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Titration of Hydrochloric Acid with Sodium Hydroxide

Priyakorn Nithikultanon 5961043
Samaphoo Assametankul 5961068
Panita Mongkolajala 5961072
Viriya Unchaleevilawan 5961085
Kanakarn Thaveeptawornvong 5961115
Sakornchon Mattariganont 5961143
Nattarat Kesorn 5961150

Chemistry 11
Ms. Sorasaree Tonsiengsom

Mahidol University International Demonstration School

Semester 2 Academic Year 2017-2018
Titration is a process that we use the concentration and volume of the solution to find the
unknown concentration of the other solution. The experiment that we conducted by using
Titration process is to find the unknown concentration of Hydrochloric acid(HCl) with the
known concentration of sodium hydroxide(NaOH).
We use two indicator which is a substance that changes color depend on the pH. For this
experiment we used Phenolphthalein and Bromophenol Blue to be indicator to reached the end
point when the color changes. After doing the experiment two time for each indicator we found
an average concentration for each indicator which the result are not quite accurate.

The purpose of this experiment is to study and understand about the reaction of an
acid and base solution. We did this experiment to understand more about titration of strong acid
and strong base by using the known and unknown concentration and the volume to calculate the
mole using this formula : M1V1 = M2V2 . We are hoping to find the unknown concentration of HCl
by fulling understanding the concept of titration.

Acid and bases is the common topic in Chemistry. Everyone might think that acids and
bases will be found only in laboratory, but it was wrong. The acids and bases are all around us,
and it related to our daily life. For example; lemons is an acids, or soaps is a bases. Acids will
have the pH lower than 7 and bases have the pH more than 7. And we can also predicted the
equilibrium point when the acid and base mixing each other by the process called ‘Titration’.
Titration is a process of adding basic solution into an acidic solution until it reaches
neutralizations, or the technique that used for determine the unknown solution (LibreTexts,
2016). The process will occur the chemical reactions between the acidic solution and base
solution, which indicated by color changes. And the process need the indicator for measure the
concentration. The indicator is a substances, which change color by the pH. It used for measure
the concentration of the solution (Brook, 2017). For example; phenolphthalein and Bromophenol
Blue. The phenolphthalein is a weak acid, which can dissociates in water (Clark J, 2013).
In titration lab, we started by used the sodium hydroxide as a strong base and
hydrochloric acid as a strong acid. So we can describe as a chemical equation HCI + NaOH →
H2O + NaCL. And this can used to HBr + NaOH → H2O + NaCL. For example; if we find the
concentration of 10 ml of HBr and takes 16.73 ml of 0.235M LiOH to neutralize it, we will got
0.423269M. In the lab, we used the phenolphthalein and Bromophenol Blue as a indicator. the
phenolphthalein will change from the colorless solution to pink solution, if it was a bases, which
have pH more than 10. And if the pH was about 1-7, it was acid. And if it was neutral or the
equilibrium point, it will be light pink, and the range was about 8.2 - 10. The Bromophenol Blue
will change from the yellow to blue, but if it was neutral the solution will have grey color, and
the range is about 6.0 - 7.6, but if the pH was about 1-5, then it was acid. (Clark J, 2013). This
experiment was done to study about acid - base solution and reactions, and also done to make us
understand more about the equilibrium point by observing the solution.

1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl)

2. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) 0.001 concentration

3. Phenolphthalein
4. Bromophenol Blue
5. Erlenmeyer Flask
6. Automatic Pipette
7. Distilled water
8. 4 Pipette
9. 2 Buret
10. 2 Beakers
11. 2 Clamps

