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Table of Contents

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1D Momentum theory .......................................................................................................... 1
Question 01 ........................................................................................................................ 1
Question 02 ........................................................................................................................ 1
Question 03 ........................................................................................................................ 3
Question 04 ........................................................................................................................ 3
Question 05 ........................................................................................................................ 4
Rotational theory and velocity triangle at r=40m ...................................................................... 4
Question 06 ........................................................................................................................ 4
Question 07 ........................................................................................................................ 6
Question 08 ........................................................................................................................ 6
Question 09 ........................................................................................................................ 8
Question 09 ........................................................................................................................ 9

close all
clear

rho = 1.225; % kgm3

V0 = 8; % m/s

In question 2.- 10., it is assumed that the rotor runs with optimum induction.

In question 6.- 10. we'll consider a blade section at r=40m from the rotor centre at a rotational speed
of 10 rpm. Here the cord length is c=3m and the blade twist is ?=4?.

1D Momentum theory
Question 01
The wind speed after the wake expansion is measured to be 4m/s. What is the axial induction factor?

u1 = 4;

a_u4 = (-u1/V0 + 1)/2

a_u4 =

0.2500

Question 02
What would the flow velocity through the rotor be if it was run with optimal induction? Give the result
in m/s.

1
dCp_da = @(a)4*(1-a).*(1-3*a);

[a_opt,fval,exitflag,output] = fzero(dCp_da,0);

hold all
a_plot = -1:0.1:2;
plot(a_plot,dCp_da(a_plot))
plot(a_opt,fval,'*')
xlabel('a')
ylabel('dCp/da')
grid

a_opt

Cp_opt = 4*a_opt*(1-a_opt)^2

u = (1-a_opt)*V0

a_opt =

0.3333

Cp_opt =

0.5926

u =

5.3333

2
Question 03
What rotor radius (and thus approximate blade length) should the turbine ha

P = 1.5e6;

R_1p5MW = sqrt(P/(1/2*rho*pi*V0^3*Cp_opt))

R_1p5MW =

50.6879

Question 04
Assume now a rotor diameter of 2r=116m. What is the thrust force on the rotor in kN?

CT = 4*a_opt*(1-a_opt)

A_116 = pi*116^2/4;

T_kN = 1/2*rho*A_116*V0^2*CT*1e-3

CT =

3
0.8889

T_kN =

368.2472

Question 05
What is the main limitation of 1D momentum theory? The consideration of optimal induction.

Rotational theory and velocity triangle at


r=40m
Question 06
Which values of a and a? correspond to optimum operation at r=40m? (choose the right option) Hint: Use
the equations 1) to 4) to calculate x and then a and a?. Keep in mind that the value of a should be within
the interval 0<a<1.

r = 40;

w = 10*2*pi/60; % rad/s

x = w*r/V0;

f_xzero = @(a)16*a.^3 - 24*a.^2 + a.*(9-3*x.^2) - 1 + x.^2 ;

[a_opt_40,fval,exitflag,output] = fzero(f_xzero,0)

figure
hold all
a_plot = -1:0.1:2;
plot(a_plot,f_xzero(a_plot))
plot(a_opt_40,fval,'*')
xlabel('a')
ylabel('16*a^3 - 24*a^2 + a*(9-3*x^2) - 1 + x^2')
grid

a_opt_40

ap_opt_40 = (1-3*a_opt_40)/(4*a_opt_40-1)

a_opt_40 =

0.3325

fval =

4
3.5527e-15

exitflag =

output =

intervaliterations: 9
iterations: 6
funcCount: 25
algorithm: 'bisection, interpolation'
message: 'Zero found in the interval [-0.452548,
0.452548]'

a_opt_40 =

0.3325

ap_opt_40 =

0.0080

5
Correct answer -> 3

Question 07
Compute the flow angle ? at r=40m. State the result in degrees.

phi = atan2((1-a_opt_40)*V0,(1+ap_opt_40)*w*r);

% phi = atan(ap_opt_40*w*r/a_opt_40/V0)

phi_deg = rad2deg(phi)

phi_deg =

7.2083

Question 08
The angle of attack, ? is flow angle, ? minus the blade twist angle, ?. Compute ? and use the lift curve in
the slides in the video ‘Flow and forces around a wind turbine’ (air foil data) to determine CL and next
the lift value L pr. unit length N/m. (choose the right option)

c = 3;

6
beta_deg = 4;

alpha_deg = phi_deg - beta_deg

alpha_deg =

3.2083

Importing plot

addpath('C:\Users\Pedro\Dropbox\ITA\DTU_Wind_Energy\06 - Aerodynamics
\Quiz_06\Preparation_06')

% grabit('Capture.PNG')

Data = load('Cl_alpha.mat');

Cl_alpha_p = Data.Cl_alpha;

Cl_alpha = fit(Cl_alpha_p(:,1),Cl_alpha_p(:,2),'linearinterp');

Cl = Cl_alpha(alpha_deg)

figure
hold all
plot(Cl_alpha,Cl_alpha_p(:,1),Cl_alpha_p(:,2),'*')
plot(alpha_deg,Cl,'ko')
grid
ylabel('Cl')
xlabel('\alpha [deg]')

Vrel = sqrt((1-a_opt_40)*V0^2 + (1+ap_opt_40)*w^2*r^2)

L = 1/2*rho*c*Cl*Vrel^2

Cl =

0.7359

Vrel =

42.5607

L =

2.4495e+03

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Question 09
Compute the drag in kN/m. What is the tangential force component Pt pr. uni

Data2 = load('ClCd.mat');

Cl_Cd_p = Data2.ClCd;

Cl_Cd = fit(Cl_Cd_p(:,2),Cl_Cd_p(:,1),'linearinterp');

Cd = Cl_Cd(Cl)

figure
hold all
plot(Cl_Cd,Cl_Cd_p(:,2),Cl_Cd_p(:,1),'*')
plot(Cl,Cd,'ko')
grid
ylabel('Cd')
xlabel('Cl')
axis([-1.5 2 0 0.25])

D = 1/2*rho*c*Cd*Vrel^2

Pt = L*cos(phi) - D*sin(phi)

8
Cd =

0.0103

D =

34.3185

Pt =

2.4258e+03

Question 09
What torque does it provide for a single blade pr. unit length? (choose the

T = Pt*r

T =

9.7031e+04

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Published with MATLAB® R2016a

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