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Start-up process

3

Drive

4

Torque

4

Drive starting torque

4

Nominal speed

5

Operating point

5

H sys /Q change:

5

Starting method

7

DOL starting

7

Star-delta starting

8

Auto transformer

11

Shaft coupling

11

Rigid shaft coupling

11

Examples of rigid shaft coupling types

11

Shaft efficiency

15

Pump efficiency

15

Mechanical power

16

Power input

17

Special terms pertaining to pump input power

17

Electrical power

17

Switchgear and controlgear

18

Application-specific switching and control functions

20

Additional monitoring functions to safeguard reliable operation of the pumps

20

Apparent power

20

Effective power

20

Starting torque

21

Factors influencing torque:

21

Breakaway torque

22

System characteristic curve

22

Location-specific subscripts

23

Run-up time

24

Rotational speed

26

Specific speed

27

Similarity conditions

29

Geometric similarity

29

Kinematic similarity

30

Dynamic similarity

30

Efficiency scale-up

32

Performance coefficient

33

Head coefficient

33

Flow coefficient

34

Strouhal number

35

Affinity laws

35

Establishing characteristic coefficients by means of the affinity laws:

36

Affinity laws

36

Flow velocity in a cross-section

38

Piping

38

Open system

41

Pump power output

44

Economic efficiency

45

Life cycle costs

45

LCC analysis − Key financial factors

47

Pump system

48

Accumulator

48

Principal standards, directives and regulations applicable to accumulators

53

NPSH

53

NPSH required by the pump (NPSHr)

57

When specifying the NPSHr, it is also necessary to provide information on the relevant cavitation criterion. Criteria include:

57

Head

59

Fitting

63

Bellmouth

66

Intake chamber

67

Head loss

68

Recommended flow velocities

68

Head loss in a pipe

69

The equation for the head loss of a flow in a straight length of piping with circular cross-section is:

 

69

Head losses for plastic and smooth drawn metal pipes

72

Head losses in valves and fittings

72

For all fittings a differentiation must be made between two forms of pressure loss:

76

Influence of highly viscous fluids on the system characteristic curve

77

Influence of non-Newtonian fluids on the system characteristic curve

77

Axial thrust

77

Mechanical axial thrust balancing

81

Design-based axial thrust balancing

81

Axial thrust balancing at the impeller

83

Axial thrust balancing via balancing devices

86

Inlet conditions

87

Absence of swirl

88

Uniform velocity distribution

90

Absence of vortices

91

Measures to be taken to prevent air-entraining vortices

93

Measures taken to prevent submerged vortices

93

Disturbance-free approach flow examples

94

Start-up process

The start-up process refers the process by which the drive is activated and accelerated until the operating point of the pump is reached. There are several starting methods to make this stage of operation as low in impact as possible.

The torque (T p ) of the pump that is transferred by the shaft coupling is directly related to power (P) and rotational speed (n). When the centrifugal pump is started up, the torque versus speed curve is almost a parabola. The starting torque provided by the asynchronous motor, however, must be greater for the rotor to reach operating speed.

This motor torque, together with the voltage, has a direct impact on the current drawn by the motor and thus also characterises the build-up of heat in the motor winding. Impermissible heat build-up in the motor should be avoided by limiting the run-up time and/or current.

Drive

Centrifugal pumps are usually driven by electric motors. Piston engines (e. g. diesel engines) and gas and steam turbines also provide drive power, however. Hydraulic engines are rarely used. Electric motors and turbines generate uniform torque, whereas piston engines produce non- uniform torque. This irregularity is largely compensated by implementing appropriate design measures (e. g. flywheels, changing the number of cylinders and their arrangement).

In the low power range (up to 1 kW), single-phase AC motors (see Alternating current) with squirrel-cage rotors (see Asynchronous motor) are the preferred choice of drive.

The medium to high power range (up to 8000 kW) is dominated by three-phase motors (e. g. asynchronous motors) with squirrel-cage rotors.

Another option in the top power range are synchronous motors due to their relatively high level of efficiency and ability to compensate reactive power. In storage power stations, they operate as generators in turbine mode.

Torque

Torque is a physical quantity and describes a force couple that acts on a body (e.g. impeller of a centrifugal pump) and accelerates (start-up process) or decelerates it, or works against an opposing torque of equal magnitude (starting torque). It is the product of force and lever arm. Its symbol is T and the unit is N m.

Drive starting torque

In the context of drive systems, starting torque refers to the torque that is applied to accelerate the machine to the nominal speed when it is switched on (see also starting method).

Nominal speed

Nominal speed (n N ) is a suitable, rounded speed value for classifying the speed range (see Nominal value). Nominal speed is no longer the speed previously agreed on in the supply contract, but typically a deviating, rounded, and generally applicable speed such as 2,900, 1,450, or 980 min 1 (rpm) for a mains frequency of 50 Hz or 3,500, 1,750, 1,180 min 1 (rpm) at 60 Hz.

Operating point

The operating point of a centrifugal pump is the intersection of the pump characteristic curve (H/Q curve) and the system characteristic curve H sys /Q. H/Q is the pump-based variable, H sys /Q the the system-based variable. See Fig. 1 Operating point

the the system-based variable. See Fig. 1 Operating point Fig. 1 Operating point: Definition of a

Fig. 1 Operating point:

Definition of a centrifugal pump's operating point

The operating point's position shifts if the position or the gradient of the pump characteristic curve H/Q and/or the system characteristic curve.

H sys /Q change:

H/Q changes but H sys /Q remains unchanged:

This takes place in the case of variable speed centrifugal pumps (see Closed-loop control) (See Fig. 2 Operating point) or

Fig. 2 Operating point: Operating point’s position changes from B1 to B3 on the system

Fig. 2 Operating point:

Operating point’s position changes from B1 to B3 on the system characteristic curve Hsys/Q, resulting from an increase in pump speed from n1 to n3

When centrifugal pumps of the same size are started up and operated in parallel. See Fig. 3 Operating point

up and operated in parallel. See Fig. 3 Operating point Fig. 3 Operating point: Operating point’s

Fig. 3 Operating point:

Operating point’s position changes from B1 to B3 on the system characteristic curve Hsys/Q when starting a second and third identical pump in parallel

H sys /Q changes but H/Q remains unchanged:

The system characteristic curve may change during operation as a result of increased head losses (e.g. throttling via check valves, pipe incrustations) or changes in static head (e.g. fluid level fluctuations in tanks).

Exact correspondence between the design and duty points (the latter referring to those specified by the customer) and the operating points only exists in rare cases. The operating point is often matched to the required data by throttling. See Fig. 4 Operating point

required data by throttling . See Fig. 4 Operating point Fig. 4 Operating point: Operating point’s

Fig. 4 Operating point:

Operating point’s position changes from B1 to B3 on the pump characteristic curve H/Q as a result of increased throttling

Starting method

The squirrel-cage motors used for centrifugal pumps (see Asynchronous motor) have high starting currents. For motor ratings below 4 kW, the DOL starting and soft starting methods are used, while the star-delta, auto transformer, soft starter and frequency inverter methods are preferred for motor ratings above 4 kW.

DOL starting

For DOL starting, the three motor winding connections are wired in delta configuration from the outset. This means that the full mains voltage is immediately applied to the stopped motor, i.e. the entire starting torque is available right from the beginning. The operating speed will be reached within a very short period of time.

This starting method is the most favourable one for the motor, even if the starting current increases to 8 times that of the nominal current. Since this can place a demanding load on the power supply mains when larger motors are involved and cause voltage dips for adjacent devices, it is important to observe the provisions issued by the energy supply companies for DOL starting of motors with ratings above 5.5 kW in public low-voltage mains (400 V).

In actual practice, motors with ratings up to 7.5 kW are also started directly. See Fig. 1 Starting method

Fig. 1 Starting method: Motor terminal board of a three-phase asynchronous motor: matching the supply

Fig. 1 Starting method: Motor terminal board of a three-phase asynchronous motor: matching the supply voltage by selecting the configuration via jumpers

Star-delta starting

Star-delta starting is used to drive machines with a high moment of inertia and limit the starting current of an asynchronous motor connected in delta configuration. For star-delta starting, the armature winding is initially connected to the power supply mains in a star configuration, and the motor is brought up to speed in this configuration. At switchover, delta current is theoretically all that is required and corresponds to the current rotational speed.

The result is a reduction in starting current of 1/3 as compared with delta DOL starting. The same relation applies to torque. See Figs. 2, 4 Starting method

Fig. 2 Starting method: Starting curve for current I and torque T of squirrel-cage motors

Fig. 2 Starting method: Starting curve for current I and torque T of squirrel-cage motors in star-delta configuration (Y = star configuration; ∆ = delta configuration; P = pump)

Fig. 4 Starting method: Starting curve for current I and torque T for canned motors

Fig. 4 Starting method: Starting curve for current I and torque T for canned motors (designations as in Fig. 1)

Star-delta starting can only be used for three-phase motors whose winding connections are not connected internally, but are routed separately outwards. The delta connection may only be established after the machine has run up to speed in order for the targeted reduction in starting or inrush current to be realised. The torque produced with the star configuration must be sufficient to accelerate the driven machine to about its nominal speed. Switching from star to delta can be effected manually or automatically.

In practice, the star-delta configuration comprises a contactor circuit that allows the motor winding connections to be switched between the external conductors and the star point. Both switching states are interlocked in operation. Automatic switchover is possible if additional control relays are used. See Fig. 3 Starting method

Fig. 3 Starting method: Star- delta configuration with contactors; simplified schematic without control and safety

Fig. 3 Starting method: Star- delta configuration with contactors; simplified schematic without control and safety equipment

Switching the configuration from star to delta will cause current and torque peaks, which increase the mechanical load placed on coupled components. Very smooth starting and stopping can only be achieved via electronic solutions such as a soft starter or frequency inverter.

Auto transformer

An auto transformer typically finds application in high-powered motors to ease starting. To this end, it reduces the voltage (and thus the starting current) supplied to electric asynchronous motors. The transformation ratio of the transformer further reduces this current by the square of the reduction. Auto transformers are the most frequently used type of starting transformer for cost reasons.

Shaft coupling

The shaft coupling is the connecting element between the electric motor and the pump hydraulic system. Slip-free shaft couplings employed in centrifugal pumps are divided into rigid and flexible shaft couplings.

Rigid shaft coupling

Rigid shaft couplings are mainly used to connect perfectly aligned shafts. The slightest misalignment results in considerable extra stress on shaft couplings and adjoining shaft ends.

Examples of rigid shaft coupling types

Sleeve coupling

Muff coupling

Serrated (splined) coupling

Split muff coupling (DIN 115)

Disc coupling

Flange coupling

Gear coupling

Flexible shaft coupling

Shaft couplings to DIN 7400 are resilient (flexible), slip-free connecting elements fitted between driving and driven components, capable of partially compensating axial, radial and angular misalignment and shock loads. See Fig. 1 Shaft coupling

misalignment and shock loads. See Fig. 1 Shaft coupling Misalignment types Fig. 1 Shaft coupling: Flexibility

Misalignment types

Fig. 1 Shaft coupling:

Flexibility is usually achieved by the deformation of dampening, rubber or metal-elastic spring elements; their service life is heavily dependent on the extent to which misalignment has to be compensated. Different flexible shaft coupling designs are available. See Fig. 2 Shaft coupling

Coupling types Fig. 2 Shaft coupling: If shaft misalignment occurs between the driver and the

Coupling types

Fig. 2 Shaft coupling:

If shaft misalignment occurs between the driver and the pump as a result of, for example, temperature fluctuations in the fluid handled (on heat transfer and hot water pumps), the double- cardanic coupling type design is often employed. See Fig. 3 Shaft coupling

type design is often employed. See Fig. 3 Shaft coupling cardanic coupling for compensating shaft offset

cardanic coupling for compensating shaft offset

Fig.3 Shaft coupling: Double-

Gear couplings are flexible shaft connections for positive torque transmission and are particularly suited to compensating axial, radial and angular shaft offsets.

