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Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

Advance Manufacturing Technology


(MDB 4213)
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin | Extension: 7169 | Room 17.03.31

ASSESSMENT

• Course Work 50%


Quizzes: 5%
Individual Assignments: 5%
Group Project: 10%
Test 1 & 2: 30%
Final Examination : 50%
• Total : 100%

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 1


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

Advance Manufacturing Technology (MDB 4213)


Course Outcomes:
At the end of the course, the students should be able to:
1
Identify the technology in advanced machining
processes.
2
Identify the technology in advanced joining and welding
processes.

3 Develop the knowledge in design and fabrication of


Students will be assessed using Bloom’s Taxonomy: additive manufacturing/layer manufacturing.
1. Cognitive/Knowledge
2. Affective/Attitude
3. Psychomotor/Skill
4
Identify the principle of production system and layout for
manufacturing

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 2


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

Advance Manufacturing Technology (Lesson Plan)

1 2-3 4-6 7-9 10 - 12

Advanced Machining Advanced Joining and Rapid tools and Computer Integrated
Introduction Processes Welding Processes Prototyping Manufacturing System
• Advanced Joining • Introduction Cellular manufacturing
o Fundamental of
• Types of machining • Adhesive • Subtractive processes FMS
advance
• Chemical bonding • Additive processes JIT
manufacturing
• Electrochemical • Mechanical • RP System Lean Manufacturing
• Laser / electron beam Joining • Rapid Tooling AI
• Water / abrasive jet • Advanced Welding • Rapid Manufacturing
• Electrical discharge Machining • Friction welding
(EDM) • Friction stir welding
• EDM Wire Cut
• EDM Die Sinker

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 3


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

TWO CATEGORIES OF WELDING PROCESSES 
• Fusion welding ‐ coalescence is accomplished by melting the two parts to be
joined, in some cases adding filler metal to the joint
• Examples: oxyfuel gas welding, arc welding, resistance spot welding,
• Solid state welding ‐ heat and/or pressure are used to achieve coalescence, but
no melting of base metals occurs and no filler metal is added
• Examples: forge welding, diffusion welding, friction welding

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 4


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

Oxyfuel –gas Welding

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Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

INTRODUCTION
• Oxyfuel welding is a welding process
where the heat for fusion is supplied by a
torch using oxygen and a fuel gas.

• Several different fuel gasses can be used.

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 6


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

Oxyacetylene WELDING

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Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

FUEL GASSES
™ Propane (LPG)
™ Natural Gas
™ Acetylene
™ MAPP
™ Hydrogen

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 8


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ACETYLENE (C2H2) 
• Most popular fuel among OFW group because it is capable of higher temperatures than 
any other 
• Up to 3480°C (6300°F)  
• Two stage reaction of acetylene and oxygen:
• First stage reaction (inner cone of flame) 
C2H2 + O2 → 2CO + H2 + heat
• Second stage reaction (outer envelope)
2CO + H2 + 1.5O2 → 2CO2 + H2O + heat

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 9


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

OXYACETYLENE TORCH ‐ OVERVIEW
Š The oxyfuel torch is the handle for holding and 
controlling the system.
Š It the controls the flow rate of the gasses and delivers 
them to the welding tip, or cutting attachment.

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 10


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

OXYACETYLENE TORCH
• Maximum temperature reached at tip of inner cone, while 
outer envelope spreads out and shields work surface from 
atmosphere 
• Shown below is neutral flame of oxyacetylene torch indicating 
temperatures achieved

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 11


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

SAFETY ISSUE IN OAW
• Together, acetylene and oxygen are highly flammable
• C2H2 is colorless and odorless
• It is therefore processed to have characteristic garlic odor
• C2H2 is physically unstable at pressures much above 15 lb/in2 (about 1 atm) 
• Storage cylinders are packed with porous filler material saturated with 
acetone (CH3COCH3)
• Acetone dissolves about 25 times its own volume of acetylene
• Different screw threads are standard on C2H2 and O2 cylinders and hoses to 
avoid accidental connection of wrong gases 

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 12


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

WORKING PRESSURE
Š Oxygen and fuel gas working pressure should be set according to manufactures
recommendations for the job being performed.
Š Potential problems with excessive pressure.
ƒ Harsh flame
ƒ Damaged equipment
ƒ Increased potential of flashback.
Š Potential problems of insufficient pressure.
ƒ Insufficient heat
ƒ Unstable flame
ƒ Increased plugging of welding or cutting tip.

