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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION - 5: STEEL STRUCTURES

5.01 GENERAL

These specifications cover the requirements for design, manufacture, supply and erection of
steel structures for line terminations, supporting buses and other equipment such as circuit
breakers, disconnectors, instrument transformers, surge arresters, line traps and post
insulators.

Lattice type structure, galvanized after fabrication, shall be furnished. All framing shall be
of structural steel members.

General configuration of structures for the substation is shown in the Specification


Drawings. The Contractor shall ensure proper fitting and alignment of offered structures.

Loading and design shall be in accordance with the requirements of the latest edition of
standard ASCE 10 “Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures”.

5.02 STRUCTURAL LOADINGS

Calculations for loadings on terminal structures used for dead ending of conductors,
overhead shield wires and substation bus structures shall be carried out by the Contractor
and submitted to the Employer’s Representative for approval. A twenty (20) degree angle
of entry for terminal structures shall be assumed. All type of loads shall be calculated with a
safety factor of 1.5 and based on the information hereof.

5.02.01 Wind Loads: Structures shall be designed for (i) wind acting at 90 degree
to the surfaces (ii) wind acting at 135 degree (45 degree) to the surfaces. A
wind pressure corresponding to 160 km/hr. wind velocity acting horizontally
in any direction at 25 degree C everyday temperature shall be used. Wind
loads shall be calculated according to “Guidelines for Transmission Line
Structural Loading” prepared and published by the American Society of
Civil Engineers or equivalent Standards.

5.02.02 Vertical Loads: Equipment weights and dead loads together with estimated
construction/maintenance load and live loads as required.

5.02.03 Loading Due to Thermal Forces: Thermal stresses caused by a


temperature variation as indicated in special provisions shall be taken care of
and expansion joints shall be provided at the appropriate locations.

5.02.04 Earthquake Intensity: All the ground Structures and portions thereof shall,
as a minimum, be designed and constructed to resist the effects of seismic
ground motions per Zone 2B as provided in Uniform Building Code acting
in any direction irrespective of their height and flexibility.

All the joints and all the base mounted fastening of free standing electrical
equipment such as circuit breakers, disconnectors, instrument transformers,
surge arresters, line traps and bus bars shall be designed for to resist the
effects of seismic ground motions per Zone 2B in any direction.

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The loads imposed by earthquakes are not acting simultaneously with


maximum wind, but with an average wind of 80 km/hr.

5.02.05 Short Circuit Loads: The short circuit loads shall also be considered in the
design of steel structures, as specified in Section 6: High Voltage Bus Work.

The loads imposed by the maximum specified short circuit level shall be
considered acting simultaneously with the wind load at specified maximum
wind speed.

5.02.06 Load Combinations and Load Cases: The above loads shall be combined
with conductor span loading on one side only for gantry steel structures for
line terminations and supporting buses. The various load combinations and
load cases to be used shall be as per relevant standards and codes.

5.03 DESIGN

5.03.01 General: Contractor shall submit complete details of the structure design he
proposes to furnish, showing outline dimensions together with member
dimensions, stresses and calculations in sufficient detail to determine
compliance with the Contract Documents.

Vehicle access to permit the transport of major substation equipment shall


be provided. This shall be achieved without the need to de-energize circuits.
Access vehicles which require the de-energization of circuit for other
purposes shall be kept to a minimum. The substation shall be adequately
protected against direct lightning strokes, by the use of shield wires located
on the substation structures. The height, location, and number of shield
wires shall be such as to protect the equipment installed within the
substation to a failure rate of shielding from direct lightning strokes of not
greater than 1 per annum.

5.03.02 Slenderness Ratios (L/r): The determination of L/r ratios and allowable
compressive stress shall be based on the latest edition of standard ASCE 10
“Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures” or equivalent
Standards."

The maximum L/r ratio of a member shall not exceed.

(1) For main/leg members 150

(2) For other load carrying members 200

(3) For redundant members 250

5.03.03 Allowable Unit Stresses: All parts of the structure shall be so proportioned
that the unit stresses in members, produced by design loads and multiplied
by factor of 1.5 shall not exceed the values calculated from equations and
factors given in the latest edition of standard ASCE 10 “Design of Latticed
Steel Transmission Structures” and as summarized below:

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Members shall be of such size, shape and length as to preclude damage or


failure from vibration or stress reversal.

(1) Compressive Stress:

(a) The allowable unit stress on the gross section of axially loaded
compression members.

