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A principle is a rule for guiding the ship of education so that it will reach the point designated by
the philosophy of education; it is a compass by which the path of education is directed (L.T. Hopkins).
Types of Principles of Teaching
1. Starting Principles refers to the nature of the child, his psychological and physiological
2. Guiding Principles refer to the methods of instruction, or the conglomeration of techniques in
carrying out the educative process.
3. Ending Principles refer to educational aims and objectives.
a. Psychological – growth and development of a child
b. Philosophical – based on the culture of the people
The Inborn Tendencies of the Child
1. Intelligence is the general capacity of an individual consciously to adjust his thinking to new
requirements. It is general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life (W. Stern).
- It is the ability to learn in terms of abstract ideas (Lewis Terman)
- It is the ability to adjust to new environment (Colvin)
Thurstone’s Classification of Intelligence
1. Ability to deal with space
2. Ability to solve problems
3. Ability to understand ideas in terms of words
4. Ability to write and talk easily
5. Ability to perform numerical calculation
6. Ability to recognize likeness and differences
7. Ability to recall past experiences
Edward Lee Thorndike’s Classification of Intelligence
1. Abstract is the capacity to respond to symbols, letters, etc.
2. Concrete/Mechanical is the capacity to manipulate and to deal with things such as Art and Music
3. Social is the capacity to deal with other person
2. Emotion is the blending of sensation caused by the profound and widespread changes in the
- is an effective experience that accompanies generalized inner adjustment, and mental and
physiological stirred-up states in the individual and that shows itself in his overt behavior (Crow and Crow)
3. Imitation is the tendency of the child to do according what he sees or observes.
4. Curiosity is the elementary form of interest. It is the starting point of interest and a desire to
5. Gregariousness refers to the desire of the individual to be with other people because man is
social being.
6. Play is the natural impulse possessed by men and animals. It is an activity which the individual
engages in for the satisfaction of his desires.
7. Collecting and hoarding means the interest in keeping the objects which a child is interested to
8. Competition implies a struggle between two or more persons for the same object or purpose to
equal or surpass others. Rivalry suggests a personal contest for selfish ends, resulting in envy
and jealousy.
9. Manipulation is the natural impulse of the child which involves a skillful or dexterous
management or control of actions by means of intellect.
Multiple Intelligence
The Theory of Multiple Intelligence was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Garder. It suggests that
the traditional notion of intelligence, based on IQ Testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes
eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults.

These intelligence are:

Students with strong verbal-linguistic intelligence can read for hours at a time. They also tend to
have highly developed auditory skill sand learn best when they can speak listen, read or write. They:
• Think in words.
• Use language and words in many different forms to express complex meanings.
• Love reading, writing, telling stories, playing word games
Students with linguistic Intelligence:
• Speaks simply, eloquently or passionately at appropriate times.
• Exhibit the capacity to write effectively.
• Exhibit the ability to learn and speak other languages.
• Show a capacity to tell jokes, puns and riddles.
• Have a good memory for names, places, dates, or trivia.
• Enjoy word games and spell words accurately.

• Enjoy reading books

• Appreciate nonsense rhymes, puns, tongues twisters.
• Learn easily through listening, reading and writing.
• Are interested in poetry, public speaking, storytelling, journalism and writing.
• Demonstrate skill in the use of figures of speech like metaphors, similes, hyperboles etc.
Students who manifest this type of intelligence should be encouraged to:
• Participate in debates
• Join poetry and prose writing contests,
• Have a regular supply of paper and writing implements.
• Keep a personal diary.
• Join a book club.
• Teach others to read.
• Mark unfamiliar words encountered while reading and look them up in the dictionary
• Use one new word in conversation every day.
• Play word games
• regularly visit the library or bookstores
• Have a regular storytelling time with friends or loved ones
• Join or create a speakers’ club
• Listen to audio recordings of literary pieces by great speakers.
• Read aloud in front of a mirror and act like a TV or radio announcer.
• Record their speech, whether casual or formal, into a tape recorder and listen to the
Students with strong logical-math intelligence are rational. They think in terms of concepts and
questions and love to put their ideas to the test. They:
• Think by reasoning
• Take a logical approach to problems
• Understand number and abstract patters
• Love experimenting, questioning, figuring out logical puzzles. Calculating.
Students with Logical-Math Intelligence:
• Enjoy working on logic puzzles or brainteasers.
• Can connect mathematical operations to complex problems-solving activities.
• Can perform a wide range of mathematical calculations.
• Can relate numbers and symbols to concrete objects.
• Understand different mathematical procedures and logical patters.
• Perform concrete, cause-and-effect processes.
• Grasp different problem-solving approaches.