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 13


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

Welding Tip Size
Size selection c hart f o r V ic t or we l d i ng t i ps.

Metal Tip Oxy Acet Acet


T h ic k ness Size Pres su re Pres su re c f h
1/6 4 " 000 5 5 1
1/3 2 " 00 5 5 2
3/6 4 " 00 5 5 2
1/1 6 " 0 5 5 3
5/6 4 " 0 5 5 3
3/3 2 " 1 5 5 5 Example welding tip selection and
1/8" 2 5 5 8 working pressure chart.
3/1 6 " 3 7 7 14
1/4" 4 8 8 21
3/8" 5 9 9 31
1/2" 5 10 10 31
3/4" 6 11 11 41
1" 7 12 12 52
1 - 1/4" 7 12 12 52
2" 8 12 12 65
3" 10 20 14 94
4" 12 23 15 130

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Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

USES
Š Traditionally oxyfuel equipment was used for:
ƒ Brazing
ƒ Fusion welding
ƒ Flame hardening
ƒ Metalizing
ƒ Soldering
ƒ Stress relieving
ƒ Cutting
ƒ Bending
Š New technologies in the GMAW process has almost eliminated the 
need for oxyfuel welding.
ƒ Primary uses today are heating, brazing and cutting.

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Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

THERMIT WELDING (TW)


FW process in which heat for coalescence is produced by
superheated molten metal from the chemical reaction
of thermite
• Thermite = mixture of Al and Fe3O4 fine powders that
produce an exothermic reaction when ignited
• Also used for incendiary bombs
• Filler metal obtained from liquid metal
• Process used for joining, but has more in common with
casting than welding

(1) Thermit ignited; 


(2) crucible tapped, superheated metal flows 
into mold
(3) metal solidifies to produce weld joint

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 16


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

TW  APPLICATIONS
• Joining of railroad rails
• Repair of cracks in large steel castings and forgings
• Weld surface is often smooth enough that no finishing 
is required

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 17


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ARC WELDING (AW)

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Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ARC WELDING (AW)
A fusion welding process in which coalescence of the metals is achieved by the 
heat from an electric arc between an electrode and the work
• Electric energy from the arc produces temperatures ~ 10,000 F (5500 C), hot 
enough to melt any metal
• Most AW processes add filler metal to increase volume and strength of weld 
joint 

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 19


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

WHAT IS AN ELECTRIC ARC?
An electric arc is a discharge of electric current across a gap in a 
circuit 
• It is sustained by an ionized column of gas (plasma) through which 
the current flows 
• To initiate the arc in AW, electrode is brought into contact with 
work and then quickly separated from it by a short distance

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 20


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

SMAW ‐ DC Polarity
Straight Polarity Reverse Polarity

(–) (+)

(+) (–)
Shallow penetration Deeper weld penetration
(thin metal)

AC - Gives pulsing arc


- used for welding thick sections

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 21


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

Arc Welding
PROCESS 
A pool of molten metal is formed near electrode tip, and as electrode is 
moved along joint, molten weld pool solidifies in its wake 

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 22


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

MANUAL ARC WELDING AND ARC TIME
• Problems with manual welding:
• Weld joint quality
• Productivity 
• Arc Time = (time arc is on) divided by (hours worked)
• Also called “arc‐on time”
• Manual welding arc time = 20%
• Machine welding arc time ~ 50%

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 23


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

TWO BASIC TYPES OF AW ELECTRODES

• Consumable – consumed during welding process


• Source of filler metal in arc welding

• Nonconsumable – not consumed during welding process


• Filler metal must be added separately if it is added

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 24


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES
• Forms of consumable electrodes
• Welding rods (a.k.a. sticks) are 9 to 18 inches and 3/8 inch or
less in diameter and must be changed frequently
• Weld wire can be continuously fed from spools with long
lengths of wire, avoiding frequent interruptions
• In both rod and wire forms, electrode is consumed by the arc and
added to weld joint as filler metal