Fa = [1- {(KL/r)2/(2Cc2)}] Fy ------------ (1)


when KL/r ≤ Cc

OR

Fa = 2E/(KL/r)2 ------------ (2)


when KL/r > Cc

in which Cc = √(2E/Fy) ------------ (3)

where

Fy = minimum guaranteed yield strength

Fa =Allowable compressive stress in member

E =Modulus of Elasticity of the Material

KL/r = Largest effective slenderness ratio of any unbraced segment


of the member

Above formulae are valid if the largest (w/t) ratio of the member is
less than the limiting value given by:

(w/t)lim=671/√Fy ------------ (4)

in which

w = the distance from the edge of the fillet to the extreme fiber and
t = the thickness of the member

If the width-thickness ratio (w/t) exceeds (w/t) lim determined by


formula (4), equations (1) and (3) shall be modified by substituting
for Fy the value Fcr given by:

Fcr=[1.677 - {0.677(w/t)/(w/t) lim}] Fy ------------ (5)


where (w/t)lim ≤ w/t ≤ 1207/√Fy

and

Fcr = 0.0332 π2E/(w/t) 2 ------------ (6)


where w/t > 1207/√Fy

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(2) Tensile Stresses: Allowable Tensile Stress (Ft) through the minimum net
Section shall be taken as applicable yield point (Fy).

(3) Bending Stress: Allowable Bending Stress (Fb) on extreme fibers shall be
taken as the applicable yield point (Fy).

(4) Shearing Stresses: Allowable Shear Stress (Fs) shall be taken as 5/8 of the
applicable yield point (Fy).

(5) Bearing Stress: Allowable Bearing Stress, for all steel materials specified
herein shall be taken as 1.65 times the applicable yield point (Fy).

(6) Combined Compression and Bending: Members simultaneously subjected


to both axial compression and bending stress shall be designed accordingly.

(7) Combined Shear and Tension: Where applicable, maximum stress


resulting from combined shear and tension shall be investigated.

5.04 MATERIALS

All materials shall be of the highest grade free from defects and imperfections, of recent
manufacture, unused and of the classification and grades designated, conforming to the
requirements of the latest revision of the relevant standards cited herein.

5.04.01 Structural Steel: All rolled steel sections, plates shall be supplied in
accordance with latest edition of ASTM A-36 and ASTM A-572 grade 50 or
EN 10025 S275JR and S355JR or equivalent Standard. The following
minimum steel thickness shall apply:

(1) Main members. 6 mm

(2) Other load carrying members 5 mm

(3) Redundant members 3 mm

(4) Gusset Plates 6 mm

(5) Stub member 8 mm

5.04.02 Bolts and Nuts: All tower connection bolts, nuts, flat washers and check
nuts shall be of steel and shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A-394
or A-325 or ISO898 or equivalent Standard. All tower connection bolts,
nuts, flat washers and check nuts shall be hot dip galvanized and of 16 mm
minimum size. Check nuts shall be provided for all bolts.

All connections shall be bolted type and shall be designed for 100% member
capability. A 5% surplus of bolts, nuts, washer and check nuts shall be
supplied.

(1) Bolt Spacing: Minimum spacing of bolts shall be as follows:

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Bolt Diameter Minimum Bolt Spacing


16 mm 40 mm
20 mm 50 mm
22 mm 60 mm

(2) End Distances: The minimum end distances measured from the
centre of the bolt hole to the end of the member shall be as follows:

a) For Compression Members. One and one-half bolt diameters.

b) For Tension Members. In an end connection of not more than


three bolts, the end distance shall not be less than that given in (a)
above or the following value, whichever is greater.

0.865 P + 0.38 d
Fy t

Where

P = Ultimate load on bolt, kg


t = Thickness of member, mm
d = Nominal bolt diameter, mm
Fy = Yield stress of material, kg/mm2

(3) Minimum Edge Distance

Minimum distance from any hole centre or edge member shall be as follows:

Minimum Edge Distance


Bolt Diameter
Rolled Edge Sheared Edge Flamed Edge
16mm 19mm 24mm 27mm
20mm 26mm 30mm 33mm
22mm 32mm 33mm 36mm

For gusset plate one and half bolt diameter.

5.04.03 Checknuts: Galvanized check nuts of the type approved by the Employer’s
Representative shall be provided for all bolts.

5.04.04 Washers: All washers shall be of galvanized malleable iron or steel and shall
be provided for all bolts. Only one washer per bolt shall be used.