• Find unknown quantities in a problem-solving situation.

• Develop several thinking patters and know how to use them.
• Perform both inductive and deductive reasoning
• Show interest in science-related subjects.
Students who manifest this type of intelligence should be encouraged to:
• Join or lead a Math or Science club.
• Create a study group to discuss recent scientific discoveries.
• Calculate and solve math problems mentally.
• Watch television programs featuring scientific concepts (e.g. Discovery Channel).
• Do puzzles featured in newspapers and magazines
• Learn different computer languages such as COBOL, Visual Basic, C, Hava, or Paradox
• Work with Lego bricks and similar construction toys.
• Watch developments in the stock market and financial pages.
• Read the business section of the newspaper and analyze unfamiliar economic or
financial ideas.
• Visit exhibits or trades shows on math, science or computers.
• Participate in brainteaser programs.
• Read about famous mathematicians, scientists or computer geniuses.
• Go on field trips to the planetarium and science museum.
Students with strong visual-spatial intelligence are keenly perceptive of even slight visual details.
They can sketch ideas out with graphs, tables, or images, and are often able to convert words or
impressions into mental images. They:
• Think in images and pictures (three-dimensionally).
• Have an accurate perception of the visual world.
• Are aware of the relationship between objects in space.
• Love designing, drawing, visualizing doodling.
Students who manifest this type of intelligence should be encouraged to:
• Learn visual art activities like drawing, painting, sculpting, graphic design or
• Join or lead on art club in school
• Use symbols to remember facts taught during class discussions
• Appreciate symbols or icons in lectures, primers or other presentations.
• Study geometry
• Redesign their room, move the furniture around
• Play Pictionary, tic-tac-toe or other visual/thinking games.

• Work on Rubik’s cube or jigsaw puzzles.

• Go scene-tripping in a favorite quiet place
• Learn how to use and interpret diagrams or other visual representations.
• Learn and use graphics software programs.
• Network with artists, architects or designers to learn how they use their spatial abilities
• Attend painting, sculpting, or other visual art exhibits.
Students wit strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence have a well-developed tactile sense, and they
enjoy physical challenges and pursuits. They learn best by doing, moving, and acting things out, they:
• Think through somatic sensations.
• Constantly use their bodies to communicate and solve problems
• Are adept in the use of objects and activities involving fine motor skills
• Love dancing, running, jumping, building touching, gesturing.
Students with Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence:
• Excel in one or more sports.
• Have the ability to role-play and can cleverly mimic other people’s gestures or
• Love to take things apart and put them back together again.
• Enjoy activities involving athletics, dancing and handicraft.
• Show dexterity in a craft or complex motor coordination in other ways

• Have a dramatic way of expressing themselves and are creative and expressive in body
movements, such as dancing and mime.
• Report different physical sensations while thinking or working.
• Enjoy activities that working with clay or other tactile experience. (e.g., finger painting).
Students who manifest this type of intelligence should be encouraged to:
• Enroll in an aerobics or dance class
• Learn martial arts like karatedo, judo or taekwondo
• Take lessons in solo sports such as golf, tennis or swimming
• Learn tai-ichi or yoga for physical relaxation and awareness
• Engage in community spots activities
• Play video games that require quick reflexes
• Learn how to massage using acupressure