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 25


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

NONCONSUMABLE ELECTRODES
• Made of tungsten which resists melting
• Gradually depleted during welding (vaporization is
principal mechanism)
• Any filler metal must be supplied by a separate wire fed
into weld pool

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 26


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ARC SHIELDING
• At high temperatures in AW, metals are chemically reactive to
oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen in air
• Mechanical properties of joint can be degraded by these
reactions
• To protect operation, arc must be shielded from surrounding
air in AW processes
• Arc shielding is accomplished by:
• Shielding gases, e.g., argon, helium, CO2
• Flux

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 27


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

FLUX
A substance that prevents formation of oxides 
and other contaminants in welding, or 
dissolves them and facilitates removal
• Provides protective atmosphere for welding
• Stabilizes arc
• Reduces spattering

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 28


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

VARIOUS  FLUX  APPLICATION  METHODS
• Pouring granular flux onto welding operation
• Stick electrode coated with flux material that melts during welding to 
cover operation
• Tubular electrodes in which flux is contained in the core and released as 
electrode is consumed

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 29


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

POWER SOURCE IN ARC WELDING
• Direct current (DC) vs. Alternating current (AC)  
• AC machines less expensive to purchase and 
operate, but generally restricted to ferrous 
metals
• DC equipment can be used on all metals and is 
generally noted for better arc control

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 30


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

CONSUMABLE ELECTRODE AW PROCESSES 
• Shielded Metal Arc Welding
• Gas Metal Arc Welding
• Flux‐Cored Arc Welding
• Electrogas Welding
• Submerged Arc Welding

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 31


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

SMAW – SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING
„ Consumable electrode
„ Flux coated rod
„ Flux produces protective gas around weld pool
„ Sometimes called "stick welding“
„ General purpose welding—widely used
„ Thicknesses 1/8” – 3/4”
„ Portable
„ Slag keeps oxygen off weld bead during cooling

Power... Current I (50 - 300 amps)


Voltage V (15 - 45 volts)

Power = VI ≈ 10 kW

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 32


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

SMAW APPLICATIONS
• Used for steels, stainless steels, cast irons, and
certain nonferrous alloys
• Not used or rarely used for aluminum and its
alloys, copper alloys, and titanium

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 33


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

GAS METAL  ARC  WELDING (GMAW)
Uses a consumable bare metal wire as electrode with shielding by flooding arc with a gas
• Wire is fed continuously and automatically from a spool through the welding gun
• Shielding gases include argon and helium for aluminum welding, and CO2 for steel
welding
• Bare electrode wire plus shielding gases eliminate slag on weld bead
• No need for manual grinding and cleaning of slag

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 34


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

• DC reverse polarity - hottest arc

• AC - unstable arc

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Torch


• MIG - Metal Inert Gas
• Consumable wire electrode
• Shielding provided by gas
Groover, M., Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing,, p. 734, 1996
• Double productivity of SMAW
• Easily automated

GMAW – GAS METAL ARC WELDING (MIG)
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 35
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

GMAW ADVANTAGES OVER SMAW
• Better arc time because of continuous wire electrode
• Sticks must be periodically changed in SMAW
• Better use of electrode filler metal than SMAW
• End of stick cannot be used in SMAW
• Higher deposition rates
• Eliminates problem of slag removal
• Can be readily automated

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 36


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

Flux‐Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Adaptation of shielded metal arc welding, to overcome 
limitations of stick electrodes ‐ two versions
• Self‐shielded FCAW ‐ core includes compounds 
that produce shielding gases
• Gas‐shielded FCAW ‐ uses externally applied 
shielding gases
• Electrode is a continuous consumable tubing (in coils)  Presence or absence of externally supplied 
containing flux and other ingredients (e.g.,  alloying  shielding gas distinguishes:
elements) in its core   (1) self‐shielded ‐ core provides ingredients 
for shielding, (2) gas‐shielded ‐ uses 
external shielding gases

