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Power Control & Power Setting

Overview
Overview
Objective
Improve cell edge behaviour, reduce inter-cell interference and power consumption.
Downlink (DL)
DL ‘Semi-static’ Power Setting
• eNodeB gives fixed power density per PRB scheduled for transport.
– Total Tx power is max. when all PRBs are scheduled
– No adaptive/dynamic power control
– (O&M parameter) Cell Power Reduction level CELL_PWR_RED [0...10] dB attenuation in 0.1 dB steps
DL Power Control on PDCCH
dlCellPwrRed
Reduction of DL Tx power; deducted
from max. antenna TX power.
Uplink (UL) LNCEL; 0..10; 0.1; 0 dB
Slow Uplink Power Control
• Combination of open loop PC and closed loop PC
• Open Loop Power Control (OLPC)
– Calculated at the UE based on pathloss measurements
• Closed Loop Power Control (CLPC)
– Based on exchange of feedback data and commands between UE and eNodeB
– SW-licensed enhancement (can be switched on and off)
UL-
UL-PC: Overview
UL-PC: Overview

LTE: orthogonal UL Tx, i.e. near-far-problem much less severe than WCDMA
Signal strength S:
• UL: dynamic, slow PC – Open Loop (OL) & Closed Loop (CL)
Depends on PL, indoor loss etc.,
• need for PL / shadowing etc. compensation OL PC i.e. location
• need for correction/ adjustments of e.g. open loop inaccuracies CL PC

Low

High

Interference (I)
- main cause: inter-cell

Noise (N) = kB T ∆f + NFeNB

Power control does not control the absolute UE Tx power but the Power Spectral Density (PSD), power per Hz, for a device.
The PSDs at the eNodeB from different users have to be close to each other so the receiver doesn’t work over a large range
of powers.
Different data rates mean different Tx bandwidths so the absolute Tx power of the UE will also change. PC makes that the
PSD is constant independently of the Tx bandwidth.
Overview
Procedure for Slow UL Power Control
• UE controls the Tx power to keep the transmitted power spectral density (PSD) constant independent of
the allocated transmit bandwidth (#PRBs)

• If no feedback from eNodeB ( in the PDCCH UL PC command) the UE performs open loop PC based on path
loss measurements

• If feedback from eNodeB the UE corrects the PSD when receiving PC commands from eNodeB ( in the
PDCCH UL PC command)
PC commands (up and down) based on UL quality and signal level measurements

• Applied separately for PUSCH, PUCCH


• Scope of UL PC is UE level ( performed separately for each UE in a cell)
2) SINR measurment
4) TX power level
3) Setting new power offset
adjustment with the new
offset
1) Initial TX power level
UL-
UL-PC: PUSCH
UL-PC: PUSCH Equation

PPUSCH (i) :PUSCH Power in subframe i

Open Loop (OL) Closed Loop (CL)

PPUSCH(i) = min {PCMAX ,10 log10 (M PUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH( j) + α ( j ) ⋅ PL + ∆TF (i) + f (i)} [dBm]

*PH = Power Headroom


UL-PC: PUSCH
PPUSCH(i) = min {PCMAX ,10 log10 (M PUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH( j) + α ( j ) ⋅ PL + ∆TF (i) + f (i)} [dBm]

PH (i ) = PCMAX − {10 log10 ( M PUSCH (i )) + PO_PUSCH ( j ) + α ⋅ PL + ∆ TF (i ) + f (i ) }[dB ] PH = Power Headroom

PPUSCH (i) :PUSCH Power in subframe i


PCMAX: max. allowed UE power (23 dBm for class 3)
MPUSCH: number of scheduled RBs (The UE Tx. Power increases proportionally to # of PRBs)
PO_PUSCH(j) = PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(j) + PO_UE_PUSCH(j)
PL: pathloss [dB] = referenceSignalPower – higher layer filtered RSRP
∆TF (i) = 10 log 10 (2MPR Ks – 1) for Ks = 1.25 else 0, MPR = TBS/NRE, NRE : number of RE
Ks defined by deltaMCS-Enabled, UE specific
f(i): TPC (Closed Loop adjustment) j : This can be 0 or 1, j = 0, 1 come from higher layer
Semi-persistant: j=0 / dynamic scheduling: j=1
PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(0,1): cell specific (SysInfo)
PO_UE_PUSCH(0,1): UE specific (RRC)
α (0,1) = 0.0, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0 (partial PL compensation by open loop)
Random access grant: j=2
PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(2): PO_PRE + ∆Preamble_Msg3 PO_UE_PUSCH(2) = 0
α (2) = 1.0 (i.e. full PL compensation)
Open Loop PC vs. Closed Loop PC

Open Loop Power Control


Target: provide a basic operating point for a suitable PSD for an average
MCS (average SINR):
Basic _ Operating _ Po int = PO_PUSCH ( j ) + α ( j ) ⋅ PL

• Open Loop Power Control takes into account effects like inter-cell
interference and shadowing
• Based on PL (Pathloss)

Closed Loop Power Control


f(i) adjustments
Target: Fine tuning around the basic operating point
• Adapt dynamically to the channel conditions (take into account e.g. fast fading)
• Correct the estimations of power from the open loop PC

ulpcEnable
enable UL closed loop PC
LNCEL; true, false; false
Open Loop PC

PPUSCH(i) = min {PCMAX,10 log10 (M PUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH( j ) + α ( j) ⋅ PL + ∆TF (i) + f (i)} [dBm]