The design principle employed by curved-tooth gear couplings (see Curved-tooth gear coupling) prevents edge pressure when gears engage in the case of angular and radial offset, making these couplings almost wear-free.

The double-cardanic operating principle of curved-tooth gear couplings ensures that the reaction forces from angular and radial offsets are negligible and periodic fluctuations in the angular velocity do not occur. See Fig. 4 Shaft coupling

angular velocity do not occur. See Fig. 4 Shaft coupling tooth gear coupling Fig. 4 Shaft

tooth gear coupling

Fig. 4 Shaft coupling: Curved-

A coupling with spacer sleeve (see Back pull-out design) allows the shaft seal and pump bearing

assembly to be removed without removing the pump casing and the drive. See Fig. 5 Shaft coupling

the pump casing and the drive. See Fig. 5 Shaft coupling type coupling Fig. 5 Shaft

type coupling

Fig. 5 Shaft coupling: Spacer-

If precise data on the influence of the frequency of starts and the ambient temperature is not

available, the load can be calculated on the basis of factors specified as reference values. No fixed value is laid down for the ratio of maximum torque to operating torque. This means that all

coupling types can be taken into consideration according to their specific suitability. The calculation of the loading by torque shocks relates therefore to the maximum torque (see Starting torque).

The calculation method for sizing flexible couplings given in DIN 740 only applies on the assumption that the coupling is the sole torsionally flexible element of a rotor, reducing the installation to a linear two-mass system. In all other cases it is necessary to carry out a vibration calculation.

Shaft efficiency

Shaft efficiency is also known as pump efficiency.

Pump efficiency

Pump efficiency (η) is also referred to as coupling or overall efficiency and characterises the ratio of pump power output (P Q ) to power input (P) for the operating point in question:

power input (P) for the operating point in question: Pump efficiency (η) is the product o

Pump efficiency (η) is the product of mechanical m ) and internal efficiency i ).

(η m ) and internal efficiency (η i ). The best pump efficiency (ηopt) is the

The best pump efficiency (ηopt) is the highest efficiency for the rotational speed and fluid handled as specified in the delivery contract.

For centrifugal pumps whose mechanical design does not clearly separate the pump shaft from the drive shaft, such as is the case with close-coupled pumps and submersible motor pumps, the efficiency of the pump set Gr ) is specified in place of pump efficiency (see DIN 24 260) (Gr stands for group). This figure describes the ratio of pump power output (P Q ) to the power consumed by the driver (see Drive), which is measured at an agreed position (e.g. at the terminals of the motor or where an underwater cable starts).

Achievable pump efficiency is very much a function of specific speed as well as the size and type of the pump and increases as these two variables increase. Reference values for achievable efficiency of modern centrifugal pump types are based on statistical analyses of the values for existing pumps. See Figs. 1 and 2 Pump efficiency

for existing pumps. See Figs. 1 and 2 Pump efficiency Fig. 1 Pump efficiency: Attainable efficiency

Fig. 1 Pump efficiency:

Attainable efficiency η of single-stage volute casing pumps without diffuser, and efficiency gain Δη by using a diffuser, as a function of specific speed ns

by using a diffuser, as a function of specific speed ns Fig. 2 Pump efficiency: Attainable

Fig. 2 Pump efficiency:

Attainable efficiencies η of multistage high-pressure pumps (acc. to KARASSIK) as a function of specific speed ns

Mechanical power

Mechanical power (P) is the quotient of mechanical work (A) by time (t). The SI unit of measurement is watts (W).

Mechanical work (A) is performed when a force (F) causes movement in time (s) in the direction of the force applied.

movement in time (s) in the direction of the force applied. With respect to rotational movement,

With respect to rotational movement, mechanical power is the product of torque (T) and angular velocity (ω) (see Rotational speed).

(T) and angular velocity (ω) (see Rotational speed ) . Power input The power input of

Power input

The power input of a centrifugal pump (pump input power) is the mechanical power taken by the pump shaft or coupling from the drive. The SI unit of measurement for power input is watts (W). Input power

of measurement for power input is watts (W). Input power Calculation must be based on the

Calculation must be based on the flow rate (Q) at the inlet cross-section of the centrifugal pump if the fluid handled exhibits substantial compressibility. Pump input power can also be defined more precisely in conjunction with centrifugal pumps.

Special terms pertaining to pump input power

Optimum pump input power (Popt): power input at the operating point of best efficiency

Maximum pump input power (P G ): highest pump input power of the operating range as defined in the delivery contract

Zero-flow pump input power (P 0 ):

Pump input power when Q = 0 m 3 /s (see Characteristic curve)

Electrical power

Electrical power (P) is the product of voltage and amperage (active current). The unit is watts (W).

Electrical power can be defined with respect to alternating and three-phase current, whereby a distinction is made between the output types apparent power, effective power, and reactive power (also see Power).

Electrical power is supplied to the consumer by the power company. Many electrical consumers, such as alternating-current and three-phase motors, require effective (P W ) and reactive power (P q ). Whereas effective power is converted into mechanical power, reactive power is used to build and dissipate the magnetic fields. It fluctuates periodically between generator and load. The intensity of this energy over time is quantified by the reactive power.

Power companies must also provide apparent power (P S ), since only active current I w = I · cos φ may be used to calculate power if a phase shift between current and voltage occurs about angle φ in AC circuits. This current is in phase with the voltage, and the current component shifted by 90 degrees with respect to the voltage is the reactive current (Iq = I · sin φ). The product of voltage (U) and (apparent) current (I) is apparent power (P S ). Definitions:

Effective power

P w =U • I • cos φ

Reactive power

P q =U • I • sin φ

Apparent power

Ps=U • I

P s 2 =P w 2 + P q 2

Apparent power is typically specified not in watts (W), but in volt-amperes (VA), and reactive power in volt-ampere reactives (var).

(VA), and reactive power in volt-ampere reactives (var). Fig. 1 Electrical power: Correlation between reactive power,

Fig. 1 Electrical power:

Correlation between reactive power, effective power and apparent power

Switchgear and controlgear

Switchgear and controlgear as defined by IEC 60947 for electronics applications encompass all electrical components and devices that are used to activate, deactivate, and protect electrical consumers and include switches, contactors, residual current devices, and motor protection switches.

Pump control units are pump-specific electrical switchgears and controlgears that contain all electric and electronic components required to safeguard proper operation of the connected pumps. Models that start and stop one or more pumps as a function of the fluid level are typical and are primarily used for single and dual-pump applications. See Figs. 1 and 2 Control unit

and dual-pump applications. See Figs. 1 and 2 Control unit Fig. 1 Switchgear and controlgear: Level

Fig. 1 Switchgear and controlgear: Level control with level measured by float switches; dry-installed pumps (can also be used for wet-installed pumps)

pumps (can also be used for wet-installed pumps) Fig. 2 Switchgear and controlgear: Level control by

Fig. 2 Switchgear and controlgear: Level control by continuous level measurement (pneumatic measurement with/without compressor; wet-installed pumps)

Application-specific switching and control functions

Equal distribution of operating hours

Automatic pump changeover after a specified number of operating hours has been reached or after every start

Pump starting and stopping in response to service demand

Pump changeover in the case of a pump fault

Functional check run via battery-backed real-time clock (as a function of fluid level)

Sequenced starting/stopping if both pumps have to be started or stopped, to prevent pressure surges and minimise starting currents

Freely selectable automatic re-start after a fault

Adjustable after-run time

Variable stop delays to prevent deposits in the tank

Additional monitoring functions to safeguard reliable operation of the pumps

High water alert

Operational availability

Mains-independent alarm

Programmable general fault/"in operation" message

Phase monitoring

Voltage monitoring and display

Overload detection per pump

Thermal monitoring of pump motors

Sensor fault / Live zero

Fault/warning per pump

Low-load detection (e. g. for dry running or lack of water)

Archiving of data of the last 30 faults

Monitoring of adjustable service intervals

Apparent power

Apparent power (P S ) is calculated based on effective power (P W ) and reactive power (P Q ):

power (P W ) and reactive power (P Q ): Effective power Effective power is the

Effective power

Effective power is the electrical power that can be converted to other mechanical, chemical or thermal forms of power. The SIunit of measurement for effective power is watts (W).

Starting torque

Starting torque is the torque transferred by the shaft coupling during run-up (see Start-up process). It is calculated based on the ratio of power (P) to angular velocity (ω) and is represented as a rotational speed function.

(ω) and is represented as a rotational speed function. Factors influencing torque: • Progression of the

Factors influencing torque:

Progression of the characteristic curves for the head and pump power input in relation to flow rate and rotational speed

Position of the operating point on the characteristic curves

Run-up behaviour of the drive as characterised by the run-up time (t a ) of the unit (pump and motor)

System characteristic curve in relation to the valves fitted

Run-up time (t aQ ) for accelerating the liquid mass in the filled piping

t aQ

Run-up time of the liquid mass in the piping in s

Q

Flow rate in m 3 /s

H

0

Shut-off head (head) in m

H

A,0

Static part of the system characteristic curve in m

g

Gravitational constant in m/s 2

L

Length of the piping in m

A

Cross-sectional area of the piping in m 2

To illustrate the possible progression of starting torque at low specific speeds, the head (H),

power input (P), and starting torque (T P ) of a radial pump are examined under different operating

conditions. See Fig. 1 Starting torque

All starting torque curves (T p ) begin with the breakaway torque (T PL ) to overcome bearing and seal static friction. They reflect the increase in torque along with rising rotational speed (n) and

the increase in power input (P) as a function of increasing flow rate (Q). These processes occur either at the same time or in succession.

In contrast to centrifugal pumps with low specific speeds, a different starting torque curve develops at high specific speeds (e. g. propeller pumps) due to the increasing flow rate and decreasing power input (characteristic curve). More starting torque is therefore required for starting against a closed gate valve (points I and II would be located above line A-B) than for starting against empty, unpressurised piping (point III would be located below the operating point (B)). This characteristic must be observed.

Breakaway torque

Breakaway torque refers to the maximum torque required to set interconnected stator and rotor components into motion. Instead of static friction forces, sliding friction forces will then apply.