• Join a theatre group focusing on acting or body movements

• Play charades with your friends or love ones.
• Spend time ballroom dancing
• Study a craft such as weaving, embroidery or woodcarving
• Exercise regularly in tract and field events, or lift weights in the gym.
• Learn sign language.
• Join or lead a jogging club.
• Engage in a “hands-on” hobby at home like cooking or gardening.
Students with strong musical intelligence are sensitive to all types or nonverbal sound and the
rhythms of everyday noise. They have the ability to produce melody and rhythm, as well as to understand,
appreciate, and form opinions about music. Thy:
• Think via rhythms and melodies
• Are aware of rhythmic patters, pitch and timbre
• Love singing, whistling, humming, topping feet and hands, listening.
Students with Musical Intelligence:
• Are sensitive to environmental noises (e.g., rain on the roof).
• Have a rhythmic way of speaking and/or moving
• Top rhythmically on the table or desk as they work
• Have the ability to produce a variety of melodies and songs.
• Comprehend musical symbols
• Create emotional associations with different sounds
• Differentiate pattern in sound
• Play one or more musical instruments
• Respond with interest to a variety of sounds, like the human voice or environmental
• Collect musical information in various forms
• Identify if music sounds off-key or disturbing in some other way

Students who manifest this type of intelligence should be encouraged to:

• Use background music while doing their homework
• Attend musical concerts
• Join a school, church or community choir
• Learn to play at least one musical instrument
• Try to compose a song related to their interests
• Spend 30 minutes a week listening to unfamiliar music
• Enroll in a music class
• Watch MTV programs

• Sing while taking a shower

• Make up their own tunes
• Volunteer to sing in a fund raising activity
• Read about the lives of famous composers and musicians
• Participate in sing-along activities in school, at home and with friends
• Buy musical software programs
Students who have strong interpersonal intelligence are naturally social. They work well with
other since they can gauge, identify with, and react to the temperaments of others. They learn best when
they can relate to other people. They:
• Think by bouncing ideas off other people
• Are sensitive to the feelings and moods of others
• Understand and interact with various kinds of people
• Love leading, organizing relating manipulating, mediating, partying.
Students with Interpersonal Intelligence:
• Enjoy socializing with peers and tend be natural leaders
• Give advice to friends who have problems
• Belong to clubs, committees, organizations, or informal peer groups.
• Have a good sense of empathy or concern for others and adapt behavior to different
groupings and environments
• Communicate effectively in both verbal and nonverbal ways
• Have a good perception of diverse perspectives in any current issues
• Understand group dynamics and is a team player
• Sense the thoughts, feelings, motivation and lifestyles of others.
Students who manifest this type of intelligence should be encouraged to:
• Join regular social gatherings and family get-togethers
• Assume leadership roles in volunteer or civic organizations
• Establish service-organizations in school or community
• Get to know people from other cultures
• Write to friends, acquaintances or organizations abroad for possible collaboration
• Read about the lives of well-known, socially competent personages.
• “People watch” in the park, church, streets or malls
• Participate in school reunions
• Organize intellectually stimulating activities in school or at home
• Work with other friend on a project of mutual interest
• Host a party and invite at least three people they wish to know more about
• Join church-oriented meditation sessions
• Communicate with other people through the internet, e-mail or cyberspace.
Students with strong intrapersonal intelligence often choose to work on their own. They use and
trust their self-understanding to guide them. They are able to form realistic goals based on their inner
feelings. They:
• Think in relation to their needs, feelings and goals
• Use their self-knowledge of their own strengths and weaknesses to guide decision-
making and goal-setting activities
• Love setting goals, meditating, dreaming planning reflecting
Students with Intrapersonal Intelligence:
• Display a sense of independence or a strong will and prefer working alone to working
with others
• Have a realistic sense of their abilities and weaknesses.
• Have good self-esteem and a good sense of self-direction
• Accurately express how they are feeling
• Are able to learn from their failures and successes in life
• Attempt to seek out and understand inner feelings and thoughts
• Associate different emotional feelings with particular experiences
• Have deep concern to acquire self-improvement skills.
Students who manifest this type of intelligence should be encouraged to:
• Learn to meditate
• Read self-motivation books
• Find a quiet place at home for quiet reflection
• Develop an appreciation of Eastern philosophies
• Listen to motivational audio cassettes.
• Attend a seminar about self-improvement
• Keep a daily diary of ideas, feelings and memories
• Regularly recite affirmation statements

