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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION - 16: TELECOMMUNICATION AND SCADA SYSTEMS

16.1 GENERAL
This section includes the works for the Telecommunication and SCADA systems
required in connection with Gujrat 220/132 kV substation project, as a result of:
 Looping IN/OUT of Gujrat 220/132kV Substation (hereinafter referred as Gujrat
Substation) of the existing Mangla-Ghakkar 220kV double circuit transmission
line.
 Looping IN/OUT of the eight 132kV existing transmission lines
The design shall also consider the equipment required for speech and data
communication from Gujrat Substation and the provision of protection signaling over
the 220kV overhead transmission line circuits. The works shall be provided at Gujrat
Substation and the peripheral stations i.e. Mangla 220kV substation, Gakkhar 220kV
Substation, Gakkhar 500kV substation and NPCC Islamabad.

16.2 SCOPE OF WORK


The Contractor shall be responsible for the design, manufacture, works testing, supply,
storage at Site, installation, site testing, commissioning, guarantee and making good
defects of fully functional telecommunication and SCADA systems, required to fulfill the
speech, data and protection signaling requirements, all in accordance with these
Specifications and the Contract. The main works shall include:
(1) Establishment of end-to-end digital power line carrier (DPLC) and protection
signaling links, as specified herein.
(2) Power line coupling equipment for coupling the DPLC equipment to the
overhead transmission lines.
(3) Operational telephone (PAX) system at Gujrat s/s including interconnecting and
interface equipment required at Gujrat s/s and the peripheral substations for
complete integration with the NTDC telephone network.
(4) SCADA system for remote monitoring and control of Gujrat s/s from NPCC.
This shall include testing of SCADA functions from Gujrat s/s up to NPCC.
Database modification at NPCC shall be done by NTDC.
(5) Interconnection of RTU, telephone PAX and protection relays to the PLC
equipment for communication over the DPLC links.
(6) Communication of data channels between Gujrat s/s and NPCC.
(7) 48V DC power system at Gujrat s/s for powering the equipment.

The scope of work shall also include survey by the Contractor of the existing facilities to
determine the required interface works and submittal of the Site Survey Report within
six weeks of Contract Award. Engineering, design and supply of any devices required for
proper interface and working of fully functional telecommunication and SCADA systems
even if not specifically mentioned in Scope of Work/Price Schedules and co-ordination
with other Contractor(s) shall also be deemed to be included in Contractor’s scope of
work.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

16.3 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS

16.3.1 Power Line Carrier and Protection Signaling


16.3.1.1 Proposed arrangement
Schematic included in Specification Drawings, Volume III shows the digital PLC links to
be established on Mangla-Gujrat and Gujrat-Ghakkar 220kV transmission line circuits

16.3.2 Channel Requirements

16.3.2.1 Protection signaling


Duplicated coded channels for redundant transmission of at least three (3) commands on
DPLC for the 220kV transmission circuits.

16.3.2.2 Telephony
(A) Speech communication for operational traffic and integration with the NTDC
operational telephone network (to be implemented under on-going LDS-Phase II
project) based on the following requirements:
(1) “Hot-lines” between Gujrat Substation and NPCC.
(2) Two alternative routes on separate paths via the switched NTDC
operational telephone network.
(3) 2 No. remote subscribers at Gujrat Substation.
A layout of the suggested NTDC telephone network (to be provided under LDS-
Phase II project) is included in Specification Drawings, Volume III. The
Contractor shall review the actual status of the network during the detailed
engineering phase of the Contract and base his proposal accordingly.
(B) Speech communication between control room operator and maintenance
locations within the Gujrat Substation premises.
(C) Audible announcements for paging personnel in the Gujrat Substation premises.

16.3.2.3 Data communication


Duplicated data channels on separate routes between RTU at Gujrat s/s and NPCC shall
be provided through a Router and new DPLC links integrated with the DPLC and fiber
optic links (to be implemented under LDS-Phase II project). A general illustration of
DPLC and fiber optic terminal connections is included in Specification Drawings,
Volume III. The Contractor shall review the actual status of the links (to be implemented
under LDS-Phase II contract) during the detailed engineering phase of the Contract and
base his proposal for the duplicated data routes between Gujrat Substation and NPCC
accordingly.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

16.3.3 Equipment Requirements


The main equipment required to meet the above requirements shall include:
(1) Digital PLC and protection signaling at Gujrat Substation, Mangla 220kV and
Ghakkar 220kV substations.
(2) Power line coupling consisting of line traps (LTs), coupling capacitor voltage
transformers (CCVTs), line matching units (LMUs) and coaxial cable at Gujrat
220kV substations.
Existing line traps are located in Mangla 220kV and Ghakkar 220kV substations.
Contractor shall be responsible for supplying tuning pots in existing line traps
should this be necessary due to different frequency bands being required.
(3) Operational telephone (PAX) exchange at Gujrat Substation and associated
equipment.
(4) RTU and Adaptation Equipment at Gujrat Substation.
(5) 48V DC power system at Gujrat Substation.
(6) Public address system at Gujrat Substation.

The station-wise scope of work shall include but not be limited to the following:

16.3.3.1 Gujrat s/s

(A) Power Line Carrier and Protection Signalling


(1) For Gujrat – Mangla 220kV Circuit
 Two DPLC terminals installed in swing rack cabinets (one cabinet for
each terminal) and all other ancillary material required for a complete
installation.
 Two digital protection signaling equipment (DPSE) for transmission over
the above DPLC and installed in the PLC cabinets.
 Four sets (each comprising two units) of LTs and CCVTs.
 Two sets (comprising two units) of LMUs for phase-phase coupling with
coupling filters, hybrid transformer, protection circuits and all materials
required for a complete installation.
 One length (1000 m) of coaxial cable to connect LMU with associated
PLC terminals and with each other.
 Teleprotection interconnection cables between protection signaling
equipment and relay panels and terminated at both ends.
(2) For Gujrat– Ghakkar 220kV Circuit
 Two DPLC terminals installed in swing rack cabinets (one cabinet for each
terminal) and all other ancillary material required for a complete
installation.
 Two DPSE for transmission over the above DPLC and installed in the PLC
cabinets.
 Four sets (each comprising two units) of LTs and CCVTs.

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 Two sets (comprising two units) of LMUs for phase-phase coupling with
coupling filters, hybrid transformer, protection circuits and all materials
required for a complete installation.
 One length (1000 m) of coaxial cable to connect LMU with associated
PLC terminals and with each other.
 Teleprotection interconnection cables between protection signaling
equipment and relay panels and terminated at both ends. One set
(comprising two units) of LTs and CCVTs.

(3) For Gujrat Substation – 132 kV peripheral substations

 LTs and CCVTs for coupling for each station

(B) One digital telephone exchange (PAX) to integrate with the NTDC operational
telephone network and equipped with at least:
 16 analogue trunks/16 analogue subscribers.
 2x2 Mb/s digital trunks/4 digital subscribers
 10 desk mounted telephone sets.
 5 wall type telephone sets
 2 executive telephone sets.
 Swing rack cubicle, equipment rack and ancillary equipment required for a
complete installation and fully functional system.

(C) One Main Distribution Frame (MDF) cabinet, floor mounted equipped with
MDF frames, quick-connect modules and protection equipment (for external
circuits) to terminate 600 pairs with an expansion capability of 50% for
additional internal and external circuits.

(E) One Public Address system equipped with:


 Table stand with microphone and associated control switches located on the
operator’s desk in the central control room.
 Central cubicle containing audio amplifier and distribution modules located in
the telecom room.
 Horn loudspeakers located at selected points to cover the entire 220kV and
132kV switchyard areas and the outdoor locations.
 Indoor loudspeakers at selected locations for installation on the walls
(column type) and the false ceiling (flush mounted type).
 Interconnecting cabling to microphone and loudspeaker locations.

(F) SCADA (RTU and Adaptation) works shall comprise:


 Remote terminal unit complete with swing rack cabinet and complete in all
respects.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

 Time synchronizing system for the RTU internal clock comprising GPS
receiver and necessary attachments for connection to the RTU.
 Adaptation equipment for RTU comprising SCADA interface cabinet(s),
transducers, auxiliary relays, cabling from the process (transducers for
analogue measurement, potential free contacts for indications/alarms,
relay contacts for control orders and two wire set point signals for
analogue controls) to the SCADA interface cabinet(s).
 Interconnections between SCADA interface cabinet(s) and the RTU.
 RTU link to the data transmission network (DTN) equipment by simple plug-
in connection supported by redundant physical layers.
 Router for connection of RTU to the DTN through new DPLC links and
communication of data channels to the NPCC over the WAN network
comprising DPLC and fiber Optic links.
 Any other equipment not specifically mentioned herein but required for
equipment interface and a fully functional SCADA system.

The principal to be followed for determining the RTU point counts and related
process connections is tabulated in a teleinformation plan enclosed as
Annex 16.3.3.1.a). RTU I/Os shall be equipped with the related quantity of
boards and wiring to cater for the proposed future augmentation indicated in the
enclosed single line diagram. Based on the teleinformation plan, the RTU point
counts to be used for bidding purposes are tabulated in Annex 16.3.3.1.b).

(G) One 48V DC power system comprising:


 Two battery chargers.
 Two half battery banks.
 Instrumentation and DC distribution.

(H) Spare parts:


All modules with finite MTBF shall be provided as essential spare parts.
Essential Spare Parts shall be supplied in accordance with the following:
 Two (2) number of each module/sub-assembly for DPLC and DPSE
equipment (including service telephone equipment).
 One (1) number of each module/sub-assembly for PAX, Public Address, RTU
and 48V DC power equipment.
 One (1) number each of LMU set, router, transducer (each type), telephone
sets (each type) and loudspeakers (each type).
 Ten percent (10%) of interface cables, connectors, circuit breakers, fuses,
indication lamps, MDF quick-connect modules.
Complete lists of Essential Spare Parts covering the above and unit price of each
item shall be provided with the bid separately for Telecom, RTU and 48V DC
power equipment.
Additionally, a list of Recommended Spare Parts for five (5) years operation shall
also be included.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

(I) Erection and testing equipment and maintenance tools:


Special equipment required for service, test and maintenance shall be offered and
listed in detail. It shall include:
 Equipment for configuration and testing of DPLC/DPSE, PAX, RTU signals
comprising 2 x Laptop PCs (core 2 duo or latest at time of delivery) loaded
with system and application softwares with backup provided on DVDs.
 Equipment for PLC link measurements i.e. signal generator (50 Hz–2 MHz)
and selective level meter (50 Hz–2 MHz).
 Equipment for generation and measurement of trip commands e.g.
teleprotection test box.
 Equipment for testing of end-to-end data communication links.
 Equipment for transducer measurements.
 Equipment for testing of battery chargers.
 Equipment for capacity testing of batteries and accessories provided with the
batteries.
 Maintenance service toolkit.
A complete list of Erection and Testing Equipment and Maintenance Tools
stating the make and model number of each item shall be included in the bid.
Additionally, a list of Recommended Erection and Testing Equipment and
Maintenance Tools shall also be provided.

16.3.3.2 Mangla 220kV Substation

(A) For Mangla – Gujrat 220kV Circuit

 Two DPLC terminals installed in swing rack cabinets (one cabinet for
each terminal) and all other ancillary material required for a complete
installation.
 Two DPSE for transmission over the above DPLC and installed in the
PLC cabinets.
 Teleprotection interconnection cables between protection signaling
equipment and relay panels and terminated at both ends.
 Tuning pots in existing line traps.

16.3.3.3 Ghakkar 220kV Substation

(A) For Ghakkar – Gujrat 220 kV Single Circuit

 Two DPLC terminals installed in swing rack cabinets (one cabinet for
each terminal) and all other ancillary material required for a complete
installation.
 Two DPSE for transmission over the above DPLC and installed in the
PLC cabinets.

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 Teleprotection interconnection cables between protection signaling


equipment and relay panels and terminated at both ends.
 Tuning pots in existing line traps.

16.4 DIGITAL POWER LINE CARRIER (DPLC) SPECIFICATIONS

16.4.1 General
Digital Power line carrier (DPLC) communication shall be established via the overhead
power transmission lines.
The DPLC equipment shall consist of:
 DPLC terminals with interfaces for connecting to voice, RTU and protection
signalling equipment.
 Line traps, coupling capacitor voltage transformers, line matching units and
coaxial cable for coupling the carrier signal to the overhead transmission lines.
The equipment shall be suitable for operation in the frequency band of 40-1000 kHz.
Swing frame cubicles of 19” rack design shall be used to house the PLC terminal racks.
The cubicle shall be designed as per the specifications given in Specific Facilities Data.

16.4.2 Frequency Allocation Plan


In order to avoid frequency congestion the Contractor shall, after survey of the existing
installation, submit a carrier frequency allocation plan (FAP) for the new DPLC links.
NTDC (Telecom) shall approve the proposed frequencies. The criteria to be used in
frequency planning shall be:
 Two line sections separation at the same voltage level.
 One line section and transformer section separation at different voltage levels.
The services being provided by the existing PLCs shall continue to be provided by the
new DPLCs with necessary enhancements required for this Project.
While proposing the reuse of frequencies it shall be ensured that no interference is
caused with the communication services of other administrations. Frequencies shall be
allocated such that cross-talk due to coupling through the substation busbars or due to
the links operating over parallel overhead lines is kept to a minimum as per IEC
standards.
The frequency setting of a link shall be programmable in the field.

16.4.3 Signal to Noise Requirements


The DPLC shall automatically adapt its data transmission rates to ensure minimum BER
under adverse weather conditions keeping the teleprotection signals at the highest
priority.
For voice communication, signal to noise ratio of not less than 25dB in the speech band
under adverse weather conditions and not less than 35dB in normal operating
conditions. The Contractor shall provide calculations in line with IEC 60663 – “Planning
of (single sideband) power line carrier systems" detailing coupling equipment, line
attenuation and any other losses. Relevant assumptions on the transmission lines noises
and on the VF levels adjustments shall be stated clearly.

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16.4.4 DPLC Terminal Equipment

16.4.4.1 General
The design and performance of the DPLC unit must guarantee the reliable operation of
the equipment under all common operation conditions encountered on the EHV power
network and shall conform to the latest revision of IEC 60495 - "Single Sideband Power
Line Carrier Terminals". The equipment shall be used for the transmission of the
following types of information:
 Speech for voice communication.
 Telephone signalling.
 RTU data communication.
 Teleprotection signals.
The offered equipment shall have been type tested, field-proven and working
successfully in telecom network operated by power utilities for at least three years and
installed on minimum three projects. Evidence in this regard shall be submitted with the
Bid in the form of type test reports, reference lists and client’s certificates.

