in that they have separate trans- mitting and receiving elements sepa-

rated by a sound barrier, no backing, and an integral delay line to steer and couple the sound energy rather than a wearplate or lens. Figure 1 illustrates typical trans- ducer construction. While the basic concept is simple, transducers are precision devices that require great care in design, material selection, and manufacturing to help ensure optimum and consistent per- formance. The transducers commonly used in conventional ultrasonic NDE fall into the following five general cat- egories based on their design and in- tended use.

Contact Transducers

As the name implies, contact trans- ducers are used in direct contact with the test piece. A thin, hard wearplate cut to a thickness of one-quarter the wavelength protects the active element from damage in normal use. Contact transducers are commonly used in flaw detection applications involving straight beam tests, such as when look- ing for voids in metal ingots or delami- nations in composites, and also in many thickness gauging applications.

Angle Beam Transducers

These are similar in construction to contact transducers, but are de- signed to be used with angle beam wedges to generate sound tilted at an

Fig. 1 — Typical single-element and dual-element transducer construction. angle to the coupling surface. Wedges

Fig. 1 — Typical single-element and dual-element transducer construction.

angle to the coupling surface. Wedges are commonly configured to generate refracted shear waves at 45, 60, or 70 deg. They are standard in most weld inspections since testing the most common weld geometries requires aiming sound waves at an angle. These transducers are referenced in all common weld inspection codes.

Delay Line Transducers

Delay line transducers incorporate

a cylinder of plastic, epoxy, or fused sili- ca known as a delay line between the ac- tive element and the test piece. A major reason for using them is for thin materi- al applications like testing spot welds in sheet metal or measuring very thin test pieces, where it is important to separate the excitation pulse recovery from back- wall echoes. A delay line is often used as

a thermal insulator, protecting the heat-

sensitive transducer element from di- rect contact with hot test pieces. Delay lines can also be shaped or contoured to improve sound coupling in sharply curved or confined spaces.

Immersion Transducers

Immersion transducers, as the name implies, are designed to be im-

mersed in water and use a column or bath of water to couple sound energy into the test piece. These transducers frequently incorporate an acoustic lens that focuses the sound beam into a small spot, increasing sensitivity to small reflectors. They are commonly used for on-line or in-process tests on moving parts, for scanned tests, and for optimizing sound coupling into sharp radiuses, grooves, or channels in test pieces with complex geometry.

Dual-Element Transducers

Dual-element transducers, or simply “duals,” are used primarily for tests involving rough, corroded sur- faces. They incorporate separate transmitting and receiving elements mounted on a delay line at a small an- gle to focus sound energy a selected distance beneath the surface of a test piece. Although thickness measure- ment with duals is sometimes not as accurate as with other types of trans- ducers, they usually provide signifi- cantly better performance in corro- sion survey applications due to their higher sensitivity to pitting and im- proved near-surface resolution. They are also commonly used for high- temperature testing since most duals

will tolerate contact with hot surfaces, and for flaw detection in rough-sur- faced castings.

Longitudinal and Shear Waves

The high-frequency vibrations that are the basis of ultrasonic NDE commonly occur as either longitudi- nal waves (particle motion parallel to wave direction) or shear waves (parti- cle motion perpendicular to wave di- rection). All commonly used NDE transducers generate longitudinal waves. Thickness gauging and straight beam flaw detection normal- ly use longitudinal waves, which are the easiest to create and propagate well through typical engineering ma- terials. Shear waves are used in most angle beam inspections of welds and similar structures. Angle beam as- semblies use refractive mode conver- sion to turn the longitudinal waves generated by the transducer into shear waves, which have a shorter wavelength than comparable longitu- dinal waves and are thus more sensi- tive to small reflectors. Some immersion tests also utilize shear waves generated by mode con- version. Other modes, such as surface

waves and plate waves, also exist as well as contact transducers that gener- ate shear waves directly, but these are employed only in specialized tests.

A Variety of Frequencies

In addition to the various design types, ultrasonic transducers are avail- able in a wide variety of frequencies, sizes, and bandwidths to meet differ- ent application needs. Most ultrasonic testing is performed at frequencies be- tween 1 and 10 MHz; however, com- mercially available transducers range in frequency from less than 50 KHz to greater than 200 MHz. (By compari- son, the range of human hearing is from approximately 20 Hz to 20 KHz, decreasing as a person gets older.) Commonly used element sizes range from as small as 0.125 in. (3 mm) to 1.5 in. (38 mm). Bandwidth, or the span of frequencies contained in the spectrum generated by the transducer, may be either narrow or broad. Why all these choices? Because of basic wave physics, each of these param- eters affects the behavior of the sound wave in ways that will have advantages and disadvantages in a given test. Higher frequencies permit detec- tion of smaller flaws and measurement of thinner test pieces, but the sound energy won’t travel as far as at lower frequencies. Lower frequencies pro- vide better penetration of thick test pieces, especially in materials like cast metals and plastics that transmit sound less efficiently, but they will be less sensitive to small flaws and may not measure thin sections. Large elements can permit quicker scanning of a test piece, but will reduce sensitivity to small reflectors and may not couple well onto curved surfaces like pipes. Smaller elements will be more sensitive to small reflectors and will couple better onto curved surfaces, but will not test large areas as quickly. Broadband transducers have good near-surface resolution, enabling de- tection of flaws close to the surface

and measuring thin parts. Narrow- band transducers have better penetra- tion and can generate stronger echoes from reflectors, but exhibit less axial resolution.