• Engage in “self-talks”
• Attend retreats
• Read and study biographies of famous personalities
• Start a business understanding
• Develop short and long-term goals and review them regularly
• Share time with people who have a strong sense of self
• Learn a new skill in an area of interest
Students with strong natural intelligence love to be outdoors. They show an appreciation for and a
deep understanding of the environment. They:
• Think through nature and natural forms
• Are sensitive to the natural world
• Possess the ability to see connections and pattern of nature
• Love playing with pets, gardening, investigating nature, raising animals carrying for
planet earth.
Students with Natural Intelligence:
• Love the natural environment and talk a lot about favorite pets, or nature sports
• Like nature field trips, to the zoo, or to a natural history museum.
• Show an active interest in ecology, nature, trees, plants, or animals
• Speak out for the rights of animals, or the preservation of planet earth
• Enjoy doing nature projects, such as bird watching, butterfly or insect collections, free
study, or raising animals
• Do well in biological experimentation and in topics that involve living system (e.g.,
science, environmental issues in social studies).
• Have the ability to classify plants and animals
Students who manifest this type of intelligence should be encouraged to:
• Initiate tree-planting activities in the school or immediate environment
• Disseminate information about the dangers of ozone depletion
• Initiate an information drive about the harmful effects of solid wastes
• Go on trips to the forest to become familiar with the different types of trees, herbs and
• Finds time to visit botanical gardens and zoological museums
• Bring animals and plants for which they will be responsible

• Study under the shade of a tree

• Grow plants and learn how to crop graft or pollinate them
• Visit archeological sites whenever possible
• Explore the possibilities of mountain trekking or cave visitations.
• Take time to observe marine life in lakes, rivers, beaches or the seas
• Lead hands-on scientific and biological experiments
General Character Traits of Filipino Learners (Gregorio)
1. Shyness is an attitude characterized by partial inhibition of social responses especially in the
presence of strangers
2. Sensitiveness is the tendency of the child to be easily impressed, affected or hurt
3. Lack of Perseverance means lack of persistence in an activity for a long time due to difficulty,
opposition, disappointment, or interference.
4. Lack of Resourcefulness means the inability to meet new situations
5. Lack of Industry refers to the lack of steady attention or diligence in any pursuit
It is a mental activity by means of which knowledge, skills, habits, attitudes and ideals are
acquired and utilized resulting in a progressive adaptation and modification of conduct and behavior
Theories of Learning
1. Mind Theory (Christian Wolf) states that the mid has mental power of faculties, such as
memory, reason, judgment, etc., which function as a separate entity that can be improved
through exercise or use.
2. Connectionist’s Theory (Edward Lee Thorndike) Believes that learning is a product of a
connections between the stimulus and response. (Associative Learning
3. Behaviorism (J.B. Watson) view learning as any change in the behavior or an organism. Such
change may range from the acquisition of knowledge, simple skill, specific attitude and opinions
or if may refer to innovation, elimination or modification of responses.
4. Gestalt’s View of Learning. Gestalt is a German term which means pattern, shape, form or
configuration. It advocates that whole is more than the sum of its parts and the whole get its
meaning from its parts. It also suggests that the conception of experience at any given moment is
determined by the totality of its related phases which constitute an internal pattern or
5. Progressivism sees learning as an active and dynamic process in which the learner is definitely
involved. Learning is a process that is active, purposeful and creative.
Ways How Organisms Learn
1. Trial and Error means an attempt to meet a situation in various ways until the correct responses
are found more or less accidentally. It involves random reaction and accidental success.
2. Learning by Conditioning is changing the meaning of a situation by associating it with some
past experience of new stimuli that brought about satisfaction or dissatisfaction to the learner
through repetition.
a. Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov
b. Operant Conditioning – Burhus Frederick Skinner
3. Learning by observation and Imitation. Learning is done through directing the attention to a
specific element considered worthy of mental record and reproducing the recorded element as the
need arises.
4. Insight is the higher level of trial and error. It refers to the ability to foresee things and react in
advance. It suggests that the degree of insight increases with age. It is based on the experiment
of Wolfgang Kohler.
a. Classical Conditioning – Ivan Pavlov
b. Operant Conditioning – Burhus Frederick Skinner
3. Learning by observation and Imitation. Learning is done through directing the attention to a
specific element considered worthy of mental record and reproducing the recorded element as the
need arises.
4. Insight is the higher level of trial and error. It refers to the ability to foresee things and react in
advance. It suggests that the degree of insight increases with age. It is based on the experiment
of Wolfgang Kohler.
5. Learning by Motivation. Motivation is the process of arousing the individual’s attention and
interest directed towards a definite goal.