System characteristic curve

The system characteristic curve (see Characteristic curve) represents the relationship between the system head (H sys ) and the flow rate (Q). It is often parabola-shaped and does not generally pass through the origin of the H/Q coordinate system. The curve becomes progressively steeper as throttling increases. See Fig. 1 System characteristic curve and Fig. 4 Operating point

1 System characteristic curve and Fig. 4 Operating point Fig. 1 System characteristic curve: Diagram of

Fig. 1 System characteristic curve: Diagram of a cooling tower system and system curves at variable water levels in the river

The intersection of the pump-specific H/Q curve with the system-specific curve Hsys/Q determines the operating point. See Fig. 1 Operating point

The shape and position of the system characteristic curve result from the equation used to determine the system head (Hsys):

p Static pressure v Flow velocity z Geodetic height H L Head loss (see Pressure

p

Static pressure

v

Flow velocity

z

Geodetic height

H

L Head loss (see Pressure loss, Pressure head)

ρ

Density of fluid handled

g

Gravitational constant

Location-specific subscripts

e

Defined inlet cross-section (suction tank) See Head Fig. 2

a

s

d

e,s

Relate to the system's suction side, i.e. to the portion between the cross-sections e and s See Head Fig. 2

d,a

Relate to the system's discharge side, between the cross-sections d and a

The

expression (v a 2 – v e 2 )/(2 ∙ g) is a negligible quantity if the system's cross-sections in e and a

are of adequate size or of approximately the same size.

In practice, this expression is seldom of any significance. The expressions (p a – p e )/(ρ ∙ g) and (z a

– z e ) are independent of the pump's flow rate (Q).

Therefore, the relationship between the system head (H sys ) and the flow rate (Q) is evidenced mainly in the head losses (H L ) which can be calculated by means of the following equation:

which can be calculated by means of the following equation: ζ Loss coefficient (Head loss) v

ζ

Loss coefficient (Head loss)

v

Flow velocity in a characteristic cross-section (of cross-sectional area A)

As the flow velocity (v) is the quotient of the flow rate (Q) and the cross-sectional area (A), and

assuming a constant loss coefficient (ζ) and sufficiently high Reynolds numbers (see Model

The reason for the system curve's parabola shape becomes clear. For the vertex of the system characteristic curve at Q = 0, we have:

vertex of the system characteristic curve at Q = 0, we have: From the above equation

From the above equation it follows that the system characteristic curve shifts vertically in the H/Q sys coordinate system if the system's tank pressures (pa, pe) and the geodetic head H geo = z a – z e vary. H sys,0 is often referred to as Hstat in the scholarly literature.

Thus for instance, we have the following equations for a cooling water system (see Cooling water pump) comprising a pipe drawing water out of a river, a cooling water pump and a discharge line leading into a cooling tower basin: See Fig. 1 System characteristic curve

H A = z a - z e + H v.e,s + H v.d,a

H A,0 = z a - z e

p a = p e = p b v a = 0 v e = 0

(see Atmospheric pressure) (negligible flow velocities at a) (negligible inlet velocities in the intake structure from the river)

H L Head loss (pressure losses at inlet and outlet, pressure losses through valves or elbows, pressure losses caused by pipe friction, passage through the condenser and by abrupt changes of cross-section etc.)

z a – z e

Difference in geodetic head of the water level in the cooling water basin and in the river bed.

As the water level in the river (z e ) fluctuates, the system characteristic curves will shift accordingly. See Fig. 1 System characteristic curve

Run-up time

The run-up time is the period of time during which the drive (see Drive) is started and accelerated up to the operating point of the centrifugal pump. It is calculated from the acceleration torque (T b.mittel ) averaged over the rotational speed (n):

The calculation made with this formula will only produce useful values, however, if the acceleration

The calculation made with this formula will only produce useful values, however, if the acceleration torque is approximately constant across the entire speed range. Should the TM and TP curves approach each other considerably at certain points, the run-up time must be calculated in sequence using a computational or graphical method. To this end, the speed range is split into sections (Δni) in which constant acceleration torque values (Tbi) are used for calculation. See Fig. 1 Run-up time

The run-up time (ta) is the product of the sum of the individual steps: See Fig. 1 Run-up time

of the sum of the individual steps: See Fig. 1 Run-up time The run-down time (t

The run-down time (t down ) is calculated in the same way as the run-up time. The only difference is that the acceleration torque (T bi ) is replaced with the starting torque T Pi = f (n), which produces a load, or deceleration, torque in this scenario:

is replaced with the starting torque T P i = f (n), which produces a load,
Fig. 1 Run-up time: Determining the run-up and run-down time of a centrifugal pump Rotational

Fig. 1 Run-up time:

Determining the run-up and run-down time of a centrifugal pump

Rotational speed

Rotational speed (also called speed, or speed of rotation) can be quantified as the number of revolutions a rotating system makes within a defined period of time. The unit used for rotational speed is s 1 (rev/s); pump speed is generally given in min 1 (rpm).

The rotating frequency of the pump shaft therefore characterises a pump's rotational speed (n). It should not be confused with specific speed (n s ) and is always defined as a positive figure.

The pump direction of rotation is specified as clockwise or anti-clockwise and is separate to the defined direction of rotation of the impeller, which, when turning to the right with respect to the direction of inflow, is clockwise.

The selection of pump rotational speed is closely related to the characteristics of the pump hydraulic system (circumferential speed, impeller, specific speed), as the overall strength and economic efficiency of the pump and drive system need to be taken into account.

Most pumps operate at rotational speeds between 1000 and 3000 rpm but frequently reach in excess of 6,000 rpm with special gearing and turbine drives.

Larger centrifugal pumps (e.g. cooling water pumps for power stations), however, are typically mated to slow-running electric drives that are very costly. Reduction gears between the drive and pump maintain today's low pump speeds of just 200 rpm.

Rotational speed (n) is proportionate to angular velocity (ω), the latter of which is more conducive to physical calculations and is the quotient of the plane angle and time interval. The unit is rad/s. The rad (radiant) is equal to the plane angle (57.296 degrees), which intersects an arc of 1 m in length as the centre angle of a circle with a 1 m radius.

This is represented with the number 1 in practice. The following relationship exists between rotational

This is represented with the number 1 in practice. The following relationship exists between rotational speed (n) and angular velocity (ω):

between rotational speed (n ) and angular velocity (ω): Specific speed The specific speed (ns) is

Specific speed

The specific speed (ns) is a characteristic coefficient derived from the similarity conditions which allows a comparison of impellers of various pump sizes even when their operating data differ (flow rate and head at best efficiency point, rotational speed). The specific speed can be used to classify the optimum impeller design and the corresponding pump characteristic curves. See Fig. 1 Specific speed

pump characteristic curves . See Fig. 1 Specific speed Fig. 1 Specific speed: Influence of specific

Fig. 1 Specific speed:

Influence of specific speed ns on centrifugal pump impeller design; the diffuser elements (casings) of single-stage pumps are outlined (blue).

Defined as the theoretical rotational speed at which a geometrically similar impeller would run if it were of such a size as to produce 1 m of head (H opt ) at a flow rate (Q opt m 3 /s at the best efficiency point, the specific speed is expressed in the same units as the rotational speed:

Q o p t in m 3 /s Flow rate at η m a x

Q

opt in m 3 /s

Flow rate at η max

H

opt in m

Head at η max

n

in rpm

Pump speed

n

s in rpm

Specific speed

A dimensionless characteristic coefficient in accordance with DIN 24260 can be established using the following equation:

DIN 24260 can be established using the following equation: n in s rpm - 1 Rotational

n

in s rpm -1

Rotational speed

Q

opt in m 3 /s

Flow rate at η max

H

opt in m

Head at η max

g

= 9.81 m/s 2

Gravitational constant

The following relationship exists between the numerical values of the dimensional and dimensionless coefficients:

n s = 333 · n s *

The values to be inserted in the above equation are the optimum head Hopt for one stage in the case of multistage pumps, and the optimum flow rate Qopt for one impeller half in the case of double-entry impellers.

The fluid flow through the impeller changes with increasing specific speed, i.e. radial impellers have low specific speeds, mixed flow ("diagonal") impellers have a higher specific speed range and axial impellers have the highest specific speeds. Establishing the specific speed ns via a

graph:

See Annex, Specific speed, Fig 2

Establishing the specific speed nS via a graph Fig. 2 Specific speed: Diffuser elements on

Establishing the specific speed nS via a graph

Fig. 2 Specific speed:

Diffuser elements on radial casings such as volute casings are also required to become larger and larger with increasing specific speed as long as the flow can be guided through the impeller in a radial direction. Eventually (i. e. at high specific speeds) the flow can only exit axially, e.g. via tubular casings.

The specific speed's numerical value is also needed to select the influencing factors required for the conversion of pump characteristic curves, for example, if fluids of higher viscosity or solids- laden fluids are pumped).

In Anglo-Saxon countries the specific speed is called "type number K" in accordance with EN

12723 and ISO 9906. In the USA it is referred to as N s (pump specific speed), with the flow rate being specified in gallons/min, the head in foot and the rotational speed in rpm. The conversion

factors are:

K = n s / 52.9 and N s = n s ∙ 51.6

Similarity conditions

The similarity theory requires that three essential conditions be met for hydraulic model tests:

geometric (length), kinematic (velocity) and dynamic (forces) similarity between the model (M) and the full-scale version (G). Kinematic and dynamic similarity are grouped together under the heading of physical similarity (see Affinity laws).

Geometric similarity

In order to fulfil the condition of geometric similarity, all the linear dimensions of the model

pumps (I M ) and the corresponding dimensions of the full-scale version ("prototype") (I G ) must

have the same ratio (m I ; model scale):

The geometrically similar reproduction of a pump and its system environment in model form is

The geometrically similar reproduction of a pump and its system environment in model form is only required for sections relevant for the actual flow analysis. Establishing geometric similarity on the discharge side of the system is irrelevant if the fluid flow analysis is confined to the pump's suction side.

The full-scale version's wall surface roughness can only be reproduced in the model with limited accuracy, which is insufficient to achieve a microscopic level of geometric similarity, meaning that the boundary layer flow and the resultant pressure losses arising due to wall friction can only be examined to a limited extent.

Kinematic similarity

Kinematic similarity requires the proportionality of the corresponding velocity vectors in the model (v M ) and the full-scale version (v G ) (see Velocity triangle). The requirement of a constant velocity scale can strictly speaking only be fulfilled in conjunction with geometric and dynamic similarity:

in conjunction with geometric and dynamic similarity: Any deviation from geometric similarity will result in a

Any deviation from geometric similarity will result in a roughly equal deviation from kinematic similarity. In model tests, deviations from kinematic similarity often manifest themselves via discrepancies between the degree of turbulence in the model flow and the flow in the full-scale version. This degree of turbulence has an influence on the change from laminar to turbulent flow (see Boundary layer, Fluid mechanics), on the possible occurrence of flow separation, and therefore on flow losses. Often, these cannot be assessed with sufficient accuracy on a model.

Experience has shown that the different types and structures of the boundary layers in the model and the full-scale version result in only minor deviations from kinematic similarity provided that there are no significant differences in flow separation zones and investigations are not concerned with areas close to surfaces such as those of vanes.

Dynamic similarity

In order to fulfil the requirement of dynamic similarity, a defined scale ratio (mf) must apply to all forces (F) which determine flow phenomena in both the model (M) and the full-scale version (G).

in both the model (M) and the full-scale version (G). Apart from the two-phase effects in

Apart from the two-phase effects in two-phase flow, the forces of significance in hydraulic pump modelling are inertia, gravity, pressure and friction.