What Is Best for Your Application?

So which one is best for your ap- plication? In many cases, the choice of a transducer will be dictated by an es- tablished inspection code or test pro- cedure that calls out a specific type. But if no procedure is available, the in- spector must decide on the best trans- ducer for the test based on his or her knowledge of ultrasonic theory, the defined test goals (such as the type and size of flaws that need to be re- solved), and the specific material, thickness, and geometry of the test piece. While knowledge of theory and some NDE experience are essential, in some cases an inspector’s skills must be supplemented by experimentation on test samples to determine which transducer will work best. Transducers are commonly sup- plied with test forms that document basic performance characteristics, typ- ically with respect to a generally recog- nized test procedure such as ASTM E- 1065. These forms verify product con- sistency and adherence to specifica- tions. As an example, the test form documents peak and center frequen- cies, upper and lower frequency limits, bandwidth, and RF waveform under the listed test conditions. For ad- vanced users, manufacturers can also supply more specialized documenta- tion such as electrical impedance plots and beam profiles when required. While the transducer is an essen- tial part of any test, instrument setup is also a critical factor. Instrument manufacturers will typically supply recommended procedures for calibrat- ing their instrument with a given transducer for a given test. At a mini- mum, this involves setting gain (sensi- tivity) levels and zero offset with re-

spect to the transducer being used and material sound velocity. This is usually accomplished with the aid of appropri- ate test blocks or reference samples. Depending on the instrument and the test, other parameters such as pulse energy, damping, and receiver filtering may also need adjustment. A properly trained inspector will be familiar with all of these settings and know how to use them to opti- mize test results in each case. Good practice also dictates that instrument settings be verified whenever the transducer is changed, or if the trans- ducer shows signs of excessive wear. Many test procedures require periodic calibration checks during inspections to help ensure that nothing affecting test results has changed. Transducers from quality manu- facturers will usually last for years if treated well; however, they are sensi- tive devices that should be protected from damage due to excessive shock or vibration, abrasion from scraping against rough surfaces, exposure to corrosive liquids, and overheating. Un- less specified for high-temperature use, most single-element transducers should not be subjected to tempera- tures higher than approximately 125°F (50°C). Transducers with significant visible surface wear should be checked for performance before use. Dual- element transducers can frequently be resurfaced, and delay lines can be easi- ly replaced, but damage to contact transducers is nonrepairable. High-pressure environments, un- derwater use, and other special envi- ronments should be reviewed with the transducer manufacturer. In cases where test piece geometry restricts ac- cess, special transducers can some- times be designed to fit. Again, consultation with the manufacturer is recommended.

Again, consultation with the manufacturer is recommended. Based on information provided by Olympus Scientific

Based on information provided by Olympus Scientific Solutions Americas, Waltham, Mass., olympus-ossa.com.

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Feature By Ken Coryell

Feature

By Ken Coryell

Understanding the Updated CWI Practical Exam

Before the exam was released to the public last February, it went through several rigorous rounds of beta tests to make sure the requirements were realistic

The new Certified Welding Inspec- tor (CWI) practical exam has been in use since February 1, but it has been in the planning and development stages for more than four years. The development was no easy undertaking, and required many hundreds of volunteer hours by dedicated welding inspection profes- sionals on the Certification Comittee Exam Bank (CCEB) Subcommittee . In addition to the CCEB, contribu- tors included George Hlifka, Bob Wiswesser, Stan Raymond, Lyndsey Deckard, Jim Reid, Jeff Hufsey, Blake Craft, and Dave Landon. AWS staff pro- vided key planning and coordination support throughout, which enabled var- ious milestones to be achieved. Based on revisions to AWS B5.1, Specification for Qualification of Welding Inspectors, as well as feedback and sur- veys from industrial users of CWIs, CCEB decided a completely fresh ap- proach was needed. The Part B Book of Specifications (BOS), tool kit, examina- tion specimens, and Book of Exhibits (BOE) were all on the table. The Book of Specifications was the first component studied. The previous BOS was a collection of tables and text heavily influenced by AWS D1.1, Struc- tural Welding Code — Steel. CWI candi- dates with only pipeline or pressure pip- ing experience were often unfamiliar with structural requirements (e.g., pre- qualified joint details) and would strug- gle with some of the questions in this area. It took about a year for the first draft of the revised BOS to be written. Because CWIs commonly work in many different industries, a minimally quali- fied CWI should be able to work in dif- ferent industry sectors requiring differ- ent approaches to inspection. As a re-