Types of Motivation
1. Intrinsic – natural desire of the individual to learn
2. Extrinsic – motivation based on rewards or punishment
Incentives to Motivate Learners
1. School marks
2. Exhibiting good works
3. Game or play
4. Examination
5. Honor roll
6. Emulation
7. Material rewards
8. Punishment
9. Vocational goal
Laws of Learning
1. Law of Readiness – is associated with mind set. It states that when an organism prepared to
respond to a stimulus, allowing him to do so would be satisfying while preventing him would be
2. Law of Exercise – constant repetition of a response strengthens its connection with the stimulus
while disuse of a response weakens it.
Law of use – the more frequent a modifiable connections between the situation and the
response is utilized, the stronger is the connection.
Law of disuse – when a modifiable connection between a stimulus and response is not used over
a period of time that connection is weakened.
3. Law of Effect – when a modifiable connection between a stimulus and a response has been
made, it is strengthened if it results satisfaction and wakens if it leads to annoyance.
4. Law of Belongingness – means that the strength of connection is increased if the paired stimuli
possess similarities.
5. Law of Association – a new connection is formed through the association of the past and the
new situation. It is the process of relating two or more experiences to each other.
6. Law of Multiple Response – different reactions/responses are elicited by the same stimulus
7. Law of Frequency – the often the response is repeated the greater is its tendency for its use
when the right situation occurs.
8. Law of Recency – the response which has been exercised and rewarded most recently is the one
which is most likely to occur when the organism is in a given situation.
Factors that Affect Learning
Intellectual – individual’s mental ability level
Learning factors – study habits
Physical factors – disabilities, nutrition, etc.
Mental factors – attitude and one’s beliefs and ideas
Emotional/Social factors
Teacher’s personality
Environmental factors
Use of Audio-Visual Aids
John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) wrote Orbis Pictus Sensualium or the World of Sensible Things
Pictured, a book which is considered as the first on the use of visual aids in classroom teaching.
Device is any means other than the subject-matter itself that is employed by the teacher in presenting the
subject matter to the learner.
Purpose of Visual Devices
1. To challenge student’s attention
2. To stimulate the imagination and develop the mental imagery of the pupils
3. To facilitate the understanding of the pupils
4. To provide motivation to the learners
5. To develop the ability to listen
Forms of Visual Aids
1. Demonstration
2. Field trips
3. Laboratory experiments
4. Pictures, films, stimulations, models
5. Real objects
Classification of Device
1. Extrinsic – use to supplement a method used.
Ex. Pictures, graph, film strips, slides, etc.
2. Intrinsic – use as a part of the method or teaching procedure
Ex. Pictures accompanying an article
3. Material Devices – device that have no bearing on the subject matter
Ex. Blackboard, chalk, books, pencils, etc.
4. Mental Devices – a kind of device that is related in form and meaning to the subject matter being
Ex. Questions, projects, drills, lesson plans, etc.
The 20th century has been considered by various experts as the century of the child because so
much has been learned of their nature and development that a lot of children have been greatly improved.
Before the establishment of child-centered schools of Pestalozzi, Herbart and Froebel the child had the
right to listen but not to be heard. However, due to the result of the various studies made regarding the
nature of the child, children now are given the rights and privileges that they should enjoy as legitimate
members of the society. Children are know to be marvelously tough, pliable teachable.
Psychological Characteristics of the Child
a. Children are interest to learn
b. Children need immediate goals (short term goal)
c. Children need routine
d. Play plays a vital role in child development
Needs of a child
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of basic human needs
1. Physiological needs – hunger, thirst, breathing
2. Safety and security – protection from injury, pain, extremes of heat and cold
3. Belonging and affection needs – giving and receiving love, warmth and affection
4. Esteem and self-respect needs – feeling adequate, competent, worthy, being appreciated and
respected by other.
5. Self-actualization needs – self fulfillment by using one’s talents and potentials
Understanding children’s behavior
Development of positive behavior. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1772-1778) believed that by
nature men are basically good that what makes man evil are the influences of his society. To develop
positive in children, the following must be emphasized:
1. Contribution – children should be encouraged to contribute because this is one way of
showing to them that they are an important part of the group