PO_PUSCH(j) = PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(j) + PO_UE_PUSCH(j)


j=0 -> PUSCH transmission with semi-persistent grant
j=1 -> PUSCH transmission with dynamic scheduling
j=2 -> PUSCH transmission for random access grant

PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(j) -> cell specific component signaled from system information for j=0, 1
This term is a common power level for all mobiles in the cell (used to control SINR)
p0NomPusch
Nominal Power for UE PUSCH Tx
Power Calculation
LNCEL; -126..24dbm; 1; -100 dBm

PO_UE_PUSCH(j)-> UE specific component provided by higher layers (RRC) for j=0,1


This term is a UE specific offset used to correct the errors from the estimation of the pathloss
PUSCH Formula

PPUSCH(i) = min {PCMAX ,10 log10 (M PUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH( j) + α ( j ) ⋅ PL + ∆TF (i) + f (i)} [dBm]

PL: pathloss [dB] = referenceSignalPower –


higher layer filtered RSRP

This path loss compensation factor a is adjustable by


O&M. α is a cell - specific parameter (broadcasted on
Alpha BCH).

α ∈ [0.0, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0]


α = 0 , no compensation
α = 1 , full compensation
ulpcAlpha α ≠ { 0 ,1 } , fractional compensation
LNCEL; 0, 0.4..1.0; 0.1; 1.0
Conventional & Fractional PC
• Conventional PC schemes:
– Attempt to maintain a constant SINR at the receiver
– UE increases the Tx power to fully compensate for increases in the path loss

• Fractional PC schemes:
– Allow the received SINR to decrease as the path loss increases.
– UE Tx power increases at a reduced rate as the path loss increases. Increases in path loss are only partially compensated.
– [+]: Improve air interface efficiency & increase average cell throughputs by reducing Inter-cell interference
• 3GPP specifies fractional power control for the PUSCH with the option to disable it & revert to conventional based on α

Fractional
UL
SINR UL Power Control: α
SINR
≠ { 0 ,1}
Conventional Power
Control: α=1 UE Tx
If Path Loss
Power UE Tx increases by 10
If Path Loss Power
dB the UE Tx
increases by 10 dB
power increases
the UE Tx power
by < 10 dB
increases by 10 dB
MCS dependent component

PPUSCH(i) = min {PCMAX,10 log10 (M PUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH( j ) + α ( j ) ⋅ PL + ∆TF (i) + f (i)} [dBm]

∆ TF (i ) = 10 log10 (2 MPR∗K s − 1) for K S = 1.25


deltaTfEnabled
Enabled TB size (MCS) impact to
0 Otherwise UE PUSCH power calculation
LNCEL; Yes/No; -

MPR = TBS/NRE with NRE : number of RE, TBS = Transport Block Size

• TF = Transport Format
• Ks - Enabling/disabling of the transport format dependent offset on a per UE basis
• If this parameter is enabled, PUSCH power calculation in UE uplink power control equation takes the
Transport Block size in account during the power calculation
• Could be seen as dynamic offset of the TX power: when the BTS changes the MCS for the UE then the UE
indirectly may adapt the power
• Increase the power if the Transport Format (MCS, TBS size, Number of Resource Blocks) it is so selected
to increase the number of bits per Resource Element
UL PUSCH Power Control - Parameter
PPUSCH (i ) = min{ PCMAX ,10 log( M PUSCH (i )) + Po _ PUSCH + α ⋅ PL + ∆ TF (i ) + f (i )}
Category Parameter Huawei Value Nokia Value Ericssons Value ZTE Value
P0 PUSCH CellUlpcComm.P0 -80 dBm [LNCEL] -80 dBm [EUtranCellFDD] -80 dBm [PowerControlUL] -75
NominalPUSCH p0NomPusch pZeroNominalPusch p0NominalPUSCH dBm
α CellUlpcComm.Pa 5 (0.8) [LNCEL] 7 (alpha 1) [EUtranCellFDD] alpha 8 (0.8) [PowerControlUL] 5 (0.8)
ssLossCoeff ulpcAlpha alpha
ΔTF (i) CellUlpcDedic.Del 0 (off) [LNCEL] 0 [PowerControlUL] ks 0
taMcsEnabled deltaTfEnabled
f(i) - Close Loop CellAlgoSwitch.Ul on [LNCEL] 3 [PowerControlUL] 1
PUSCH Power Switch PcAlgoSwitch - actUlpcMethod (PuschCLPucc switchForCLPCofPUS
Control InnerLoopPuschS [LNCEL] hCL) CH
witch ulpcLowlevSch -103 dBm
[LNCEL] -98 dBm
ulpcUplevSch 18
[LNCEL] 10
ulpcLowqualSch
[LNCEL]
ulpcUpqualSch
UL PUSCH Messge 3 Power Control - Parameter

When LTE PUSCH carry Message 3, transmit power of Ue’s PUSCH is calculated as follow:

PPUSCH (i ) = min{PCMAX ,10 log( M PUSCH (i )) + PO_pre + ∆ PREAMBLE _ Msg 3 + PL + ∆ TF (i ) + f (i )}

Category Parameter Huawei Value Nokia Value Ericssons Value ZTE Value
PUSCH Msg3 Δ preamble_msg3 [CellUlpcComm] 2 (4 dB) [LNCEL] 1 (2 dB) [PowerControlUL] 0
Power Control DeltaPreambleMsg3 deltaPreMsg3 deltaPreambleMsg3
UL-
UL-PC: PUCCH
UL-PC: PUCCH
PPUCCH (i ) = min{ PMAX , P0_PUCCH ( j ) + PL + h(nCQI , nHARQ ) + ∆ F_PUCCH ( F ) + g (i)} [dBm]