Dynamic similarity with regard to the inertia and gravity forces in a model and full-scale version is expressed by the fact that the Froude number (Fr) is constant:

by the fact that the Froude number (Fr) is constant: v Characteristic flow velocity l Characteristic

v

Characteristic flow velocity

l

Characteristic length

g

Local gravitational constant

The same applies to the Reynolds number (Re):

constant The same applies to the Reynolds number (Re): Re M = Re G v Kinematic

Re

M = Re G

v

Kinematic viscosity of the fluid handled

Dynamic similarity with regard to the pressure and inertia forces present in the model and the full-scale version is expressed by the same values of the Euler number (Eu):

is expressed by the same values of the Euler number (Eu): Eu M = Eu G

Eu

M = Eu G

P

Characteristic pressure (pressure difference)

ρ

Fluid density

g

Local gravitational constant

In the case of centrifugal pumps, the Euler number expresses the relationship between the pressure rise in the pump (i.e. the characteristic pressure difference) and the circumferential

velocity at the impeller outer diameter (u2) (i.e. the characteristic velocity) and is as such termed

the head coefficient. Achieving the same Euler number or head coefficients in both the model

and the full-scale version requires that both geometric and kinematic similarity are ensured and

that the same Froude and Reynolds numbers are present in both the model and the full-scale version.

When transient flows with a frequency f are involved, the Strouhal number comes into play. In hydraulic modelling, a frequent deviation from dynamic similarity arises from the fact that the Froude or Reynolds numbers in the model and in the full-scale version are not the same due to technical reasons relating to the tests. Many years of experience have enabled certain ranges of these numbers to be obtained in the model and the full-scale version without substantially impairing physical similarity (see Efficiency scale-up).

Efficiency scale-up

Efficiency scale-up takes account of the influence of the Reynolds number (Re number) on the pump's efficiency. When two geometrically similar centrifugal pumps are compared, either the larger one, the one with the higher speed or the one handling a fluid of lower viscosity usually exhibits a higher pump efficiency. This means that when transferring data established on a test model to a life-size prototype, the pump efficiency measured on the model must be scaled up. The pre-condition is however that geometrical similarity has been maintained in all components including surface roughness and clearance gap width (see Similarity conditions).

Thus this change in efficiency is only a consequence of the change in the Reynolds number resulting from the change in pump size, rotational speed and viscosity.

Larger centrifugal pumps generally have higher Re numbers. According to the laws of fluid mechanics, these pumps exhibit lower flow losses within certain limits and therefore feature a higher internal efficiency.

As it is almost impossible to achieve exact geometrical similarity, it is important to take into account that the additional influence of the machine size has the same effect as that of the Re number. The influence of pump size on pump efficiency is of practical significance in all cases where efficiency measurements are performed on reduced scale models of larger pumps (see Pump test facility) This allows an evaluation of the anticipated efficiency of the life-size pump to obtain the pump input power, for instance, which would have exceeded the installed test facility power.

There are as yet no universally applicable rules for efficiency scale-up. In all cases, the efficiency scale-up method used must be clearly defined between user and manufacturer before the model test takes place. Examples of approximation equations for efficiency scale-up are those given by Pfleidererand Ackeret:

The Re number should be calculated on the basis of the circumferential speed of the

The Re number should be calculated on the basis of the circumferential speed of the impeller outlet diameter.

Practical examples for the use of efficiency scale-up equations are found in international standards: "Hydraulic Institute: Standards for centrifugal, rotary and reciprocating pumps. 14th ed, Cleveland 1983" and "IEC 497: International code for model acceptance tests of storage pumps. 1976" (12/2011 edition).

Performance coefficient

The performance coefficient (λ) is a characteristic coefficient identifying the pump input power. The following equations are yielded in conjunction with the pump power output (PQ) and pump input power (P):

with the pump power output (PQ) and pump input power (P): ρ Density of fluid handled

ρ Density of fluid handled

η Pump efficiency Circumferential velocity at the impeller outlet Impeller diameter at the outlet

D

U

2

2

b 2

φ Flow coefficient

ψ Head coefficient

Head coefficient

Impeller outlet width

The head coefficient (ψ) is a characteristic coefficient derived from the corresponding physical quantity according to the affinity laws and used to characterise the operating behaviour. It characterises the head (H) of the pump:

behaviour. It characterises the head (H) of the pump: When the head varies at constant rotational

When the head varies at constant rotational pump speed, ψ ~ H. The head coefficient (ψ) is therefore indicative of the ordinate (analogous to H) on H/Q curves plotted in a non-dimensional representation. In conjunction with the specific energy (Y), this results in:

with the specific energy (Y), this results in: Flow coefficient The flow coefficient (φ) is a

Flow coefficient

The flow coefficient (φ) is a dimensionless quantity used to describe the volume flow rate. It is also referred to as the volume or volume flow coefficient and characterises the flow rate (Q).

flow coefficient and characterises the flow rate (Q). When the flow rate varies at constant rotational

When the flow rate varies at constant rotational pump speed, vm ~ Q and therefore φ ~ Q.

The flow coefficient (φ) is therefore indicative of the abscissa (analogous to Q) on H/Q curves plotted in non-dimensional representation. With reference to the vane inlet and outlet diameters, the following equations are obtained:

With regard to the head coefficient , it is preferable to adopt the flow coefficient

With regard to the head coefficient, it is preferable to adopt the flow coefficient related to the impeller outlet.

Strouhal number

The Strouhal number is defined as follows:

Strouhal number The Strouhal number is defined as follows: w velocity of flow around a body

w

velocity of flow around a body (for propellers, the relative velocity at the impeller outlet is used) in m/s

f

vortex-shedding frequency (sought excitation frequency) in s-1

d

characteristic quantity of the separating vortices (thickness of profile surrounded by the flow) in m

The

dimensionless number plays an important role in hydro-acoustics and characterises transient

flow

phenomena in all cyclically operating prime

S r = 0.2 to 0.24 (flow along the plate)

Affinity laws

When investigating flow phenomena, cost factors often favour the use of models which are

geometrically similar to the original, full-sized equipment (see Similarity conditions). For this

type of testing it is necessary that models are not only geometrically similar, but are also

subjected to similar physical conditions.

The physical laws (differential equations including boundary conditions) applied must remain

invariant under similarity transformations. This is achieved by dividing all relevant physical quantities by exponential products characteristic of the configuration to be tested so as to obtain ratios of the unit 1.

Physical similarity is achieved if the ratios (see Characteristic coefficient) of the original and the model are the same. The relationships established between the physical quantity of the original and that of the model by means of the characteristic coefficients are called affinity laws.

Using characteristic pump parameters such as the impeller diameter (D), rotational speed (n ), gravitational constant (g) and the density of the fluid handled (ρ), various characteristic coefficients can be established for a centrifugal pump assuming frictionless, incompressible, non-cavitating flow.

Establishing characteristic coefficients by means of the affinity laws:

Flow velocity (v / (n · D))

Pressure (p / (ρ · n 2 · D 2 ))

Specific energy (Y / (n 2 · D 2 ))

Head (g · H / (n 2 · D 2 ))

Flow rate (Q / (n · D 3 ))

Power input (P / (ρ · n 3 · D 5 ))

The following model laws thus apply to two geometrically similar centrifugal pumps operating under physically similar conditions:

Affinity laws

Flow velocity in a cross-section

Affinity laws • Flow velocity in a cross-section • Pressure • Specific energy • Head •

Pressure

laws • Flow velocity in a cross-section • Pressure • Specific energy • Head • Flow

Specific energy

in a cross-section • Pressure • Specific energy • Head • Flow rate • Power input

Head

a cross-section • Pressure • Specific energy • Head • Flow rate • Power input (assuming

Flow rate

• Pressure • Specific energy • Head • Flow rate • Power input (assuming identical pump

Power input (assuming identical pump efficiencies)

• Pressure • Specific energy • Head • Flow rate • Power input (assuming identical pump

Flow coefficient

• Flow coefficient • Head coefficient If Δh s = Y (see Specific energy ) is

Head coefficient

• Flow coefficient • Head coefficient If Δh s = Y (see Specific energy ) is

If Δh s = Y (see Specific energy) is inserted, the pressure coefficient in its known form can be established:

pressure coefficient in its known form can be established: As pump efficiencies are more or less

As pump efficiencies are more or less dependent on friction conditions, they are subject to other conversion laws (see Efficiency scale-up). The selection of characteristic quantities to determine the characteristic coefficients is largely arbitrary. For instance, when studying the theory of flow in radial impellers (see Impeller), the impeller's circumferential speed (u), its outlet diameter (D) and the outlet width (b) of the vane passage are selected as characteristic quantities. These are used to establish two characteristic coefficients, where Δh s is the isentropic increase (see Entropy) of the generalised specific enthalpy of the fluid handled.

As a general rule, a length (l) and a velocity (v) are selected as characteristic quantities for flow investigations. Flows subject to friction are characterised by the kinematic viscosity (ν). The Reynolds number (Re) can be derived from these and also gives the ratio of inertia force to friction force.

and also gives the ratio of inertia force to friction force. If gravity has to be

If gravity has to be taken into account as an external force, the characteristic coefficient of the acceleration due to gravity (gravitational constant) is g · l / v 2 . Its reciprocal value is the Froude number (Fr).

v 2 . Its reciprocal value is the Froude number (Fr). It expresses the ratio of

It expresses the ratio of inertia force to the force of gravity. If further physical phenomena such as compressibility, heat transfer and surface tension etc. have to be taken into account, further characteristic coefficients must be introduced.

As characteristic coefficients are not independent of one another, it becomes impossible to achieve physical similarity when multiple characteristic coefficients require consideration.

Model tests are widely used to investigate fluid mechanics, design strength and heat transfer problems.

Flow velocity in a cross-section

The flow velocity (v) in a cross-section is the volumetrically averaged flow velocity in a specific

flow cross-section (e. g. a pipe cross-section).

The unit of measurement for flow velocity is m/s.

The unit of measurement for flow velocity is m/s. Q Flow rate in m 3 /h

Q Flow rate in m 3 /h

A Cross-selectional area in m 2

This relationship produces standard reference values for determining the flow velocity in piping (see Piping).

Piping

Piping is used to transport fluids. The inside diameters of piping are classed according to the nominal diameters (DN). The permissible load capacities as determined by the maximum internal pressures are classed according to nominal pressures (PN). The recommended upper

limit for the flow velocity (v) is approx. 2.3 m/s for discharge lines and approx. 1.8 m/s for

Economic efficiency should be taken into account when selecting the discharge-side velocities in the case of long piping and extended periods of operation. Due to the fact that suction-side piping is shorter in length, the NPSH conditions are particularly important for the selection of the suction-side velocities. The selected suction line's inside diameter is often larger than the pump suction nozzle.

Expansion joints are built into the piping system to absorb movements in the piping, whatever

their cause may be. As well as compensating movements, they also separate the pump from the

piping in order to prevent vibration transmission. Sometimes expansion joints are also used with

pumps to ensure that their connection to the piping does not result in the transmission of any stresses or strains. See Fig. 1 Piping

Fig. 1: Piping: Expansion joints' compensating movements (lateral compensation) If expansion joints are employed,

Fig. 1: Piping: Expansion

joints' compensating movements (lateral compensation)

If expansion joints are employed, those used to connect the pump and the piping should be

friction-type expansion joints for the transmission of the axial forces (also braced expansion joints). This is necessary to ensure that the forces resulting from differential pressures do not act upon the pump, as these are often considerably higher than the permissible flange forces. These forces also shift the pump towards the suction side. This would severely affect the pump's alignment, as its mounting is not designed for this movement.