2. responsibility – children should be encouraged to involve themselves in decision
making, and be made responsible for their own behavior and actions within the limits of
the group.
3. Cooperation – children should be encouraged to resolve problems and difficult
situations through a concerted effort of all the members of the group.
Causes of children’s misbehavior
The American Psychological Association (1993) concluded that a breakdown of family processes
and relationships contributes to children’s antisocial behavior. On the other hand, Thuroton and Benning
(1993) suggested that the following family variables affect the behavior of the child.
1. Parental supervision and discipline – inadequate, too tax, too strict or inconsistent and
2. Parents are indifferent or hostile to the child. They disapprove many things about the
child and handed out angry physical punishment.
3. The family operated only partially as a unit, if at all, and the marital relationship lacked
closeness and equality of partnership
4. Parents found it difficult to discuss concerns regarding the child and believed that they
had little influence on the child. They believed that other children exerted bad influence
on their child.
5. The parents have too much expectations about their child.
The teacher is someone who causes others to learn. He is a person who exerts a considerable
influence in the life of other people specially the children under his care.
The Role of a Teacher
1. Model
2. Classroom manager
3. Facilitator of learning
4. Motivator
5. Evaluator of students’ performance
6. Parent surrogate
7. Counselor
8. Friend
Qualities of an Effective Teacher
K – Knowledge
A – Attitude (Zig Ziglar – your attitude not your aptitude will determine your altitude)
S – Skills
H – Habits
E - Experience
Good health (means sana encorpore sano)
Self confidence (cogito ergo sum)
Affability (Friendliness)
Consideration for others
Educationally qualified (R.A. 7836)
Morally strong
The Needs of Teacher
1. Fair treatment
2. Firmness and understanding from their superiors
3. Positive atmosphere
4. Recognition for their contributions
5. Chance for professional growth
Classroom management as defined by Good (1959) is the administration or direction of
activities with special reference to problems involving discipline, democratic techniques, use of supplies
and other materials, the physical features of the classroom, general housekeeping and the social
relationships of the pupils and teachers. It can be summarized as the operation and control of classroom
Principles Behind Classroom Management
1. The teachers should plan activities that are suited to the classroom conditions.
2. The teacher’s disciplinary policies must be in accordance with the school policies.
3. The teachers must observe some routinary procedures to save time and energy (i.e. entering and
leaving the room, passing papers, etc.
4. The teachers must take into consideration the needs and conditions of their students.
5. The teachers must utilize positive rather than negative approach in dealing with children.
Principles Behind Classroom Management
1. The teachers should plan activities that are suited to the classroom conditions.
2. The teacher’s disciplinary policies must be in accordance with the school policies.
3. The teachers must observe some routinary procedures to save time and energy (i.e. entering and
leaving the room, passing papers, etc.
4. The teachers must take into consideration the needs and conditions of their students.
5. The teachers must utilize positive rather than negative approach in dealing with children.
Causes of Disciplinary Problems in the Classroom
1. Teacher’s personality – lack of knowledge of subject matter, poor decision making, etc.
2. Physical factors – health conditions of the child
3. Individual factors – individual differences due to family and community background, etc.
4. Social factors - adjustment to the group
5. Emotional factors
6. School environment
Ways to Improve Classroom Discipline
1. Know your subject matter and be prepared at all times
2. Come to class ahead of your students
3. Call the class to order as soon as the bell rings
4. Follow some established daily routine
5. Check the condition of the class as well as the condition of every pupil
6. Check pupil’s assignments regularly and return their work promptly.
7. Explain to your pupils your expectations of every activity that they will accomplish.
8. Provide adequate time for every activity.
9. Do not threaten your pupils. If threatened, the pupils often feel challenged to see how serious are
you and how far they could go before you carry-out your threats.
10. Have a good sense of humor
11. Compliment your students on worthy contributions
12. Try to involve all pupils to class activities
13. Handle calmly all attempts to distract your attention
14. Always have a contingency plan in case of emergency
15. Never be sarcastic
16. Always consider individual differences in dealing with your pupils
17. Never make a martyr out of a trouble maker.
18. Never punish all your pupils for the fault of one