PPUCCH: PUCCH Power in subframe i


p0NomPucch
Pmax: max. allowed power Nominal Power for UE
PUCCH Tx Power Calculation
P0_PUCCH(j) = P0_NOMINAL_PUCCH(j) + P0_UE_PUCCH(j) LNCEL; -126..-96; 1; -100 dB
P0_NOMINAL_PUCCH : cell specific (SysInfo)
P0_UE_PUCCH : UE specific (RRC)
PL: pathloss [dB] = referenceSignalPower – higher layer filtered RSRP * For PUCCH higher degree of
orthogonality could be assumed due
H(nCQI, nHARQ ) to the usage of the orthogonal
codes so alpha=1 (full
• PUCCH format 1, 1a, 1b: h(n) = 0 compensation)
• PUCCH format 2, 2a, 2b and :
h(n) = 0 if nCQI < 4
h(n) = 10log10 (nCQI/4) otherwise
(here: normal CP, for extented CP also nHARQ to be considered, n:number of information bits)
∆F_PUCCH (F) : dFListPUCCH
(see next slide) Compensation Factor for different
PUCCH formats
For example if format 1a (1ACK) is
g(i): TPC (closed loop adjustment) having offset 0 then format 1b
(2ACK) could have offset 3dB
deltaFListPUCCH Parameters
Name Object Abbreviation Range Description Default

DeltaF PUCCH LNCEL dFListPucch n/a dFListPucch: SEQUENCE (see values below) n/a
List

DeltaF PUCCH LNCEL dFpucchF1 -2, 0, 2 dB Used to define the PUCCH format 1 0 dB
Format 1

DeltaF PUCCH LNCEL dFpucchF1b 1, 3, 5 dB Used to define the PUCCH format 1b 1 dB


Format 1b

DeltaF PUCCH LNCE dFpucchF2 -2, 0, 1, 2 dB Used to define the PUCCH format 2 0 dB
Format 2

DeltaF PUCCH LNCE dFpucchF2a -2, 0, 2 dB Used to define the PUCCH format 2a 0 dB
Format 2a

DeltaF PUCCH LNCEL dFpucchF2b -2, 0, 2 dB Used to define the PUCCH format 2b 0 dB
Format 2b
UL PUCCH Power Control - Parameter
PPUCCH(i) = min{PCMAX, P0 _ PUCCH + PL+ h(nCQI, nHARQ) + ∆F _ PUCCH(F) + g(i)}

Category Parameter Huawei Value Nokia Value Ericssons Value ZTE Value
P0 nominal PUCCH [CellUlpcComm] -105 dBm [LNCEL] p0NomPucch -100 dBm [EUtranCellFDD] -96 dBm [PowerControlUL] -105 dBm
P0NominalPUCCH pZeroNominalPucch poNominalPUCCH
Close Loop Switch [CellPcAlgo] 0
PucchCloseLoopPcType (NOT_USE_P0N
OMINALPUCCH)
ΔF_PUCCH [CellUlpcComm] 1 (0 dB) [LNCEL] dFpucchF1 1 (0 dB) [PowerControlUL] 2 (2 dB)
DeltaFPUCCHFormat1 [LNCEL] dFpucchF1b 0 (1 dB) deltaFPucchFormat1 1 (3 dB)
[CellUlpcComm] 1 (3 dB) [LNCEL] dFpucchF2 1 (0 dB) [PowerControlUL] 2 (1 dB)
DeltaFPUCCHFormat1b [LNCEL] dFpucchF2a 1 (0 dB) deltaFPucchFormat1b 2 (2 dB)
[CellUlpcComm] 2 (1 dB) [LNCEL] dFpucchF2b 1 (0 dB) [PowerControlUL] 2 (2 dB)
DeltaFPUCCHFormat2 deltaFPucchFormat2
[CellUlpcComm] 2 (2 dB) [PowerControlUL]
PUCCH Power DeltaFPUCCHFormat2a deltaFPucchFormat2a
Control [CellUlpcComm] 2 (2 dB) [PowerControlUL]
DeltaFPUCCHFormat2b deltaFPucchFormat2b
g(i) - Close Loop [CellAlgoSwitch] On [LNCEL] actUlpcMethod 3 (PuschCLPucchCL) [PowerControlUL] 1
Switch UlPcAlgoSwitch – [LNCEL] ulpcLowlevCch -103 dBm switchForCLPCofPUCCH
InnerLoopPucchSwitch [LNCEL] ulpcUplevCch -98 dBm
[LNCEL] ulpcLowqualCch 1
[LNCEL] ulpcUpqualCch 4

Period of Power [CellPcAlgo] 10 (200 ms)


control PucchPcPeriod
PUCCH Outer Loop [CellAlgoSwitch] 1 (on) N/A N/A N/A
Power Control UlPcAlgoSwitch -
OuterLoopPucchSwitch
UL-
UL-PC: Control Scheme
UL-PC: Control Scheme

Open loop: level based


Interference: considered by P0 values not need for explicit signaling

RRC-BCCH:
P0_NOMINAL_PUSCH, P0_NOMINAL_PUCCH, ALPHA, deltaFListPUCCH, deltaPreambleMsg3