16.4.4.2 DPLC Equipment Features


The DPLC equipment shall have following features:
 Field-programmable carrier frequency selection in increments of 4 kHz from 40
kHz to 500 kHz, including filters.
 Power amplifiers available in a range of power output ratings suitable for
selection to match link transmission loss. HF power increments shall be 40 and
80 watts.
 Automatic gain control (AGC) to prevent transmitter overload and receiver
AGC from pilot signal. Receiver AGC to limit voice frequency output level to
±1.0dB or better over a 40dB dynamic range of input carrier level.
 Provision in the receiver for equalization of line frequency attenuation distortion.
 Transit filters, if required, for pass-through connection to equipment.
 Provision for selectable matching balanced or unbalanced cables at the
transmission frequency interfaces to impedances of 60, 75 and 150 ohms.
Impedance matching to 125, 150, and 250 ohm terminations will also be
required. The nominal PLC output impedances shall be 75 ohms for unbalanced
grounded circuits and 150 ohms for balanced ungrounded circuits.
 Provision for input and output connections for voice, for telephony signaling and
decoupled individually adjustable data channels as well as protection signalling in
each channel unit.
 Programmable to provide speech, teleprotection and 4800bps data services or
any combination of these services e.g. 2xspeech+data+teleprotection, 3xspeech+
teleprotection, 1xspeech+2xdata etc. The bidder shall give details of all
possibilities available in the equipment. Also, the supplied equipment shall have
no restriction on the use of full range of its services by the Employer in future.

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 Interface ports to provide universal connection to existing telephone systems


with 2-wire FXO, 2-wire FXS, 4-wire, and 4-wire/E&M terminations
(irrespective of existing type and country of manufacture).
 Provision of an internal tone generator for inserting and measuring test tones.
 Test jacks and/or test points for diagnosing trouble. Important metering points,
control elements and visual indicators shall be on the front of the modules or
front panel. Alarms shall provide dry relay contacts for forwarding alarms. Self
loop back features must be provided.
 Equipment operation from a nominal 48V (-15%,+20%) positive earthed DC
battery supply, connected to a battery charger with internal regulation.
 Provision on each terminal for service ("order wire") telephone, with audible and
visible calling annunciators.
 Carrier oscillators accurate within ±20 Hz. The maximum allowable frequency
difference between transmit and receive on any link over the specified
environmental range shall not exceed ±2 Hz with suppressed carrier. With
reduced carrier, the aforesaid frequency difference shall be zero. RF stability
requirement shall be better than 1 Hz within the specified temperature range.
 Equipment operation within the specified environmental conditions.
 Provision of a self-diagnostic (loop back) to be controlled both locally and
remote.
 Software programmable without physical change of equipment modules or
strapping.
 Alarm monitoring provided through LEDs and dry alarm contacts.
 Capable of easy integration into digital networks, LAN/IP connectivity, remote
management and compatibility with legacy systems.

16.4.4.3 DPLC Equipment Design


The equipment shall be of the single sideband, suppressed carrier type being considered
on a modular basis, with the modules plugging into 19" (480 mm) shelves. The
equipment shall utilize solid state integrated devices with a minimum of discrete
components. Each channel shall have a bandwidth of 8 kHz, allowing simultaneous
bilateral transmission of mixed type information (telephone, signal and data).
The information type to be accommodated on a channel shall be programmable to
include any combination of speech, data and teleprotection signals.
Routine testing and fault location of the equipment shall be facilitated by means of built-
in testing equipment and LEDs etc. The functions to be controlled by the equipment
shall be stated by the bidder.
The basic architecture of DPLC equipment shall include the following three parts:
 Input/Output interfaces of varying types e.g.
 V.11, V.24 digital interface.
 AF analogue interface.
 Protection signalling interface.
 Interface for time synchronization.

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 Multiplexer and digital signal processor.


 RF power amplifier.

(A) Input/Output Interfaces


Each DPLC link shall be configured for the particular application on that link. As
a minimum, each unit shall be equipped with:
 1 x 2/4 wire speech interface.
 1 x 2-wire remote subscriber (FXS/FXO) interface.
 4 No. V.11, V.24 interfaces with adapters for LAN/IP connectivity.
 1 No. integrated digital protection signalling equipment for connection to
protection relays.
 1 No. service interface for service tool (Laptop PC) connection.
 1 No. telephone service channel interface and associated equipment for
testing and maintenance.
 1 No. set of status and alarm indication LEDs.
 1 No. interface for power supply, 48V DC and 220V AC.

Digital Protection Signalling Equipment


Integrated digital protection signalling equipment shall be provided for secure
and dependable transmission of protection trip signals over the DPLC. The
equipment shall be designed in accordance with the following:
 Command addressing (minimum 8 bit) for trip signal to prevent
inadvertent signal transmission.
 Possibility for transmission of four bi-directional trip commands.
 Selectable and programmable, security, dependability and transmission
speeds.
 1+1 path protection available as a standard feature. A switch-over of the
protection signal command shall be guaranteed in less than 5 ms.
 Possible to drop and insert commands, transfer commands at a transit
station and have AND- and OR- connections between commands. The
equipment shall be able to support T-node configurations.
 Signals adjustable from 24 to 250V DC by means of software. All inputs
and outputs shall be isolated and with EMC immunity for harsh
environment.
 Provided with an integrated non-volatile event-recorder that can be
synchronized internally and by Global Positioning System (GPS) and a
command counter for recording trip commands.
 Provision of individual command counters external to the equipment and
manually resettable for each trip command. The equipment shall include
at least the following counters:
 Command counter at transmitter input for memorizing the input
trip command.

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 Command counter for memorizing the trip command at the


receiver.
Provisions shall also be available for remote signalling of the received and
transmitted commands.
 An automatic and periodic loop test (< 100s) provided for a signal delay
measurement.
 Configuration tool for the PSE integrated into the test and maintenance
software.
 No false trip commands generated in the event of power supply failure or
when the equipment is put into or taken out of service.
 Power supply voltage in the range 48V DC (-15%,+20%).
 The input/output interface between the protection relays and the
protection signalling equipment by means of reed relays and the
input/output rack wiring carefully segregated from other wiring.
 The transmitter command initiated by the use of clean contacts on the
protection relay which shall switch the 48V DC teleprotection supply to
the reed relay.
 DPSE receiver preferably provides at least two output contacts per
command for primarily operating the 220V DC protection and control
supply.
 Contacts wired to a separate terminal strip, which shall be specially
labelled accordingly.
 In addition, necessary auxiliary contacts supplied for alarm and indication
purposes.
(B) Multiplexer and Digital Signal Processor
The input signals of all interfaces shall be multiplexed and digitally processed to
form an SSB modulated signal of the desired RF band.
For this purpose, the analogue input signals shall be first converted into a digital
signal (a serial sequence of bits) by an analog to digital converter. The digital
input signals shall be processed by digital signal processor (DSP) circuits using
suitable software algorithms, so as to get another digital data stream.
The data streams thus obtained shall be converted through suitable modulation
techniques to give an SSB modulated RF signal.
Reverse procedure shall be employed for demodulation. The entire signal
processing technique shall be aimed at achieving user flexibility. Thus, by
changing few software parameters settings of carrier frequencies, pilot
frequencies, orientation of the spectrum etc. shall be possible to change.
Each asynchronous digital interface shall be adjustable in the range of 1200 to
9600 bit/s.
The synchronous digital shall be able to be parameterized as clock master (DCE)
or clock slave (DTE). The bit rate shall be adjustable from 9.6 to 64 kbps.

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(C) RF Power Amplifier


The RF power amplifier shall be modular and easily replaceable. It shall be
possible to add stages of identical power amplifiers to obtain RF PEP power
output of 40 W, 80 W or higher wattage.
Selection of the required power output for each link shall be made by the bidder
after considering the transmission line parameters. However, it shall not be less
than 80W.
The RF power amplifier section shall receive RF signal from the digital signal
processor which is fed to a voltage controlled amplifier to obtain the desired RF
output.
Switching operations in the high-voltage network, in addition to climatic
conditions, can lead to an alteration of the impedance in the high-voltage line.
This affects the output current and the output voltage of the amplifier adapted to
the line. The RF power amplifier shall thus be dynamically controlled for its
power output.
In order to prevent overdriving when the amplifier is driven to full output, the
RF power amplifier shall be controlled through a feedback control loop.
Similarly monitoring circuits shall be provided to prevent failure of any
component due to exceeding of design limits.
For supervision of the equipment, alarm contacts shall be available along with
LEDs on the front panel indicating status and alarms.
The RF power amplifier section shall also house necessary filters and hybrids for:
 Separating the transmitted RF signal from the received signal.
 Allowing connection of additional stages of amplification.
 Matching the output to the coupling filters connected to the transmission
line.

16.4.4.4 Test and Maintenance Equipment


For programming, testing, commissioning and in depth supervision of the equipment, the
software loaded on a laptop PC (better or equal to core2duo) with user friendly HMI
shall be provided. It shall be possible to configure the DPLC remotely by dial-up or
internet or LAN/WAN.
In addition to above, a service engineer’s tool kit shall also be provided.

16.4.5 Power Line Coupling Equipment

16.4.5.1 General
In order to connect the DPLC terminal to the transmission line, coupling equipment
comprising line traps, coupling capacitor voltage transformers, line matching units and
coaxial cable shall be provided.
The transmission line parameters for the 220 kV circuits shall be as under:
1. Line lengths:
Mangla-Gujrat 220 kV Circuit = 54 km

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Gujrat-Ghakkar 220 kV Circuit = 91 km


2. Conductor name and size: = ACSR “DRAKE”
795 KCM,
Dia. = 28.14 mm
26/7 strands
3. No. of sub-conductors/phase = 2
4. Rated voltage = 220 kV
5. Nominal voltage = 220 kV
6. Symmetrical short-circuit current
at rated voltage = 50 kA

16.4.5.2 Method of coupling


Coupling of the power line carrier signals to the transmission circuits shall be by means
of line matching units, coupling capacitor voltage transformers and line traps. The
methods of coupling used shall be phase to phase (centre-outer) on single circuits and
inter-circuit coupling on double circuits.

16.4.5.3 Line traps


The minimum inductance of the line traps shall be 0.315 mH on the 220 kV and 132kV
level. Detailed specifications are included in Section 17 of these Technical
Specifications.

16.4.5.4 Coupling capacitor voltage transformers


The minimum capacitance of the CCVTs shall be 6000 pF at 220kV and 132kV levels.
Detailed specifications are included in Section 13 of these Technical Specifications.

16.4.5.5 Line matching unit


The LMU shall couple and decouple the high-frequency signals of the power line carrier
unit from and to the transmission system. The LMU shall work like a high-pass filter for
coupling to the overhead transmission lines.
Broad-band units shall be provided for each phase. The tuning range of the LMUs shall
cover transmit and receive frequencies of the new DPLC links and shall be field
programmable. The composite loss over the range shall not be greater than 2 dB. The
line side and equipment side return losses shall preferably be greater than 12 dB over the
available bandwidth of the filter. The line side impedance of the device shall be suitable
in the range 200-600 ohms for phase to phase and inter-circuit coupling. The equipment
side impedance shall be in the range of 75 ohms (unbalanced) to 150 ohms (balanced).
The LMU shall be programmable for various coupling capacitances, line and equipment
side impedances.
The units shall provide for impedance matching, filtering and operation safety and shall
comply with IEC 60481.
The LMUs shall be adaptable for either, centre phase to outer phase or inter-circuit
coupling. For phase to phase coupling, it shall be possible to earth either of the LMUs
and continue with carrier transmission on phase to ground basis using the other filter.

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All tuning elements shall be factory-tuned to the selected frequency band, impedances
shall be factory adapted to the line and HF cable impedances.
All components shall be suitable for outdoor operation in the prevailing climatic
conditions. Cubicles shall be of steel sheet material with weather proof door and cable
inputs seals, adequately protected against condensation and shall be designed to a
protection class of IP55 or better. They shall be suitable for mounting on CCVT
rectangular lattice type steel support structures.
The unit shall be designed to ensure the safety of operators and the protection of the
carrier equipment against the effects of the network high voltage, and of transient over-
voltage conditions. Full compliance with IEC recommendations shall be provided.
The unit shall have surge arresters and an earth switch. The terminal of the device
connected directly to the substation earth shall be clearly marked.
All elements such as coupling filters, drain coils or protective devices shall be suitable
for the coupling capacitor to be applied. A drain coil shall earth the 50 Hz current so that
the applied voltage meets the prevailing safety requirements i.e.:
 The unit shall withstand without damage a shock-wave 1.2/50 μs of 6 kV peak
value applied on the power line side.
 Insulation level shall be of 5 kV rms applied for one minute between each coil
and earth and between each coil and screen.
The connecting cable between the coupling unit and the coupling capacitor shall be
included. It shall have a diameter of at least 8 mm and shall be isolated and fixed
sufficiently to withstand the mechanical and electrical stresses in case of HV faults.
Name Plate
The coupling box, the earth switch, the main surge arrester and the drain coil shall be
equipped with name plates of weather-resistant material, placed so that it is easily
visible, with irremovable inscriptions. They shall indicate as a minimum:
 Manufacturer's name, type and serial number;
 Rated voltage and current for the earth switch;
 Rated voltage and the rated discharge current for the surge arrestor.
An arrangement diagram with weather-resistant inscriptions shall be fixed inside the
door of the unit housing box. It shall in particular indicate the references of the carrier
frequency cable outputs, the value of the tuning coil and the ratio of the adaptation
transformer in relation to the connections used. Various connections of the filter and of
the matching transformer shall be shown in a visible and practical way.