5.04.05 Step Bolts: Galvanized step bolts shall be provided on one leg of gantry
columns and shall have 16mm diameter. The length of bolts shall be 140
mm. Steps shall be spaced approximately 380 mm apart.

5.05 STEEL FABRICATION

5.05.01 Holes: All holes shall be clean-cut without torn or ragged edges. All burrs
resulting from reaming or drilling shall be removed. All holes shall be

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cylindrical and perpendicular to the member. The diameter of the finished


hole shall be 1.5mm greater than the nominal diameter of the bolt.

5.05.02 Welding: Welding shall be performed in accordance with the latest edition
of "Code for Arc and Gas Welding in Building Construction", as formulated
by the American Welding Society or equivalent Standard.

A shielded arc-welding process shall be used. All welds shall be made in


such a manner that residual shrinkage stresses will be reduced to a
minimum.

5.05.03 Galvanizing: All plates and shapes shall be hot dipped galvanized after
fabrication in accordance with ASTM Designation A-123 or equivalent
Standard. All bolts, nuts and washers shall be hot dipped galvanized in
accordance with ASTM A-153 or equivalent Standard. Re-threading of bolt
threads after galvanizing will not be permitted.

All necessary precautions shall be taken in the selection of steel and in its
fabrication and preparation for galvanizing to prevent embrittlement of any
item or parts of items including bolts and nuts. ASTM Standard A-143 or
equivalent Standard shall be followed.

Material on which galvanizing has been damaged shall be redipped. Any


member on which the galvanized coating becomes damaged after having
been dipped twice shall be rejected.

All material shall, prior to shipping, be dipped in a suitable solution to


protect the galvanizing from “white rust” corrosion during transit. Full
details of the treatment proposed shall be submitted to the Employer’s
Representative for Approval. The effectiveness of the treatment shall be
verified in accordance with ASTM Standard B201.

5.05.04 Repairs of Damaged Steel:

(1) Correction of Mis-fabricated and Damaged Steel:

All shop errors and damaged steel shall be reported to the


Employer’s Representative who will decide the manner in which
corrections shall be made. All costs incurred due to punching,
drilling or cutting shall be deemed to be included in the steel erection
costs.

Pieces bent in handling may be used if they can be straightened to


the satisfaction of the Employer’s Representative, without
structurally damaging the metal. If bent pieces cannot be
satisfactorily repaired, they shall be replaced.

(2) Damage to Galvanizing:

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Small areas of galvanizing damaged by abrasion, in straightening


bent pieces or by necessary clipping in the field, shall be repaired by
carefully cleaning the affected area and painting. The appropriate
paint will be furnished by the Contractor.

Damaged area shall be wiped with clean rags saturated with Xylene
or equivalent solvent, followed by wire brushing then recleaned with
solvent to remove residue, and painted with one coat of "Galvanox",
or approved equivalent.

Galvanizing damaged by drilling or punching shall be repaired by


applying an aluminum paste or zinc rich coating material to
completely fill all voids between the bolt and the surfaces bared, or
all exposed steel surfaces around the holes or on cuts on which such
corrective work is permitted. The coating material shall be
"Galvanox" or approved equivalent.

5.05.05 Prototype Assembly

Before starting mass fabrication of steel structures, one structure of each


type shall be shop assembled and vertically erected on a suitable foundation
bed to assure proper fit of all parts as finally manufactured. Following
should be kept in view during shop assembly.

(a) Check carefully each member while assembling the prototype to


revise and amend the detailed drawings according to the correct
solution.

(b) For each member, the length, position of holes and interface with
other members shall be checked accurately for proper fitness.

(c) Quantity of each member and bolts shall be carefully checked from
the bill of materials when assembling the prototype.

(d) On the assembled structure eventual modifications shall be examined


and performed, if necessary, without modifying its functionality.

(e) Drawings and bill of materials, sizes of bolts, fillers etc. shall be put
upto date accordingly, in all details before starting mass production.

All changes/modifications incorporated in the drawings shall be brought to


the notice of the Employer’s Representative along with corrected final
copies of the drawings for approval. The Manufacturer shall also submit
details of all the changes/modifications carried out.

The Employer’s Representative may witness a shop assembly of any or all


types of towers before shipment.

5.05.06 Marking

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All structural members shall be marked with the correct designation shown
on the shop drawing. Marking shall be done by stamping the members prior
to galvanizing with numerals or letters of 12mm minimum height, and shall
be clearly legible after galvanizing.