sult, specific clauses were written for ap- plications involving structural steel, pipelines, and pressure piping. They are based on D1.1, API 1104, and ASME B31.1. Other codes and standards were considered, but for practical considera- tions could not be included. Throughout the rewrite process, the CCEB’s objective was to keep the re- quirements realistic and in line with what a CWI might realistically en- counter when using a company specifi- cation developed with these codes and standards. A significant effort was spent ad- dressing welding qualifications that are different between D1.1, API 1104, and ASME B31.1. Under the time con- straints of an examination, addressing all the different technical nuances be- tween these three codes would be con- fusing. Therefore, a fourth clause was added to the BOS that covers only quali- fications. It is generally based on AWS B2.1, which holds some recognition in D1.1 and ASME. The examination weld- ing procedure and welding performance qualification requirements, including qualification variables and limits, are based on this clause. The BOS also con- tains several normative and informative annexes. Numerous revisions and edits were required throughout the develop- ment process. Because of the examina- tion time limit, candidates should be- come familiar with the BOS prior to at- tempting the examination. Before much thought could be giv- en to test specimens, tool kits, and the Book of Exhibits, a detailed analysis of CWI practical skills was performed. Throughout the development process, the driving question was exact- ly what is it that a minimally qualified CWI should be able to do? The earlier

practical exams largely concentrated on final visual examinations with an em- phasis on evaluation of discontinuities and weld sizes. Both AWS B5.1 and AWS 1.11, Guide for the Visual Examina- tion of Welds, are clear that inspections are to be performed before, during, and after welding. Therefore, the examina- tion body of knowledge was expanded to put additional emphasis on the “be- fore” welding activities of documenta- tion review [e.g., Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs), Procedure Quali- fication Records (PQRs), and Welding Procedure Qualification Records (WQTRs)]; edge preparations (e.g., roughness); and fitup. Welding “in-process” tasks now in- clude bead sequence, placement, and terminations, plus overall compliance with WPSs. “Final” inspection tasks con- tinue to include, but go beyond, evalua- tion of porosity, undercut, weld size, and weld reinforcement. Some addition- al inspection skills added include evalu- ation of weld width, weld pitch and length, terminations, end returns and holdbacks, root surface conditions, and weld repairs. Because of added emphasis in other body of knowledge areas, a Book of Exhibits (BOE) was needed that includes other documents in addition to photographs. Candidates can be expected to con- sult WPSs, PQRs, and WQTRs as they would need to do realistically as part of normal inspection activities. An assort- ment of these have been assembled. All have been prepared by CCEB welding engineers and are based on actual and typical jobs. A minimally qualified CWI is expected to review these documents for completeness and accuracy and, if correct, use them to monitor a job for

Fig. 1 — The current AWS tool kit. It includes (from left) hi-lo gauge, dial

Fig. 1 — The current AWS tool kit. It includes (from left) hi-lo gauge, dial caliper, ruler, mirror, C4.1, magnifying glass,

protractor, V-Wac, fillet gauges, and flashlight.

compliance. Based on qualification limits defined in a standard, the CWI should be able to recognize whether or not a welder is qualified to perform a specific job.

Test Specimens

With an overall plan in place, a ma- jor amount of effort went into the de- velopment of new test specimens. Vari- ous replication processes were consid- ered and this was factored into the plan- ning. Subtle flaws had to be consistent from one specimen to the next. Early in the planning, it was recognized that some type of a pipe specimen would be required and that it would be necessary to replicate detail on both the exterior as well as the interior pipe surfaces. This proved to be a challenge for some of the replica suppliers. In addition to the pipe, butt, T, and lap joint specimens were planned and detailed drawings prepared showing what weld sizes were needed and what flaws were needed and at what loca- tions. Some joints are at various stages of welding. The drawings were thoroughly re- viewed against the matrix of required CWI skills to verify that all body of knowledge skills were covered in some way. The master specimens then needed to be produced. Different weld shops were used and a CCEB member was present during the welding of the speci- mens to make sure that all desired fea- tures were present and that flaws ap- peared to be realistic. Countless bend specimens were reviewed for both speci- men preparation issues and discontinu- ities. Several specimens were selected for exam purposes. Once the replication of plastic spec- imens went into production, it was nec- essary to design a detailed inspection

plan to ensure replica- tion consistency be- tween specimens. One hundred percent of the specimens being used in the examination were checked in accordance with a written checklist developed by CCEB. AWS staff were trained by CCEB members re- garding what had to be examined and measured. All inspection features

for each specimen were recorded on a checklist. Any discrepant speci- mens were discarded.