16.4.5.6 Coaxial cable


High frequency cable of coaxial type shall be used as connection cable between coupling
unit and the DPLC terminal and between the set of coupling units (connected in phase-
phase and inter-circuit configuration).
The cable shall be PVC insulated, galvanized steel tape armored (two layers) with a
further outer sheath of PVC and shall be suitable for direct laying in the earth/trenches
and for use in tropical climates (temperature 0-70C and humidity approaching 100%).
The inner conductor shall be copper with a diameter of 1-2 mm whereas the outer
conductor shall be bare copper braid.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Following electrical parameters shall be considered in cable design:


 Impedance 75±5 ohm (unbalanced)
 Attenuation at:
 100kHz ≤ 1.8 dB/km
 300kHz ≤ 2.8 dB/km
 500kHz ≤ 4.1 dB/km.
 Capacitance ≤ 66 nF/km
 Insulation resistance > 5 GΩkm
 DC resistance at 20C ≤ 26 Ω/km
 DC resistance of braid at 20C ≤ 4.5 Ω/km
 Test voltage ≥ 6kV 50Hz/1min.
 Bending radius with load ≤ 12 x outer cable dia.
 Maximum tensile strength Bidder shall state
Cross-section layout and technical data of cable mechanical and electrical characteristics
shall be included in the bid.
The laying in trenches, burying in ground, back-filling, termination and protection pipes
shall be included in the works. The protection pipes, if used, shall be properly closed at
the ends with a suitable compound to prevent against vermin attack. The cable shall be
suitable for laying in the trenches with the HV power cables. The distance between the
two cables shall be at least 400 mm. Bending radius requirements shall be strictly
adhered to during installation and any damage thereof shall be the Contractor’s
responsibility.
Complete lengths of cable shall be provided, with drum lengths according to
requirement but not less than 1000 m. However, if straight through joints are required
on any link, this shall be deemed to be included in the works.

16.5 DIGITAL PAX EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

16.5.1 General
A digital PAX shall be provided at Gujrat s/s to cater to the speech requirements for the
project.
The PAX system shall conform to the relevant recommendations of the ITU-T and shall
be fully compatible with the PAXs of NTDC's operational power control telephone
network.
In the event that the Contractor and Manufacturer are different, the Manufacturer’s
representative shall install and commission the PAX in strict accordance with established
installation practices.

16.5.2 Design Requirements


The equipment configuration shall be flexible to enable implementation of point to point,
tandem as well as ring topology communication with other substations. The PAX system
shall be expandable without any interruption in service.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

The required equipment shall have already been working successfully in


telecommunication network operated by power utilities. Therefore it shall be suitable for
operation in harsh environment with electromagnetic interference and shall have a high
reliability and security.
The proposed PAX equipment shall incorporate at least a 30% spare equipped capacity
and shall be expandable to 100% of the equipped capacity by simple addition of plug-in
modules. The equipped capacity should be fully wired up to the MDF. The other
ancillary equipment shall also be similarly sized.

16.5.3 Operational Requirements

16.5.3.1 Network organization


Gujrat s/s PAX shall become an integral part of the operational telephone network (to be
implemented under LDS-Phase II project) in which the first priority of communication
shall be with the despatcher positions at NPCC. Users of the network shall be classified
in following four categories in order of their importance.
 Level A: Despatchers at NPCC
 Level B: Control Room at Power Stations/DCC operators
 Level C: Control Rooms at 220 kV substations
 Level D: All other subscribers
The dispatchers shall be able to communicate with any station in the network as and
when they desire. The connections of the Power Stations and 220 kV substations with
the despatchers shall be via dedicated "Hot Lines".
A number of different types of service restrictions will be incorporated into the network
for Levels B to D in order to minimize the flow of unwanted traffic in the network. To
streamline this feature, a "Local Area" will be designated, through appropriate software
programming, for each node of the network and the node shall not be allowed to call
another station outside the boundaries of this designated area.
The Contractor shall be responsible for fully integrating the offered PAX into the above
operational telephone network. Complete integration requires that the exchange
supports all network facilities over the digital and analog trunks and shall be fully
compatible with the PAXs to be implemented under LDS-Phase II project. The
compatibility of the new PAX shall be demonstrated in the field before formal approval
can be accorded. This shall take place before site testing and commissioning.

16.5.3.2 Numbering scheme


The new PAX shall use a closed numbering scheme in which a singular number shall be
dialed for a given extension irrespective of the calling party. The numbering scheme shall
be uniform and consist of four digits. The selection of appropriate trunk lines shall be as
flexible as possible and shall be made through the analysis of the dialed number. Only
digits that are required for determination of the call direction shall be analyzed.
Changes in the numbering plan by the Employer shall be possible in a flexible and easy
manner without any modifications in hardware or wiring.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

16.5.3.3 Channel routing


Whenever several routes are possible within the meshed network for connecting to
NPCC, the PAX equipment shall allow free line selection, so that when one trunk or a
group of trunks (route) is busy/occupied, the call is automatically transferred to the next
available line according to a pre-programmed sequence. Such selection shall be
programmed in the PAX according to traffic considerations and network topology.
Whenever extra equipment is required for this purpose, it shall be quoted and be
provided by the bidder.

16.5.3.4 Caller number identification


The PAX equipment shall incorporate the capability of transferring the caller number
identification throughout the network to enable the appearance of this information (on a
per call basis) on the dispatcher control telephone at NPCC.

16.5.4 Technical Requirements

16.5.4.1 General
The PAX shall be a state-of-the-art digital, non-blocking type utilizing pulse code
modulation (PCM), time division multiplexing (TDM) and stored program control
(SPC). The transmission shall conform to the ITU-T A-Law Companding standard
(ITU-T Rec. G.711 and G.712). Centralized circuits shall be provided for tone
generation and detection. The system shall use digital technology and microelectronics,
with minimum 32 bit main processor control, and fully modular hardware to allow future
expansion in extension, trunk and tie-lines. The software of the system should be written
in open standard software architecture and a high level programming language
recommended by ITU-T.
The proposed system shall comprise integrated and discrete components of a high level
of reliability to guarantee a system availability of 99.98% over a fifteen year operating
period.
The PAX shall be field-proven and shall be suitably designed to operate over any kind of
transmission media such as DPLC, optical fiber, digital microwave and pilot cable.
The Contractor shall provide details of the signaling schemes, in accordance with the
ITU-T standards.
Plug-in printed circuit boards shall have gold plated connectors, if applicable, and shall
be connected by means of printed back panels.
Line terminals shall consist of solder-less connectors of well proven design for easy
wiring, testing etc.
Extensive and adjustable time-out facilities shall be available in the PAX system to
enable the time-out and release in the following cases.
 when a call is not answered in a predefined period;
 when while dialing, the inter-digit time period is exceeded;
 when an incomplete or invalid number is dialed; and
 when a station user attempts to access a feature he is not allowed.
The PAX system shall incorporate a backup memory on magneto optical disk to protect
the system against loss of memory due to power failure or breakdown of the system.
Upon restoration of power to the system after failure, the back up memory shall

16-17
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

automatically reload the required system and customer data files into the active memory
area within a period of ten seconds.
The programs and data of the system shall also be stored on removable disks which can
be used to load the system in case of a main system disk failure.
The PAX system shall incorporate a wide range of self initiating diagnostic routines for
the monitoring of the system performance and identification of errors i.e. major and
minor hardware and software faults, faulty line/trunk card, power supply, etc. Details of
hardware and software covered by self-diagnostics shall be explained with the bidder’s
proposal.

16.5.4.2 Interface circuits


The various types of interface circuits shall be as follows:

Analogue : Two wire Dial Tone Multi-Frequency


extension (DTMF) according to ITU-T Q.23
Digital Extension : Standard BRA 4 wire ISDN S0 bus (ITU-T
I.430)
UPn 2 wire interface (in 1B+D or 2B+D
modes), Uk0 2 wire interface
Analogue Trunk : 2 wire/4wire E&M Interface with MFCR2
(ITU-T Q.400 TO Q.490)
2 wire loop disconnect Interface
Digital Trunk : 30B+D interfaces conforming to ITU-T
G.703/G.704 with 1TR6, DPNSS and QSIG
protocols
2 MB/s CAS protocol
2B+D interface conforming to ITU-T I.430
with 1TR6, DPNSS and QSIG protocols
IP Trunking : 4, 8 or 30 channels
G.711, G.723.1, G.729 compliant
Data : V.24 (Asynchronous upto 19.2kbps,
Communication synchronous upto 64 kbps), V.35 or X.21
(all via an ISDN terminal adapter or data
port of a digital phone)
Share modem pool access

16.5.4.3 Software features


The PAX system shall possess, as a minimum requirement, the following software
features. The features shall be fully transparent to the network.
(A) Call priority
Call priority can be assigned to certain extensions or Network Tie Lines as a fixed
attribute; calls originated by these extensions or on these lines will always have
priority over routine calls. Alternatively, extensions may be given a Service Class

16-18
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

which allows them to obtain Priority on a call-by-call basis when needed. During
the application of priority, priority intrusion is used to intrude upon an established
call when congestion is encountered upon initiating a call to another extension.
The Priority feature is a mandatory function which must function over the PAX
network. It may be inhibited either manually or automatically.
(B) Automatic priority intrusion
If a call is initiated with Priority, a busy line in the first choice route will be
selected once congestion has been detected in the alternative routes. The caller
will then automatically enter into a conference with the parties in conversation on
this line, after a short intrusion tone has been provided to all parties, including the
intruding party. The duration of this conference is limited to a configurable amount
of time (default duration of thirty seconds), after which the intruding party will be
disconnected.
(C) Manual priority intrusion
If the call has not been initiated with Priority and congestion is found on the line,
the caller shall receive an audible and visual indication of this. The caller shall then
have the option of upgrading the call's priority. This is accomplished by pressing
the appropriate PRIORITY key on his telephone within a configurable period of
time (default duration of fifteen seconds), otherwise, the caller will be
disconnected.
Once manual intrusion has been performed, a busy line is selected and a
conference established as described above for Automatic Priority Intrusion. At this
time, the call will be tagged as a Priority call in each node along the route to the
destination, as the intrusion order is transmitted from node to node.
(D) Forced release of call
A Forced release order is used by the intruding party to forcibly release the parties
in an established call which has been intruded on, in order to free the line for use
by the intruding party. Once the caller has intruded on an established call, he may
initiate a Forced Release Order by pressing the PRIORITY key before the
maximum duration of the intrusion has elapsed. After application of the Force
Release Order, the intruding party will automatically be connected to its
destination without any redialling or further dialling of any number or code by the
NPCC despatcher/intruding party.
(E) Hot-line extension
This type of extension shall have the facility to automatically call a pre-designated
number by only lifting the handset.
(F) Call diversion on busy
Calls to an extension are diverted to a predefined directory number when the
extension is busy.
(G)Call diversion on no-answer
Calls to the extension are diverted to a predefined Directory Number (DN) when
the call is not answered within a specified period of time (default duration of ten
seconds).

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

(H)Call transfer
Allows an extension user on any two party call to Hold the existing call, originate
a call to a third party and then transfer the call to a third party. The station user
can then consult privately with the third party before completing the transfer, or
can return to the original caller.
(I) Call forward
All incoming calls to a station user can be automatically forwarded to another pre-
selected destination within or outside the PAX to which the station user is
connected.
(J) Call waiting
Alerts the station user, busy with an established call, that additional calls are
waiting to be transferred.
(K)Ring again
Allows a station user, on encountering a busy connection, to be alerted when a
called party or trunk route becomes free. The system will then automatically redial
the desired destination.
(L) Call pick-up
Enables the definition/programming of specific call pick up groups whereby a
station can pick up an incoming call for another station in his call pick up group by
lifting his handset and dialling a pre-designating call pick up code.
(M) Conference
Allows a station user to establish a three party conference. Conferences may be
inside or outside the PAX to which the station user is connected.
(N) On-hook dialling
Enables a station user to originate a call without lifting the handset.
(O)Privacy
When a station user is engaged in a two party conversation, no other party can
enter the conversation.
(P) Authorization code
For the purpose of overriding the access restrictions, a specific two to three digit
pre-programmed code is dialled by a designated station, to enable him to gain free
access to the network. Dial tone is returned to the station user after dialling the
code and he is able to call the destination without restriction.

16.5.4.4 Equipment design


The PAX system structure shall be based upon a multi-processor hierarchy, in which the
processing requirements are subdivided on the basis of both the type of function to be
carried out and the time limits set. The architecture shall allow for the optimum use of
system resources by use of a combination of advantages of distributed processing with
the low costs and efficiency of centralized management. The system shall consist of the
following functional units.

16-20
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

(A) Common control group


In order to avoid the duplication of information and allow for a set up of a reliable
and flexible structure, this group centralizes the decisional-management system
functions, operator interface functions and system functions such as down-loading
programs to processing subsystems (peripheral equipment modules). This group
collects all pertinent information relating to the state of the various parts of the
PAX system, activating if necessary alarm procedures and regulating access to the
system's memory areas in order to optimize their use.
It contains all the system programs, semi-permanent system data, subscriber
categories and features, numbering schemes, network characteristics and all other
information used to provide services.
The Input/Output communication shall be achieved via a terminal (VDU) which
displays/prints on request all system information, alarm messages, traffic and call
recording data.
(B) Switching group
This portion of the system performs the switching functions of the communication
channels in a non-blocking mode, with a bit transfer rate according to ITU-T
standards. It consists of the appropriate digital/analogue converters for the
subscriber and trunk modules/cards plus a memory time switch for establishment
of the connections required by the Common Control Group.
The data exchange between the Switching Group and the Common Control Group
shall be via the high speed data bus incorporating a bidirectional V.24 interface,
through which the Common Control unit gives instructions for;
 controlling the switching operations;
 injecting audible signals;
 setting up conferences.
(C) Peripheral equipment group
This group shall consist of the various types of line and trunk modules and
associated bus extension units. It shall be possible to incorporate both the
analogue and digital versions of the line and trunk cards.
(D) Operation/maintenance ports
The PAX system shall incorporate at least two EIA RS232C serial ports for
connection of input/output terminals to enable the program of customer data
information and recording and monitoring of traffic data.
(E) Operation/maintenance facilities and alarms
An adequate range of alarm and test facilities shall be provided to enable the
maintenance personnel to rapidly access and localize the fault conditions. The
exchange shall be supplied with system management & diagnostic software.
The facility of remote access of the PAX for operation and maintenance purposes
shall also be available.
The system shall also contain appropriate hardware and software for the audible
and visual display of the whole range of alarms from the PAX equipment to enable
the local maintenance personnel to undertake corrective action immediately upon
the occurrence of a fault.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

The Bidder shall provide complete technical details of the operation/maintenance


facilities and alarm display and rectification.