A distinction is made between closed and open piping systems. Unbraced expansion and

dismantling joints turn a technically closed pipeline into an open one.

Closed system

The closed system features friction-type connections for the transmission of axial forces, e.g. flanges and rigid dismantling joints. The axial force arising from the internal pressure is absorbed by the pipe wall and the pipe connections. The supports and fasteners of a closed piping system are only required to handle its weight and dynamic forces. Thermal expansion is absorbed by flexible pipe supports or by expansion joints. See Fig. 2

compensation) Fig. 2 Piping: Articulated expansion joint (lateral The approximate spans (ls) for water-filled steel

compensation)

Fig. 2 Piping: Articulated expansion joint (lateral

The approximate spans (ls) for water-filled steel pipes should be established using the following equation:

pipes should be established using the following equation: The wall thickness (b) of steel pipes subjected

The wall thickness (b) of steel pipes subjected to internal pressure are calculated in accordance with EN 13480-3. For pipes mainly subjected to static load conditions, the following roughly

applies:

applies: In the case of changes in temperature , the change in length of a straight

In the case of changes in temperature, the change in length of a straight pipe is calculated according to the following equation:

pipe is calculated according to the following equation: Open system The open system has socket joints,

Open system

The open system has socket joints, flexible dismantling joints and axial expansion joints without tie bolts that provide compensation for thermal expansion. See Fig. 3 Piping

joint Fig. 3 Piping: Axial expansion As an external force , the axial force arising

joint

Fig. 3 Piping: Axial expansion

As an external force, the axial force arising from the internal pressure must be absorbed by anchorage points at the beginning and the end of the piping and at any change of direction or cross-section.

Adequate guidance in the form of clips or roller bearings must be provided to keep the piping from buckling.

anchoring Fig. 4 Piping: Pipe end
anchoring Fig. 4 Piping: Pipe end

anchoring

Fig. 4 Piping: Pipe end

anchoring anchoring Fig. 5: Piping: Branch Fig. 6 Piping: Elbow Pump power output The pump

anchoring

anchoring anchoring Fig. 5: Piping: Branch Fig. 6 Piping: Elbow Pump power output The pump power

anchoring

Fig. 5: Piping: Branch

Fig. 6 Piping: Elbow

Pump power output

The pump power output (P Q ) is the useful power transmitted to the fluid handled by the centrifugal pump. The unit is watt (W).

It is defined as:

It is defined as: If the fluid handled is compressible, the density (ρ) is conventionally agreed

If the fluid handled is compressible, the density (ρ) is conventionally agreed to refer to the condition in the pump suction nozzle or the arithmetic mean (ρ s + ρ d )/2.

Economic efficiency

Economic efficiency is the ratio between the measurable increase in value and the expenditure required to achieve this increase. This concept is extremely important within the context of life cycle costs.

Life cycle costs

Life cycle costs (also see LCC) are the total costs incurred throughout the service life of a pump system. They are used to compare the economic efficiency of various technical designs. The LCC equation is determined in accordance with the guidelines of EUROPUMP and the Hydraulic Institute.

The life cycle costs associated with the operation of a pump or pump system are determined by calculating the annual costs of operation plus the interest and depreciation for the non-current assets, like the machinery and buildings, for a variety of alternatives.

interest and depreciation for the non-current assets, like the machinery and buildings, for a variety of

In the case of centrifugal pumps, energy (Ce), operating (Co) and maintenance costs (Cm) account for the largest proportion of the life cycle costs. See Fig. 1 Life cycle costs

of the life cycle costs. See Fig. 1 Life cycle costs breakdown throughout service life (example)

breakdown throughout service life (example)

The energy costs are calculated as follows:

Fig. 1 Life cycle costs: Cost

are calculated as follows: Fig. 1 Life cycle costs: Cost The calculation applies to one specific

The calculation applies to one specific operating point only. Given that pump operation usually involves a broad flow rate range, a pro rata calculation must be performed for the various flow rates involved. The individual results are then added together, taking the load profile into account.

The costs of operation and maintenance must be determined on a case-by-case basis and are dependent on the level of automation, operating period and maintenance requirement of the system.

LCC analysis − Key financial factors

Energy price increase (inflation)

Interest and discount rate

Expected system life (calculation period)

Calculating the current costs associated with a specific cost element:

the current costs associated with a specific cost element: Based on empirical evidence, the following factors

Based on empirical evidence, the following factors can be derived for dimensioning an economically efficient pump system or piping:

See Fig. 2 Life cycle costs

efficient pump system or piping: See Fig. 2 Life cycle costs Fig. 2 Life cycle costs:

Fig. 2 Life cycle costs:

Diagram (example) illustrating the payback period of flow adjustment by variable speed pump drives (y) and by throttling of discharge-side valves (x), taking into account all life cycle costs involved

Having high flow velocities in narrow piping reduces the cost of the system, but increases energy requirements and wear.

If operating periods are long, the energy costs are the dominant factor. This means that any extra costs for energy-saving measures such as speed adjustment (see Closed-loop control) pay off very quickly.

If operating periods are short, investments should be low and flow velocities can be high.

A smaller number of fairly large pumps often produces higher levels of efficiency, resulting in lower energy costs. However, as the number of redundant pumps increases so does the capital expenditure.

Pump system

In centrifugal pump technology, the pump system, or simply the system, encompasses the space through which the fluid handled flows, excluding the pump itself. A differentiation is made in the system between the suction and the discharge side, where each side is equipped with an appropriate tank and piping including all requisite valves.

The suction side of the system is situated between the system's inlet cross-section (A e ) and the pump's inlet cross-section (As); the discharge side is located between the pump’s outlet cross- section (A d ) and the system's outlet cross-section (A a ), which has to be specifically defined. See Fig. 2 Head

The system's energy consumers include accumulators, coolers, condensers, high-level distributing tanks, all of which account for a significant proportion of energy consumed, but also piping as well as fittings and valves.

Accumulator

An accumulator is a vessel which is partly filled with liquid and partly with gas (often air); its internal pressure is generally higher than atmospheric pressure. Accumulators store fluids to be handled under increased pressure (e. g. in pressure booster systems) in order to attenuate surge pressures and serve as energy storage devices to prolong the run-down time of centrifugal pumps. A transient flow analysis determines the accumulators' size and the valves, compressed air supply connections and instrumentation used.

Accumulators for automatic pressure control in water supply systems (see Pressure booster system) are usually installed vertically; horizontal installations are rare. See Fig. 1 Accumulator

Fig.1 Accumulator: Automatic pressure control in water supply systems Accumulator size is determined by the

Fig.1 Accumulator: Automatic pressure control in water supply systems

Accumulator size is determined by the pump set's number of starts per hour (Z). The number of start-ups depends on a variety of factors; information on the frequency of starts should be obtained from the electric motor suppliers (see Frequency of starts).

At start-up pressure (pe), the lowest water level selected must ensure that air can under no circumstances enter the discharge line. The accumulator volume (V) should therefore be selected

so that it is 25 to 40 % larger than the effective accumulator volume (J) required. A compressed

air shut-off valve may be provided as an additional component. Its purpose is to prevent compressed air entering the discharge line. In the case of unfavourable piping layouts (e. g. in

domestic water supply systems) and horizontal vessels, the water level must be checked; if necessary, the connection must be placed at a lower level (e. g. dome).

A safety allowance of 25 % is included in the equation given below for accumulator sizing.

correction value K Fig. 2 Accumulator: The proportion of usable water volume (S) in relation
correction value K Fig. 2 Accumulator: The proportion of usable water volume (S) in relation

correction value K

Fig. 2 Accumulator:

The proportion of usable water volume (S) in relation to total volume (V) depends solely on the start-up and stop pressures and can be calculated as follows:

(S) in relation to total volume (V) depends solely on the start-up and stop pressures and

In set-ups with more than one of the same pump, increasing the number of starts and stops by

periodically switching between the pumps allows a reduction of accumulator size. Membrane- type accumulators are often provided for smaller units; these eliminate the need for a compressed air shut-off valve or a compressor. In this case, an extra 25 to 40 % of volume in addition to the effective volume (J) is not required.

The number of pumps in a pressure booster system has no bearing on the calculation of the

accumulator volume. If several pumps with different flow rates are employed, the mean flow rate

of the largest pump should be used in the equation. For systems in which several pumps are

flow-controlled, and only the base load pump is started and stopped as a function of pressure, the accumulator size should be calculated in relation to this base load pump.

A

sub-division of the calculated accumulator volume between several accumulators is desirable

if

such smaller vessels can be accommodated more easily in the available space, and the system

costs are thereby reduced. When dividing the volume between two accumulators, the pressure settings for pump start-up and stopping can be set in such a way that the second accumulator is filled with air only.

If the volume is divided between more than two accumulators, these must be connected via the

gas (air) side to ensure that each accumulator is evenly used. See Fig. 3 Accumulator

Fig. 3 Accumulator: Schematic for a water supply system as pressure booster system As a

Fig. 3 Accumulator: Schematic for a water supply system as pressure booster system

As a proportion of the accumulator's air content is gradually absorbed by the water under pressure, the compressed air in the vessel must be topped up from time to time, usually by means of a compressor. The compressor size is determined by its suction capacity (Q k ). Compressor selection depends on the time (T) required to fill the whole accumulator volume. It is assumed that only two thirds of the accumulator volume (which corresponds to the water level at stop pressure) must be filled with compressed air. The filling time should not exceed eight hours.

The suction capacity in m 3 /h is:

The suction capacity in m 3 /h is: The compressor's operating pressure should as a minimum

The compressor's operating pressure should as a minimum correspond to the pump's maximum stop pressure. The safety valve on the compressor must be pre-set so that the maximum permissible operating pressure of the accumulator is not exceeded.

In accordance with the accident prevention regulations for pressure vessels (German Gas and Waterworks Professional Association, Düsseldorf), fitting a safety valve on accumulators for centrifugal pumps is not mandatory as long as the H/Q curves (see Characteristic curve) of the pumps do not exceed 1.1 times the maximum permissible operating pressure for the vessel, and steps are taken to prevent critical overspeeding of the pumps.

The accumulators are welded, cast, riveted and, occasionally, finished in strip-wound construction (for very high pressures and temperatures in the chemical industry). The materials used are steel plate (boiler plate), non-ferrous metal plate, cast steel and plastic. The design and operating data of commonly used accumulators are standardised.

Principal standards, directives and regulations applicable to accumulators

American Petroleum Institute: API 610

American Society of Mechanical Engineers:

ASME-Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I-X

German Pressure Vessel Society:

AD regulations

Federal Ministry of Economics: Protection of Labour Act (Federal Bulletin 4/1980) and Steam Boiler and Pressure Vessel Act

DIN 3171, DIN 4661, DIN 4810 and EN 962

German Organisation for Technical Standards in the Gas and Water Industries (DVGW): DVGW Worksheet W 314

TRD Technical Rules for Steam Boilers

German Federation of Technical Supervision Associations

Regulations of shipbuilding classification societies, e. g. German Lloyd (GL)

NPSH

The term NPSH is the abbreviation of "net positive suction head" and is an important factor in evaluating the suction characteristics of a centrifugal pump. It allows a prediction to be made regarding the safety margin required to avoid the effects of cavitation during operation.