Tool Kit

Selection of the specific inspec- tion tools for the tool kit provided a different challenge. Nearly every weld- ing gauge that is commercially avail- able in the United States was consid- ered at some point. Each CCEB mem- ber tried each tool as appropriate on each specimen. Consideration was giv- en to required precision and accuracy, whether or not the tool was commonly used, and how frequently the tool would be used on the exam. Tool preferences can vary from in- spector to inspector, so the CCEB members concentrated on the required precision and accuracy needed for the weld replicas. Some tools had reliabili- ty issues, meaning it was difficult to obtain consistent results on the same specimen. These factors were also con- sidered. The subcommittee worked with the gauge manufacturer to modi- fy the design of some of the tools to make them more usable both on the exam and on actual jobs. These tool de- signs have replaced the earlier designs in the commercial catalogs. The final tool kit reflects the overall best balanced decision. Some of the tools may not be the first choice on an actual job, but for the CWI exam speci- mens, they worked best. Tools that could be used for more than one pur- pose were favored. Following is a sum- mary of the tools in the new kit (Fig. 1):

• Flashlight (same as old kit)

• Magnifier (same as old kit)

• Fillet Gauges (same as old kit)

• V-Wac Gauge (slightly modified

to extend reach and reliability)

• 6-in. Steel Rule (now has both

fraction scales and decimal scales)

• Caliper

• Protractor (new)

• Mirror (new)

• Surface Roughness Guide (new)

• Hi-Lo Gauge (new)

The weld size gauge (palmgren) was removed from the kit because of precision and cost. It should be mentioned that with the new convexity limits in D1.1, CCEB could not locate a suitable com- mercially available tool that could measure these limits, especially when considering convexity limits for indi- vidual beads in a split-bead layer. CCEB developed a new tool for this ap- plication in cooperation with a gauge manufacturer. It is now commercially available, in use, and will be added to the kit in the near future.

Exam Questions

Exam question writing started once enough of the major pieces were in place. The writing of multiple choice test questions that are clear and unambigu- ous is no easy task. Some questions un- intentionally ended up being more diffi- cult than intended, and some were un- intentionally so easy they could be an- swered without even looking at a speci- men. The CCEB members debate fre- quently about whether a question is something that a minimally qualified CWI should be able to answer. Each question must be agreed to and ap- proved by all members before it is used. When a sufficient number of questions are written, an exam must be generated that distributes the number of ques- tions proportionally across the body of knowledge as specified by B5.1. The exam is then beta tested with candi- dates who were not involved in the question development process. Feed- back is received and revisions are made. Before the exam was released to the public last February, it underwent sever- al rigorous rounds of beta tests. The CCEB carefully monitors performance of the exam and continues to make im- provements where needed.

the exam and continues to make im- provements where needed. KEN CORYELL is a Senior Certified

KEN CORYELL is a Senior Certified Welding Inspector and has been an AWS member for more than 40 years. Formerly a long-time AWS instructor who prepared candidates for the CWI exam, he now works as a member of the Certification Committee Exam Bank Subcommittee. He is a semiretired welding quality consultant.

Technology Notes

Technology Notes

Interpretations

D1.1/D1.1.M:2015, Structural Weld- ing Code — Steel

Subject: Waveform Power Supplies Code Edition: D1:1:2015 Code Provision: Subclauses 5.10, 3.2.1, and 3.2.4

AWS Log: D1.1-15-I01 Inquiry:

1) Does AWS D1.1:2015, clause 5.10, preclude the use of “waveform” power supplies? 2) Does AWS D1.1:2015, clause 5.10, preclude the use of “waveform” power supplies where the welding pro- cedure is preprogrammed into the weld-

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ing machine, and the welding personnel call up the welding procedure from the welding machine’s memory? 3) Does AWS D1.1:2015, clause 3.2.1, preclude the use of GMAW-P from use with prequalified WPSs? 4) Does AWS D1.1:2015, clause 3.2.4, preclude the use of waveform- controlled power supplies from being used with prequalified WPSs? 5) Does AWS D1.1:2015, clause 3, permit the use of prequalified WPSs that use GMAW-P? Response:

1) No. Any type of power supply is ac- ceptable, providing the equipment is

“…so designed and manufactured

enable designated personnel to follow

the procedures and attain the results de- scribed elsewhere in this code.” 2) No. Any type of power supply control is acceptable, so long as the controls are such that designated per-

sonnel are enabled to “

procedures and attain the results de- scribed elsewhere in this code.” The in- dividuals responsible for the WPSs should make certain that the stored WPSs meet the applicable require- ments of D1.1, including compliance with D1.1:2015, clause 5.3.1.2. 3) No. Clause 3.2.1 permits the use of all modes of GMAW, except for GMAW-S, which is precluded from prequalification. 4) No. Clause 3.2.4 was developed to preclude the use of constant current power supplies for FCAW and GMAW when using prequalified WPSs; this provision was developed without any intention of imposing requirements on GMAW-P. 5) Yes, providing all the requirements of Clause 3 are met.

as to

follow the

Subject: Waveform Power Supplies Code Edition: D1:1:2010 Code Provision: Subclauses 5.11, 3.2.1, and 3.2.4 AWS Log: D1.1-10-I21 Inquiry:

1) Does AWS D1.1:2010, clause 5.11, preclude the use of “waveform” power supplies? 2) Does AWS D1.1:2010, clause 5.11, preclude the use of “waveform” power supplies where the welding procedure is preprogrammed into the welding ma-

chine, and the welding personnel call up the welding procedure from the welding machine’s memory? 3) Does AWS D1.1:2010, clause 3.2.1, preclude the use of GMAW-P from use with prequalified WPSs? 4) Does AWS D1.1:2010, clause 3.2.4, preclude the use of waveform- controlled power supplies from being used with prequalified WPSs? 5) Does AWS D1.1:2010, clause 3, permit the use of prequalified WPSs that use GMAW-P? Response:

1) No. Any type of power supply is ac- ceptable, providing the equipment is

“…so designed and manufactured

as to

enable designated personnel to follow the procedures and attain the results de- scribed elsewhere in this code.” 2) No. Any type of power supply

control is acceptable, so long as the controls are such that designated per- sonnel are enabled to “…follow the procedures and attain the results de- scribed elsewhere in this code.” The in- dividuals responsible for the WPSs should make certain that the stored WPSs meet the applicable require- ments of D1.1, including compliance with D1.1:2010, clause 5.3.1.2. 3) No. Clause 3.2.1 permits the

use of all modes of GMAW, except for GMAW-S, which is precluded from prequalification. 4) No. Clause 3.2.4 was developed to preclude the use of constant current power supplies for FCAW and GMAW when using prequalified WPSs; this provision was developed without any intention of imposing requirements on GMAW-P. 5) Yes, providing all the require- ments of Clause 3 are met.

A3.0M/A3.0:2010, Standard Weld- ing Terms and Definitions

Subject: Definition for Heat Input Code Edition: A3.0M/A3.0:2010 Code Provision: Glossary AWS Log: A3.0-10-I02 Inquiry: Can you please clarify whether this definition refers to the total energy of the arc applied to the workpiece during welding, or does it refer only to the amount of heat actu- ally absorbed into the workpieces dur- ing welding (the total energy of the arc minus the heat losses)? Interpretation:

The definition refers to the input ener- gy applied to the workpiece during welding. There is no attempt to differ-

entiate the amount of energy ab- sorbed, reflected, miscalculated, misdi- rected, lost, etc,. as this is considered beyond the scope of the definition. It is important to realize that this defini- tion applies to all types of welding processes, not just arc welding.

Errata

The following errata have been identified for AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2000, Structural Welding Code — Steel. Pages 80, 83, Figure 3.4, Detail B- U3a-S, B-U5b and TC-U5a. Change “3 X R” to “ 1 8X R” and “6 X R” to “ 1 4⁄ X R”. Pages 139, 141, Table 4.9, under (1) Test on Plate, Type of Test Weld (Applic- able Figures): Change “Groove (Fig. 4.30 or 4.31)” for 3 8< T < 1 to “Groove (Fig. 4.21, 4.22 or 4.29).” Page 176, Table 6.1 under “(6) Un- dersized welds.” Change “In all cases, the undersize portion of the shall…” to “In all cases, the undersize portion of the weld shall…” Page 226, Clause 7.5.5.7, change reference to subclause 6.6.1 to sub- clause 6.9. Annex M, page 342 — Bottom Row, under “Electrode Classification.” Change “E10018- X” to “E11018-X.”

Change “E10018- X” to “E11018-X.” For info, go to aws.org/ad­index Inspection Trends /
Change “E10018- X” to “E11018-X.” For info, go to aws.org/ad­index Inspection Trends /

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

Mark Your Calendar

Mark Your Calendar

3rd Welding Education, Skills & Certification Confer- ence (AWS-sponsored event) August 10–12. Houston, Tex. Contact American Welding Society, (800) 443-9353, ext. 455, or aws.org/w/a/confer- ences/index.

NDE/NDT for Highway and Bridges: Structural Materi- als Technology 2016 August 29–September 1. DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Port- land, Portland, Ore. Contact American Society for Nonde- structive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or asnt.org.

ASNT Annual Conference 2016 October 24–27. Long Beach Convention & Entertainment Center, Long Beach, Calif. Contact American Society for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or asnt.org.

FABTECH 2016 (AWS-sponsored event) November 16–18. Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nev. Contact American Welding Society, (800) 443-9353, or fabtechexpo.com.

26th ASNT Research Symposium 2017 March 13–16, 2017. Jacksonville, Fla. Contact American Socie- ty for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or asnt.org.

Educational Opportunities

GE Inspection Academy Courses. Online e-courses, on- site classes, and week-long classroom programs in the major industrial evaluation techniques. For information, visit gein- spectionacademy.com.

NDE Classes. Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, Ill., offers NDE classes in PT, MT, UT, RT, Radiation Safety, and Eddy Current, as well as API 510 exam prep and weld inspection. For more information, contact (708) 974- 5735; wdcs@morainevalley.edu; morainevalley.edu/NDE.

EPRI NDE Training Seminars. EPRI offers NDE technical skills training in visual examination, ultrasonic examina- tion, ASME Section XI, UT operator training, etc. Contact Sherryl Stogner, (704) 547-6174, e-mail: sstogner@epri.com.

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index
For info, go to aws.org/ad­index
For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

For info, go to aws.org/ad­index

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Nondestructive Examination Courses. A course sched- ule is available from Hellier, 277 W. Main St., Ste. 2, Niantic, CT 06357; (860) 739-8950; FAX (860) 739-6732.

Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses. One- and two-week courses presented in Pascagoula, Miss., Hous- ton, Tex., and Houma and Sulphur, La. Contact RealEducation- al Services, Inc.; (800) 489-2890; info@real educational.com.

CWI/CWE Course and Exam. A ten-day program present- ed in Troy, Ohio. Contact Hobart Institute of Welding Tech- nology, (800) 332-9448; hiwt@welding.org; welding.org.

T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., Courses. CWI preparation, NDE cours- es, including ultrasonic thickness testing and advanced phased array. On-site training available. T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., 193 Viking Ave., Brea, CA 92821; (714) 255-1500; FAX (714) 255-1580; ndtguru@aol.com; testndt.com.

NDE Training. NDE training at the company’s St. Louis-area facility or on-site. Level III services available. For a schedule of upcoming courses, contact Quality Testing Services, Inc., 2305 Millpark Dr., Maryland Heights, MO 63043; (888) 770-0103; training@qualitytesting.com; qualitytesting.net.

CWI/CWE Prep Course and Exam and NDT Inspector Training Courses. An AWS Accredited Testing Facility. Courses held year-round in Allentown, Pa., and at cus- tomers’ facilities. Contact: Welder Training & Testing Insti- tute (WTTI). Call (800) 223-9884, info@wtti.edu; wtti.edu.

facilities. Contact: Welder Training & Testing Insti- tute (WTTI). Call (800) 223-9884, info@wtti.edu ; wtti.edu .
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Certification Schedule

Certification Schedule

Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)

Location Baton Rouge, LA Las Vegas, NV Philadelphia, PA Seattle, WA Miami, FL Mobile, AL Portland, ME Charlotte, NC Fargo, ND San Diego, CA Minneapolis, MN Kansas City, MO San Antonio, TX Salt Lake City, UT Miami, FL Nampa, ID St. Louis, MO Houston, TX Anchorage, AK Long Beach, CA New Orleans, LA Pittsburgh, PA Indianapolis, IN Tulsa, OK Portland, OR Nashville, TN El Paso, TX Miami, FL Shreveport, LA S. Plainfield, NJ Beaumont, TX Atlanta, GA Des Moines, IA Detroit, MI Roanoke, VA Spokane, WA Cleveland, OH Huntsville, AL Sacramento, CA Miami, FL Annapolis, MD Dallas, TX Las Vegas, NV Miami, FL St. Louis, MO Los Angeles, CA Orlando, FL Reno, NV Houston, TX

Seminar Dates

Exam Date

Aug. 7–12

Aug. 13

Aug. 7–12

Aug. 13

Aug. 7–12

Aug. 13

Aug. 7–12

Aug. 13

Exam only

Aug. 18

Aug. 14–19

Aug. 20

Aug. 14–19

Aug. 20

Aug. 14–19

Aug. 20

Aug. 14–19

Aug. 20

Aug. 21–26

Aug. 27

Aug. 21–26

Aug. 27

Aug. 21–26

Aug. 27

Aug. 21–26

Aug. 27

Aug. 21–26

Aug. 27

Sept. 11–16

Sept. 17

Sept. 11–16

Sept. 17

Sept. 11–16

Sept. 17

Sept. 11–16

Sept. 17

Sept. 18–23

Sept. 24

Sept. 18–23

Sept. 24

Sept. 18–23

Sept. 24

Sept. 18–23

Sept. 24

Sept. 25–30

Oct. 1

Sept. 25–30

Oct. 1

Sept. 25–30

Oct. 1

Sept. 25–30

Oct. 1

Sept. 25–30

Oct. 1

Exam only

Oct. 13

Oct. 16–21

Oct. 22

Oct. 16–21

Oct. 22

Oct. 16–21

Oct. 22

Oct. 23–28

Oct. 29

Oct. 23–28

Oct. 29

Oct. 23–28

Oct. 29

Oct. 23–28

Oct. 29

Oct. 23–28

Oct. 29

Oct. 30–Nov. 4

Nov. 5

Nov. 6–11

Nov. 12

Nov. 6–11

Nov. 12

Nov. 6–11

Nov. 12

Nov. 6–11

Nov. 12

Nov. 6–11

Nov. 12

FABTECH

Nov. 18

Exam only

Dec. 8

Exam only

Dec. 10

Dec. 4–9

Dec. 10

Dec. 4–9

Dec. 10

Dec. 4–9

Dec. 10

Dec. 4–9

Dec. 10

9-Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI

For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education re- quirements without taking the exam. The exam can be tak- en at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.

Location San Diego, CA Orlando, FL Denver, CO Dallas, TX New Orleans, LA Seattle, WA

Seminar Dates July 31–Aug. 5 Aug. 21–26 Sept. 11–16 Sept. 25–30 Oct. 23–28 Oct. 30–Nov. 4

Certified Welding Educator (CWE)

Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).

Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)

CWSR exams are given at Prometric testing centers. More information at aws.org/certification/detail/certified-welding- sales-representative.

Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)

CWS exams are given at Prometric testing centers. More in- formation at aws.org/certification/detail/certified-welding- supervisor.

Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)

The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.