16.5.5 Equipment Cubicle


The exchange equipment shall be installed in racks mounted in a free-standing swing
rack cubicle, of completely enclosed type with a protection class of IP 54 and shall
preferably not require any rear access. The cubicle shall be dust and vermin-proof with
suitable dust filters and ventilation provided. Accessibility shall be provided from the
front for testing, commissioning and maintenance purposes. The cubicle shall have the
provision of being locked from the outside. Entrance of the cables shall be through a
gland plate provided at the bottom of the cubicle.
All modules shall be identified as to their shelf location and it is preferred that coded key
slots are used in the edge connectors in order that modules cannot be plugged into the
wrong shelf position.

16.5.6 Telephone sets

16.5.6.1 Desk telephone set


Desk telephone shall be a standard single line push button analogue tone dialing set. The
keypad and the dialing from the telephone set shall conform to the ITU-T Q23 standard.
It shall be possible to attach a hands-free unit, if required.

16.5.6.2 Wall mounted telephone set


Wall mounted telephone shall be a push button analogue tone dialing set designed for
installation on the wall only. The keypad and the dialing from the telephone set shall
conform to the ITU-T Q23 standard.

16.5.6.3 Executive telephone sets


Executive telephone shall be a push button tone dialing set with display of at least 2x24
characters to show Names and CLIP, at least 24 programmable memories, digit display,
provide full hands-free operation, have programmable function keys with LED
indication, support context sensitive features, name dialing and display as well as
Message display.

16.5.7 Cabling
All cabling, between the telephone sets and the PAX and between the PAX and
MDF/communication equipment shall be supplied and installed by the Contractor in
trenches/ducts and/or cable trays. The telephone cables shall be twisted and screened
with suitable protection against vermin/rodent attack.

16.5.8 Power Supply


The PAX equipment shall be powered from the 48V DC power system.

16.6 MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME SPECIFICATIONS


The termination frames shall be housed in a self-standing 19" cabinet lockable from the
outside. The cabinet shall be dust and vermin proof, designed to a protection class of
IP54. Provision shall be made to earth the cabinet to the grounding system within the

16-22
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

substation. The entry of cables shall be from the bottom through suitable glands
provided in the plates and care shall be exercised that the glands are tightly closed after
the installation of cables.
The connecting blocks shall be of the quick-connect type, each capable of
accommodating at least 10 pairs. It shall incorporate over-voltage and over-current
protection on all external trunk and subscriber circuits. These protectors shall be either
carbon or gas tube type. Access to the connecting blocks shall be from the front. One (1)
quick connect tool shall be provided with the cabinet.

16.7 STATION DIRECT WIRE TELEPHONE SYSTEM


SPECIFICATIONS

16.8 PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

16.8.1 General
The system shall be modular in design, flexible and field programmable. The system shall
feature an “attention alarm” signal to precede the spoken messages.

16.8.2 Microphone
The microphone shall be fitted on a table stand by means of a ‘swan necked’ flexible
support. The table stand shall house the on/off switch and LED indicators, which shall
indicate the “power on” status and the audio level output of the amplifier.
The microphone shall conform to the following specifications:
 Type : Dynamic
 Directivity pattern : Cardioid
 Frequency range : 150-15000 Hz (3 dB points)
 Impedance : 200 Ohm
 Sensitivity : 1.65 mV/Pa
 Front to rear ratio : 14 dB at 1000 Hz
 Max. sound power level : 128 dB

16.8.3 Audio Amplifier and Distribution System


The audio amplifier and distribution system shall be supplied in a standard 19” rack and
shall comply with the IEC standards laid down for such equipment.
The system shall be modular in structure. The electronics shall be protected against
errors in switching, loading and connections as well as oscillations, open circuit and
short circuits.
The input module shall accept at least two microphone inputs. Level adjustment for each
input shall be provided on the front panel of the module.
The output amplifier module shall be capable of delivering up to 250 W of audio power
with minimum distortion. Two such output modules shall be provided to share the total
load. The audio distribution shall be such as to ensure that partial public address facility
is available at all key locations in the event of failure of one power amplifier.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

It shall be possible to individually select a loud speaker or a group of loud speakers by


simply pressing an identified push button. The unit shall be able to handle minimum four
such identification push buttons. It shall be possible to program a loud speaker or a
group of loud speakers for control from any one of the identification push buttons. In
addition, a universal push button for broadcasting the message to all loud speakers shall
also be provided.
An “attention alarm” signal module shall also be provided. The attention alarm shall be a
two/four tone chime with adjustable pitch and repetition rate. It shall be activated from
the microphone “on” switch at the operator’s desk so that it precedes each spoken
announcement. A feed back of the attention alarm signal shall be provided at the
operator’s desk. The electronics shall ensure that the microphone remains un-operational
while the attention signal is on.
In addition to above, the audio amplifier equipment shall feature a limiter circuit to
restrict the output level by reducing the amplification factor under conditions of
excessively high input peaks so as to protect the amplifier from being over driven.
The amplifier equipment shall be provided with suitable indicators for following
indications:
 On/off indication
 Audio output level indication
A local monitor loud speaker shall also be provided. The audio distribution shall be
achieved through delay lines with adjustable delays to compensate for such problems as
dead spots and reverberation. The Contractor shall determine the exact quantity of delay
lines required to achieve a satisfactory solution.
Main technical features of the audio amplifier system shall conform to the following:
 Power output : 250 W per output module
 Total harmonic distortion : 0.5%
at 1000 Hz
 Effective frequency range : 200 to 10000 Hz
(3 dB points)
 Signal to noise ratio : 90 dB
(with microphone controls down)
 Temperature range for : -5 to 50C
guaranteed operation

16.8.4 Loudspeakers

16.8.4.1 Column
Column type loudspeakers shall be provided at various locations within the control
building. The Contractor may also propose alternate type provided full justification of its
benefits is elaborated. The columns shall be installed on adjustable mounting brackets.
The main technical features of the loudspeakers shall conform to the following:
 Sound projection pattern : Cardioid (horizontal plane)
 Beamwidth : In vertical plane shall be proposed by the

16-24
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Contractor according to floor dimensions,


angle and height of mounting
 Power output : 12 W with adjustable taps for 18W& 6W
 Frequency range : 200-10000 Hz
 Sound pressure : 113 dB at 24 W
 The column shall be encased in a casing which is durable and suitable for use in
industrial environment.
 Connection to the audio amplifier of various loudspeaker columns shall be such
that no appreciable mismatch with the audio amplifier would occur in case of a
failure of one loudspeaker column.

16.8.4.2 Flush Mounted


Flush mounted loudspeakers shall be provided wherever false ceiling is available within
the control building. The specifications shall, in general, be the same as that for the
column type stated above.

16.8.4.3 Horns
At selected locations within the switchyard and other outdoor locations, horn
loudspeakers shall be provided that cover the entire switchyard area and outdoor
premises.

16.8.5 Cables
Sufficient microphone, loudspeaker and power supply cables shall be provided. The
cables shall be installed in trenches/cable trays and no cable splicing shall be allowed.
The main features of the microphone and loudspeaker cables shall be:
Microphone cable
 Impedance (wave) : 75 ohm
 Insulation voltage (shielded pairs): 1000 V
 Cross-section: stranded copper wire, suitable for
microphone drain current (min. 20 mA)
 Type of cable: twisted (1 pair) copper shielded

Loudspeaker cable
 Insulation voltage: 1000 V
 Cross-section: min. 0.25 m2, stranded copper wire
 Type of cable: twisted (1 pair) copper shielded

16.8.6 Power Supply


The equipment shall be powered from the 48V DC power system.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

16.9 SCADA SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

16.9.1 General
The specifications contained herein include SCADA Data Gateway (SDG) and works
for the installation of SDG at New Lahore s/s and testing of SDG functions with NPCC
SCADA System.
The preferable mode of operation shall be such that for exchanging commands and
specific system parameters with NPCC, the SDG acquires these from, and delivers the
commands to specific IEDs comprising the substation automation system. Bidders may
propose SDGs in any of the following forms:
A Dedicated hardware software combination.
B Software only sharing servers with other applications
C RTUs configured as SDGs
SDGs proposed by Bidders deploying RTUs shall have following features as a minimum.
Installation shall include the physical mounting of cabinets and cabling and termination
up to defined local or (if used), remote interface points. Bidders proposing so
The equipment shall be installed in air-conditioned room(s) else Contractor shall provide
the necessary technical arrangement for his standard equipment to cater for the
environmental constraints to avoid any deleterious effect on the proposed equipment.
The arrangement shall be described in the bid. Bidders offering solutions of types A or B
above shall ensure that their solution can process the signal types defined in this
specification.
The specifications contained herein include SDG and works required to provide the
following functions at the substation level:
(1) Supervision (indications, alarms and measurements).
(2) Remote control (commands and set-points).

16.9.2 SDG Functional Requirements


The SDG shall be required to perform the following functions:
 Acquisition of process information (single and double contact statuses, alarms,
measured values etc.) from the Substation Automation System (SAS) and
transmission to the SCADA/EMS at the NPCC

 Acquisition of orders to the process (digital control orders, analogue and digital set
point values) from NPCC SCADA/EMS and transmission to the substation
through the SAS.
 Remote administration and maintenance (database or software release downloading,
permanent self-diagnostics).
The facilities available in the SDG shall be:
 Self-test and diagnostic feature for each subassembly of the SDG making the
administration and maintenance team aware of total or partial equipment failure
as soon as it happens.
 SDG interfaces to the Data Transmission Network shall be based on:

16-26
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

 Two independent communications channels for linking to redundant


transmission paths to NPCC.
 Capability of the serial ports to handle low asynchronous rates (from
600 baud), as well as all higher asynchronous and synchronous rates as
defined in IEC 60870-5-101 and IEC 60870-5-104 standards.
 Capability to connect directly to an IEC 61850 network.
16.9.3 General Design Features for SDG
Equipment shall be designed in accordance with the best engineering practice. In
addition to providing the desired performance, the equipment shall minimize the risks of
fire, explosion, etc. and danger to maintenance and operational personnel. The bidder
shall determine and declare failure rates for each item of equipment in his offer and
evidence shall be required before acceptance of any item. Components and materials
shall not be operated outside the Manufacturer’s recommended and published conditions
for correct, reliable and predictable operation. Basically, special individually selected
components are not required. However, any such special selection processes shall be
submitted for the approval of the Employer. Circuits shall not depend on unpublished or
uncontrolled characteristics or parameters of components. The use of adjustable controls
to compensate for changes in component values shall be subject to the prior approval of
the Employer.
Power failure shall not cause equipment damage and interruptions of less than 10 ms
shall not cause a break in normal operation. Impulse withstand levels shall be at least
compliant to the IEC standards. Equipment protection devices and alarm shall minimize
equipment outages and facilitate rapid fault location. The equipment shall be designed
for ease of maintenance with minimal requirements for highly skilled personnel on site.
The preferred arrangement of equipment shall allow the repair of most faults by the
replacement of faulty plug-in cards. Suitable diagnostic and monitoring equipment and
fault finding procedure manuals shall be provided to allow rapid fault diagnostic and
isolation. Faulty cards shall be repaired at a maintenance center or by the manufacturer.
Power failure shall not cause equipment damage and interruptions of less than 10ms
shall not cause a break in normal operation. Impulse withstand levels shall be at least
compliant to the IEC standards. Equipment protection devices and alarm circuits shall
be submitted to the approval of the Employer and shall minimize equipment outages and
facilitate rapid fault location. The equipment shall be designed for ease of maintenance
with minimal requirements for highly skilled personnel on site. The preferred
arrangement of equipment shall allow the repair of most faults by the replacement of
faulty plug-in cards. Suitable diagnostic and monitoring equipment and fault finding
procedure manuals shall be provided to allow rapid fault diagnostic and isolation. Faulty
cards shall be repaired at a maintenance centre or by the manufacturer.
The equipment shall not cause interference with other equipment and the noise and
vibration levels shall be stated.
The performance of the equipment shall be such as to meet the requirements of the
Specification for information update times and speed of execution of commands.
The layout of equipment in cabinets shall be standardized. The basic unit of equipment
at each location shall be expandable to a common maximum capacity without the need
for additional wiring or cabling.
Equipment shall be mounted in enclosed cabinet fitted with hinged doors, suitable for
free standing installation. Front and rear access shall be provided for installation and

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

maintenance. Cable access shall normally be from the bottom. Cabinets shall have
uniform dimensions and finish. Cabinets shall be dust/vermin and corrosion proof under
the conditions to be found on the sites. Incoming cables shall be terminated on rail
mounted terminals of screwed anvil clamping type except in the case of telephone type
cables where self-strip and quick connections type cables may be used.
The lowest mounted rack in a cabinet shall be preferably 0.3 m above floor level, and the
highest shall be 1.8 m from the floor. The overall cabinet height shall not exceed 2.2 m.
Cable entry to all racks and cabinets shall be preferably from the bottom.
The layout of components on cards and modules shall be neat and orderly with no
overcrowding. All components shall be so mounted that they can be readily inspected
without disturbing other components. Small components shall normally be supported by
their wire ends, but larger and/or heavier parts shall in all cases be adequately supported
by suitable clips or mountings.
Components that generate a significant amount of heat shall be adequately spaced away
from other components, and also from the mounting cards or panels.
Where forced cooling is considered necessary, dust filters shall be provided at the air
entry vents. Means shall be provided for indicating any significant reduction in air flow,
and measures shall be provided to protect the equipment from damage in the event of
failure of the forced cooling. The equipment shall continue to perform satisfactorily until
the protective device operates.
The electrical construction of all units shall be such as to ensure the highest standards of
reliability, long life, and ease of maintenance.
Inter-unit wiring in bays or racks shall be methodically arranged, and shall follow an
orderly and tidy pattern. All wiring shall be adequately supported and protected from
any mechanical danger. Wiring runs shall be so arranged as to minimize to pick-up of
interference or spurious transients.
All terminations shall be at least 400 mm above floor level. All cabinets, bays, shelves,
modules, cards and other components including terminals shall be clearly marked for
identification purposes. All cabinets shall be equipped with lighting and AC mains
convenience sockets. All metalwork which is or can be made accessible and which is not
live circuitry shall be earthed in accordance with the « Guide for Safety in Substation
Grounding » IEEE No. 80.
On failure of substation equipment or of the power supply, or on restoration of normal
conditions, no false indications shall be transmitted to the SCADA/EMS.

