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You are on page 1of 19

13th Edition

By Duane Nickols

Beams are flexural members that are subjected to shear and bending

moments. The shear and moment vary with position along the beam.

A beams primary function is resisting bending moments. Beams

usually have uniform loads, concentrated loads or both on them. We

will be looking at W shaped members. LRFD stands for Load and

Resistance Factor Design and was in three previous editions of the

specifications. ASD stands for Allowable Strength Design which is

similar to Allowable Stress Design that many engineers are familiar

with.

Types of loads

1

LRFD Load Combinations (ASCE 7-05)

each end. It supports a live load equal to 0.60 k/ft and a dead load of

0.83 k/ft, including the weight of the beam.

LRFD

wu L 1.96 k / ft 26 ft

Vu 25.43 k

2 2

wu L2 1.96 k / ft (26 ft ) 2

Mu 165 .3 k ip ft

8 8

2

ASD

wa L 1.43 k / ft 26 ft

Va 18.59 k

2 2

wa L2 1.43 k / ft (26 ft ) 2

Ma 120 .8 k ip ft

8 8

Also M u M n andVu Vn

Mn Vn

Also M a and Va

3

Limit States

We will look at six limit states. The first five are strength limit states

and the last is a serviceability limit state.

bending moments without failure. Yielding depends on the loads,

supports, span and the strength of the steel.

Lateral-Torsional Buckling has to do with the twisting of the

beam in a lateral direction. If the beam is adequately braced, it

will not twist into failure.

Web Local Buckling has to do with the strength of the web to

resist failure. This means the width to thickness ratio must fall

between certain limits so the web will not collapse or fail.

Flange Local Buckling has to do with strength of the flange to

resist failure. This means the width to thickness ratio must fall

between certain limits so the flange will not collapse or fail.

Shear has to do with shear failure of the beam. Chapter G

covers Design of Members for Shear.

Deflection is a serviceability limit state. This has to do with the

beam deflecting too noticeable to people or so people feel

uncomfortable.

Lateral-Torsional Buckling

4

Cb can be conservatively equal to 1.0

Sx comes from the shapes table

Lp and Lr can be found in Table 3-2 for W shapes in the AISC Manual or

you can calculate them from the following equations.

5

Now let’s say the beam we looked at before is a W14 x 30 and the

un-braced length is 26 feet. Fy=50 ksi, Sx=42.0 in3 and Zx=47.3 in3.

Yielding

Since Lb>Lp, it does not meet the limit state of yielding in equation

(F2-1).

Mp (0.9) (197 kip ft ) 177 kip ft

Mr 0.7 Fy S x (0.7) (50 ksi) (42.0 in3 ) 1470 kip in 122 .5 kip ft

Mr (0.9) (122 .5 kip ft ) 110 kip ft

6

LRFD

Lp 5.26 ft

Lr 14.9 ft

b Mp 177 k ip ft

b Mr 110 k ip ft

design moment, (bMr=110 kip-ft) and the un-braced length, (Lb=26

feet) is greater than Lr of 14.9 feet, this will not meet the limit state

for lateral-torsional buckling.

Now, let’s say we brace this beam in the middle and at each end. The

un-braced length (Lb = 13 feet). Interpolating between the above

values:

(14 .9' 5.26 ' ) (177 k ip ft 110 k ip ft )

x 53 .79 k ip ft

b Mn 177 k ip ft 53 .79 k ip ft 123 .2 k ip ft

Now the design moment becomes 123.2 kip-ft. This is less than the

required moment, (Mu=165.3 kip-ft) so it will not work. No Good.

Now let’s say we brace this beam at each end and the quarter points.

The un-braced length, (Lb) will be 6.50 feet. Interpolating between the

above values, the design moment, bMn is 168.4 kip-ft. This is greater

than the required moment of 165.3 kip-ft, so this will work. Just by

bracing adequately, the beam will not twist into failure (Lateral-

Torsional Bucking).

7

ASD

Again, we will brace the beam at each end and the quarter points. The

un-braced length, (Lb=6.50 feet). Remember from above, Ma=120.8

kip-ft.

Mp Fy Z x 197 kip ft

Mp 197 kip ft

118 kip ft

1.67

Mr 0.7 Fy S x 122 .5 kip ft

Mr 122 .5 kip ft

73.4 kip ft

1.67

Mp

118 k ip ft

b

Mr

73 .4 k ip ft

b

Lp 5.26 ft

Lr 14 .9 ft

Mp

Since M a 120 .8 k ip ft 118 k ip ft , we need to select another

b

beam.

Selecting a W16 x 31

8

From Table 3-2, AISC Manual

Mp

135 k ip ft

b

Mr

82 .5 k ip ft

b

Lp 4.13 ft

Lr 11 .9 ft

Mn

Interpolating from the above values, 118 .96 k ip ft which is still No

b

Good.

Selecting a W14 x 34

Mp

136 k ip ft

b

Mr

84 .9 k ip ft

b

Lp 5.4 ft

Lr 15 .6 ft

Mn

Interpolating from the above values for Lb=6.50 feet, 130 .5 k ip ft

b

Conclusion

The LRFD member (W14 x 30) is lighter than the ASD member

(W14 x 34) but both are the same depth.