Location

Seminar Dates

Exam Date

Kansas City, MO

Aug. 22–26

Aug. 27

Chicago, IL

Sept. 19–23

Sept. 24

Pittsburgh, PA

Oct. 17–21

Oct. 22

Miami, FL

Exam only

Nov. 19

Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)

ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 391–8421 OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800, ext. 218 Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542 Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688 Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736 On request at MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 456-5454

225-7736 On request at MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 456-5454 IMPORTANT : This schedule is subject to

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Please verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to confirm your course status before making travel plans. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline dates by visiting our website aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register online, visit aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars.

Just the Facts By Rich Campbell

Just the Facts

By Rich Campbell

Are CWIs Examiners or Inspectors?

Facts By Rich Campbell Are CWIs Examiners or Inspectors? Is this CWI performing visual examination or

Is this CWI performing visual examination or visual inspection?

A Certified Welding Inspector’s

(CWI’s) duties include visually examin- ing welds to ensure they meet the specification or code requirements. But are CWIs performing examina- tions or inspections, and does it mat-

ter what we are called? These terms are

often used interchangeably, yet some welding codes and standards clearly define the terms and responsibilities.

Inspection and Examination Responsibilities in ASME B31.3 and AWS D1.1

ASME B31.3-2014, Process Piping Code

ASME B31.3, Process Piping Code, incorporates what is arguably the

most distinct difference in the applica- tion of examination vs. inspection and examiner vs. inspector of most weld- ing codes. This code includes Chapter

VI “Inspection, Examination, and Test-

ing,” which describes the requirements (such as percentages of welds) and ac- ceptance criteria for examination, in- spection, and testing of process piping

welds. But, in this international code, what is meant by the terms inspection and examination? And what role does a CWI perform in this code: inspector or examiner? Inspection is defined in paragraph

340.1 as duties and “functions per-

formed for the owner by the owner’s

Inspector or the Inspector’s delegates.” Later in the same chapter, examina- tion is defined through paragraph

341.1 as “quality control functions

performed by the manufacturer (for components only), fabricator, or erec- tor.” Thus, the initial differences are re- garding who the person reports to; an inspector works for the owner whereas an examiner works for the manufac- turer, fabricator, or erector.

Responsibilities of Inspector and Examiner

Paragraph 340.2 states that the owner’s Inspector’s responsibility is “…to verify that all required examina- tions and testing have been completed and to inspect the piping to the extent necessary to be satisfied that it con- forms to all applicable examination re-

quirements…” Notice this does not re- quire the Inspector to inspect all or any welds, but rather to verify that the examinations and testing have been completed (by the examiner) and to inspect welds as the Inspector deems necessary. Typically, this inspection is accomplished by verifying documenta- tion of examinations and testing and occasional inspection of welds. In paragraph 341.2, it clarifies

that the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector is still responsible to meet code requirements and perform the re- quired examinations (such as a mini- mum of 5% visual examination of all piping girth welds for normal fluid service) and prepare appropriate records of examinations and tests for the Inspector’s use, regardless of what actual inspection the Inspector may perform. Thus, an inspector may nev- er actually perform visual inspection of

a weld in accordance with this code,

but, an examiner will perform the re- quired hands-on visual examination.

Qualifications of Inspector and Examiner

The ASME B31.3 code continues

with qualifications of inspectors and examiners. The “owner’s Inspector” (paragraph 340.4) shall be

• Designated by the owner

• The owner or an employee of the

owner

• An employee of an engineering or

scientific organization or of a recog- nized insurance or inspection compa- ny acting as the owner’s agent. And shall not:

• Represent nor be an employee of the

piping manufacturer, fabricator, or erector unless the owner is also the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector. This further defines the require- ments for qualification of the owner’s Inspector [paragraphs 340.4(b)(1)–(4)] and one of those options now includes being an AWS CWI or Senior Certified Welding Inspector (SCWI) in accor-

dance with AWS QC1, Standard for the AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors. This was added in the 2012 edition to acknowledge the breadth and depth of background that CWIs and SCWIs bring to process piping weld inspection. Options for qualifications of an inspector (who reports to the owner) include being a CWI or SCWI per AWS QC1, as well as being a professional engineer and other options. Paragraph (c) also requires that the owner’s Inspector is responsible to ensure that an Inspector’s delegate is qualified to perform the inspection function they are being delegated to perform. However, it does not spell out what those requirements are. Finally, paragraph 342 addresses qualification of examination person- nel. In the 2012 and earlier editions, this simply recommended qualification to ASNT SNT-TC-1A, while the 2014 edition now requires qualification and certification in accordance with the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, which requires qualification to ASNT SNT-TC-1A.

Rights of the Owner’s Inspector

In paragraph 340.3, ASME B31.3 gives rights to the owner’s Inspector and Inspector’s delegates to have access to any place where work is being per- formed and to audit any examination, inspect the piping, and review records.