16.9.4 Architecture of SDG

16.9.5.1 General
The SDG shall be of modular design based on distributed architecture. It shall be
possible to physically distribute the I/O modules (if equipped) to minimize process
cabling. These remote I/Os modules (called RIO) shall be located close to the process
and shall interface the SDG via an IEC 61850 compliant LAN. The Contractor shall
provide all cabling, wiring and installation required to connect and implement the RIO
location. The Distributed SDG shall be powered from the 48V DC power system.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

The SDG shall include:


 A central processing module (CPM).
 Firmware/software as required for performing the assigned functions.
 Communication interface to the IEC 61850 LAN.
 Communication interfaces.
 Time synchronization.
 If required, I/O Modules for handling remote I/Os.
 A local user interface.

16.9.5.2 Central processing module (CPM)


The central processing module (CPM) shall handle all protocol emulation, perform data
acquisition, and execute control requests. It shall accept commands from the
SCADA/EMS, perform address recognition, assemble response messages in accordance
with the received command messages, and transmit these messages to the
SCADA/EMS. The CPM shall also provide interfaces for a time standard.
The CPM shall manage communications between all other functional modules and
determine the integrity of the SDG. The processor shall provide diagnostic information
in the message structure that the SCADA/EMS shall monitor. A flag shall be set if the
SDG performs a restart for any reason including power failure.
The CPM shall be programmable in a high level language (i.e. C or C++). The user shall
be able to configure/program the SDG from a portable PC and download parameters
and configuration data from the SCADA/EMS.

16.9.5.3 Firmware/software as required for performing the assigned


functions
The SDG shall meet the following characteristics of the firmware to support the
functions of the SDG. The term firmware, as used in this Specification, shall mean
PROM-based software which may be provided to satisfy the Employer's requirements.
The Contractor shall use standard firmware as much as possible.
(A) Design characteristics
All firmware shall be completely and consistently documented. At the time the
SDG is accepted, all firmware delivered must be up to date and in final form,
including all standard firmware changes and field changes initiated by the
Contractor or the Contractor's suppliers prior to acceptance. The firmware
documentation must reflect these changes.
In order to easily support the system under continuously changing site
conditions, all protocol configuration and application data must be contained in
easily programmable non-volatile memory such as Flash EPROM.
(B) Initialization/restart program
Firmware shall be provided to enable the SDG to restart itself upon manual
request and automatically under the conditions of power restoration, memory
parity errors and hardware failures. The firmware shall initialize the SDG and
begin execution of the SDG functions without intervention by the SCADA/EMS.
All SDG restarts shall be reported to the SCADA/EMS.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

(C) SDG operations monitoring firmware


Firmware shall be provided to continuously monitor operation of the SDG and
report SDG hardware errors to the substation HMI and the SCADA/EMS. The
firmware shall check for memory, CPU, communication faults, and input/output
errors and failures. It is desirable that internal diagnostics be sufficiently detailed
to detect malfunctions to the level of the smallest replaceable component. All
detected errors shall be reported to the substation HMI and the SCADA/EMS.
The SDG shall facilitate isolation and correction of all failures and shall include
features that promote rapid fault isolation and component replacement. All
functional module nodes shall be designed with integrated on-line diagnostic
functions. The results of these diagnostics shall be reported to the central
processing module. The central module shall store this information and report it
to the substation HMI and the SCADA/EMS.
(D) Fail safe processing
In the case of irrecoverable faults such as power supply failures, firmware
malfunctions, or any other detected condition that may affect the security of
indications and controls, the SDG shall place itself in a secure state that prohibits
the transmission of false indications or the execution of erroneous control
outputs. The detection of these error conditions shall be the responsibility of the
SDG self-test and operations monitoring firmware.
(E) Downloading of database from SCADA/EMS
The SDG shall support the change of the SDG's configuration and processing
parameters by messages from the SCADA/EMS. These changes shall include,
but not be limited to, scan group definitions, analogue limits, and SOE buffer
definitions.
(F) Scan groups
Analogue and digital input points, including points reported by exception, shall
be assignable to scan groups. Scan groups are the Employer-defined sets of data
points, which shall be communicated to the SCADA/EMS by addressed scan
group requests. Any input point shall be assignable to any scan group. The SDG
shall support at least eight scan groups including the following initial
assignments:
 Status change detection
 Analogue data for critical 220 kV and 132 kV lines
 General substation analogue data
 Integrity scan of all data
(G)Status exception reporting
The SDG shall report status changes by exception. That is, the reply to a scan
command may consist of a flag bit or group of flag bits, indicating the presence
or absence of a change of the points represented by the flag bit(s). The
SCADA/EMS shall be able to demand-scan the scan groups containing the
changed points. The flag bit(s) shall be reset only after the SCADA/EMS
acknowledges successful receipt of the data represented by the flag(s). The
protocol shall allow the SCADA/EMS to demand scan status data even if the
data has not changed.

16-30
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

(H)Diagnostic firmware
The Contractor shall supply diagnostic firmware for both off-line local tests and
on-line self-diagnostic capability built into the SDG. The SDG shall enter an off-
line state during the execution of off-line diagnostics, and this off-line state shall
be reported to the SCADA/EMS.
(I) Remote diagnostics port
The SDG shall include a remote diagnostics communication port and shall be
capable of executing off-line diagnostics from an external computer terminal
connected to this remote diagnostics port. The Contractor shall supply an
asynchronous FSK modem, capable of auto-answer dialling in operations and
initially operating at 2400 bps, for the remote diagnostic port.
(J) Analogue trend monitoring
The SDG shall monitor the rate of change of selected analogue values over a
time range N, where N is a Software Engineer-enterable parameter for the SDG.
The analogue rate of change quantity is compared to a trend rate limit value
defined in the SDG's database. If the rate of change is outside the limit value, the
SDG shall generate a trend violation message. The value for N shall be initially
set at 4 seconds.
(K)Fleeting points
The SDG shall detect fleeting (oscillating) inputs. An input is detected as
“fleeting” when it changes its state more than N times within a time period T (N
and T shall be user-selectable parameters in the database, and common to all
digital input points). When an input point is fleeting, it is tagged as “invalid
because of fleeting”, and will not be transmitted spontaneously until it comes
back to valid (i.e. when it does not change state within the same time period T).
When fleeting occurs on an input point, indication such as “invalid because of
fleeting – BEGIN” shall be sent to the SCADA/EMS (for the corresponding
indication). But before logging and transmission locking, the signal declared as
oscillating shall be transmitted as invalid. The operator shall be informed of the
coming back to stability when the oscillating information disappears with a time-
tagged message such as “invalid because of fleeting – END”. The indication thus
recognized as steady is then transmitted with its real value.

16.9.5.4 Communication interfaces


The SDG shall connect to the communication network through 10BaseT Ethernet ports,
RS-232C serial ports and/or other standard communication interfaces which the
Contractor intends to use for connecting the SDG to the SAS and the SCADA/EMS. If
appropriate, the Contractor shall supply all necessary hardware for proper connection of
SDG directly to the WAN, (e.g. Ethernet RJ45 to Fiber Optic Converters, serial to
Ethernet converters, wiring).
The SDG serial communication interface shall support a communication rate up to
38400 bps using 4-wire, full-duplex communications.
Dual communication channels for redundancy are required. The selection of a
communication path to the SDG shall be controlled by the SCADA/EMS.
The SDG shall support the following communications protocols:
 IEC 60870-5-104 to communicate with the SCADA/EMS

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

 IEC 60870-5-101 to communicate with the SCADA/EMS


 IEC 61850 to communicate in the future within the SAS
The Contractor shall provide and implement the communication protocols for each
communication port in the SDG. The Employer shall be authorized to disclose the SDG
protocol implementation to third-party suppliers of the Employer equipment.

16.9.5.5 Time synchronization


The SDG shall have an internal clock for data collection coordination and time tagging.
This shall include support for sequence of events, and disturbance data reporting.
The resolution of the clock shall be one (1) ms, and the clock shall drift by no more than
100 ms per day. Each SDG shall synchronize its internal clock from a Contractor
supplied and installed time synchronization source, such as Global Positioning System
(GPS) hardware described separately.

16.9.5.6 Input/output signals


The I/O industrial process signals shall be linked directly to the bay devices and shall be
consistent with the same electrical strength standards and levels as applicable for
protective relays i.e.:
 IEC 60255-5, current electrical strength levels i.e. 2 kV/50Hz/1mn dielectric
strength, isolation resistance > 100M, and 5 kV/1.2/50s/1J impulse voltage
test.
 IEC 60255-22, current disturbance behavior levels i.e. 2.5 kV/1MHz/400p/s
common mode high frequency disturbances, 8 kV electrostatic discharge in the
air (IEC 60255-22-3 and IEC 61000-4-2 class 3) and 10 V/m 20-1000 MHz
field strength radio-frequency interference (IEC 60255-22-3 and IEC 61000-4-
3).
The SDG in combination with the SAS shall be able to process and transmit at least the
following types of I/Os:
 Analogue inputs.
 Digital inputs.
 Analogue outputs.
 Digital outputs.
(A) Analogue inputs
DC analogue input signals of any of the following type:
 Unipolar Current: 0-1 mA, 0-5 mA, 0-10 mA, 4-20 mA
 Bipolar Currents: ±1 mA, ±5 mA, ±10 mA
 Bipolar Voltage: 0.5 V, 2.5 V, 5 V, 10 V (all -V to +V)
The transmission of analogue input values (or measurements)to the SAS may be
based on:
 Cyclic transmission principle: cyclically transmitted at a fixed (user-
selectable) period triggered by the transmission process (i.e. the classical
method), or

16-32
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

 transmission by exception principle: to process them as indications and to


transmit the value spontaneously only when a significant change occurs
(i.e. the concept of the « event delta1 » for measurements which actually
corresponds to an overshooting of the predefined dead band).
 Detecting measurements overflows: If analogue measurements exceed
the ADC range, an overflow condition shall be detected and invalid
measurement shall be set and transmitted to the SCADA/EMS.
 Time scanning: For all analogue input points, the scan cycle shall be user
selectable in the range of one (1) to 10 seconds.
(B) Digital inputs
The SDG shall be able to process the following digital input where any state of
the input may represent a state of the device:
 Single Contact Two-State (SCTS): For single contact, two-state status
input points; a single contact shall represent both states of the monitored
device. One position of the contact shall indicate an alarm or failure
condition, while the opposite state of the contact shall indicate the
normal condition. Preferably this type of input shall be connected to a
normally closed contact. In case a normally open contact is proposed to
be used, the Contractor shall bring forth solid technical reasons for such a
proposal. Typical example of this digital input type is as follows:

Loop statuses Example of transmitted statuses

Open Normal C 1 (open, code 00)

Closed Normal C 2 (closed, code 01)

Open Reverse C 16' (closed, code 01)

C0 common wire (+48V)


for a maximum of 16 SCTS

 Double Contact, Three-State Status (DCTS): For double contact, three-


state status input points; separate contacts shall be provided for
representing each state of the monitored device. One contact shall
indicate an open condition of the monitored device. The other shall
indicate a closed condition. The contacts shall be treated as a
complimentary pair. Conflicting contact positions (e.g., one contact
indicates CLOSED and the other indicates OPEN) shall be labeled
INVALID. Typical example of this digital input type is as follows:
1

16-33
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

C1
Device # 1
(open, code 00)
01

C2
Device # 2
(open, code 10)
02

Ci
Device # i
0i

C7
Device # 7
(complementary
07
fault, code 00)
C8
Device # 8
(complementary,
08
fault, code 11)
Common wire (+48V)
C0
for a maximum of 8 DIS

 Filtering for complementary faults: For (DCTS), it shall be possible to


select a transition time for the change of state between « open » and
« closed ». The invalid conditions are then suppressed for the selected
time. This transition time is user-selectable with values ranging from
50 ms, for fast operating devices, to 30 s, for slow acting devices.
 Interference elimination: Short electrical pulses, due to interference, are
not accepted as change of state. These shall be filtered out by the SDG
hardware.
 Digital groups process: It shall be possible to process digital groups
defined as logical OR of other digital points.
These are processed upon each change of state of any of their
entities.
Digital input points may belong to several digital groups. A group
may belong to another group.
A group state is detected as “true” when at least one of its entries is
in “true” condition. It is considered as “false” when each of its
entries is in “false” condition. It is considered as invalid whenever
one of its entries is invalid.
 SDG Local Control Disable Status: An indication shall be provided to
indicate that the control output capability has been locally disabled at the
SDG.

16-34
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

(C) Analogue outputs


The SDG shall feature Setpoint control of transformer tap changers and local
displays through the SAS.
The SDG shall be capable of accepting setpoint values from the SCADA/EMS
and of sending output analogue (setpoint controls) to external devices, such as
local displays and closed-loop controllers.
These outputs shall be derived from setpoint values sent by SCADA/EMS using
a digital to analogue converter with 12 bit resolution and an overall conversion
accuracy of 0.2% full scale.
The analogue outputs shall have accuracy, as defined in ANSI MC8.1, of 99.75%
of full scale at an ambient temperature of 25°C. Mean accuracy, also as defined
in ANSI MC8.1, shall drift no more than 0.01%/°C over a temperature range of
-5° to +60°C.
The module shall be user configurable to send DC analogue output signals of any
of the following types:
 Unipolar Current: 0-1 mA, 0-5 mA, 0-10 mA, 4-20 mA
 Bipolar Currents: ±1 mA, ±5 mA, ±10 mA
 Bipolar Voltage: 0.5 V, 2.5 V, 5 V, 10 V (all -V to +V)
The preferred signal type shall be unipolar or bipolar current. Bipolar voltage
may only be used in exceptional circumstances when the controlled equipment is
designed to receive setpoints in the form of voltage only.
 Output value shall be directly proportional to the setpoint control
command.
 Each output shall have a surge protection and filtering facilities to
provide protection against voltage spikes and residual 50 Hz, 0.1 mA
(peak to peak). Additional filtering facilities shall be used as required for
minimizing errors.
 Common mode rejection shall be better than 85 dB, and normal mode
rejection shall be better than 60 dB at 50 Hz.
 Each analogue output shall be on two-wire with a shield. A shield ground
facility shall be provided for each output.

(D) *Digital outputs


The digital output interface shall be used for control commands to the
switchgear. Following digital input types shall be provided and implemented in
the SDG.
 Dual Command (On/Off or Raise/Lower) device Ccntrol: The SDG shall
perform On/Off or Raise/Lower control actions using complimentary
pairs of contact outputs. One contact output shall perform the On (or
Raise) control action and a second output contact shall perform the Off
(or Lower) control action. SDG shall be designed such that only one
output in a complimentary pair can be activated at a time. Control shall
be carried out through the use of command interposing relays.