PDCCH: DELTA_PUSCH, DELTA_PUCCH


MPUSCH taken from scheduling grant
RRC-DCCH: P0_UE_PUSCH, P0_UE_PUCCH,
DELTA_TF_ENABLED,
Data
ACCUMULATION_ENABLED,
P_SRS_OFFSET, filterCoefficient

UE: PL
SIB1, UE class: PCMAX
UL-
UL-PC: Closed Loop
UL-PC: Closed loop - PUSCH (example)
ulpcEnable
enable UL closed loop PC
Closed loop adjustments: LNCEL; true, false; false
f(i) = f(i-1) + δPUSCH (i - KPUSCH) i.e. recursive determination
or
ulpcAccuEnable
f(i) = δPUSCH (i - KPUSCH) i.e. absolute setting PUSCH/PUCCH TPC commands
accumulation enabled
where δPUSCH is the signaled TPC in subframe i-KPUSCH Vendor Specific

For FDD: KPUSCH = 4


whether the recursive or absolute method is used parameter Accumulation-enabled

P (closed loop)

t
UL-PC: Closed Loop - Process

Per UE measurements of SIB/RRC parameters:


• receive power of wanted signal P0_NOMINAL_PUSCH, P0_UE_PUSCH, P0_NOMINAL_PUCCH,
• interference and noise P0_UE_PUCCH, ALPHA, deltaFListPUCCH, DELTA_TF_ENABLED,
ACCUMULATION_ENABLED, deltaPreambleMsg3,
P_SRS_OFFSET, filterCoefficient
Calculation of average ENABLE_CLPC
receive level per TTI.
Calculation of SINR (two
ENABLE_CLPC_PUSCH,
methods for I+N values)
Transformation from Watt
ENABLE_CLPC_SRS; ulpcPuschEn
into dBm/dB domain. ENABLE_CLPC_PUCCH Including or excluding of RSSI
and SINR measurements from
Transformation into TF
DELTA_TF_ENABLED, PUSCH in the Closed Loop PC
time scale: TTI deltaFListPUCCH
independent format component
LNCEL; true; true
SINR_MAX, SINR_MIN, RSSI_MAX,
Clipping using adjustable RSSI_MIN
parameters ulpcPucchEn
Including or excluding of RSSI
WF_PUSCH_UE, WF_PUSCH_CELL, and SINR measurements from
Weighting WF_SRS_UE, WF_SRS_CELL, WF_PUCCH_UE,
WF_PUCCH_CELL
PUCCH in the Closed Loop PC
component
Long term filtering/averaging TAVG_PUSCH_SRS_CONT,
TAVG_PUSCH_SRS_DISCONT,
LNCEL; true; true
of level and SINR using
adjustable filter coefficients TAVG_PUCCH_CONT,
TAVG_PUCCH_DISCONT

Periodic reading of averaged level


and averaged SINR value (time FILTER_OUTPUT_PERIOD
constant adjustable)
UP_LEV_PUSCH_SRS, LOW_LEV_PUSCH_SRS,,
time scale: filter output
Comparison with two- LOW_LEV_UP_QUAL_PUSCH_SRS,
period (adjustable by
dimensional decision matrix. LOW_QUAL_PUSCH_SRS, UP_LEV_PUCCHPUCCH,
O&M)
Calculation of DELTA_ UP_QUAL_PUCCH, LOW_QUAL_PUCCH,
PUSCH and DELTA_ minCumDeltaPUSCH, maxCumDeltaPUSCH,
PUCCH values for the UE minCumDeltaPUCCH, maxCumDeltaPUCCH

Commanding DELTA_PUSCH
and DELTA_PUCCH values to the DELTA_PUSCH, DELTA_PUCCH
UE via PDCCH
UL-PC: Closed Loop - Process
Measurements and Averaging
Averaged* received level per TTI per UE: Averaged* received SINR per TTI per UE:
• RSSIPUSCH/UE Relevant for PUSCH and PUCCH: (I+N)UE and (I+N)cell
• RSSIPUCCH/UE and for SRS: (I+N)cell
• RSSISRS/UE (I+N)cell : all potential PRBs
relevant: PRBs allocated to the particular UE (I+N)UE : allocated PRBs to the particular UE
• SINRPUSCH/UE
* linear, but converted to dBm, dB for further • SINRPUSCH/cell
deployment
• SINRPUCCH/UE
• SINRPUCCH/cell
• SINRSRS/cell

Transformation in independent format


Normalization applies to: UE and/or TF specific offsets get subtracted:
• PUSCH • ∆TF
• PUCCH • ∆PF_PUCCH
• SRS • h(n)
• PO_UE_PUSCH
• PO_UE_PUCCH
UL-PC: Closed Loop - Process
Clipping
Averaged received level per TTI per UE: Averaged received SINR per TTI per UE:
RSSI*** := min(max(RSSImin,RSSI***)RSSImax) SINR*** := min(max(SINRmin,SINR***)SINRmax)
*** PUSCH/UE, PUSCH/cell, PUCCH/UE, PUCCH/cell, SRS/cell
*** PUSCH/UE, PUCCH/UE, SRS/UE

Weighting of MCS independent measurements


PUSCH and SRS - composite SINR and RSSI :
SINR PUSCH / UE ⋅ WF _ PUSCH _ UE + SINR PUSCH / cell ⋅ WF _ PUSCH _ CELL + SINRSRS / cell ⋅ WF _ SRS _ CELL
C _ SINR PUSCH / SRS =
WF _ PUSCH _ UE + WF _ PUSCH _ CELL + WF _ SRS _ CELL