Questioning is the starting point of learning. People learn because they ask questions. In the
teaching-learning process the kind of questions that a teacher asks and the way he asks them to some
extent determines his effectivity as well as the outcome of his teaching methods and techniques.
1. To discover the impact of the lesson to the students
2. To evaluate the student’s performance
3. To direct the minds of the students to the important aspects of the lesson
4. To give the students a chance to express themselves
5. To develop the thinking and reasoning ability of the students and help them analyze
6. To acquire information
7. To draw out interpretation
8. To manifest retention of knowledge
9. To develop the skills to answer effectively and eliciting comprehension skills
10. To energize the mind of the imagination resulting to internalization of concepts
11. To check whether these concepts are internalized for use in the students academic and
functional life
12. To develop the students’ problem solving skills and decision-making faculties.
I. Literal
“right there” questions
note or recall clearly stated facts and details
follow directions
associate quotation with speaker

II. Interpretative
think and search questions
identify character traits, emotional reactions
interpret figurative language
anticipate events
recognize sensory images
sense implied meaning of words, phrases and sentences
III. Critical
give opinions to the selection
discriminate between fancy and reality, fact or opinion
identify assumptions, points of view, author’s purpose and style
determine relevance
weight values presented
IV. Integrative/Application
“tying up” questions
comparing and contrasting old and new ideas gained from reading
Synthesizing ideas learned
Making a different ending
Discussed herein is the hierarchy of questions that the teachers usually ask regardless of the
subjects being taught. This hierarchy is based on Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational
1. Knowledge (Memory) Questions
Typical Knowledge questions:
1. When was the Katipunan founded?
2. Who founded the Katipunan?
3. Identify the people involved in the Philippine Revolution.
4. Enumerate the demands of the La Liga Filipina.
Keywords: name, tell, list, describe, recall, state, define, identify
2. Comprehension Questions
Train a student to understand oral and written communications and make use of them.
Comprehension questions may be manifested by the students in the following ways:
1. The student can express ideas in his own words
2. The student can separate the essential from the non-essential
3. The student can establish relationships among things
4. The student can extrapolate or predict an event from a trend or pattern.
5. The student can make inferences or give the probable consequences of events.
Typical comprehension questions:
Explain in your own words the El Niño and La Niña Phenomena
Compare and contrast the atmosphere of the Earth and Saturn
Predict what will happen to the Philippines under the Estrada presidency.
Keywords: extrapolate, explain, compare, predict, illustrate, infer, estimate
3. Application Questions
Require the students to transfer what they have learned to new situations with little or no
supervision. The student is expected to put some skills into practice, solve problems and construct
Typical application questions:
1. Which of the following best exemplifies asexual reproduction?
2. How do you express in algebraic equation – the age of the Earth is twice the age of the
Keyword: demonstrate, plan, solve, apply, build, develop, construct
4. Analysis Questions
Require a student to breakdown an idea into its parts, to distinguish these parts and know their
relationship to one another. The student is able to distinguish relevant from irrelevant data, a fact from
a generalization, an assumption from a conclusion and select facts which are essential to support a
Typical analysis questions:
1. What part of the essay is the conclusion?
2. What part pr parts support the stated conclusion?
3. What part of the essay is factual and what part is hypothetical?
4. What are the fallacies in the arguments presented
Keyword: classify, distinguish, discriminate, categorize, analyze, detect
5. Synthesis Questions
The student puts together or integrates a number of ideas or facts into new arrangement. Some
common focus of synthesis is the summary of the lesson either written or oral, a proposal, a plan of
action, a short story, or a short play, a bulletin board display, a literary-musical program and the like.
Typical synthesis questions:
1. How can you help improve our economy?
2. What are the alternative crops in order to cushion the effect of the El Niño phenomenon
in our agriculture?
3. What plans can you propose to make the centennial celebration more meaningful?
Keyword: propose a plan, formulate a solution, develop, create, make up, summarize
6. Evaluative Questions
The students appraise, criticize or judge the worth of an idea, a statement or a plan on the basis
of a set of criteria provided to them or which they themselves have developed.
Typical application questions:
1. Is it good for the Filipinos to ratify the VFA?
2. Are you in favor of amending the present constitution?
3. Evaluate the achievements of the Ramos administration.
Keyword: select, judge, evaluate, decide, which do you prefer