16-35
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

 Single Command: This command will be exercised through a single


output contact.

16.9.5.7 Sequence-of-events reporting


Selected digital input points, in addition to being scanned as status indication points,
shall be classified as Sequence-of-Events points. Similarly, for selected analogue values,
measured value limit violations shall be classified as Sequence-of-Events points.
An event, for SOE, is defined as a state change, such as a breaker going from open to
close or a measured value going out of limits. Multiple transitions of a device, such as
the tripping and subsequent reclosing of a breaker, shall be considered as a series of
separate events. Each time an event is detected, the SDG shall time-tag the event and
store a description and the time-tag of the event in a SOE buffer. The buffer shall be
sized to store, as a minimum, a number of events equal to three times the number of
SOE points implemented in the SDG.
When commanded, the SDG shall transmit the SOE data stored in its buffer to the
SCADA/EMS. The data in the SDG buffer shall be maintained until it is sent to the
SCADA/EMS and an acknowledgement of its retrieval is received by the SDG. The
unacknowledged data shall be retransmitted upon SCADA/EMS request. An indication
that event storage at an SDG is approaching full capacity shall be transmitted to the
SCADA/EMS so that a priority can be set by the SCADA/EMS to retrieve the SOE
data.

16.9.5 Adaptation Equipment

16.9.5.1 Cable, wiring and terminations


The Contractor shall supply, install and connect all cabling, wiring, conduit and raceway
from the field instrumentation and substation devices to the interface cabinet and
subsequently to the SDG. All cabling and wiring shall be required to effectively transmit
the analogue and digital signals from the field instruments to the SDG while providing
protection from electromagnetic interference and transients.
All analogue and digital circuits from the substation equipment panel to the interface
cabinet shall utilize 600 V, 90C, 1.25 mm multi-conductor twisted shielded pair cable. All
cable shall meet the flame test requirements of IEC 60323-3 Category C as a minimum.
PVC cable will not be used.
Equipment and safety grounding shall be in accordance with the latest version of ANSI/
NFPA 70 or equivalent. Cabling and wiring shall be labelled to easily identify the circuits
and facilitate connections and troubleshooting.
(A) Wiring within enclosures
All cabling and wiring between component units of cabinets shall be supplied by
the Contractor and shall be shown on Contractor supplied drawings.
Wiring within the enclosure shall be neatly arranged and shall not be directly
fastened to the enclosure frame. All internal jumpering, wiring and cables shall be
separate from the Employer’s field wiring. All wiring shall use copper conductors
and have flame retardant insulation. PVC insulation is not acceptable.
Conductors in multi-conductor cable shall be individually colour coded.
The use of non-flammable, self-extinguishing, plastic wire trough is permissible.
Metal clamps must have insulating inserts between the clamps and the wiring.

16-36
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Wiring between stationary and movable components, such as wiring across door
hinges or to components mounted on extension slides, shall allow for full
movement of the component without binding or chafing of the wiring.
Additional requirements for equipment in panels and cabinets that require
terminal blocks for connections to external cables shall be as follows:
 The terminal blocks shall be rated not less than 25 A, 600 V, except
protection relaying terminal board that shall be rated not less than 30 A,
600 V. The terminal blocks shall be provided with barriers, marking strips
and terminal screws. Each terminal point shall be identified with unique
number in sequential order and shall be in agreement with terminal
designations as Contractor's wiring diagram.
 The internal wires shall be stranded copper switchboard wire with type
SIS heat-, moisture- and flame-resistant insulation and outer covering.
Shielded or other special wire shall be used, where required, for low-level
signal circuits.
 The control circuit shall be minimum 2.5 mm2 wire. Current and potential
transformer secondary circuits shall be minimum 6 mm2 wire. In all cases
the size of wire shall be of adequate rating for the current to be carried.
 Wiring shall be free of abrasions and tool marks and shall have a
minimum bending radius of 6 mm. All wiring shall be adequately
supported to prevent sagging and breakage caused by vibration in transit.
A maximum 9 wires may be in a bundle, to facilitate replacing wires.
Each wire is to be run as direct as possible between the involved
terminals and is to be run only in horizontal and vertical planes.
Any splicing of wires is prohibited. The wire runs must not block access
for ready test or removal of any device without disturbing other devices.
 Terminations shall make use of compression-type connectors which
firmly grip the connector and employ insulated compression sleeves to
grip the wire insulation. Ratchet-type tools shall be used, to guard against
loose connections due to insufficient pressure in the crimping operation.
Terminals for external connections shall be arranged for consecutive connecting
of conductors, including spares, within a cable. Only one external wire shall be
connected to each outgoing terminal point. Terminal blocks shall have marking
strips for point identification.
All wiring terminations to terminal blocks or device terminal points shall be made
using compression-type insulated ring tongue terminal lugs. Soldered or push-on
type connections shall not be used for any wiring unless approved by
Engineer/Employer.
Multiple-wire plug-in connectors shall be of one type to minimize varieties of
spare parts. They shall be properly polarized and shall have electrical
characteristics equal to or better than those for associated cables.
Panel internal wiring shall not have more than two wires connected to a terminal
point. Panel internal wiring shall terminate at one side of terminal blocks, leaving
the other side completely free for field terminations. All internal and external
wiring shall be continuous and shall have no splices.

16-37
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Terminal blocks shall have adequate rating for current to be carried and shall
have an average of at least two spare terminals for every ten terminals used.
Terminal blocks for control (230 V DC) and instrumentation (low level analogue
signals) shall be kept separated to prevent noise interference. In addition, for
each low level analogue signal a separate terminal point shall be provided for
terminating the shield wires.
If accidental short circuiting of certain wires can result in malfunction of
equipment, such as closing or tripping a breaker, these wires shall not be
terminated on adjacent terminal points.
Current and potential instrument transformer circuits shall be wired from the
incoming terminal blocks to individual instruments through current and/or
potential test devices. Test plugs for each type of test device or switch shall be
furnished. Current transformers shall be wired through short-circuiting type
terminals.
Non-metallic wire markers shall be provided at both ends of each wire to permit
establishing the continuity of all circuits. Designations shall be in accordance
with Contractor's wiring diagrams. Markers shall be "Heat-Shrink" type or
similar. "Stick-on" or "Wrap-Around" types will not be accepted.
The use of non-flammable, self-extinguishing, plastic wire troughs is permissible.
Metal clamps must have insulating inserts between the clamps and the wiring.
Wiring between stationary and movable components, such as wiring across door
hinges or to components mounted on extension slides, shall allow for full
movement of the component without binding or chafing of the wiring.
(B) Low level signal wiring
Low-level signal wiring will enter the panel and remain in a group separate from
the control cables. Low-level signal cable bundles shall be run at right angles to
control cable bundles if routed closer than 300 mm. Shielded, twisted, 300 V
rated instrumentation; system communication input cable shall be used as
described herein.
Shielding shall be provided with a copper drain wire in contact with the shield.
To insulate the shield from ground, an approved fire resistant jacket will be
provided. Shield shall be grounded at one point only. Whenever the connection
diagrams indicate a definite ground at a control panel, a single wire for each
circuit thus grounded shall be run independently to the ground bus and fastened
thereto with a bolted connection. Contractor shall take precautions to avoid
creation of ground loops through inadvertent grounding of a circuit at more than
one point during fabrication.
Special cables, such as coaxial and triaxial, shall meet manufacturer's
requirements and operate within the specified environment.
(C) Enclosures ground bus
A solid copper ground bus shall be provided throughout the length of each
cabinet, board and panel. The minimum dimensions shall be 6 mm x 25 mm. It
shall be bolted, braced, or welded to the framework of each board. All exposed
metal parts on the boards shall be effectively grounded to the ground bus. The
cases of all devices mounted on the boards shall be effectively grounded. Ground
wires for the device cases shall be insulated.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Contractor shall also provide where required, a solid copper instrument ground
bus similar to the paragraph above, except it shall be isolated from the
framework of each board. All ground drain wires or shields of low-level signal
shielded cables required to be grounded inside the control boards and panels,
shall be grounded at this ground bus.
(D) Cables and insulated conductors
The items for furnishing and installing insulated control and power conductors
include furnishing and installing all insulated control, power, and instrumentation
conductors for the new equipment and circuits.
The Contractor shall design, furnish, and install shielded control cable between
the interface cabinet and the substation control, relay, and alarm cabinets, and
substation equipment.
Control cable shall be required to perform distribution of both alternating and
direct current to substation auxiliaries and substation equipment for control
functions. Instrumentation cable shall be required to carry small amounts of
alternating and direct current in instrumentation, communication, telemetry,
monitoring and data recording circuits.
Cable shall be capable of random lay installation in any type of raceway; metallic
or non-metallic, magnetic or non-magnetic, wet or dry locations, indoors or
outdoors. Cable shall be rated at conductor operating temperature of 90C
continuous. The voltage rating shall be 300 V for instrumentation cable and
600 V for control cable. Capable of storage, handling, bending, and installation
at ambient temperatures as low as -10C without cracking the jacket or
insulation.
In general, all cables shall:
 Be in accordance with NEC and NEMA WC or equivalent publications
as specified.
 Be manufactured no more than 24 months prior to Notice to Deliver.
 Be round, except for 2-conductor cable with parallel conductors.
 Have class B or C copper conductor.
 Have mm2 designation.
 Have coverings or insulation suitable for installation in vertical position
without injury to the covering or deformation of the insulation when
supported in accordance with NEC article 300-19. Insulation of
individual conductors in multi-conductor cable shall be colour-coded.
 Outdoor cables shall have rodent-proof outer metal covering.
 Be subject to the approval of the Engineer/Employer.
Outdoor cable shall be suitable for all uses including direct burial and shall be as
follows:
 Multi-conductor shielded type.
 Insulation shall be cross-linked-thermosetting type per WC7, part 3 or as
approved by the Engineer/Employer, and meet thickness and test
requirements per WC7, table 3.1, column B.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

 All cable shall be protected by steel armour of a rodent proof design.


The minimum requirements for cables for all control, alarm, and relaying circuits
for the substation shall be as follows unless otherwise described in these
Specifications:
 600 V insulated.
 Multi-conductor type suitable for installation in trays, direct burial, and
general use.
 Individual conductors shall be insulated with non PVC insulation.
 Be provided with a binder tape or jacket covering.
 Be provided with a protective metal shield of copper braid construction.
 Have an overall covering (jacket) of thermoplastic or neoprene:
 All outdoor cable shall be protected by steel armour of a rodent-proof
design.
 Minimum 2 mm for dc control, alarm and relaying, and minimum 2.5 mm
for AC and secondary instrument transformer secondary circuits.
The minimum requirements for cables for low-level and instrumentation circuits
for the substation shall be as follows unless otherwise described in these
Specifications:
 300 V insulated.
 Multi-conductor twisted-shielded pair type suitable for installation in
trays, direct burial, and general use.
 Individual conductors shall be insulated with non PVC insulation.
 Be provided with a tape or jacket covering.
 Be provided with a protective metal shield of copper braid construction
for each pair.
 Have an overall covering (jacket) of thermoplastic or neoprene:
 All outdoor cable shall be protected by steel armour of a rodent-proof
design.
 Minimum 1.25 mm.
The Contractor shall determine all conductor sizes. Sizes shall be determined in
accordance with the NEC or equivalent requirements and other requirements
outlined in this specification. Conductor sizes for power circuits shall be
determined in accordance with NEC or equivalent and unless otherwise
specifically indicated herein, shall be based on 90°C conductor temperature.
For record purposes, the Contractor shall furnish data which completely identify
all cable to be furnished. Data submitted for shielded cable shall include
manufacturer's certification that cable conforms to requirements of these
specifications and give the number of groups, number of wires per group, and
size of wires.
(E) Cable routing and installation
The Contractor shall install all cables in accordance with the drawings and
requirements of these specifications and NEC or equivalent requirements where

16-40
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

applicable. The Contractor shall complete the installation connecting to and


extending existing circuits where required. No combination of alternating and
direct-current circuits shall be carried in the same multi-conductor cable.
Sufficient length shall be left at the ends of cable to make connections
conveniently to equipment, fixtures, and devices. A minimum 10% spare single
conductor at each end of a multi-conductor cable shall be retained in a length
equal to that of the longest single conductor of the multi-conductor cable. All
cables installed under a raised floor system or external to the plant and not
installed in conduit and consisting of two or more single conductors shall be tied
together at 3,048 mm intervals by self-locking cable ties.
Excavation, sand backfill and timber protection, and placing and compacting
backfill for buried cable shall be in accordance with ANSI C2, the "National
Electric Safety Code" or equivalent, and local procedures approved by the
Engineer/Employer. Gradual and uniform pulling stresses only will be permitted
on cable. Where a lubricant is needed as an aid to the pulling of cable, only
soapstone or other approved material not injurious to cable sheath shall be used.
Any cable damaged during installation shall be removed and replaced with
equivalent cable at the Contractor's expense.
No splices shall be made in cable rated at not more than 600 V. Solderless type
lugs and connectors shall be used for joining or connecting wires to terminal
blocks or devices. All terminations of wire 3 mm and smaller shall be made with
pre-insulated pressure-crimp-type terminal connectors.
All cables shall be tagged at each end of the cable. The tags shall be white plastic
or metal and marked or stamped with the cable designation. Paper tags are not
acceptable. The cable tagging and identification system to be used shall be
submitted to the Engineer/Employer and approved prior to design. The cable
designations shall be as indicated on the drawings and shall be lettered with a
black indelible-type ink. The lettering may be neatly printed, typed, or computer
generated. The tags shall be attached to the cable by self-locking cable ties which
shall be Thomas and Betts molded Zytel No. 101 nylon "TYRAP" or the
Engineer/Employer approved equal.
Individual conductors of all multi-conductor control and power cables shall be
marked at each end of the cable. The conductor tagging and identification system
to be used shall be submitted to the Employer and approved prior to design. The
markers shall be white plastic and marked with the conductor designation. The
conductor designation shall be as indicated on the design wiring and schematic
drawings and shall be lettered with a black indelible-type ink. The lettering may
be neatly printed, typed, or computer generated. All spare conductors of these
multi-conductor cables shall be marked with the cable designation, the word
"SPARE," and numerically sequenced.
All cable installed in a vertical plane or in an inclined plane shall be supported by
means of approved cable grips (including hooks), and installed with slack spans
between supports. All cable entering equipment shall be securely clamped by
means of approved commercial cable clamps. When cables are installed in
sleeves under equipment or pass through blackouts, the openings shall be
blocked with silicone foam material.
All runs, connections, soldering, taping, and tagging of insulted conductors shall
be made subject to approval of the Employer. After all insulated conductors are
installed but prior to connecting to equipment, cable and conductor insulation