1. Fill in 100 mL of the HCl solution in the beaker.
2. Clean the tube by slowly rolling the pipette that filled with HCl and pour it into the waste
3. Clean the flask with distil water.
4. Pour 10 mL of acid solution into the volumetric pipette and transfer the solution into an
Erlenmeyer flask. Fill in the flask by adding 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein.
5. Adding strong base NaOH with an 0.001M of concentration solution to Erlenmeyer flask
after place it under the buret. When pink color starts to show up, add more solution
slowly by adding one drop at a time.
6. Continue adding the base solution until we get light pink colour in the flask for at least 30
7. Record final reading of the buret.
8. Clean the flask with distilled water.
9. Refill sodium hydroxide solution into the buret if necessary. Record new volume that we
get under trial 2.
10. Continue to repeat the process until we get 2 samples that have no more than 1.0%
11. Repeat step 5-10 but this time add Bromophenol Blue instead of phenolphthalein.

According to our experiment, the result from a titration lab between the 2 indicators were
Phenolphthalein and Bromophenol blue.
Our first experiment is on the Phenolphthalein indicator. We balanced the solution by add
Phenolphthalein to the HCL flask, then we swirling the flask of HCL with drop of 0.001M
concentration of NaOH until it reach the light pink color in the solution. In our first trail, we used
7.2 ml of NaOH to balanced the solution. We got these number by subtracting the two number,
between the Final buret volume and initial buret volume, which were 18.7 and 11.5 respectively.
In second trail, we consumed 8.3 ml of NaOH. The two numbers from the buret were 27 ml and
18.7 ml. As a result, the acid average for first trail is 0.0072 M and 0.0082 M.
Our second experiment is on Bromophenol Blue. We added the indicator to the HCL
flask and added the NaOH as same as the Phenolphthalein indicator. In order to know whether
the solution is balanced or not. Observe the solution, If the solution turned grey then it
considered as reached the equilibrium. On the First trial, the solution use up to 6.2 ml of NaOH
to balance the solution. Our final buret volume was 13.2 and our initial buret volume was 7 ml.
In our second trial. We got exactly the same volume of NaOH as the first Trial, 6.2 ml with the
final buret volume was 26.2 ml and 20 ml as a initial buret volume. As a consequence, the two
exact same volume of NaOH leading us to the equal rate of acid concentration is 0.0062 M.
All in all, the average concentration of acid with the Phenolphthalein indicator is 0.0072
M and the average concentration of acid with the Bromophenol Blue indicator is 0.0062 M. The
difference between both average acid concentration is The average acid concentration on
Phenolphthalein indicator is 22.22% more than the average acid concentration on Bromophenol
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2
Phenolphthalein Phenolphthalein Bromophenol Bromophenol
Blue Blue

Initial buret 11.5 mL 18.7 mL 7 mL 20 mL


Final buret 18.7 mL 27 mL 13.2 mL 26.2 mL


Volume of base 7.2 mL 8.3 mL 6.2 mL 6.2 mL


Volume of base 0.0072 L 0.0083 L 0.0062 L 0.0062 L


Moles of base 0.001 mol 0.001 mol 0.001 mol 0.001 mol

Acid to Base 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1


Moles of acid 0.0072 mol 0.0083 mol 0.0062 mol 0.0062 mol

Volume of acid 0.010 L 0.010 L 0.010 L 0.010 L


Acid 0.0072 M 0.0083 M 0.0062 M 0.0062 M

ration (M)

Phenolphthalein Bromophenol Blue

Average concentration 0.00775 0.0062

To find the unknown concentration we use the Titration Formula: M1V1 = M2V2 ; M =
concentration(M) , V = volume(L) and in the calculation we are using the x that stand for an
unknown concentration of HCl.