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 37


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)
Uses a continuous, consumable bare wire 
electrode, with arc shielding by a cover of 
granular flux 
• Electrode wire is fed automatically from a coil  
• Flux introduced into joint slightly ahead of arc 
by gravity from a hopper
• Completely submerges operation, preventing 
sparks, spatter, and radiation

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 38


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

SAW APPLICATIONS AND PRODUCTS
• Steel fabrication of structural shapes (e.g., I‐beams)
• Seams for large diameter pipes, tanks, and pressure 
vessels
• Welded components for heavy machinery 
• Most steels (except hi C steel) 
• Not good for nonferrous metals

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 39


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

NONCONSUMABLE ELECTRODE PROCESSES 
• Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
• Plasma Arc Welding
• Carbon Arc Welding 
• Stud Welding 

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 40


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW)
Uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and an 
inert gas for arc shielding 
• Melting point of tungsten = 3410°C (6170°F)
• A.k.a. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding 
• In Europe, called "WIG welding" 
• Used with or without a filler metal 
• When filler metal used, it is added to weld pool 
from separate rod or wire
• Applications: aluminum and stainless steel mostly

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 41


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GTAW
Advantages:
• High quality welds for suitable applications
• No spatter because no filler metal through arc
• Little or no post‐weld cleaning because no flux
Disadvantages:
• Generally slower and more costly than consumable electrode 
AW processes

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 42


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

PLASMA  ARC  WELDING (PAW)
Special form of GTAW in which a constricted plasma 
arc is directed at weld area 
• Tungsten electrode is contained in a nozzle that 
focuses a high velocity stream of inert gas (argon) 
into arc region to form a high velocity, intensely hot 
plasma arc stream 
• Temperatures in PAW reach 28,000°C (50,000°F), 
due to constriction of arc, producing a plasma jet of 
small diameter and very high energy density

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 43


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PAW 
Advantages:
• Good arc stability and excellent weld quality
• Better penetration control than other AW processes
• High travel speeds
• Can be used to weld almost any metals
Disadvantages:
• High equipment cost 
• Larger torch size than other AW processes
• Tends to restrict access in some joints

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 44


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

OTHER FUSION WELDING PROCESSES 
FW processes that cannot be classified as arc, resistance, or oxyfuel welding 
• Use unique technologies to develop heat for melting
• Applications are typically unique 
• Processes include:
• Electron beam welding
• Laser beam welding
• Electroslag welding

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 45


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ELECTROGAS WELDING (EGW)
Uses a continuous consumable electrode, flux‐cored wire or bare wire with 
externally supplied shielding gases, and molding shoes to contain molten 
metal
• When flux‐cored electrode wire is used and no external gases are 
supplied, then special case of self‐shielded FCAW  
• When a bare electrode wire used with shielding gases from external 
source, then special case of GMAW  

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 46


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ELECTROGAS WELDING PROCESS
• Electrogas welding using flux‐cored electrode wire:
(a) front view with molding shoe removed for clarity
(b) side view showing molding shoes on both sides

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 47


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ELECTRON BEAM WELDING (EBW)
Fusion welding process in which heat for welding is provided by a highly‐focused, 
high‐intensity stream of electrons striking work surface 
• Electron beam gun operates at:
• High voltage (e.g., 10 to 150 kV typical) to accelerate electrons 
• Beam currents are low (measured in milliamps)
• Power in EBW not exceptional, but power density is 

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 48


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

EBW  VACUUM  CHAMBER
When first developed, EBW had to be carried out in a 
vacuum chamber to minimize disruption of electron beam 
by air molecules 
• Serious inconvenience in production
• Pumpdown time can take as long as an hour 
Three  Vacuum  Levels  in  EBW
1. High‐vacuum welding – welding in same vacuum 
chamber as beam generation to produce highest quality 
weld
2. Medium‐vacuum welding – welding in separate 
chamber but partial vacuum reduces pump‐down time
3. Non‐vacuum welding – welding done at or near 
atmospheric pressure, with work positioned close to 
electron beam generator ‐ requires vacuum divider to 
separate work from beam generator