16-41
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

(meggar) tests shall be performed. After all insulated conductors are installed and
all equipment, devices, and fixtures have been connected, tests shall be
conducted in accordance the requirements given herein.
The Contractor shall install all cable without exceeding the maximum allowable
pulling tensions and sidewall pressures as recommended by the cable
manufacturer. The Contractor's conduit and pull box system shall be designed to
meet these requirements
Control cables shall be run at right angles to the high voltage bus in the yard
wherever practical and feasible.
A radial arrangement of control circuitry helps to reduce transient voltages;
therefore, circuits routed to the switchyard equipment from the control house
shall not be looped from one piece of apparatus to another in the switchyard
with the return conductor in another cable. All supply and return conductors
must be in a common cable.
Circuits shall be physically separated into the following groups:
 CT circuits.
 PT circuits
 DC and control circuits.
 Transducer secondary circuits (if any).
 Communication circuits.
 AC station service and lighting circuits.
In addition, analogue and digital circuits from the SDG and Interface cabinet
shall be routed in separate cables.
(F) Shielding
The Contractor shall design instrumentation and control cable shielding and
wiring in order to reduce transient noise voltages on signal sensing circuits such
as AC and DC control circuits, CT and PT leads, communication and signalling
circuits, etc.
(G) Recommended practices
In general, the following practices are recommended in industry for cables installed
between the control building and the substation equipment. The Contractor shall
determine the applicability of the following recommendations at each site, and
propose alternative or superior methods if required.
 For high level signals, i.e. signal levels greater than 1 volt or 1 ampere
such as PT, CT, DC and auxiliary AC circuits:
Shielding shall be a metallic tape, applied helically or longitudinally
over the cable core. This shield shall provide 100 percent
coverage and should be effective as an electrostatic shield.
Shield shall be grounded at both ends in order to reduce the induced
magnetic noise by allowing a shield current to flow as a result of
magnetic induction, which tends to cancel the flux that created
the shield current.

16-42
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

 For Low Level signals i.e. signal levels less than 1 V or 1 A such as
transducer circuits. The magnitude of these signal levels are generally in
the millivolt and milliampere range:
Shielding shall be braided type applied over twisted pair conductors.
The braided type shield shall provide a high degree of
effectiveness as an electrostatic shield.
Shield shall be grounded only at the control house end in order to
protect against induced common mode noise due to current
flowing in the shield as the result of ground potential differences.
(H) Guidelines for instrumentation shielding and grounding
For shielded control cables between the control house and the switchyard
equipment, the shield shall typically be grounded at both ends, i.e. at the yard
device and at the control house.
For shielded control cables within the control house, the shield shall typically be
grounded at the receiving end only, typically the SDG or Interface cabinet.
Spare conductors within a control cable shall be terminated at both ends and left
ungrounded.
For shielded low-level instrumentation cables, the shield shall typically be
grounded at the SDG or interface cabinet end only.
All spare cables or wires in a cable shall be terminated and left ungrounded.
Twenty-five percent (25%) spare cable or wire shall be installed between the SDG
and interface cabinet.
(I) Grounding, conduit and raceway
General requirements for grounding
The Contractor shall be required to supply and install complete equipment, safety
and instrument grounding systems. This Clause describes the general requirements
for grounding systems at the remote site stations.
Grounding of electrical equipment shall be in accordance with Article 250 NFPA
70, "National Electrical Code", or equivalent and with the following requirements:
 Adequately ground all non-current carrying components of the electrical
installation with provision made for single-point connection to station
ground grid, unless stated otherwise.
 The grounding system shall be designed to provide for permanent and
effective grounding of all frames, housings, and supporting steel of
electrical equipment, panels, cabinets, wiring devices, electrical metallic
raceways, cable armor, lighting fixtures, and boxes.
 Grounding products and materials shall be installed in accordance with
manufacturer's instructions.
Equipment grounding
All enclosures of electrical distribution or control equipment shall be provided with
a visible grounding cable connection between the enclosure and the station
grounding system. Grounding cable taps to electrical equipment shall be sized to
meet the requirements of the NEC. Regardless of any regulatory body, no
conductor smaller than 16 mm2 shall be permitted for an exposed ground circuit.

16-43
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Do not use grounding cable smaller than 16 mm2, except for grounding instrument
cases and secondary circuits of instrument transformers where 4 mm2 will be
permitted.
For equipment requiring grounding, provide a means for attachment of a ground
cable to the enclosure. The grounding means may be a tapped hole in the
enclosure with a matching bolt and a lug, for copper cable. Hold down bolts are
not to be used for attaching grounding cables.
Conduits, except where as noted in these specifications may be considered only as
a supplementary grounding connection provided the requirements of Article 250 of
the NEC or equivalent are met.
Cable trays shall be installed electrically continuous to meet the requirements of
Article 250 of the NEC or equivalent. Install a bonding jumper in the gaps in the
tray runs to provide continuity.
Instrument grounding
The Contractor shall be responsible to install an instrument ground system,
consisting of a number of above ground insulated main and branch conductors
connected to form an insulated ground network, and totally separated and isolated
from the "safety" ground system, in accordance with Article 250 of NFPA 70,
"National Electrical Code" or equivalent, and with the requirements of this Clause.
Instrument grounding provisions shall be subject to the approval of the
Engineer/Employer.
The system shall be connected in a radial configuration so that there is only one
path to ground from an enclosure's instrument ground bus to the station ground
grid connection. The system shall be designed such that there are no loops are in
the instrument ground system.
The instrument ground bus shall be clearly labelled.
Conduit
The Contractor shall design, furnish, and install all electrical rigid steel conduit,
accessories, and materials required for completion of the conduit systems and shall
utilize, connect to, and extend the existing conduits as required and where possible
to accommodate the new circuits the SDG, power, and communications
equipment.
Conduit accessories shall include all conduit fittings, sealers, supports, and
hardware required to complete the electrical conduit systems. The conduit system
and all materials used shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer/Employer.
The Contractor shall install all cable, pipe, and pressure tubing runs between new
equipment and earth in rigid steel conduit. The Contractor shall be responsible for
and shall perform all design required for the conduit systems and their installation
including selection of all materials not listed herein.
Conduit systems shall perform according to the requirements of ANSI/NFPA 70 or
equivalent. The contractor shall furnish products listed and classified by
Underwriters Laboratories Inc., as suitable for purpose specified and shown.
Cable tray and raceway
The Contractor shall design, furnish, and install all electrical cable tray and raceway,
accessories, and materials required for completion of the cable tray systems and shall

16-44
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

utilize, connect to, and extend the existing tray and trenches as required and where
possible to accommodate the new circuits the SDG, power, and communications
equipment.
The Contractor shall re-use existing cable tray, conduit, trench or cable spreading rooms
for the routing of new cable wherever possible. Where required, the Contractor shall
supply and install new cable tray or trench extensions or installations shall be provided for
the routing of field cabling and wiring to the SDG and communication equipment. The
Contractor shall design tray and trench capacity to provide capacity for all identified
future SDG cabling.
Tray design will be on a simple span of 3.5 m. For all loading conditions, cable trays will
be designed with safety factor of 2.0 when tested in accordance with NEMA Standard
VE1-3.11, "Allowable Load Capacity." In addition to and concurrent with this load
specified above, trays will be designed to withstand a concentrated load of 100 kg at
mid-span, at the center of the rung or on either side rail; the safety factor for this load
condition of at least 1.5, based on the ultimate capacity of the tray or any of its
components as determined by test in accordance with NEMA Standard V.I.-3.01.
Deflection of the cable tray will be limited to a maximum of 1/180 of the span between
supports when loaded with cables.
New tray and trench capacity shall be sized to provide capacity for all identified future
SDG cabling.
Any required new cable trench shall be designed to parallel the ground grid as closely as
possible, and a minimum two x 5 mm ground conductors should be run along the inside
of the trench above the cables.

16.10 48V DC POWER SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

16.10.1 General

16.10.1.1 Basis of design


The 48V DC system at Gujrat s/s shall be designed in accordance with IEC 60146,
60478 and 60896 and shall consist of:
- Duplicated battery chargers.
- Duplicated Half battery banks.
- DC distribution.
The design of the DC unit shall minimize the risk of short circuits and shall ensure
personnel and operational safety at all times.
The design and selection of equipment and components shall be based on achieving a
lifetime of at least 15 years, when operating under the specified service conditions.
The DC power supply shall be rated 48 V. Both "half" battery banks in parallel shall be
able, when fully charged, to supply the total load (comprising the delivered load with
30% spare for future use) for at least 8 hours in the event of failure of the AC mains.
The chargers shall be completely suitable for parallel operation and shall have facilities
for manual boost charging over a pre-determined period. Each charger shall be capable
of supplying the total load independently.

16-45
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

For maintenance purposes it shall be possible to disconnect one "half" battery and
associated charger whilst the other "half" system supplies the load.
The DC power supply shall limit the output voltage to within (+20%,-15%) of the
nominal value, provided that these voltages do not exceed the voltage guarantee of the
load equipment. The power supply positive output shall be connected to the station
earth.
The Contractor shall submit load calculations for the battery banks and battery charger
ratings, taking into consideration the loads of the proposed equipment.
In the event of AC mains failure causing the batteries to become discharged, each
charger shall be rated to:
- Fulfill the total load requirements (comprising the delivered load plus 30% spare
for future use), and charge its battery from the discharge condition to 95%
normal capacity within 20 hours, with the output voltage maintained within
(+20%,-15%) of the normal value.
- Rapid charge its battery, at a higher rate (typically 2.4 V per cell) from the
discharged condition to 100% nominal capacity within 10 hours.

16.10.1.2 Configuration
The power supply installation for Gujrat s/s shall be a duplicated system and shall
comprise two charging sources and two "half" batteries. The load shall be fed from two
DC distribution boards by means of miniature circuit-breakers (MCBs).
The primary power shall be fed from the essential services busbar.

16.10.1.3 Mode of operation


In normal operation, the chargers shall operate in parallel and each charger shall be able
to float charge its own battery as well as supply the total load.
In the event of a mains failure, both "half" batteries shall be able, when fully charged, to
supply the total load, for not less than the specified standby time whilst maintaining the
output voltage within permissible limits.
For maintenance purposes it shall be possible to disconnect one "half" battery from the
load so that it can be boost charged by its associated charger whilst the other charger
supplies the load and floats its "half" battery. When the first "half" battery is fully
charged it shall be possible to switch it to feed the load while the other half battery is
connected for boost charging. If the AC supply fails during boost conditions the two
"half" batteries shall be automatically connected in parallel by "no volt" contactors. It
shall not be possible for the load to become disconnected from both batteries and
chargers simultaneously.
It shall also not be possible to connect a "boosted" battery to the load until its terminal
voltage has fallen below the upper limit of float charge voltage.

16.10.2 Requirements
The battery chargers and DC distribution boards shall be located in the telecom room of
the switchyard control building. The battery banks shall be installed in the battery room.

16-46
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

16.10.3 Battery Chargers

16.10.3.1 General
Two identical chargers shall be supplied for 48 V DC system. The chargers shall be of
either thyristor controlled type or the switched mode power supply (SMPS) type. The
chargers shall incorporate measures to limit the distortion caused by the unit on the
ac mains.

16.10.3.2 Technical characteristics


The chargers shall, in normal operation, maintain the battery normally floating so that no
discharge occurs under normal loading and the battery remains fully charged. The
operation of the chargers shall follow the I-U characteristics according to the latest IEC
recommendations.
The chargers shall be designed for three phase AC supplies with nominal voltages of
400 V ± 10% respectively, at a frequency of 50 Hz ± 5%. The units shall maintain the
float charge automatically irrespective of the variations in the voltage/ frequency of the
AC supply and the DC load within the specified limits.
The voltage/current characteristics of boost charge shall have tapering characteristics in
order to minimize gassification. The Contractor shall state the float and boost charge
voltages.
The chargers shall have protection against overloads and limit the output typically to
125% of its maximum rating on short- circuit of the DC output. A current limit circuit
shall protect a discharged battery from overcharging when connected to the charger.
Fast acting fuses shall be incorporated in the charger to protect the thyristor bridge, if
fitted, from damage due to capacitor failure in the output circuitry.
The charger efficiency shall not be less than 80%. For all chargers, Bidder shall specify
the efficiency and input power factor at both full and lightly loaded conditions.

16.10.3.3 Requirements
The battery chargers shall be designed in accordance with relevant IEC standards and
requirements listed hereunder:
- Nominal system voltage : 48 V
- Float voltage : 48 to 57 V
- Boost voltage : 53 to 62 V
- Rated current : 100 A
- Duty class (as per IEC 60146) : 1
- Guaranteed temperature range : -5 to 50C
16.10.3.4 Float charging conditions
The output voltage regulator shall be adjustable within limits, approved by the Engineer,
and shall be so designed that special tools are not required for any adjustment.
The voltage reference point for control of the charger output voltage shall not be
obtained from a source external to the charger.
The output of the charger on float charge shall be equal to the normal battery standing
load plus the recommended finishing charge rate.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

The charger shall have electronic protection to avoid discharging the battery through the
charger should the latter become defective.

16.10.3.5 Boost charging conditions


Under boost charging conditions the charger shall fully recharge the battery after a heavy
discharge without gassing or damage to the battery. A suitable boost timer switch shall
be included in the circuit.
The boost voltage and boost timer settings shall be chosen to ensure that a discharged
battery can be fully charged within the period specified above.
Manual boost charging facility shall be required in the following instances:
 During the initial charging of the battery, prior to it being put into operation.
 During a prolonged AC mains shutdown.
 Prior to performance of the battery capacity tests.

16.10.3.6 Controls and alarms


Each charger shall be equipped with a switch fuse for the incoming AC supply and either
a circuit-breaker or fuse for the DC output. Potential free changeover contacts shall be
provided for external alarm extension of these fuses/circuit breakers in the telecom
room/control room.
The following alarms shall be provided, as a minimum:
 AC mains failure.
 Charger failure.
 High output volt.
 Low output volts.
 Charger on manual boost.
Potential free changeover contacts shall be provided for external extension of the above
alarms.