RSSI PUSCH / UE ⋅ WF _ PUSCH _ UE + RSSI SRS / UE ⋅ WF _ SRS _ UE


C _ RSSI PUSCH / SRS =
WF _ PUSCH _ UE + WF _ SRS _ UE

PUCCH - composite SINR and RSSI :


SINR PUCCH / UE ⋅ WF _ PUCCH _ UE + SINR PUCCH / cell ⋅ WF _ PUCCH _ CELL
C _ SINR PUCCH =
WF _ PUCCH _ UE + WF _ PUCCH _ CELL

C _ RSSI PUCCH = RSSI PUCCH / UE Weighting factors WF_*** : range [1, 100]
UL-PC: Closed Loop - Process

Filtering
RSSIPUSCH/SRS,filtered SINRPUSCH/SRS,filtered RSSIPUCCH,filtered SINRPUCCH,filtered

Decision matrix for the Decision matrix for the


PUSCH/SRS component PUCCH component of
of the CLPC algorithm the CLPC algorithm
ulpcReadPeriod
Time interval for sending averaged
RSSI and SINR values to the decision
matrix to determine power corrections
DELTA_PUSCH DELTA_PUCCH in Closed Loop uplink power control.
value value LNCEL; 10…2000ms; 10ms; 50 ms

Low pass filter first order (exponential moving average) : filterCoeff


Filter coefficient for RSRP
measurements used to calculate
y ( n) = c ⋅ y ( n − 1) + (1 − c ) ⋅ x( n) pathloss. Value fc0 corresponds to k =
0, fc1 corresponds to k = 1, and so on.
c: filter coefficient LNCEL; fc0 (0), fc1 (1), fc2 (2), fc3 (3),
x: input (composite RSSI, SINR) fc4 (4), fc5 (5), fc6 (6), fc7 (7), fc8 (8),
y: output (filtered RSSI, SINR) c = exp(-T/Tavg) i.e. impact = (1/e) at t = -Tavg fc9 (9), fc11 (10), fc13 (11), fc15 (12),
Example: T = 1ms, Tavg = 25 ms c = 0.96 fc17 (13), fc19 (14); fc4(4)
n: step, max frequency = 1/TTI
Initialization: y(0) := target RSSI/SINR
UL-
UL-PC: Parameters
UL-PC: Closed Loop - Process
ulpcUpqualSch 1dB Decision matrix
High Thresh. For SINR for PUSCH
LNCEL; -47...80dB; 1dB ; 11dB
SINR
ulpcUpqualCch + 1 dB or - 1 dB - 1 dB
High Thresh. For SINR for PUCCH + 3 dB
LNCEL; -47...80dB; 1dB ; 4dB
1 2 3
UP_QUAL_**

+ 1 dB or 0 dB -1 dB
+ 3 dB

4 5 6
LOW_QUAL_**
1dB
ulpcLowqualSch
Low Thresh. For SINR for PUSCH + 1 dB or + 1 dB or + 1 dB or Decision
LNCEL; -47...80dB; 1dB ; 8dB + 3 dB + 3 dB + 3 dB whether to
+1dB or +3dB
ulpcLowqualCch 7 8 9
Low Thresh. For SINR for PUCCH
LNCEL; -47...80dB; 1dB ; 1dB RSSI
LOW_LEV_** UP_LEV_**

ulpcLowlevCch ulpcUplevCch
Low Thresh. For RSSI for PUCCH High Thresh. For RSSI for PUCCH
LNCEL; -127...0dBm;1dBm ;-103dBm LNCEL; -127...0dBm;1dBm ;-98dBm

ulpcLowlevSch ulpcUplevSch
Low Thresh. For RSSI for PUSCH High Thresh. For RSSI for PUSCH
LNCEL; -127...0dBm;1dBm ;-103dBm LNCEL; -127...0dBm;1dBm ;-98dBm
PRACH Power Control
LTE Uplink Power Control for PRACH

• The purpose of power control for the PRACH is to ensure


the random access success rate while minimizing transmit
power
• The PRACH power is calculated using the following
formula:

PPRACH = min{PCMAX , Po _ pre + PL + ∆ preamble + ( N pre − 1) ⋅ ∆ step }

LTE PRACH
Category power
Parameter isHuawei
calculated with following
Value Nokia formula :
Value Ericssons Value ZTE Value
P0_pre [RACHCfg] 7 (-106 [LNCEL] 12 (-98 dBm) [EUtranCellFDD] -110 dBm [PrachFDD] 10 (-100
PRACH Power PreambInitRcvTargetPwr dBm) ulpcIniPrePwr preambleInitialReceivedTargetPower preambleIniReceivedPower dBm)
Control Δ step [RACHCfg] 1 (2dB) [LNCEL] 1 (2 dB) [PrachFDD] 1 (2 dB)
PwrRampingStep prachPwrRamp powerRampingStep
Nokia DL-
DL-PC
Nokia DL-PC
RL20: (static) cell power reduction dlCellPwrRed
Reduction of DL Tx power; deducted
• based on single parameter CELL_PWR_RED = 0.0, 0.1 … 10.0 dB from max. antenna TX power.
LNCEL; 0..10; 0.1; 0 dB
• cell size adjustment and coverage control
• flat Power Spectral Density (PSD) pMax
Maximum output power
• semi-static MIMO_COMP (if enabled) LNCEL; 37.0 (0), 39.0 (1), 40.0 (2), 41.8
(3), 43.0 (4), 44.8 (5), 46.0 (6), 47.8 (7);-
RL30: optional power boost: PCFICH, PHICH, DL RS 37.0 dBm = 5 W
39.0 dBm = 8 W
40.0 dBm = 10 W
PSD PSD 41.8 dBm = 15 W
43.0 dBm = 20 W
44.8 dBm = 30 W
46.0 dBm = 40 W
47.8 dBm = 60 W

