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Below is a catalog of research

terms. We’ve provided definitions
comparisons, case studies and
contextualization of the terms.


pre research clas sification

preliminary basic applied clinical

Preliminary research explores the Basic research involves a search Applied research adapts the Clinical research involves
area within which a research for general principles. Abstract findings of basic research to specific cases, applying the
question may exist. a and general principles cover a classes of problems. Applied findings of basic research and
variety of situations and cases. a research may involve ba ic
s applied research to specific
developing and testing theories plied situations. 1
topic question cli
ca s e for classes of problems. a nical
st udy 9.8
f ig 1 fig 2 stu dy
stu dy

types of research validity
Exploratory research focuses on and
explores the research question. a

phenomenological validity
ways of knowing
1 This type of research focuses on looking at Validity questions are cumulative and build
ca s e
the lived experiences and how the research upon one another . h 4 LEVELS of VALIDITY
st udy

participants interpret their experiences. b
internal validity measures a specific
Versus case whereas external validity generalizes EXTERNAL
Apply to similar situations
practice led beyond the sample studied. h
methodology external and construct validity both
This type of research operates under the generalize BUT construct validity
epistemology is the study of 2 nature of practice (as in discipline-based generalizes to other CONCEPTS whereas Generalize
ca s e
knowledge; the “theory of the st udy practice) and how that can lead to new external validity generalizes to other
underlying methods or grounds of vividways
knowledge. The focus of this is to advance CONTEXTS. h
knowledge.” Epistemology is dealing knowledge about a practice.c
It is possible to have internal validity INTERNAL
more with how we know what we Causal + Correlation
without construct validity, i.e. the concept
know, a philosophical approach.
What does our discipline-specific hermeneutic you use for your study is not what causes
the outcome but there is still a causal
knowledge actually mean? g
This type of research is similar to relationship. h CONCLUSION
Cause + Effect
phenomenological research in that it
3 internal and conclusion validity
epistemology focuses on interpretations and phrasing,
ca s e
st udy both pertain to causal relationships. h
specifically looking at what the underlying
fig 4
meaning of a particular strand of research
findings may represent. d
philosophy of research

This type of research deals with questions
positivism SC I E N C E post positivism
and seeking what it is and why it is, rather
h a r d & q u a n t i tat i v e s o f t & q u a l i tat i v e
ca s e
st udy
than what it ought to be (unlike Normative
research). It isn’t necessarily concerned We can only study what
with the implications of the findings from a we can directly observe Observation is fallible. i
judgement sense. e and measure. i
fig 3
There is no single truth, multiple
methodology is the comparative normative Only science can get at measures and observations must be
study of methods. It’s a more the truth. i correlated in order to better
organized approach to the tangible Normative research moves beyond other understand reality. i
pieces of our discipline-specific 5 more common types of research by
ca s e
knowledge. It’s the collection of st udy seeking more than just knowledge, but Objectivity is a social phenomenon –
making recommendations on ways the Objectivity resides in the
processes or methods that comprise no single individual can see the world
our discipline. a object of study can be improved.f individual scientist. i
as it really is. i

ethical crossing

nuremberg stanford prisons little albert

Using captives as human subjects in Subjects allowed them to physically and Dr. Watson conditioned am infant to fear
e e e
gruesome experiments without consent. j emotional y abuse other participants. k anything white and fluffy. k
Helped us understand physical limits of man Help to better understanding of prisons and Led to major advancement in behavioral
p p p
and used during first space mission. j led to prison reform. k psychology. k

a Research Writing Workshop, Ken Friedman, supplied g Various Authors, Visual Research, supplied class reading 1 “A Privacy Paradox: Social Networking in the United
class reading States,” last modified August 2006,
h Trochim, William M.K. “Introduction to Validity , 2
b Course Notes and “Phenomenological Research,” last excerpted from The Research Methods Knowledge “Logo Design Process and Walkthrough for Vivid Ways,”
modified April 1999, Base.” 2006. last modified March 2009,

“Differences Between Practice-Based and Practice-Led i “Positivism & Post-Positivism,” last modified October 3 “Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology – Case 9:


OU R C E Research,” last modified 2010, 2006, “Hot” Gifts,” last modified 2006,

S d “Qualitative Research in Information Systems,” last

modified September 2010,
j Trochim, William M.K. “ Ethics in Research, excerpted
from The Research Methods Knowledge Base.” 2006.
4 “iTunes Case Study: Managing the Digital Enterprise,”
last modified October 2007,

e “A Carefully Crafted Nuts & Bolts Series of Questions k “Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments,” last 5 Bill Moggridge, Designing Interactions (Massachusetts
Designed to Introduce You to Some Fundamental modified September 2008, Institute of Technology, 2007), 115 — 122
Research Issues & Concepts,” supplied class reading