16.10.4 Instrumentation and DC Distribution

16.10.4.1 Instrumentation
Common control and interlocking shall be kept to a minimum. Instrumentation for the
system shall comprise, but shall not be limited, to the following:
 DC voltmeter for each charger output and the distribution busbar.
 DC ammeter for each charger output.
 DC ammeter for each battery, marked "charge" and "discharge".
 DC voltmeter for each battery.
 DC ammeter for total load current.

16-48
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

16.10.4.2 DC distribution
The distribution section for Gakkhar s/s shall be designed for both incoming and
outgoing 48 V supplies as follows:
 Two independent 48V supplies incoming from the batteries and associated chargers.
Each battery negative supply shall be connected to the cubicle busbar through a
blocking diode and a single pole switch.
The 48V DC battery positive leads shall be connected directly to the station
earth.
 Each load equipment shall be connected to a distribution outlet. The use of teed
supplies to more than one load equipment will not be permitted.
 Double pole miniature or moulded case circuit-breakers to IEC 60157 shall be
supplied, fitted with auxiliary contacts which shall raise both local and remote
alarms, for loss of supplies.
 The outlets shall be rated to meet the requirements of the loads and shall be labelled
with the destination of the output. Outgoing connections shall be brought to
terminals mounted in the cubicle, provided with strip connectors and cable lugs.
The number of outlets shall cater for the quantity of load equipment items plus
50%, with a minimum of 10 outlets being provided. Space shall also be available
for the installation of 10 extra outlets with terminals for future use.

16.10.4.3 Alarms
An alarm indication shall be provided if the busbar voltage falls below the battery cut-off
voltage or deviates from the float/boost values. The actual alarm limits are to be
determined during detailed engineering. All alarms shall be extendible from potential free
contacts to an external alarm monitoring system.
16.10.5 Housing

The battery chargers and the control/distribution equipment must be housed in separate
cubicles (total 3 cubicles) at Gujrat s/s; installation in single cabinet shall not be
accepted.
The charger cubicles shall be of strong steel, floor mounted type, completely vermin-
proof and suitable for installation in tropical climates. The DC distribution cubicle shall
preferably be wall mounted. The entry of the cables shall be from the bottom, with
suitable cable glands being provided at the entry points. Provision shall be kept for
separate earthing of the cubicles.
The cubicles shall be adequately ventilated for self-cooling by natural convection.
Forced cooling shall not be permitted.
Access to the components shall be from the front of the cubicle. Ease of access for
operation and maintenance shall be kept in the design. In case rear access is required, the
steps taken shall be identified. Cubicles shall be lockable from the outside.

16.10.6 Batteries

16.10.6.1 General
Lead acid vented cells of the plante type shall be provided. Containers shall be of stout
glass or high impact plastic.

16-49
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Cells shall be permanently marked with the following information:

- Manufacturer's name, reference number and code.


- Year and month of manufacture.
- Voltage and nominal capacity at the specified discharge rate.
- Cell number.

16.10.6.2 Construction
The batteries shall be of compact design with a small weight to capacity ratio. The
construction shall ensure minimum self-discharge and low internal resistance.
Adequate measures shall be taken for prevention of internal short circuits and protection
of the element against mechanical damage.

16.10.6.3 Requirements
The battery bank shall be designed in accordance with relevant IEC standards and
requirements listed hereunder:
- Nominal system voltage : 48 volt
- Nominal voltage per cell : 2 volt
- Aging factor (minimum) : 1.25

- Rated capacity at 10 hour


discharge rate, AH : 540

- Number of batteries : 2

The Contractor shall submit load calculations to fully justify the battery charger and
battery ratings.

16.10.6.4 Battery mounting


The batteries shall be mounted on wooden or metal stands or racks in a manner such
that all the plates of each cell are visible for inspection, test and maintenance purposes.
Stands or racks shall have a maximum of two tiers. In all cases adequate space must be
left between the tiers for maintenance purposes and to permit the topping up of the
electrolyte. Stands or racks shall have a protective finish of not less that two coats of
electrolyte resisting enamel or gloss paint. Alternatively, an epoxy resin sintered finish
may be used.
Cell containers shall be accurately set up in alignment on the stand or rack with lead
and/or rubber discs under the feet molded on each container. Cell lids shall be so
positioned that at least one topping-up aperture is on the access gangway side of the cell
and not obstructed by any inter-cell connecting arrangements. Each battery shall be
labeled together with the appropriate cell numbers.

16.10.6.5 Battery main fuses


Bolted cartridge fuses shall be provided in both positive and negative leads and
positioned as close to the battery as possible. The fuses shall be rated at five times the
charger float output rated current. Monitoring of the battery fuses shall be provided on
the DC distribution and an alarm (red LED) shall be generated in the event of blowout

16-50
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

of the fuse. A cartridge fuse shall be provided in the charger-input lead to the negative
pole of the battery and rated at twice the charger float output rated current. These fuses
shall be mounted preferably on the end of the battery stand or rack. The fuse links shall
be mounted in fuse carriers with an insulated barrier between the poles.
The cable or busbar to the battery shall be firmly supported at a point near the cell
terminal pillar. Where two cables are used they shall be terminated one on either side of
the terminal pillar. These cables shall be arranged as to allow some flexibility and to
avoid any forces being applied to the cell terminal pillar.

16.10.6.6 Connections
The positive pole of the battery shall be connected to the station earth via a single bolted
link at the distribution cubicle. Low resistance intercell connectors shall be used.
Connections between tier of cells and between end cells and fuses shall be made with
insulated copper rod that shall be of equivalent cross-section to the distribution busbars.
Connections from the battery fuses to the chargers and distribution cubicles shall be
made with insulated cable of equivalent cross-section to the distribution busbars. The
positive and negative terminals of each cell shall be clearly indicated. Red and black
marking respectively shall indicate the positive and negative terminals of the complete
battery.

16.10.6.7 Accessories
All accessories required for installation, connection, service and maintenance shall be
provided. The accessories shall include, but not limited to; one portable hydrometer
syringe, one portable thermometer, one cell-lifting device for each battery, one digital
voltmeter and battery acid in two containers.
Lead plated copper intercell connectors shall be supplied to provide 1.25 cm spacing
between cells when installed with plates at right angles to the rack rails.

16.10.6.8 Life
The end of service life shall be the time when the battery no longer delivers 80% of its
rated capacity. The batteries shall have a minimum of 15 years of guaranteed life.

16.11 FACTORY ACCEPTANCE TESTS


(A) Type tests
Evidence shall be given that the proposed Telecommunication and
SCADA equipment have been subjected to type tests certified by an
internationally recognized testing laboratory. If deemed necessary, Owner
will decide whether additional tests are necessary to be performed by the
Contractor.
The telecom and SCADA equipment (i.e. DPLC, DPSE, LTs, LMUs,
PAX, RTU) shall have successfully undergone, as a minimum, the
following type tests, as applicable:
1) Dry heat test.
2) Damp heat test.
3) Long time temperature test.
4) Vibration and shock test.

16-51
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

5) Insulation tests.
6) EMC (emission and immunity) tests.
The Bidder shall submit certified copies of type test certificates/reports
covering the above equipment.
Type tests certificates/reports shall be considered acceptable if they are in
compliance with the relevant Standards and the following:
(a) Type Tests conducted at an internationally recognized laboratory.
(b) Type Tests conducted at the manufacturer’s laboratory and witnessed
by representatives from an internationally recognized laboratory.
Failure to provide the certificates or if the presented type test reports are
not in accordance with the above requirements, then the type tests shall
be carried out in the Manufacturer’s premises or other places subject to
the approval of NTDC and at no additional cost. These tests shall be
performed in the presence of an internationally recognized laboratory
representative, who shall issue the relevant type test certificates upon
successful tests.

(B) Routine tests


Routine Tests shall be performed, comprising, as a minimum, the
following:
(1) General

a) Visual inspection including check of wiring and labeling.


b) Verification of the Scope of Supply for each equipment.
c) Test of cubicles internal illumination.
d) Check of spare parts and quantities.
e) Check of test and diagnostic equipment.

(2) Power Line Carrier Equipment

a) Functional checks on simulated 80W DPLC links for


communication of speech, data and teleprotection signals.
b) Measurement of regulated power supply outputs.
c) Check of transmit and receive frequencies.
d) Measurement of transmitter power.
e) Measurement of receiver sensitivity.
f) Tuning/adjustment of transmit and receive filters.
g) Automatic gain control (AGC) and equalization settings.
h) Frequency response over the specified bandwidth.
i) Measurement of cross-talk.
j) Verification of configuration and diagnostics software.
k) Check of service telephone.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

l) Check of various codes.


m) Check of correct transmission of trip commands.
n) Measurement of command transmission times.
o) Check of indications and alarms.
p) Check of other features, which are inherited by the system.

(3) Line Matching Unit

a) Drain Coil:
- measurement of impedance at power frequency,
- current carrying capacity at power frequency of 1 A rms
continuous, and
- current carrying capacity at power frequency of 50 A rms
for 0.2 seconds.
b) Composite loss over the working range of the coupling filter.
c) Return loss over the working range of the coupling filter.
d) Power frequency voltage tests on the balancing transformer of
5kV rms for 1 minute between each coil and earth, and between
each coil and screen.

(4) Coaxial Cable

a) Visual check of drum and cable sample.


b) Measurement of characteristic impedance.
c) Measurement of attenuation in frequency range 40-1000kHz.
d) Measurement of conductor resistance.
e) Measurement of insulation resistance.
f) Measurement of mutual capacitance.
g) High voltage withstand capability.

(5) Line Traps

a) Measurement of rated inductance of the main coil.


b) Measurement of power frequency inductance of the main coil.
c) Measurement of blocking resistance and blocking impedance.
d) Measurement of tapping loss and tapping loss based on the blocking
resistance.
e) Measurement of frequency range of the tuning units.

(6) Telephone (PAX) Equipment

a) Functional test of trunks and extensions.


b) Check of all types of tones in the system.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

c) Tests of system reloading and resetting capabilities in the event of


occurrence of various categories of faults.
d) Tests to ensure correct receipt and logging of alarms and correct
functioning of automatic diagnostic routines.
e) Verification of the configuration and diagnostic software.
f) Check of Management system.
g) Check of other features, which are inherited by the system.

(7) 48V DC Power Equipment

a) Tests to record DC output voltage variation under float/boost


charge conditions for the various settings of the DC current
output variation from zero to maximum values.
b) Tests to record DC output voltage variation under float/boost
charge conditions for the various settings of the DC out put
current switch variation in AC mains voltage from 313 to 452V
for 3-phase chargers.
c) Tests to confirm maximum temperature rise of main transformer
and other components of the battery charger.
d) Capacity test of battery bank, according to IEC 60896-1.

(8) Remote Terminal Unit

a) Measurement of regulated power supply voltages.


b) Functional check of the channels of analogue input board, digital
input board, digital outputs and set point values.
c) Functional check of analogue signals between transducers and
RTU.
d) Verification of proper communication between RTU and router.

(9) Public Address Equipment

a) Functional tests to determine the speech level and sound quality


of the indoor and outdoor loudspeakers at specified distances.
b) Functional test to determine the area covered by; (a) horn
loudspeaker and (b) indoor loudspeakers.

16.12 DRAWINGS AND DOCUMENTATION

16.12.1 General
A comprehensive set of drawings and associated documents shall be provided for each
substation. The station name shall appear in the title block of each drawing and the use
of drawings common to several substations shall be avoided. When the drawings are
finalized, the Contractor shall provide for each drawing an electronic file on CD/DVD.
Drawings shall be on ISO ‘A’ size sheets. The preferred size shall be
A3 (297 x 420 mm).

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

16.12.2 Information to be included with the Bid


The bid shall be accompanied with following information:
(1) Completely filled-in Specific Works Data sheets.
(2) Type test reports for offered DPLC/DPSE, PAX and RTU equipment.
(3) Documentary evidence (project lists, client’s certificates etc.) for DPLC/DPSE,
PAX, RTU equipment and 48V DC chargers/batteries.
(4) Type and number of each interface module of DPLC, PAX and RTU equipment.
(5) Representative sample schematic diagrams of RTU illustrating proposed format
and presentation.
(6) Representative sample of wiring diagrams illustrating proposed format and
presentation.
(7) Manufacturer’s booklets giving technical details of DPLC, DPSE, PLC cabinet,
LMU, coaxial cable, PAX, PAX cabinet, telephone sets, MDF cabinet, Public
Address equipment, Station Direct Wire Telephone equipment, RTU equipment,
SCADA Interface cabinet, router, modem, transducers, auxiliary relays etc. and
48V DC power equipment i.e. battery charger, batteries and distribution board.

16.12.3 Information to be submitted after Contract Award


Approval drawings/documents shall be submitted after Contract award that shall show
detailed physical arrangements and connections. The information, as a minimum, shall
include:

16.11.3.1 For base design:


Following documents/drawings shall be submitted:
(1) Site Survey Report of existing facilities as required under Section 16.02 herein.
(2) Telecommunication network layout.
(3) Teleprotection interconnection concept.
(4) SNR calculations for the DPLC links.
(5) Frequency allocation plan for the DPLC links.
(6) Cabinet and rack layout drawings.
(7) RTU point count details.
(8) Response time calculations for RTU.
(9) Data channel routes to NPCC - schematic layout.

16.11.3.2 For detailed design:


Following documents/drawings shall be submitted after finalization of Base Design:
(1) Overall station arrangement drawings.
(2) Functional specifications of DPLC/DPSE, PAX, RTU, 48V DC Power, Public
Address, Station Direct Wire Telephone systems including technical details for
each equipment item.
(3) Wiring charts/diagrams, cable schedules and lists of apparatus.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

(4) MDF cross-connection termination details.


(5) Teleprotection interconnection drawings.
(6) Telephone numbering and routing plan.
(7) Layout of equipment in control building.
(8) Interconnection drawing (with termination details) showing the end-to-end route
of each data channel between Gujrat and NPCC.
(9) List of spare parts and unit rates.
(10) List of erection and testing equipment and maintenance tools with unit rates.
(11) Details of maintenance and testing facilities.

16.11.3.3 For testing/commissioning:


Following documents shall be submitted at least three months prior to holding the
FAT/SAT:
(1) Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) procedures/protocols.
(2) Site Acceptance Test (SAT) procedures/protocols.

16.11.3.4 Prior to taking over by Employer:


(1) As-built drawings, schematic and wiring diagrams.
(2) Operation and maintenance (O&M) manuals.

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