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 49


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

EBW ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Advantages: Disadvantages:
• High‐quality welds, deep and narrow  High equipment cost
profiles
Precise joint preparation & alignment 
• Limited heat affected zone, low  required
thermal distortion  
• No flux or shielding gases needed Vacuum chamber required Safety 
concern: EBW generates x‐rays

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 50


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

LASER BEAM WELDING (LBW)
Fusion welding process in which coalescence is achieved by energy of 
a highly concentrated, coherent light beam focused on joint
• LBW normally performed with shielding gases to prevent oxidation
• Filler metal not usually added
• High power density in small area
• So LBW often used for small parts

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 51


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

„ Laser beam produced by a CO2 or YAG Laser
„ High penetration, high‐speed process 
„ Concentrated heat = low distortion
„ Laser can be shaped/focused & pulsed on/off
„ Typically automated & high speed (up to 250 fpm)
„ Workpieces up to 1” thick

Typical laser welding applications :


„ Catheters & Other Medical Devices 
„ Small Parts and Components 
„ Fine Wires 
„ Jewelry 
„ Small Sensors 
„ Thin Sheet Materials Down To 0.001" Thick

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 52


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

COMPARISON: LBW VS. EBW
• No vacuum chamber required for LBW
• No x‐rays emitted in LBW
• Laser beams can be focused and directed by optical lenses and mirrors
• LBW not capable of the deep welds and high depth‐to‐width ratios of
EBW
• Maximum LBW depth = ~ 19 mm (3/4 in), whereas EBW depths = 50
mm (2 in)

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 53


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

WELD QUALITY & WELD TESTING

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 54


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

EACH WELDMENT SHOULD BE:


• Adequately Designed to meet the intended service for the
required life
• Fabricated with specified materials and in accordance
with the design concepts
• Operated and maintained properly

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 55


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

WELDS ARE EXAMINED IN REGARD TO:


• Size
• Shape
• Contour
• Soundness
• Other Features as Specified

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 56


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213
Welding Code

EFFECT OF DISCONTINUITIES ON PROPERTIES
• Discontinuities in a welded joint can 
influence mechanical properties
• Codes establish size limits for 
acceptable discontinuities
• Discontinuities unacceptable by a 
given code are called defects and 
are subject to repair

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 57


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

CLASSIFICATION OF WELD JOINT 
DISCONTINUITIES
• Welding Process or Procedure Related Discontinuities
• Metallurgical Discontinuities
• Design Related Discontinuities

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 58


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

CLASSIFICATION OF WELD JOINT DISCONTINUITIES
Welding Process or Procedure Related Discontinuities
Geometric Other
•Misalignment •Arc Strikes
•Undercut •Slag Inclusions
•Concavity or Convexity •Tungsten Inclusions
•Excessive Reinforcement •Oxide Films
•Improper Reinforcement •Spatter
•Overlap •Arc Craters
•Burn-through
•Backing left on
•Incomplete Penetration
•Lack of Fusion
•Shrinkage
•Surface Irregularities
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 59
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

CLASSIFICATION OF WELD JOINT DISCONTINUITIES
Metallurgical Discontinuities
Cracks or Fissures Weld Metal & HAZ Segregation
•Hot
•Cold or Delayed Heat-Affected Zone
•Reheat Microstructural Alterations
•Stress-Relief
•Strain-age
•Lamellar Tearing
Base Plate Laminations
Porosity
•Spherical
•Elongated
•Worm-hole
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 60
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

CLASSIFICATION OF WELD JOINT DISCONTINUITIES
Design Related Discontinuities

Changes in Section & Other Stress Concentrators

Weld Joint Type

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 61


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213
Welding Discontinuities

POROSITY
• Porosity is the entrapment of small 
volumes of gas in solidifying weld 
metal
• Prevention
• Drying consumables
• Cleaning, degreasing material being 
welded
• Electrode or filler metals with higher 
level of deoxidants
• Sealing air leaks, reducing excess 
shielding gas flow

0.1.1.4.2.T7.95.12
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 62
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