9

Classification of Sections for Local Buckling

Compact

Non-compact

Slender-element

b bf h d 2k

For W sections and

t 2t f tw tw

Flange Local Buckling

b

It is compact if 0.38 E

t

p Fy

It is non-compact if 1.0 E

p r Fy

10

Web Local Buckling

h

It is compact if 3.76 E

tw

p Fy

h

It is non-compact if 5.70 E

p

tw

r Fy

slender-element?

bf 6.73 in

8.74 this checks with the table

2t f (2 0.385 in)

p Fy 50 k si

11

Now let’s check the web.

45.3 it is 45.4 in the table

tw tw 0.270 in

p Fy 50 k si

The W14 X 34 from ASD is also compact. In fact for Fy=50 ksi, most all

W sections have compact flanges. There are only about ten sections

that have non-compact flanges.

Shear Strength

Now recall, from page 2 and 3, that our Vu=25.43 kips and Va=18.59

kips.

LRFD

Vn Vu

Vn 0.6 Fy Aw C v 0.6 Fy dtw Cv 0.6 50 ksi 13.8 in 0.270 in 1.0 112 kips

Vn 1.00 112 kips 112 kips

112 kips 25.43 kips OK

ASD

Vn

Va

Vn 112 k ips

74 .7 k ips

1. 5

74 .7 k ips 18 .59 k ips OK

12

Vn

Both of these values ( Vn and ) are listed in Table 3-2 of the Steel

Manual. Only about eight W sections don’t meet the h/tw requirement.

The W14 x 30 from LRFD and the W14 X 34 from ASD meet the h/tw

requirement.

Deflection (serviceability)

Let’s say that our deflection limit is L/360. Since our span was 26 feet,

L/360=(26 feet X 12 in/ft)/360=0.867 inches. Deflection for the

member is based on service loads so that will be the same for LRFD

and ASD. We are using two different W sections so the deflections will

be different.

For the W14 X 30 from LRFD, Ix=291 in4

For the W14 X 34 from ASD, Ix=340 in4

LRFD

1.74 in 0.867 in No Good

384 EI 384 (29 10 6 lb / in 2 )( 291 in 4 )

Try W18 X 40, I x 612 in 4

5(1430 lb / ft )( ft / 12 in)( 26 ft 12 in / ft ) 4

0.829 in 0.867 in OK

384 (29 10 6 lb / in 2 )(612 in 4 )

ASD

Conclusion

came up with two different members. We braced the beam adequately

(Lb=6.5 ft) to resist lateral-torsional buckling. We determined the ASD

beam would be a W14 X 34. The beams were compact so there was no

flange local buckling or web local buckling. We checked the shear

strength of both beams and it was OK. The deflection turned out to be

the determining limit state. Based on deflection we would use the

same W section for both LRFD and ASD (W18 X 40).

13

Design W Section, Continuously Braced

feet. The beam is continuously braced, so Lb=0 ft. The maximum

depth of the section is 21 inches. The limit on live load deflection is

L/360. The uniform dead load is 0.5 kip/ft and the uniform live load is

0.8 kip/ft.

Material properties:

LRFD ASD

wu 1.2 D 1.6 L wa D L

wu (1.2 0.5 k ip/ ft ) (1.6 0.8 k ip/ ft ) wa (0.5 k ip/ ft ) (0.8 k ip/ ft )

wu 1.88 k ip/ ft wa 1.30 k ip / ft

wL (1.88 k ip/ ft ) (35 ft ) wL (1.30 k ip / ft ) (35 ft )

Vu 32.9 k ip Va 22.75 k ip

2 2 2 2

wL2 (1.88 k ip/ ft ) (35 ft ) 2 wL2 (1.30 k ip/ ft ) (35 ft ) 2

Mu Mu

8 8 8 8

Mu 288 k ip ft M u 199 k ip ft

L (35 ft ) (12 in / ft )

max 1.17 in

360 360

5wL4 5(0.8 k ip/ ft )( ft / 12 in)(35 ft 12 in / ft ) 4

I req 794 in 4

384 E max 384 (29,000 k si)(1.17 in)

The Steel Manual has many design aids. Table 3-3, W Shapes by Ix

shows a W21 X 44 with Ix=843 in4 will work. Table 3-2, W Shapes by

Zx shows a W18 X40 will work for LRFD but the Ix is too small. The

table shows a W21 X 44 will work for ASD and it will work for LRFD.

Table 3-10 shows a W18 X 40 will work for LRFD but the Ix is too

small. It shows a W21 X 44 will work for ASD and it will also work for

LRFD. Let’s select a W21 X 44.

14

Mn Fy Z x (50 ksi)(95.4 in3 ) 4770 kip in 398 kip ft

LRFD ASD

238 k ip ft

1.67

Mn Mu 288 k ip ft OK Mn

Ma 199 k ip ft OK

145 k ip

1.5

Vn Vu 32 .9 k ip OK Vn

Va 22 .75 k ip OK

program. Here is the same example using that program for LRFD and

ASD.

15

16

17

18

Both design methods verify our previous calculations. This program is

very useful to check your calculations.

Summary

in the Steel Construction Manual or with computer programs. No

matter how you design the beams, they should be checked by another

method. We only looked at a beam uniformly loaded. If the beam has

concentrated loads, then there may be other limit states involved (J10

of the specification). These would be Flange Local Bending, Web Local

Yielding, Web Crippling, Web Sidesway Buckling, Web Compression

Buckling and Web Panel Zone Shear. This is beyond the scope of this

course. This course is to get designers interested in using the new

code by showing that it isn’t that hard. It doesn’t matter if you use

LRFD or ASD, both will result in a safe member.

19

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