Trial 1(Phenolphthalein): Trial 2(Phenolphthalein):

M1V1 = M2V2 M1V1 = M2V2
(0.001)(7.2)=(x)(10) (0.001)(8.3)=(x)(10)
x=(0.001)(7.2)/(10) x=(0.001)(8.3)/(10)
x=0.0072 M x=0.0083 M

Trial 3(Bromophenol Blue): Trial 4(Bromophenol Blue):

M1V1 = M2V2 M1V1 = M2V2
(0.001)(6.2)=(x)(10) (0.001)(6.2)=(x)(10)
x=(0.001)(6.2)/(10) x=(0.001)(6.2)/(10)
x=0.0062 M x=0.0062 M

For the average concentration of the Phenolphthalein and Bromophenol Blue we combine the
result for each concentration of each indicator and divided in two to find the average
concentration for each indicator

Average concentration of Phenolphthalein Average concentration of Bromophenol Blue

=(0.0072+0.0083)/2 =(0.0062+0.0062)/2
=0.0155/2 =0.0124/2
=0.00775M or 7.75 x10−3 M =0.0062M or 6.2 x 10−3 M

For the percentage difference of the two indicator result of HCl concentration we use the
percentage difference formula to find the difference. Which V1 is 0.00775 and V2 is 0.0062

=(|V1−V2|÷((V1+V2)/2)) x 100
=(|0.00775−0.0062|÷((0.00775+0.0062)/2)) x 100
=(0.00155/0.006975) x 100

This is the analysis of the lab result which will include failures and successes we came
across during the Titration experiment for finding the unknown concentration of Hydrochloric
acid(HCL). After finding the concentration we were expect to know all the step to use the
titration method for finding unknown concentration of Acid-base solution.
When we doing the experiment we know that the titration is finished by looking at the
color that changed in the acid solution. If the color for the Phenolphthalein is getting to the color
darker pink then it is exceeding the equivalent point and for the Bromophenol Blue if it is turning
darker blue then it is exceeding the equivalent point. We try to check carefully for the color
changing but for some reason the result was inaccurate.
As we can see, there are some error that affect the different result amount of acid
concentration between these two indicators.We believe that their is a few mistake that we made.
First, Their might be an error of the concentration of NaOH. If there is a residual water left in the
beaker of NaOH it will affect the concentration by decreasing the concentration that the NaOH
should be and can be one of the reason that the result was error. Second, The erlenmeyer flask
we use are still wet and are not dry. This can have a huge effect on the concentration of HCl
because water are H20 and when it react with Acid it will try to form new equilibrium and
increase the PH which will affect the concentration of the solution.
Although we are not sure what are the really reason of the error. We still learn how to do
titration for Acid and Base to find the unknown concentration by knowing just one of the
concentration. This kind of concept can apply with Acid and base solution.
For an example, The question ask vinegar is a solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH) in
water. For quality control purposes, it can be titrated by using sodium hydroxide to assure a
specific composition. If 25.00 mL of acetic acid is titrated with 9.8 mL of a standardized 2.293
M sodium hydroxide solution, what is the molarity of the vinegar? We can find by using the
titration formula to calculate the vinegar molarity which is
Vinegar molarity:M1V1 = M2V2
x=0.898 M
So the vinegar molarity are 0.898 M, as we can see that even it is not HCl or NaOH like in the
experiment the technique still work. We will try to improve our accuracy and use this technique
to calculate the unknown concentration for our future study in general chemistry and future on.

Conclusion: At the end of the experiment, the Phenolphthalein indicator got the acid average for
first trail is 0.0072 M and 0.0082 M and Bromophenol Blue got the acid average of concentration
both equally is 0.0062 M. Therefore, the average concentration of acid with the Phenolphthalein
indicator and the Bromophenol Blue indicator are 0.0072 M and 0.0062 M. Both have the
difference average acid concentration is 0.001 M.


LibreTexts (2016), Acid - bases Titration, Retrieved From;

Brook (2017), Indicator for Titration, Retrieved From;
Clark (2013), Acid and Bases Indicators, Retrieved From;


Member Role

Priyakorn Procedure + Discussion

Samaphoo Discussion + Result

Panita Conclusion + Discussion

Viriya Introduction + Conclusion

Kanakarn Objective + Result +

Sakornchon Abstract + Calculation +Discussion

Nattarat Calculation + Material + Reference