PSD = (Max_TX_Pwr – CELL_PWR_RED) – 10*log10( 12*# PRBs) PSD = (Max_TX_Pwr – CELL_PWR_RED) – 10*log10( 12*# PRBs)

Frequency Time
Allocated DL PRBs PDCCH
DL Pilots PDSCH, PCH BCH, SCH
Nokia DL-PC: Power Reduction
Cell Power Reduction
PSD = (pMax - CELL_PWR_RED) - 10*log10( # PRBs_DL *12) - MIMO_COMP [dBm]

PSD: Power Spectral Density, which specifies the constant absolute Power per 15kHz Resource Element (RE)
• pMax: maximum eNodeB transmit power per Antenna in [dBm]
• CELL_PWR_RED: O&M parameter
• # PRBs_DL: maximum Number of downlink PRBs in given LTE Carrier Bandwidth
dlpcMimoComp
• MIMO_COMP: Compensation Factor Determines the power
• MIMO_COMP = 0 dB for SISO/SIMO compensation factor for antenna-
specific maximum power in case
• MIMO_COMP = 0...12 dB for MIMO Diversity and for MIMO Spatial Multiplexing of a downlink transmission using
- PSD given per antenna (RF amplifier output) at least two TX antennas
LNCEL; 0..10; 0.01; 0 dB
- PRBs not scheduled are blanked

Applied to UE / cell specific channels and signals:


• PSD_CELL_CTRL for BCCH i.e. PBCH+PDSCH, PCFICH and PCH
• PSD_CELL_RS for reference signals (RS) / pilots dlCellPwrRed
• PSD_CELL_SYNC for synchronization channel Reduction of DL Tx power; deducted
from max. antenna TX power.
• PSD_UE_PDSCH for UE specific part of PDSCH LNCEL; 0..10; 0.1; 0 dB
• PSD_UE_CTRL for PDCCH and PHICH
Nokia DL-PC: DL power boosting for control channels

• Power offsets to the PCFICH, PHICH, DL RS.


• Introduced with RL30 (LTE430).
• Better detection of PCFICH indicating the number of OFDM symbols for the PDCCH.
• Better channel estimation in case of RS boosting may improve HO performance.
• Higher reliability of ACK/NACK transmission via PHICH. PCFICH
OFDM
symbols

The eNB ensures that total Tx power is not exceed, i.e.


the sum power for any OFDM symbol must not exceed
the commited maximum power, otherwise all the
configured boosts (PHICH) may not be applied.
Subcarrier power boosting is only allowed if the excess
power is withdrawn from the remaining subcarriers.

Coverage in LTE is very often limited by UL, and in


such cases it does not make much sense to improve
the coverage in DL. UL coverage should be checked
before applying DL control channels power boost.
RS
OFDM
Nokia DL-PC: DL power boosting for control channels
PCFICH power boosting
dlPcfichBoost
PCFICH provides information about the number of OFDM symbols for the PDCCH.
Downlink PCFICH transmission
The eNB supports dedicated power control settings for the PCFICH in order to power boost
ensure that especially cell edge UEs can properly receive the PCFICH. LNCEL; 0..6; 0.1; 0 dB
A relative offset between the flat PSD (Power Spectral Density) on PDSCH and
PCFICH can be configured by O&M on cell level.

PHICH power boosting dlPhichBoost


The PHICH provides ACK/NACK information for the uplink transmission. Downlink PHICH transmission power
The eNB supports dedicated power control settings for the PHICH in order to ensure boost
LNCEL; 0..6; 0.1; 0 dB
that the UE can properly receive the PHICH.
PHICH power boost may not be (fully) applied if PDCCH PSD goes too low in the first OFDM symbol. In
that case, the eNB rises the PHICH Power Boost not applied warning.
A maximum relative offset between the flat PSD on PDSCH and PHICH can be configured by O&M on cell level.

Downlink reference signal boosting


The downlink reference symbols are used by the UE for dlRsBoost
channel estimation and cell measurements (Level, Quality) for mobility. Downlink RS transmission power
boost
The eNB supports relative RS / PDSCH power control settings. LNCEL; 0dB (0), 1.77dB (1), 3dB
A relative offset between the PDSCH and RS (2), 4.77dB (3), 6dB (4); 0 dB
can be configured by O&M on cell level.
The eNB ensures that total Tx power is not exceed.
The sum power for any OFDM symbol must not exceed the commited maximum power, otherwise all the configured boosts
(PHICH) may not be applied.
Huawei DL-
DL-PC
Downlink Power Control Strategy

Fixed Power Assignment. Applicable for : Category Parameter Huawei Value


CRS PDSCHCfg.ReferenceSignalPwr 18.2 dBm for 20 watt RRU
–CRS (Cell Reference Signal) Syncronization Signal CellChPwrCfg.SchPwr -6 dB
–Synchronization Signal PBCH CellChPwrCfg.PbchPwr -6 dB
PCFICH CellChPwrCfg.PcfichPwr -6 dB
–PBCH (Physical Broadcast Channel) PHICH CellAlgoSwitch.DlPcAlgoSwitch - Off
–PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel) PhichInnerLoopPcSwitch Off
CellDlpcPhich.PwrOffset 0 dB
–PHICH (Physical Hybrid-ARQ Indicator Channel) Fix DL Power
Allocation PDSCH (SIB, RACH CellChPwrCfg.RaRspPwr, 0 dB
–PDCCH that carry common control information (SIB, response, Paging) CellChPwrCfg.PchPwr, -6 dB
CellChPwrCfg.DbchPwr -6 dB
RACH response, Paging)
–PSDCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel)
PDSCH Other than SIB, PDSCHCfg.Pb 1 dB
The configured power must meet the requirement for RACH response & Paging CellDlpcPdschPa.PaPcOff -3 dB
downlink coverage of the cell.

