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FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD COMPONENTS:

COMPONENT FUNCTION
RED BLOOD CELLS Transports Oxygen from the Lungs to
Respiring Cells for Aerobic Respiration
WHITE BLOOD CELLS Phagocytes Engulf and Digest Pathogens
and Lymphocytes produce Antibodies to
Deactivate Antigens of Bacteria
PLASMA Medium of Transport which Carries
Carbon Dioxide, Digested Food, Urea,
Hormones and Heat
PLATELETS Cell Fragments involved in Blood Clotting

PLASMA: Straw-Coloured Liquid that Transports Dissolved Substances Around the


Body Including:

SUBSTANCE EXPLANATION
CARBON DIOXIDE Plasma Carries Away Waste Carbon
Dioxide from Respiring Cells to the Lungs
for Exhalation in the Form of Carbon
Dioxide or Hydrogen Carbonate
Molecules
DIGESTED FOOD Plasma carries Digested Food to
Respiring Cells for Assimilation in the
Form of Simple Sugars (E.g, Glucose)
and Amino Acids
UREA Waste Substances such as Urea is
Carried by the Plasma from the Liver to
the Kidney for Excretion
HORMONES Hormones Produced by Endocrine Gland
is Secreted in the Plasma to be Carried to
Target Organs to Stimulate Chang
HEAT ENERGY As Plasma is Mainly Composed of Water,
Water has High Heat Capacity so is
Important for Maintaining a Balanced
Temperature in the Body (Optimum
Temperature of 37°C)
RED BLOOD CELLS: Transports Oxygen from the Lungs to Respiring Cells for Aerobic
Respiration.

Diagram:

ADAPTATIONS EXPLANATION
HAEMOGLOBIN Red Blood Cells contain Haemoglobin (A
Red Protein that Combines with Oxygen
to Form Oxyhaemoglobin) to Allow the
Cell to Transport Oxygen to Respiring
Cells
NO NUCLEUS Has No Nucleus so they Can have More
Haemoglobin, Allowing More Oxygen to
be Carried and Transported to Respiring
Cells
SMALL AND FLEXIBLE Small and Flexible which Allows the Red
Blood Cells to Squeeze through Narrow
Capillaries and Blood Vessels
THIN CELL MEMBRANE Very Thin Cell Membrane So Distance of
Diffusion is Short, Allowing the Efficient
Rate of Diffusion of Oxygen to the Centre
of the Cell
BICONCAVE Flattened Disc Shape to Increase the
Surface Area to Volume Ratio for the
Efficient Rate of Diffusion of Oxygen Into
Cells

PHAGOCYTES: Engulfs and Releases Digestive Enzymes onto Pathogens to Remove


them from the Body

ADAPTATIONS OF
PHAGOCYTES
SENSITIVE CELL SURFACE Has a Sensitive Cell Surface Membrane
MEMBRANE that can Detects Chemicals Produced by
Pathogen, Allowing them to Locate
Pathogens Easily
DIGESTIVE ENZYMES IN CYTOPLASM Once Pathogen is Engulfed, they can
Release Digestive Enzymes onto
Pathogen to Digest and Remove them
from the Body
IRREGULAR SHAPED NUCLEUS Irregular Shaped Nucleus Allowing them
to Squeeze through Gaps in Capillary
Walls to Move Towards Pathogens

LYMPHOCYTES: Produce Antibodies that will Deactivate Antigens of Pathogens and


Produces Memory Cells that Stays in the Immune System

ADAPTATIONS OF
LYMPHOCYTES
LARGE NUCLEUS Has a Large Nucleus that Contains
Multiple Copies of DNA so can Produce
Antibodies in Large Amounts to Prevent
the Spread of Diseases and Infections

IMMUNE SYSTEM RESPONSE TO DISEASE

LYMPHOCYTES PHAGOCYTES

Diagram Showing the Response of Diagram Showing the Response of


Lymphocytes Phagocytes
• Phagocytes have Sensitive Cell • When Pathogen is Detected, Lymphocyte
Surface Membrane that Can Detect will Split into Two Cells
Chemicals Produced by Pathogen
• Once they Encounter Pathogen, They • One Cell will Produce Antibodies that will
will Engulf it and Release Digestive Deactivate Antigens of Pathogens
Enzymes to Digest the Pathogen • Other Cell will be a Memory Cell that
• Pathogen is Removed from the Body Stays in the Immune Response so if
Same Pathogen is Detected, Same
Antibodies can be Produced Quicker,
Easier and in Larger Amounts

PLATELETS: Cell Fragments Involved in Blood Clotting

PLATELETS AND BLOOD CLOTTING

Role of PLatelets During Blood Clotting


PROCESS:
• When the Skin is Wounded, Platelets will Arrive to the Wound and Break Open,
If Calcium Ions are Present, Thrombin will be Formed
• Thrombin will Act on Fibrinogen and Turn It into Fibrin, which is a Mass of
Insoluble Protein Thread which will Cause a Clot and Red Blood Cells Will be
Trapped in It
• The Clot will Develop into a Scab which will Protect and Allow the Wound to
Heal