In the EN 12723 standard the German term "Haltedruckhöhe (retaining pressure head)" is used as a synonym for NPSH. As different reference levels are defined for the two terms, their numerical value can differ by zs (difference in geodetic head between reference levels s and s'). In practice, only the NPSH value is used.

As the fluid flows through the centrifugal pump's impeller, the static pressure – relative to the pressure upstream of the impeller – will drop, especially at the inlet to the vane passage. The extent of the pressure drop depends on the rotational speed, the fluid density and viscosity, the impeller’s inlet geometry, the operating point and the velocity profile of the approach flow.

In order to avoid cavitation or to limit it to an acceptable level, the pressure upstream of the impeller must exceed the vapour pressure level of the fluid handled by a specified minimum margin. Assessing the likelihood of occurrence, extent and impact of cavitation in a centrifugal pump requires comparison of two NPSH values: the NPSH required by the pump NPSHr and the NPSH available in the system, NPSHa.

The system's NPSH, i.e. NPSH available (NPSHa) is defined as

system's NPSH, i.e. NPSH available (NPSHa) is defined as Point s refers to the suction nozzle's

Point s refers to the suction nozzle's centre. If the pump's design does not feature a suction nozzle, as is the case with in-line pumps with welded-in pipes (i.e. welded-in pumps) or submersible pumps with bellmouths, a location s which corresponds to the point s in the suction nozzle's centre must be defined and clearly specified when specifying the NPSHa value. See Fig. 1 NPSH

Fig. 1 NPSH: Position of reference points s' for the NPSH value and s for

Fig. 1 NPSH: Position of reference points s' for the NPSH value and s for the "retaining pressure head" (in this example the flow approaches the impeller from below)

The total pressure at point s can be expressed as:

below) The total pressure at point s can be expressed as: The reference point s' for

The reference point s' for the NPSH value is the impeller’s centre, i.e. the intersection of the pump shaft axis and a plane situated at right angles to the pump shaft passing through the outer points of the vane leading edge. See Fig. 2 NPSH

Fig. 2 NPSH: Position of reference point s' for various types of pump impellers The

Fig. 2 NPSH: Position of

reference point s' for various types of pump impellers

The system's NPSH is thus established as follows:

The system's NPSH is thus established as follows: Inserting the values at the system's inlet cross-section

Inserting the values at the system's inlet cross-section gives:

the values at the system's inlet cross-section gives: The head loss also includes any entry losses

The head loss also includes any entry losses and pressure drops across valves and fittings etc.

NPSH required by the pump (NPSHr)

The definition of the NPSH required by the pump (NPSHr) is similar to that of the system's NPSH, i.e. the symbols in brackets have the same meaning:

NPSH, i.e. the symbols in brackets have the same meaning: However, a significant difference is that

However, a significant difference is that the sum of the parameters defined by the terms in the brackets must not fall below a minimum value (min) specified for a given pump and application.

If this condition is not met, the occurrence of cavitation cannot be ruled out.

When specifying the NPSHr, it is also necessary to provide information on the relevant cavitation criterion. Criteria include:

Incipient cavitation, NPSHi

A certainextent of the cavitation zone on the vanes

Start of head drop as a result of cavitation (NPSH 0 )

Cavitation-induced head drop by 3 % (NPSH 3 )

The first three criteria are less common, and providing evidence for NPSHi requires demanding and expensive testing. For this reason, it is commonly agreed that NPSHr = NPSH 3 .

The cavitation criteria listed above and their related NPSH values are dependent on the operating point. See Fig. 3 NPSH

are dependent on the operating point . See Fig. 3 NPSH Fig. 3 NPSH: NPSHr for

Fig. 3 NPSH: NPSHr for various criteria as a function of the relative flow rate Q/Qshock-free

The illustration shows the curves for NPSHR of a specific impeller as a function of the relative flow rate. The parameters shown are the cavitation phenomena, e. g. the length (Lcav) of the resulting bubble trail (cavitation zone) in relation to the vane spacing or pitch (t) (see Vane cascade).

If the NPSHa curve is also displayed in the diagram, it is possible to determine the type of

cavitation to be expected as a function of flow rate.

The upper curve (NPSHi) indicates incipient cavitation. If NPSHa is higher than NPSHi, cavitation will not develop and the impeller will rotate without the formation of bubbles. The lower the NPSHa value drops, the longer the bubble trail (cavitation zone) will become.

From a minimum level represented in the graph as the intersection of the lines denoting suction- side and discharge-side cavitation, the bubble trail length will increase under low-flow/overload conditions at a constant NPSHa. The flow rate at this minimum level corresponds to the flow direction of shock-free entry which causes the lowest increases in fluid velocity on the pressure side and suction side of the vane. It is therefore referred to as the shock-free flow rate (Qshock- free).

If the flow rate (Q) is lower than the shock-free flow rate (Qshock-free), then cavitation will

develop on the vane's suction side; if the flow rate is higher than the shock-free flow rate, then cavitation will develop on the vane's pressure side.

Establishing NPSHr is largely a matter of testing, in particular when:

Converting the NPSH of the pump from one rotational speed to another

On similar pumps, converting NPSH from one pump size to another

Converting NPSH from one fluid to another (in particular if the fluid contains dissolved or undissolved gas) (see Gas content of fluid handled)

A centrifugal pump's operating point can only be operated at continuously if:

operating point can only be operated at continuously if: The following relationship exists between the NPSH

The following relationship exists between the NPSH value and the German concept of "Haltedruckhöhe” (retaining pressure head) which is no longer used:

Retaining pressure head of the system H HA = NPSHa – z s

Retaining pressure head of the pump H P = NPSHr – z s

In the case of horizontal pumps, there is no difference in height (z s = 0) between the reference

points for NSPH and "retaining pressure head", making the two terms identical. The following coefficients are sometimes used in connection with the NPSH value:

When hydrocarbons or high-temperature water are handled, the NPSH3 value measured is lower than that

When hydrocarbons or high-temperature water are handled, the NPSH3 value measured is lower than that measured for cold water. This means that the required NPSH value for hydrocarbons or hot water can actually be reduced when performing acceptance tests with cold water:

Hydrocarbons in accordance with HI (standards laid down by the Hydraulic Institute, New York)

Hot water See Fig. 4 NPSH

Institute, New York) • Hot water See Fig. 4 NPSH Fig. 4 NPSH: Correction factor f

Fig. 4 NPSH: Correction factor f for NPSH3 when handling hot water (based on KSB measurements)

Head

This term is an important energy concept (EN 12723) in centrifugal pump engineering. A distinction must be made between the pump head and the system head.

The pump head is the hydraulic power or pump output power (P Q ) transmitted to the fluid handled relative to ρ · g · Q.

The sum of all power (positive input, negative output) represented by the pump power output

The sum of all power (positive input, negative output) represented by the pump power output (PQ) must be zero within the boundaries of the system. See Fig. 1 Head

zero within the boundaries of the system. See Fig. 1 Head Fig. 1 Head: Explanation of

Fig. 1 Head: Explanation of

the pump power output PQ = PQ.d – PQ.s = P – Pv.i – Pm

If the expression P Q . d – P Q . s represents the pump

If the expression P Q.d – P Q.s represents the pump power output (P Q ), the useful power output is as follows:

output (P Q ), the useful power output is as follows: According to BERNOULLI (see Fluid

According to BERNOULLI (see Fluid mechanics), the equation for useful power output is:

mechanics ) , the equation for useful power output is: For the pump head, this means:

For the pump head, this means:

for useful power output is: For the pump head, this means: If the fluid handled is

If the fluid handled is compressible, the value for density (ρ) should be defined as the arithmetic mean of the density at the pump discharge nozzle and the density at the pump suction nozzle:

be defined as the arithmetic mean of the density at the pump discharge nozzle and the

The system head can be established in a similar manner, taking into account the head losses (H L ):

manner, taking into account the head losses ( H L ): The term geodetic head (H

The term geodetic head (H geo ) is sometimes used to designate the system head. It refers to the difference in elevation, or height, between the system's outlet cross-section (A a ) and the system's inlet cross-section (A e ):

a ) and the system's inlet cross-section (A e ): Under steady-state conditions (rotational speed (n)

Under steady-state conditions (rotational speed (n) = constant), the pump head is equal to the system head.

(n) = constant), the pump head is equal to the system head. The unit of head

The unit of head is metres (m). The following expressions are also used in conjunction with the term head.

Heads and their significance

Head at BEP (H opt ): pump head at the best efficiency point

Nominal head (H N ): pump head for which the pump has been designed

Upper head limit (H max ): max. permissible head at which the pump can be continuously operated without suffering damage

Lower head limit (H min ): min. permissible head at which the pump can be operated without suffering damage

Shut-off head (H 0 ): head for a flow rate Q = 0 m 3 /s

Peak head (Hpeak): head at apex (relative maximum) of an unstable H/Q curve, see Fig. 4 Characteristic curve

Static head (H A,0 or H stat ): the portion of the system head (see System characteristic curve and Characteristic curve) which is independent of the flow rate (Q)

magnitudes relating to the system head Hsys Fig. 2 Head: Illustration of the Fitting Fittings
magnitudes relating to the system head Hsys Fig. 2 Head: Illustration of the Fitting Fittings

magnitudes relating to the system head Hsys

Fig. 2 Head: Illustration of the

Fitting

Fittings in a centrifugal pump system comprise all piping components which function to change the piping's direction, to install piping branches, and/or to provide a transition between different pipe cross-sections.

Fittings should be shaped to offer the least possible resistance to flow in order to minimise pressure losses (see system head); where this involves increased manufacturing costs, these should be weighed against the corresponding gains in economic efficiency.

Common fittings:

Pipe bends

Pipe bends should have a radius of curvature of R > 2 2· D + 100 +100 mm (D = pipe diameter) particularly if they are fitted immediately upstream of pump suction nozzles. Pipe bends fabricated from cylindrical segments welded together should consist of at least six segments for a 90° bend. See Fig. 1 Fitting

Y-branch Fig. 1 Fitting: 90° pipe bend • Y-branches' fluid dynamic characteristics make them preferable

Y-branch

Fig. 1 Fitting: 90° pipe bend

Y-branches' fluid dynamic characteristics make them preferable to tees. See Fig. 2 Fitting

make them preferable to tees. See Fig. 2 Fitting Diffusor Fig. 2 Fitting: Y-branch • Its

Diffusor

Fig. 2 Fitting: Y-branch

Its face-to-face length (L) should be approximately L = 5 · (D 2 – D 1 )

(D = pipe diameter) when used as a diffuser in flow direction. Diffuser outlets (e.g. in the case of low-lift pumping stations and pumps for use in low-lift pumping stations should be sized such

that the discharge velocity (v) (see Flow velocity) is 1.0 to 1.5 SPdL m See Fig. 3 Fitting

s SPdL.

Nozzle-shaped reducer

In contrast to a diffuser, the face-to-face length of a fitting used as a reducer can be much shorter. A nozzle-shaped reducer features favourable flow characteristics. See Fig. 4 Fitting

favourable flow characteristics. See Fig. 4 Fitting reducer Reducer for avoiding air pockets Fig. 4 Fitting:

reducer

Reducer for avoiding air pockets

Fig. 4 Fitting: Nozzle-shaped

Eccentric reducers should be installed in horizontal suction lines to avoid the formation of air pockets (see Formation of air pockets). See Fig. 5 Fitting

of air pockets (see Formation of air pockets ) . See Fig. 5 Fitting avoiding air

avoiding air pockets

Fig. 5 Fitting: Reducer for

Branch fitting for avoiding air pockets

Eccentric branch fittings should be installed in horizontal suction lines to avoid the formation of air pockets. See Fig. 6 Fitting

For further fittings see bellmouth, intake chamber and intake elbow (see Inlet conditions).