• Dynamic Power Control. Applicable for


–PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel) that carry Dedicated Control Information.

Category Parameter Huawei Nokia Ericssons ZTE


Dynamic Power Control CellAlgoSwitch.DlPcAlgoSwitch - On On N/A N/A
PDCCH PdcchPcSwitch
Downlink Power Control Parameter
Category Parameter Huawei Value Nokia Value Ericssons Value ZTE Value
CRS PDSCHCfg. 18.2 dBm N/A. CRS power - N/A. CRS power calculated - [EUtranCellFDD] 12 dBm
ReferenceSignalPwr for 20 watt calculated from 430 (20 watt) from 40000 cellReferenceSignalPower
[LNCEL] pMax 1000 (0 dB) [SectorEquipmentFunction]
[LNCEL] dlRsBoost configuredOutputPower 300 (3 dB)
[EUtranCellFDD] crsGain
Syncronization CellChPwrCfg. -6 dB
Signal SchPwr
PBCH CellChPwrCfg. -6 dB [PowerControlDL] 4 (0 dB)
PbchPwr paForBCCH
PCFICH CellChPwrCfg. -6 dB dlPcfichBoost 0 [PowerControlDL]
PcfichPwr pcfichPwrOfst
PHICH CellAlgoSwitch. Off dlPhichBoost 0 [PowerControlDL]
Fix DL Power DlPcAlgoSwitch - phichPwrOfst
Allocation PhichInnerLoopPcS 0 dB
witch Off
CellDlpcPhich.
PwrOffset
PDSCH (SIB, RACH CellChPwrCfg. 0 dB
response, Paging) RaRspPwr,
CellChPwrCfg. -6 dB
PchPwr,
CellChPwrCfg. -6 dB
DbchPwr
PDSCH Other than PDSCHCfg.Pb 1 dB [EUtranCellFDD] 1 [EUtranCellFDD] Pb 1
SIB, RACH CellDlpcPdschPa.Pa -3 dB pdschTypeBgain
response & Paging PcOff
Dynamic Power Switch CellAlgoSwitch. On enablePcPdcch 1 (true)
Control PDCCH DlPcAlgoSwitch -
PdcchPcSwitch
Cell specific Reference Signal (CRS) Power Setting

Type A Symbol: without RS REs Type B Symbol: RS REs

EPRE: Energy Per Resource Element


The power setting is based on EPRE
EA (EPRE Type A) = Energy Per RE that doesn’t have Rs Power in the symbol
EB (EPRE Type B) = Energy Per RE that have Rs Power in the symbol
ER = Energy per Reference Signal Power RE
Cell specific Reference Signal (CRS) Power Setting

3/4 1 1 PB Power of type B symbol / Power of type A


3/4 1 1 Symbol
X 1 1 X
1 ANT port 2 or 4 ANT ports
3/4 1 1
compensate 0 1 5/4
3/4 1 1
R 1 1 R 1 4/5 1
3/4 1 1 2 3/5 3/4
3/4 1 1
3 2/5 1/2
X 1 1 X
3/4 1 1
compensate 3/4 1 1 Bandwidth PB PRS ( dBm)
R 1 1 R 10M 1 18.2
15M 1 16.4
PB=2 , 2 Antennas
20M 1 15.2
2 antennas, 20w per antenna

RS Power = Total power per channel(dBm) – 10lg(total subcarrier)+10lg(PB + 1)


RRU Power Case Example
Optimal power setting need to utilize all the RRU power. Accumulative power of type A should be equal to accumulative
power of type B

configuration possibilities:
Type A Symbol -> 12 EA
Type B Symbol -> 8EB + 2ER

So Pa, Pb settings have to follow -> 8EB+2Er=12 EA

Pa,Pb (-3,1) -> Er=2Ea, Eb=Ea

8Eb+2Er=12Ea
8Ea+2(2Ea)=12Ea
12Ea=12Ea

Pa,Pb) (0,0) -> Er= Ea, Eb=1.25Ea


So, optimal power setting combination is Pa,Pb = -3, 1 and Pa,
8Eb+2Er=12Ea Pb = 0, 0
10Ea+2(Ea)=12Ea
12Ea=12Ea Other setting can’t utilize total power 100%. See next slide
Pa-Pb Power Distribution for 20W, 10 MHz
PA
Power utilization rate
-6 -4.77 -3 -1.77 0 1 2 3
0 67% 75% 86% 92% 100% 97% 94% 92%
1 75% 86% 100% 92% 83% 80% 77% 75%
PB
2 86% 100% 83% 75% 67% 63% 61% 58%
3 100% 83% 67% 58% 50% 47% 44% 42%