FUNCTIONS:
• Clot the Blood so will Prevent Further Blood Loss
• Clot the Blood so a Insoluble Scab is Formed, Preventing the Entry of Harmful
Bacteria that can Infect the Wound or Cause Diseases

HEART: Is Made of Cardiac Muscle and is Myogenic so has its Own Pacemaker that
Initiates Contractions to Keep it Beating to Pump Blood Around the Body

ATRIO VENTRICULAR VALVE: Prevents the Backflow of Blood from the Ventricle to
the Atrium

FUNCTION OF THE HEART

Diagram of the Heart


PROCESS:
• Deoxygenated Blood from Respiring Cells will be Carried by the Vena Cava to
the Right Atrium, the Right Atrium Will Contract which will Increase Pressure
and Push Blood through the Valve and Into the Right Ventricle
• Right Ventricle will Contract and will Increase the Pressure, Causing Blood to
Flow out of the Pulmonary Artery to be Oxygenated at the Lungs

• Pulmonary Vein will Carry Oxygenated Blood from the Lungs to the Left Atrium,
the Left Atrium will Contract which will Increase Pressure and Push Blood
through the Valve and Into the Left Ventricle
• Left Ventricle will Contract and will Increase the Pressure, Causing Oxygenated
Blood to be Carried Out by the Aorta to Respiring Cells under High Pressure
HEART RATE: Heart Rate is Measured in Beats Per Minute

ADRENALINE: Hormone Produced by the Adrenal Glands in the Kidney that Increasing
Breathing Rate and Heart Rate
HEART RATE DURING EXERCISE

Graph Showing the Heart Rate During Exercise


PROCESS:
• During Exercise, Muscles will be Respiring so Heart Rate will Increase as they
will Contract More Often and Powerfully (Stroke Volume) to Increase Blood
Circulation so More Oxygen can be Transported to Respiring Cells to Release
Energy, Also to Remove Waste Carbon Dioxide More Efficiently
• Heart Rate will also Increase as If Anaerobic Respiration has Taken Place,
Oxygen Debt is Created where More Oxygen is Need for Aerobic Respiration to
Produce Carbon Dioxide and Water to Remove the Lactic Acid produced to
Prevent Muscle Cramps

EFFECT OF ADRENALINE ON HEART RATE


Diagram Showing Where Adrenaline is Produced
PROCESS:
• During Exercise, Adrenaline will be Produced by the Adrenal Glands on Top of
the Kidney and Secreted into the blood to Stimulate Adrenergic Receptors in
the Heart
• This will Increase Heart Rate so will Increase Blood Supply to Respiring
Muscles as they will be Contracting More Frequently Allowing More Aerobic
Respiration to Take Place
• This will also Increase Breathing Rate so More Gas Exchange Takes Place;
Oxygen Diffuses Into Blood, Carbon Dioxide Diffuses Out of Blood

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: The System that Circulates Blood Around the Body and
Consists of:

• A System of Tubes (Arteries, Capillaries and Veins)


• A Pump (Heart)
• Valves to Ensure a One-Way Flow of Blood

Diagram:
WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH STRUCTURE

ORGAN TOWARDS ORGAN AWAY FROM ORGAN


LUNG Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Vein
LIVER Hepatic Artery Hepatic Vein
KIDNEY Renal Artery Renal Vein

EXCRETION: Removal of Waste Products from Metabolism

ORGANS OF EXCRETIONS:

ORGAN MAINLY EXCRETES EXPLANATION


LUNG Carbon Dioxide The Lung will Excrete
Carbon Dioxide as a
Waste Product of Aerobic
Respiration During
Exhalation
KIDNEY Excess Water, Salts and The Kidney will Excrete
Urea Excess Water, Excess
Salts and Urea by
Producing Urine by
Osmoregulation
SKIN Excess Water and Salts The Skin will Excrete
Excess Water and Salts
through the Sweat Glands
on the Skin by Producing
Sweat
DEFINITIONS:

TERM DEFINITION
POPULATION Number of Members of a Single Species
COMMUNITY Different Species of Organisms Living in
the Same Area
HABITAT Where Living Organisms Live
ECOSYSTEM Population of Different Species of
Organisms and the Habitat that they Live
in
TRANSFER OF SUBSTANCES AND ENERGY IN FOOD CHAIN

Diagram Showing the Transfer of Energy in Food Chain


EXPLANATION:

• The Sun is the Ultimate Source of Energy as Plants will Absorb Sunlight
through Photosynthesis to Produce Organic Food which is Consumed by
Other Organisms, Passing Energy Down the Food Chain
• Each Trophic Level Reduces the Amount of Energy Available for the Next
as Only 10% of Energy is Passed On

ENERGY IS LOST TO:

1. RESPIRATION
• Respiration to Release Energy for Life Processes such as Movement or
Heat Energy

2. NOT EATEN
• Food May Not All be Eaten Such as Bones or Fibres

3. NOT DIGESTED
• Food May Not be Digested, Resulting in Energy Lost to Faeces which are
Broken Down by Decomposers

4.7: Explain Why Only 10% of Energy is Transferred from One


Trophic Level to the Next
TROPHIC LEVELS: Feeding Levels in a Food Chain

ENERGY IS LOST TO:

REASON EXPLANATION
RESPIRATION Respiration to Release Energy for Life
Processes such as Movement or Heat
Energy
NOT EATEN Food May Not All be Eaten Such as
Bones or Fibres
NOT DIGESTED Food May Not be Digested, Resulting in
Energy Lost to Faeces which are Broken
Down by Decomposers
EXCRETED AS WASTE Food Eaten is Broken Down and
Excreted as Waste, E.g, Urea

BIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF POLLUTION:


SULFUR DIOXIDE CARBON MONOXIDE

Diagram showing Sulfur Dioxide Molecules Diagram showing Carbon Monoxide Molecules
EXPLANATION: EXPLANATION:

• Fossil Fuels will Burn to Produce • Poisonous Gas that is Produced when
Sulfur Dioxide Fossil Fuels Burn in Limited Amount of
• Sulfur Dioxide will Dissolve in Water Air (Incomplete Combustion)
Droplets in Clouds, Forming Dilute • Binds Irreversibly to Haemoglobin and
Sulfuric Acid, Causing Acid Rain Reduces the Capacity of Oxygen Carried
in Red Blood Cells

CONSEQUENCES: CONSEQUENCES:

• Leaches Minerals and Nutrients Out of• Reduces Capacity of Oxygen Carried in
the Soil and cause Plants and Trees to Blood so will cause Tiredness,
Die Unconsciousness and Even Death
• Damages Waxy Layer of Leaves, • Less Oxygen for Aerobic Respiration so
Making it Difficult for Trees to Absorb can cause Emphysema
Mineral Ions they Need for Growth • If Pregnant, Insufficient Oxygen so Less
• Makes Rivers and Lakes Too Acidic, Aerobic Respiration to Release Energy
Resulting in Aquatic Organisms to Die for Growth of Fetus
• Corrodes Metals (Steel) and Limestone
in Buildings

GREENHOUSE GASES: Gases that Absorb Infrared Radiation from the Sun and
Remains Trapped in the Earth’s Atmosphere, Causing Earth’s Average Temperature to
Rise as a Result
EXAMPLES OF GREENHOUSE GASES:

GAS EXAMPLES
WATER VAPOUR Rivers, Lakes and Oceans
CARBON DIOXIDE Deforestation and Using Fuels
NITROUS OXIDE Fertilisers and Vehicle Engines
METHANE Rice Paddy Fields and Cattle
CFC Refrigerators

GREENHOUSE GASES: Gases that Absorb Infrared Radiation from the Sun and
Remains Trapped in the Earth’s Atmosphere, Causing Earth’s Average Temperature to
Rise as a Result

MAN-MADE SOURCES OF GREENHOUSE GASES:

GREENHOUSE GAS HUMAN ACTIVITIES


WATER VAPOUR • Naturally Exists in Rivers, Lakes and
Oceans
CARBON DIOXIDE • Produced when Burning Fuels in
Industrial Processes
• Produced in Car Exhausts
NITROUS OXIDE • Released from Fertilisers on Land in
Farms
• Released from Cattle Waste in Farms
• Produced from High Temperatures in
Vehicle Engines
METHANE • Released from Rice Paddy Fields
• Released from Cattle
CFC • Used in Fridges and is Released into the
Atmosphere when Disposed
• Used in Aerosol Sprays
4.17: Understand the Effects of Deforestation, Including
Leaching, Soil Erosion, Disturbance of the Water Cycle and of
the Balance in Atmospheric Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
DEFORESTATION: Clearing an Area of Trees at a Large Scale

EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION:

DEFORESTATION

Diagram Showing the Scale of Deforestation


EFFECTS:

2. LEACHING
• Trees will Usually Take Up Nutrients and Minerals from the Soil through their
Roots
• Without Trees, Nutrients and Minerals will Remain Unused in the Soil so will be
Washed Away Into Rivers and Lakes by Rain (Leaching)

3. SOIL EROSION
• Tree Roots Help to Stabilise the Soil, Preventing them from being Eroded by
Rain
• Without Trees, the Soil will be Loose and Unstable so will be Washed Away by
Rain

4. DISTURBANCE OF THE WATER CYCLE


• Transpiration from Trees will Release Water Vapours into the Atmosphere for
Condensation to Form Clouds and to be Returned by Precipitation such as Rain
• Without Trees, Less Transpiration will occur so will cause less Clouds to Form
and Lack of Precipitation, causing Droughts

5. UNBALANCE IN ATMOSPHERIC OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE


• Trees will Conduct Photosynthesis to Take in Carbon Dioxide and Release
Oxygen
• The Removal of Trees will cause Less Photosynthesis to take place so will
Increase Carbon Dioxide Levels
• Trees will also Burn to Produce Carbon Dioxide (Common Method of
Deforestation), Increasing Carbon Dioxide Levels in the Atmosphere