Summary of ASME B31.3 Inspector vs. Examiner

Who the CWI works for deter- mines if he or she is an inspector or an examiner in ASME B31.3. CWIs em- ployed or contracted by the owner are the owner’s Inspector or Inspector’s delegate. CWIs employed or contracted by a manufacturer, welding fabricator, or contractor, are examiners. If em- ployed or contracted by an independ- ent, third-party inspection company (such as a nondestructive examination contractor), they might be examiners or inspectors, depending upon who has hired their third-party company.

AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2015, Structural Welding Code — Steel

AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code — Steel, only addresses inspectors; it

does not use the term examiner. D1.1 distinguishes between a Verification Inspector who performs inspection for the Owner or Engineer and a Contrac- tor’s Inspector who performs inspec- tion for the contractor. Clause 6, “Inspection,” addresses in paragraph 6.1.2 that fabrication or erection inspection and testing are separate functions from verification inspection and testing.

Responsibilities for Contractor’s Inspection vs. Verification Inspection

The responsibilities are further de- scribed in paragraph 6.1.2.1 for Contractor’s Inspection as fabrica- tion/erection inspection and testing for which the Contractor is responsible and in paragraph 6.1.2.2 for Verifica- tion Inspection as “…prerogatives of the Owner who may perform this function or, when provided in the con- tract, waive independent verification, or stipulate that both inspection and verification shall be performed by the Contractor.” Thus, fabrication/erection inspection and testing is always re- quired and is performed by the con- tractor. Verification inspection and testing may be waived by the Owner or the Owner may require that verifica- tion be performed by the Contractor.

Inspector Categories

The categories of inspectors are defined in paragraph 6.1.3. A Contrac- tor’s Inspector (paragraph 6.1.3.1) is designated as such and he or she acts for the Contractor on all inspection and quality matters. The Verification Inspector (paragraph 6.1.3.2) is also designated as such and acts for the Owner or Engineer on all inspection and quality matters. In this code, there are occasions where the term inspec- tor is used without qualification as to being a Contractor’s Inspector or a Verification Inspector, meaning the re- quirements apply to both parties (paragraph 6.1.3.3).

Qualifications of Inspectors

Qualifications of inspectors who perform visual inspection to AWS D1.1 are found in paragraph 6.1.4 and apply to both Contractor’s Inspectors and Verification Inspectors. Acceptable qualification bases include any of the

following:

1) Current or previous certifica- tion as an AWS CWI, or 2) Current or previous qualifica- tion by the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB), or 3) A person who “…by training or experience, or both, in metals fabrica- tion, inspection, and testing, is compe- tent to perform inspection of the work.”

Summary of AWS D1.1 Contractor’s Inspector vs. Verification Inspector

The Contractor’s inspection is the responsibility of the Contractor and ver- ification inspection is the responsibility of the Owner or Engineer. So, a CWI working for the Contractor is a Contrac- tor’s Inspector and a CWI who is em- ployed or contracted by the Owner or Engineer is a Verification Inspector.

Summary

Certified Welding Inspectors must know who they are working for — the Owner or Engineer, or a manufacturer, fabricator, or Contractor. Depending on the code to which the welding is be- ing performed, the legal title of a CWI may be owner’s Inspector or Verifica- tion Inspector, or it might be Examin- er or Contractor’s Inspector, or a dif- ferent title as defined in another code or standard. Regardless of the legal or official code title, CWIs must continue to perform their work with the highest ethical standards to ensure public health and safety.

ethical standards to ensure public health and safety. RICH CAMPBELL , PhD, PE (rdcampbe@bechtel.com) , is

RICH CAMPBELL, PhD, PE (rdcampbe@bechtel.com), is a Bechtel Fellow and Welding Technical Specialist with Bechtel Corp., Houston, Tex. He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector, a CWB Level 2 Welding Inspector, an ASNT NDT Level III Visual Testing Inspector, a registered metallurgical engineer, member of the AWS D1 Committee on Structural Welding, chair of the D1K Subcommittee on Stainless Steel, member of the D1H Subcommittee on Sheet Steel, member of the ASME B31.3 Process Piping Section Committee, vice chair of the ASME B31.3 Subgroup E on Fabrication, Examination, and Testing, and member of the ASME B31 Fabrication and Examination Committee.

The Answer Is By K. Erickson and A. Moore

The Answer Is

By K. Erickson and A. Moore

Q: I have been an AWS CWI now for nearly 12 years. I have decided to forego the permanent employment route and pursue a career change as an independent contractor. This will permit me the option to travel and work when I choose. More im- portantly, I will be able to decide on the types of projects that I commit my time to and the wages that I can negotiate. Can you provide me with some sources and information that will help me obtain contract CWI employment?

A: (by K. Erickson) To help simplify this process, you should have a basic under- standing of what you are trying to ac- complish before you reach out to the contract world. Consider the following:

1) Minimum pay rate/living al- lowance for which you will accept an as- signment 2) Locations you choose to work and not work 3) Project types you choose to work and not work 4) Yearly time periods you choose to work and not work 5) Minimum/maximum amount of hours you choose to work per week/ project 6) Any safety/other considerations per projects (heights, shift/night work, weekends, etc.) 7) Items for which you will be re- sponsible for providing (safety equip- ment/insurance, etc.)