PA
Max RS power(dBm)
-6 -4.77 -3 -1.77 0 1 2 3
0 19.4 18.8 17.5 16.7 15.2 14.2 13.2 12.2
1 20.0 19.3 18.2 17.0 15.2 14.2 13.2 12.2
PB
2 20.5 20.0 18.2 17.0 15.2 14.2 13.2 12.2
3 21.2 20.0 18.2 17.0 15.2 14.2 13.2 12.2

PA
Total Power of symbol with RS(W)
-6 -4.77 -3 -1.77 0 1 2 3
0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 19.3 18.8 18.3
1 20.0 20.0 20.0 18.3 16.7 16.0 15.4 15.0
PB
2 20.0 20.0 16.7 15.0 13.3 12.6 12.1 11.7
3 20.0 16.7 13.3 11.7 10.0 9.3 8.8 8.3

PA
Total Power of symbol without RS(W)
-6 -4.77 -3 -1.77 0 1 2 3
0 13.4 15.0 17.2 18.5 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
1 15.0 17.1 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
PB
2 17.2 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
3 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
DL-
DL-PC: PC on PDCCH
Main target of DL-PC-CCH

• DL Power Control for PDCCH is an additional mechanism interacting with DL AMC for PDCCH in
order to make the signaling as robust as possible
• DL-PC-CCH aims at 1% target BLER but cannot modify AGG assignments
• Main actions performed by DL-PC-CCH
– Power reduction on CCEs with assigned AGG level higher than required (or equal)
– Power boosting on CCEs with assigned AGG level lower than required
– Equal power relocation among all scheduled CCEs

• Macro cell case #1


Very good CCEs (CQI highly above 1% BLER target)
• Uniform UE distribution
Bad CCEs (AGG level too high to meet 1% BLER target)
If still some power available, relocate equally among all CCEs

4-CCE
enableLowAgg
Enable lower aggregation selection
8-CCE 2-CCE 1-CCE for PDCCH LA .
LNCEL; True/False; False
Principles of DL-PC-AMC

• PDCCH Power Control can be enabled/disabled by O&M switch


• Maximum transmit power of the Power Amplifier cannot be exceeded (pMax; O&M)
• Reduction and boosting range is strictly defined and is always considered as the limit for
power level modification
• DL-PC-CCH operates together with DL-AMC-CCH on TTI basis
• DCI messages with more than one CCE (AGG-…>1) have a flat PSD,
thus all CCEs belonging to one scheduled UE are transmitted with the same power

Short Range/ Default Parameter


Description Remark
Name Step Value Scope
enablePcPdcch Enabling/disabling PC for PDCCH. In case the true, false true Cell Changing parameter requires object
parameter is disabled, a flat downlink PSD is locking.
used. Operator configurable.
pdcchPcBoost Maximum power boost per CCE. 0...10 dB, step 4 dB BTS Not modifiable.
0.1 dB Vendor configurable.
pdcchPcRed Maximum power reduction per CCE. 0...10 dB, step 6 dB BTS Not modifiable.
0.1 dB Vendor configurable.
pdcchPcReloc Maximum limit on the equal power relocation 0...10 dB, step 3 dB BTS Not modifiable.
per CCE. 0.1 dB Vendor configurable.
General algorithm
Output from DL AMC for PDCCH
• Required AGG levels per UE per DCI format
• Assigned AGG levels per UE per DCI format
Power Relocation
• PDCCH CQI per UE
• Calculated TOTAL_NUM_CCEs If the Power Basket is still not empty, relocate the
(all available CCEs; PHICH&PCFICH considered) excess power equally among all scheduled UEs.

• power levels to be applied for all scheduled UEs


Build the Power Basket
(“free unused” power on PDCCH)
Count unused power from unscheduled CCEs

Power Reduction
…to DL-PHY
Decrease the power for all UEs with assigned
AGG level equal to the required AGG level to
meet the 1% BLER target and count the amount
to the Power Basket

Power Boosting
Increase the power for all UEs with the assigned
AGG level lower than the required AGG level to
meet the 1% BLER target.

Modify the Power Basket according to the amount


of power used for boosting.
Graceful Cell Shutdown
Graceful Cell Shutdown

Reduced Service Impact

• Stepwise downlink power reduction in order to enforce active


and idle mode mobility to other cells layers
• Operator configurable settings enableGrflShdn
The parameter enables the
feature 'Graceful Cell Shutdown'.
DL power LNBTS; Disabled (0), Enabled
(1); Enabled (1)

time

handover or
cell reselection
Graceful Cell Shutdown

• The eNode B reduces stepwise the DL power to a minimum


power level
• The number of steps and the shutdown time is operator
configurable
• The broadcasted power for the reference symbols is not
changed, i.e. UE assumes that the eNode B power is
unchanged
• A wait timer of 10 seconds is applied after the last power down
step before the administrative state is set to locked and the
operational state is set to disabled.
shutdownStepAmount shutdownWindow
Number of Steps for Graceful Time Interval for Stepwise
Cell Shutdown Output Power Reduction for
LNBTS; 1...16;1; 6 Graceful Cell Shutdown
LNBTS; 6...180;6; 60
PM Counter & dependencies
• No new PM counters are added as the graceful shutdown
behavior can be covered with the existing PM counters

• No dependencies on other entities


Questions

1. What is the purpose of the ulpcAlpha parameter.


2. Assuming that the RSSI signal increased above the level set by ulpcUplevSch
AND the received quality was between ulpcLowqualSch and ulpcUpqualSch
- what would be the closed loop power control decision value?
3. What is the purpose of PDCCH CCE Power Boosting?
THANK YOU