Bellmouth

A bellmouth, also called a suction bellmouth in connection with centrifugal pumps, is a nozzle-

shaped inlet casing component (see Fitting), often employed with vertical tubular casing pumps. The flow acceleration resultant of the bellmouth's shape minimises irregularities in the velocity distribution. Even velocity distribution ensures a uniform approach flow (see Inlet conditions); this is especially important for high specific speed pumps (see Specific speed).

In the case of vortex flow at the inlet, a flow straightener should be fitted to provide a degree of

flow straightening. See Fig. 1 Bellmouth

a degree of flow straightening. See Fig. 1 Bellmouth Fig. 1 Bellmouth: High specific speed pump

Fig. 1 Bellmouth: High

specific speed pump with bellmouth and flow straightener

If pre-swirl control has been provided downstream, there is no need to fit a flow straightener in

the bellmouth. See Fig. 2 Bellmouth

Fig. 2 Bellmouth: High specific speed pump with bellmouth and pre-swirl control Intake chamber The

Fig. 2 Bellmouth: High

specific speed pump with bellmouth and pre-swirl control

Intake chamber

The intake chamber is often referred to as a pump sump. It is a collecting chamber situated directly upstream of a centrifugal pump, through which the fluid handled, usually water, flows towards the pump. This ensures that the approach flow towards the centrifugal pump is evenly balanced on all sides and free of turbulence (see Inlet conditions). Such a smooth, disturbance- free approach flow is indispensable for high specific speed tubular casing pumps with propellers or mixed flow impellers because these pumps respond immediately to irregularities and disturbances in the approach flow. A simple intake chamber design is all that is required to avoid damage from cavitation and vibrations, and a possible drop in pump power output or pump efficiency caused by irregular approach flows. The risk of air-entraining vortices being sucked in from the water surface is avoided by ensuring that water levels in the intake chamber are sufficient. The required excavation depth depends on the intake chamber's design and shape. See Fig. 1

Intake chamber chamber: Four different intake chamber designs Fig. 1 Intake Intake chambers have a

Intake chamber chamber: Four different intake chamber designs

Fig. 1 Intake

Intake chambers have a simple structural shape with a rectangular floor plan. A comparison of the four different intake chamber designs reveals that, given an identical flow rate, design variant I requires the highest minimum water level, variant IV the lowest. The designs I, II and III are open intake chambers suitable for axially parallel approach flow. Design variant IV with a splitter is also suitable for perpendicular approach flow. In the case of complex inlet conditions, model tests are advisable.

A disturbance-free approach flow can also be achieved using intake elbows. Economic efficiency

should be calculated when deciding whether an intake chamber should be provided. They are often built for vertical cooling water pumps.

In power stations, operational reliability is of crucial importance for pump availability. The

intake chamber therefore represents a structural unit which must be designed and built with great care.

Intake chambers are also employed in irrigation and drainage stations where simple designs can significantly reduce construction costs

Head loss

Head losses are a result of wall friction in all types of pipelines and of local resistance to flow, for example in valves and fittings (see also Pressure loss).

Recommended flow velocities

For cold water:

Suction line 0.7-1.5 m/s Discharge line 1.0-2.0 m/s

For hot water:

Suction line 0.5-1.0 m/s Discharge line 1.5-3.5 m/s

Head loss in a pipe The equation for the head loss of a flow in a straight length of piping with circular cross-section is:

a straight length of piping with circular cross-section is: λ Pipe friction factor L Pipe length

λ

Pipe friction factor

L

Pipe length in m

d

Pipe inside diameter in m

v

Flow velocity in a cross-section in m/s (= 4 Q / π d 2 with Q in m 3 /s)

g

Gravitational constant in m/s 2

see

Fig. 1 and 4 Head loss

The pipe friction factor was established experimentally. It is only dependent on the state of flow

of the fluid handled and of the relative roughness (d/k) of the pipes through which the fluid is

flowing. For non-circular pipe cross-sections the equivalent diameter in fluid-mechanical terms (d) applies:

equivalent diameter in fluid-mechanical terms (d) applies: A Cross-section in m 2 U Wetted cross-section

A

Cross-section in m 2

U

Wetted cross-section circumference in m (the free surface of an open channel is not considered)

The

state of flow is determined by the Reynolds number (Re) according to the affinity laws. The

following applies to circular pipes:

the affinity laws. The following applies to circular pipes: Flow velocity in a cross-section in m/s

Flow velocity in a cross-section in m/s (= 4 Q / π d2 with Q in m 3 /s)

v

Kinematic viscosity in m 2 /s (for water at 20 °C: 1.00 · 10 - 6 m 2 /s)

ν

Pipe inside diameter in m

d

See Fig. 4 Head loss

For hydraulically smooth pipes such as smooth drawn metal or plastic piping (e. g. PE or PVC), or in the case of laminar flow, the pipe friction factor (λ) can be calculated. For laminar flow in a pipe with a Reynolds number smaller than 2320 the pipe friction factor is independent of roughness:

2320 the pipe friction factor is independent of roughness: If flow is turbulent, or the Reynolds

If flow is turbulent, or the Reynolds number higher than 2320, the pipe friction factor in hydraulically smooth pipes can be represented by an empirical equation according to Eck (due to the fact that deviations are below 1 % if the Reynolds number is lower than 10 8 ).

below 1 % if the Reynolds number is lower than 10 8 ). The pipe friction

The pipe friction factor (λ) also depends on a further dimensionless parameter, i.e. on the relative roughness of the pipe's inner surface (d/k). Both must be specified in the same unit (e. g. mm).

See Fig. 1 Head loss

(k) is the mean absolute roughness of the pipe inner surface for which approximate values are available depending on the material and manufacturing processes. See Fig. 2 Head loss

Fig. 2 Head loss: Estimates of mean peak-to-valley heights k (absolute roughness) of pipes Above

Fig. 2

Head loss: Estimates of mean peak-to-valley heights k (absolute roughness) of pipes

Above the limit curve, the pipe friction factor (λ) is solely dependent on the pipe's relative roughness (d/k). See Fig. 1 Head loss

The following empirical equation by Moody can be used for this region:

relative roughness (d/k). See Fig. 1 Head loss The following empirical equation by Moody can be

For practical use, the head loss (H L ) per 100 m of straight steel pipe is shown in the diagram as a function of the flow rate (Q) and pipe inside diameter (d). See Fig. 3 Head loss

The values are valid only for cold, clean water or for fluids with the same kinematic viscosity, for completely filled pipes and for absolute roughness of the pipe inner surface of k = 0.05 mm. Dimensions, weights, water fill for new seamless or longitudinally welded steel pipes See Annex, Head loss, Fig. 4

The effect of an increased surface roughness k will be demonstrated in the following for a

frequently used set of parameter ranges (nominal diameter DN = 50 to 300, flow velocity v = 0.8

to 3.0 m/s). See Fig. 3 Head loss

The light blue region corresponds to the similarly marked region for an absolute mean roughness

of k = 0.05 mm.

See Fig. 1 Head loss

For a roughness increased by a factor of 6 (slightly incrusted old steel pipe with k = 0.30 = 300 μm (0.30 mm), the pipe friction factors (and the associated proportional head losses) in the dark blue region are only 25 - 60 % higher than before. See Fig. 1 Head loss

For sewage pipes the increased roughness caused by soiling must be taken into consideration. For pipes subject to extreme incrustation, the actual head loss can only be determined experimentally. Deviations from the nominal diameter change the head loss considerably, as the pipe inside diameter features in the equation to the 5th power.

A

5 % reduction of the inside diameter, for example, leads to an increase in head loss by as much

as

30 %. It is therefore important that the internal diameter is not simply replaced with the

nominal diameter in the calculations.

The head losses in plastic pipes or smooth drawn metal piping are very low thanks to the smooth pipe surfaces. The head losses established are valid for water at 10 °C. At other temperatures, the loss for plastic pipes must be multiplied by a specified temperature correction factor to account for their larger thermal expansion. For sewage or other untreated water, an additional 20-30 % head loss should be taken into account for potential deposits.

Head losses for plastic and smooth drawn metal pipes

See Annex, Head loss, Fig. 5

Head losses in valves and fittings

The head loss (H L ) in valves and fittings is given by:

Annex, Head loss, Fig. 5 Head losses in valves and fittings The head loss (H L

ζ Loss coefficient See Figs. 6 to 12 Head loss

v Flow velocity in a characteristic cross-sectional area A (e. g. at the nozzle) in m/s g Gravitational constant 9.81 m/s 2

A (e. g. at the nozzle) in m/s g Gravitational constant 9.81 m/s 2 diagram of

diagram of valve designs

Fig. 6 Head loss: Schematic

Fig. 11 Head loss: Influence on the loss coefficient ζ of rounding off the inner

Fig. 11 Head loss: Influence on the loss coefficient ζ of rounding off the inner and outer side of elbows in square ducts

off the inner and o uter side of elbows in square ducts Fig. 12 Head loss:

Fig. 12 Head loss: Loss coefficients ζ for butterfly, globe and gate valves depending on the degree of opening

The losses attributable to the straightening of the flow disturbances over a pipe length equivalent to 12 x DN downstream of the valve are included in the loss coefficients in accordance with the VDI/VDE 2173 guideline. The values apply to valves which have a steady approach flow, are fully opened and operated with cold water. Depending on the inlet and outlet flow conditions, the valve models and development objectives (i. e. inexpensive or energy-saving valves), the loss values can vary dramatically. See Annex, Head loss, Fig. 7

Often the k v value is used instead of the loss coefficient (ζ) when calculating the pressure loss for water in valves:

when calculating the pressure loss for water in valves: The k v value is the flow

The k v value is the flow rate in m 3 /h which would result from a pressure drop p v = 1 bar through the valve for cold water. It describes the correlation between the pressure loss (p L ) in bar and the flow rate (Q) in m 3 /h. Conversion to flow coefficient ζ for cold water:

3 /h. Conversion to flow coefficient ζ for cold water: d Reference (nominal) diameter of the

d Reference (nominal) diameter of the valve in cm

For the calculation of head losses in fittings, branch fittings and adapters require a different approach. See Figs. 9 and 10 Head loss

Fig. 9 Head loss: Loss coefficients ζ for fittings 10 Head loss: Loss coefficients ζ

Fig. 9 Head loss: Loss

Fig. 9 Head loss: Loss coefficients ζ for fittings 10 Head loss: Loss coefficients ζ for

coefficients ζ for fittings 10 Head loss: Loss coefficients ζ for adapters

Fig.

For all fittings a differentiation must be made between two forms of pressure loss:

Irreversible pressure losses (reduction in pressure)

of pressure loss: • Irreversible pressure losses (reduction in pressure) p v ζ Loss coefficient Pressure

p v

ζ Loss coefficient

Pressure loss in Pa

ρ

Density in kg/m 3

v

Flow velocity in a cross-section in m/s

Reversible pressure changes of the frictionless flow according to Bernoulli's equation

 
 

For

accelerated flows such as reductions in the pipe diameter, (p 2 − p 1 ) is always negative; for

decelerated flows such as pipe expansions, it is always positive. When calculating the net pressure change as the arithmetic sum of p L and (p 2 − p 1 ), the irreversible pressure losses must always be subtracted.