5.05.07 Tolerances

Ease of assembling the structure in the field is of utmost importance. The


structure shall be so manufactured that all members carrying the same mark
shall be interchangeable when assembled. The structure shall fit without
undue pressing and no reaming or drifting of holes shall be required. When
erected, the structures shall not deviate from the vertical by more than
1/300.

The Contractor shall be responsible for the correct fitting of all parts and
shall replace free of cost any defective materials discovered during erection.
The Contractor shall also be responsible for the correction in the field of any
errors not previously discovered.

The permissible variation from dimensions for structural size steel shapes
shall not exceed the prescribed limits in ASTM A6.

5.06 TESTS

5.06.01 Manufacturer's Tests

The Manufacturer shall select two samples from each heat to carry out the
following tests to satisfy himself that the products comply with the
Specifications.

(a) For Sections and Plates

1. Chemical composition (Ladle Analysis)


2. Tensile Tests
3. Bend Tests

(b) For Nuts and Bolts

1. Proof Load test


2. Ultimate Tensile Strength test
3. Ultimate tensile strength test under eccentric load
4. Cold bend test
5. Hardness test
6. Galvanizing test

The Manufacturer shall maintain a record of tests carried out by him for
examination by Inspectors during pre-shipment inspection.

5.06.02 Acceptance Tests

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The following acceptance tests shall be carried out during pre-shipment


inspection.

(a) For Sections and Plates

1. Visual examination
2. Verification of dimensions and weights
3. Prototype assembly tests
4. Chemical composition (Check analysis)
5. Tensile tests
6. Bend tests
7. Galvanizing test

(b) For Nuts and Bolts

1. Verifications of dimensions
2. Visual inspection
3. Proof load test
4. Ultimate tensile strength test
5. Galvanizing test

The Contractor shall render all necessary assistance to the Inspectors during
above-mentioned tests.

5.06.03 Acceptance and Rejection

5.06.03.1 Chemical Composition

To indicate adequately, the chemical composition of a heat or a lot, the


minimum number of samples selected to represent the heat shall be as
follows:

No. of Samples
50 tons or more 2
50 tons or less 1

If a piece fails to meet the requirement the lot shall be rejected.

5.06.03.2 Tensile Properties

Two tension and two bend tests shall be made from each heat and strength
unless the finished material from a heat and strength gradation is less than
50 tons, where one tension and one bend test will be sufficient. However
when material from one heat and strength gradation differs 9 mm in
thickness, one tension and one bend test shall be made from both the
thickness and the thinnest material rolled in that strength gradation
regardless of weight represented.

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In addition to above, two tension and two bend tests shall be made on every
finished shape for every 50 tons.

If a test piece fails to meet the requirement the lot shall be rejected.

5.06.03.3 Galvanizing

The acceptance and rejection on the basis of galvanizing test will be


according to specified standards. This test shall be carried out on all ferrous
parts complying with the following requirements.

1. Weight of zinc coating


2. Uniformity of zinc coating
3. Adherence of zinc coating
4. Embrittlement tests

Test samples for determination of compliance to the tests specified shall be


performed in accordance with relevant ASTM Specification and shall be
taken from each lot. The lot shall consist of a quantity as specified in the
relevant standards.

5.07 DRAWINGS AND DESCRIPTIVE DATA

Drawings and descriptive data for each structure shall include:-

(1) Outline drawings.

(2) Design calculations and stress diagram. Design calculations along


with computer printouts shall be fully documented.

(3) Erection drawings.

(4) Bills of materials.

5.08 DRAWINGS FOR GANTRY STEEL STRUCTURES

The drawings provided in Volume-III of the Bidding Documents shall be considered as


minimum requirement for the design of the 220kV and 132kV gantry steel structures. Since
the Project is to be executed under a turnkey Contract, the Contractor shall verify the
adequacy of the designs given in the Specification Drawings with regard to the intended
application per the substation layout and equipment arrangement, to be proposed by him
and to be subsequently reviewed & approved by the Employer’s Representative. Detailed
calculations and supporting information in this regard shall be provided by the Contractor
for review and approval by the Employer’s Representative. Any modifications in the
specified designs for adaptation thereof to the Project specific requirements shall be
Contractor’s responsibility and shall be done without any additional cost to the Employer.

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Drawings provided in Volume-III of the Bidding Documents for column C14 and beam
V12 for 132kV bus bar I and bus bar II are for two bundle Coreopsis (All Aluminium)
conductor per phase. Whereas bus bars comprising three bundle Coreopsis conductor per
phase are to be provided in this Project, design and drawings of column C14 and beam V12
shall be revised accordingly.

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