The “How” Dimension of Teaching


Based on the above diagram, a technique is part of method and, likewise, a method is a
component of an approach the broadest of the three. Technique, the most specific, and method,
intermediate between the two.
• An enlightened viewpoint of teaching
• Provides sound philosophy and orientation to the whole process of teaching in which the
selection of an instructional method is part and parcel of
• Embraces the entire spectrum of the process such that:
a. It specifies the major goal of teaching;
b. The given priorities among the three domains, cognitive, psychomotor, and
c. The role of the students;
d. The nature of the teaching-learning process; and
e. The kind of evaluative techniques and suitable teaching methods/strategies to
be employed.
Method/strategy refers to an organized, orderly, systematic, well-planned procedure. It consists of
steps which are logically arranged aimed at achieving the specific aims of instruction, at enhancing greater
teaching and maximizing learning output. Method directs and guides the teacher in all class activities and
involves as well, the organization of materials to get things done
Organization of materials can be categorized into two:
1. Logical organization aims to facilitate the recall or location and use of facts, ideas,
materials, procedures, etc; and
2. Psychological organization is designed to facilitate learning of new things
Categories of Teaching Methods
1. Inductive and Deductive Methods
2. Lecture Method
a. Outlining technique
b. Component technique
c. Sequential technique
d. Relevance technique
e. Transitional technique
3. Discussion Method
a. Small group discussion technique
b. Socialized classroom discussion technique
c. Direct instruction or classroom teaching technique
d. Panel discussion technique
e. Recitation technique
f. Interview technique
4. Reporting Method
a. Unit or Morrisonian technique
b. Individual and group techniques
c. Reading and story-telling techniques
d. Schematic technique
e. Symposium
5. Investigatory Method
a. Laboratory technique
b. Problem-solving technique
c. Research technique
d. Field study technique
e. Experimenting technique
6. Activity Method
a. Project technique
b. Field trip technique
c. Dramatization technique
d. Role-playing technique
e. Simulation technique
f. Brainstorming technique
g. Debate
7. Demonstration Method
a. Teacher-directed
b. Student-directed
c. Teacher and student-directed
d. Resource speaker
8. Self-Pacing Method
a. Programmed instruction, modules, kits, correspondence course
b. Mastery learning technique
9. Integrated Method
a. Lecture-discussion
b. Demonstration lecture
c. Film-showing discussion
d. Reporting discussion
e. Inductive-deductive
10. Traditional Method
a. Textbook technique
b. Rote-learning technique
c. Teacher’s full-directed technique
d. Memorization technique
e. The 2 x 4 x 8 technique of teaching
Glossary of Teaching Methodologies
A. Whole Group Instruction is the most traditional and common form of classroom
organization (Ornstein, 1992). Teachers generally gear their teaching to the “mythical”
average students on the assumption that this level of presentation will meet the needs
of the greatest number of students
Behavior Modeling – Acting out a particular behavior the right way.
Case study – a problematic situation written or described in narrative form ranging from a
paragraph to several paragraph
Cross-impact Analysis- with the occurrence of one or more separate situations, the learners
estimate possible linkages or causal relationship between or among these events and come up with action
plan to deal with likely events
Delphi Procedure- a method for obtaining the consensus of opinion of a group of experts through
questionnaires with controlled opinion feedback
Demonstration- Showing the learner how to perform a task/activity or how to operate an
Devil’s Advocate- A method of dealing with a complex problem or conflicting situation in the
context of opposition. Said conflicting views may stem from different goals, perspectives, and role
requirement. The “devil” serves as a critic-attacking idea presented and defended by learners
Exercises- Drill, boardwork, writing exercises that require learner’s application of the a cquired
knowledge and skills.
Force Field Analysis- A process of assessing a felt need or a performance problem by identifying
the strengths and weaknesses of an organization, including outside influence with the aim of affecting
change through an action plan.
Incident Process- A short (one-to-two sentence) description of a problematic situation