Influence of highly viscous fluids on the system characteristic curve

As the laws of fluid dynamics retain their validity for all Newtonian fluids, the equations and diagrams for calculating the pipe friction factors and loss coefficients for valves are also applicable to viscous fluids with a higher viscosity than water.

When calculating the Reynolds number Re = v · d / ν , one must simply substitute the kinematic viscosity of the viscous fluids ν z for the water viscosity ν z .

This yields a lower Re number and, according to Fig. 1 Head loss, a larger pipe friction coefficient λ z (Note: the influence of the wall roughness can now often be ignored because of the larger boundary layer thickness in the flow). All of the pressure losses in the pipes and valves calculated for water are to be extrapolated using the ratio λ z w .

Figure 13 Head loss is also suitable for general practical use: the pipe friction factor λ z can be determined quickly as a function of the flow rate Q, pipe inside diameter d and kinematic viscosity ν z . It must be kept in mind, however, that the coefficient λ w in this diagram is only valid for hydraulically smooth pipes (i.e. not for rough pipes)! The corresponding λ w can be used to calculate the ratio λ z w .

As the static component of the system characteristic curve H sys , see Fig. 1 System characteristic curve and Fig. 2 Head, is not affected by viscosity, the dynamic component of the system characteristic curve for water can be redrawn as a steeper parabola for a viscous fluid.

Influence of non-Newtonian fluids on the system characteristic curve

As the flow curves are not straight lines of constant linear viscosity, the calculation of the head losses is very cumbersome. In this case, loss calculation is based on experience with particular fluids.

Axial thrust

The axial thrust is the resultant force of all the axial forces (F) acting on the pump rotor. See Fig. 1 Axial thrust

(F) acting on the pump rotor. See Fig. 1 Axial thrust forces in a single-stage centrifugal

forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump

Fig. 1 Axial thrust: Axial

Axial forces acting on the rotor in the case of a single-stage centrifugal pump

The axial impeller force (F1) is the difference between the axial forces on the discharge-side (F d ) and suction-side (Fs) impeller shroud F 1 = F d – F s

Momentum (FJ) is a force which constantly acts on the fluid contained in a defined space (see Principle of conservation of momentum, Fluid mechanics). It is calculated as follows:

F J = ρ · Q · ΔV ax Q Flow rate ρ Density of the fluid handled ΔV ax Difference between the axial components of the absolute velocity at the impeller inlet and outlet

The resultant pressure forces arising from the static pressures up- and downstream of the shaft seal (ss) on the relevant shaft cross-section Ass: F Wd = A Wd · Δp Wd

Special axial forces, e.g. when changes to the vortex conditions in the clearances between impeller and casing (side gaps) occur during the start-up process (see Disc friction)

Other axial forces such as the force of the rotor weight (F W ) on non-horizontal centrifugal pumps or magnetic pull in the electric motor (F mech ), e.g. in close-coupled pumps

The axial thrust component (F 1 + F J ) of closed impellers (i. e. with suction-side shrouds) which are not hydraulically balanced is:

The axial thrust coefficient is essentially dependent on the specific speed (n s ). For

The axial thrust coefficient is essentially dependent on the specific speed (n s ). For radial and mixed flow impellers, the following equation applies in the range of 6 < n s < 130 rpm :

applies in the range of 6 < n s < 130 rpm : See Fig. 2

See Fig. 2 Axial thrust

of 6 < n s < 130 rpm : See Fig. 2 Axial thrust Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Axial thrust: Non-

balanced impeller design with conical impeller outlet area

This equation applies to flow rates (Q) of 0.8 · Q opt to 1.0 · Q opt and to the clearance gap width s = 0,1 mm. If the clearance gap width is doubled, α increases by 8 %.

In the case of multistage pumps with diffusers (e. g. boiler feed pumps), the axial impeller force (F 1 ) is largely determined by the impeller's axial position in relation to the diffuser. In the case of open radial impellers with no shrouds on the suction side, the axial force (F s ) is much lower than on closed impellers, meaning that the axial impeller force (F 1 ) is higher.

Open impellers with cut-outs in the impeller shroud between adjoining impeller vanes develop a lower pressure force (F d ), and, consequently, a lower axial force (F 1 ) than impellers with a full discharge side shroud. See Fig. 13 Impeller

For axial propellers, the axial thrust coefficient (α) is almost equal to the degree of reaction (r th ). The axial thrust can then be roughly calculated using the propeller's outside diameter (O D ):

using the propeller's outside diameter (O D ): The following proportionality applies to the F 1

The following proportionality applies to the F 1 component of the axial thrust (See Fig.1 Axial thrust) in the case of geometrically similar pumps at a defined rotational speed (n) and at the largest impeller diameter (D 2 ):

speed (n) and at the largest impeller diameter (D 2 ): The rotation of the fluid

The rotation of the fluid handled in the discharge-side and suction-side clearances between impeller and casing exerts a strong influence on the axial pressure forces (F d ) and (F s ). The mean angular velocity (see Rotational speed) of the rotating fluid handled reaches approx. half the impeller speed.

In addition, as a result of Coriolis accelerations, the inward directed clearance flow in the suction-side (i.e. outer) clearance between impeller and casing (side gap) further increases the side gap turbulences. In the discharge-side (i.e. inner) side gap of multistage pumps whose impellers are not hydraulically balanced, the process is reversed as a result of the outward- directed gap flow. The vortex motion is decelerated resulting in an increase of the axial force F d , and hence of F 1 .

The axial impeller force is higher during the start-up process than during steady-state operation, as during start-up rotation of the fluid handled begins slowly due to disc friction caused by the action of the impeller shrouds or the braking effect of the stationary casing surfaces.

Various forms of axial thrust balancing

Mechanical: complete absorption of the axial thrust via a thrust bearing (e. g. plain bearing, rolling element bearing)

Design-based: back-to-back arrangement of the impellers or stages (see Back-to-back impeller pump) and through the absorption of the residual axial thrust via a thrust bearing

Balancing or reduction of the axial thrust on the individual impeller via balancing holesSee Figs. 7, 9 Axial thrust

Balancing of the complete rotating assembly via a balancing device with automatic balancing (e. g. balance disc and balance disc seat) or partial balancing via a balance drum and double drum

Reduction at the individual impeller by back vanes (dynamic effect) See Fig. 8 Axial thrust

Mechanical axial thrust balancing

The absorption of the axial thrust by a rolling element bearing is the most efficient, cost-effective solution. However, if the absence of special balancing equipment requires the use of particularly complex thrust bearings, these benefits in terms of efficiency and costs may be eliminated.

Design-based axial thrust balancing

In the case of an impeller arrangement in a pipeline pump with four stages, each featuring a 2 x 2 back-to-back arrangement, a maximum of twice the normal axial thrust per stage can occur in the event that system conditions cause cavitation in two stages. See Fig. 5 Axial thrust

If, however, a more complex, parallel-coupled back-to-back impeller arrangement is chosen, only the normal axial thrust per stage occurs. See Fig. 6 Axial thrust

Both pump types must be equipped with thrust bearings of appropriate strength.

Axial thrust elimination

Double-entry impeller arrangement (impeller, double suction pump) See Fig. 3 Axial thrust

Two-stage, back-to-back impeller arrangement (back-to-back and multistage pump, impeller) See Fig. 4 Axial thrust

Multistage, back-to-back mpeller arrangement See Fig. 5 Axial thrust

Parallel-coupled back-to-back impeller arrangement (e. g. pipeline pumps) See Fig. 6 Axial thrust

Fig. 3 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing by double-entry impeller arrangement Fig. 4 Axial thrust:

Fig. 3 Axial thrust: Axial

thrust balancing by double-entry impeller arrangement

Axial thrust balancing by double-entry impeller arrangement Fig. 4 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing by two-stage,

Fig. 4 Axial thrust: Axial

thrust balancing by two-stage, back-to-back impeller arrangement

Fig. 5 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing in a four-stage pipeline pump with two opposed

Fig. 5 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing in a four-stage pipeline pump with two opposed sets of two series-coupled impellers each

with two opposed sets of two series-coupled impellers each Fig. 6 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing

Fig. 6 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing in a four-stage pipeline pump with two sets of parallel-coupled opposed impellers

Axial thrust balancing at the impeller

This is the oldest method for balancing axial thrust and involves reducing the pressure in a chamber equipped with a throttling gap, usually down to the pressure level encountered at the impeller inlet. The pressure is balanced via balancing holes in the impeller.

These balancing holes may lead to variations in axial thrust balancing as a result of varying inlet conditions. See Fig. 7 Axial thrust

Fig. 7 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing in a single-stage centrifugal pump with discharge-side sealing

Fig. 7 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing in a single-stage centrifugal pump with discharge-side sealing clearance and balancing holes

The angular velocity has a dynamic influence on the magnitude of the axial thrust (see Rotational speed). An increase in angular velocity is mostly achieved by back vanes which are radially arranged on the rear side of the impeller.

The higher mean angular velocity of the vortices in the clearance between impeller shroud and casing results in a lower static pressure on the discharge-side impeller shroud. This results in a lower axial force Fd and thus a lower F1. See Fig. 8 Axial thrust

Most radial back vanes are designed with diameters (Dbv o, Dbv i), side space depth (a), vane height (h) and vane number (z) which vary according to requirements. The power absorbed by this method of axial thrust balancing depends on the sizing of the back vanes. The pump efficiency may drop by up to three points due to the back vanes. See Fig. 8 Axial thrust

Fig. 8 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing in a single-stage centrifugal pump with back vanes

Fig. 8 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing in a single-stage centrifugal pump with back vanes

A comparable effect is achieved when the impeller is balanced via the provision of balancing holes at defined areas on the discharge side without fitting a second discharge-side joint ring. The gap flow directed toward the inside creates an angular momentum in the space between the impeller shroud and the casing which increases the local angular velocity and, as a consequence, reduces the static pressure. See Fig. 9 Axial thrust

reduces the static pressure. See Fig. 9 Axial thrust Fig. 9 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing

Fig. 9 Axial thrust: Axial thrust balancing in a single-stage centrifugal pump with balancing holes only

All hydraulic balancing devices are fully effective at optimal flow rate Qopt. Residual forces occurring under low-flow and overload conditions must be absorbed by thrust bearings. See Figs. 7 to 9 Axial thrust

Axial thrust balancing via balancing devices

Available options

Balance disc with balance disc seat and balancing flow return line See Fig. 10 Axial thrust

Balance drum with balancing flow return line and thrust bearing See Fig. 11 Axial thrust

Double drum with balancing fluid return line and thrust bearing See Fig. 12 Axial thrust

For all three types, the balancing flow (see Bypass) is returned to the pump suction nozzle (after being cooled if necessary) or to the centrifugal pump's inlet tank.

In the case of the balance disc, the gap flow (see Clearance gap loss) is low because the self- adjusting axial gap (s) remains very narrow which means that the pump's efficiency is only slightly reduced. However, in the case of the balance drum, the radial clearance gaps are wider and therefore the gap flows are higher, causing a greater drop in efficiency which is then further compounded by the fact that an additional thrust bearing is required. See Fig. 11 Axial thrust