SLAG INCLUSIONS
• Slag inclusions are irregularly shaped, 
not spherical like porosity
• Prevention
• Position work and/or change 
electrode/flux to increase slag control
• Better slag removal between passes
• Dress weld surface smooth if it is likely to 
cause slag traps
• Remove heavy mill scale on plate

0.1.1.4.2.T8.95.12
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 63
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

LACK OF FUSION
• Lack of fusion is caused by 
incorrect welding conditions
• Prevention
• Procedure for complete fusion should 
be verified by testing
• Increased energy input
• Correct electrode angle and work 
position

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 64


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

INCOMPLETE ROOT PENETRATION
• Incomplete root penetration can be 
caused by
• Excessively thick root face, insufficient root 
gap
• Incorrect welding conditions
• Misalignment of second weld
• Prevention
• Improved joint preparation
• Test weld verifications for correct 
parameters
• Reassessment of back gouging

0.1.1.4.2.T10.95.12
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 65
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

OVERLAP
• Overlap is an imperfection at the 
weld toe or root caused by metal 
flowing onto the surface of the base 
metal without fusing to it
• Prevention
• Adjust electrode manipulation to 
ensure fusion of base metal
• Limit size of fillet to 9‐mm leg length

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 66


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213
Welding Discontinuities

Undercut
• Undercut is an irregular groove at the weld toe in the 
parent metal or previous pass caused by
• excessive weaving
• melting of top edge of fillet weld with high current
• Prevention
• Weld in flat position
• Change shielding gas to one which produces better wetting
• Terminate welds so they don’t finish at a free edge

0.1.1.4.2.T12.95.12
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 67
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

EXCESSIVE PENETRATION
• Excessive penetration is caused by 
• Incorrect assembly or preparation
• Edge preparation too thin to support 
weld underbead
• Excessive root gap
• Energy input too high
• Lack of operator skill
• Prevention
• Control of preparation, backing bars

0.1.1.4.2.T13.95.12
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 68
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

ROOT CONCAVITY
• Root concavity is caused by 
• Excessively thick root face
• Insufficient arc energy for penetration
• Excessive backing gas pressure
• Prevention
• Reduce root face thickness, control backing 
gas pressure
• Establish a procedure by test welding

0.1.1.4.2.T14.95.12
A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 69
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

SPATTER
• Spatter consists of small droplets of 
electrode material that land beside 
the weld and may or may not fuse to 
the base material
• Prevention
• Reduce energy input
• Shorter arc length
• Reposition current return clamp 
to reduce magnetic arc blow or 
switch to AC current

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 70


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

Weld Test Samples Help Reveal


Discontinuities and Defects

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 71


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213
Fatigue Design

FATIGUE APPEARANCE
• Distinct fracture surface 
has a characteristic texture
• Concentric line pattern
• Smooth portion 
referred to as clamshell 
texture
multiple initiation sites

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 72


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

WELD JOINT DESIGN
• Refers to the way pieces of metal  A. Butt Joint
are put together or aligned with 
each other B. Lap Joint

• The five (5) basic weld joint  C. Tee Joint


designs
D. Corner Joint
E. Edge Joint

A.P. Dr.
Welding Shahrul
Joint Design &Kamaruddin Jan #5
Welding Symbols – Chapter 2018 Page 73
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

A.P. Dr.
Welding Shahrul
Joint Design &Kamaruddin Jan #5
Welding Symbols – Chapter 2018 Page 74
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

SOME CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING A TYPE 
OF JOINT TO USE ON A FABRICATION:
• Accessibility for welding
• Strength requirements
• Cyclic or static loading
• Material thickness
• Welding process to be used
• Material type
• Code Requirements
• Cost
A.P. Dr.
Welding Shahrul
Joint Design &Kamaruddin Jan #5
Welding Symbols – Chapter 2018 Page 75
Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

References
me.emu.edu.tr/behzad/5GAS%20welding.ppt
me.emu.edu.tr/behzad/2FUSION%20WELDING.ppt
Kalpakjian, Schmid, Sekar, Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2014
www.gatewaycoalition.org/.../8%20Weld%20Quality%20&%20Weld%20Testin
g.ppt
https://www.glenrosearkansasffa.com/weldtech.ppt
www.gatewaycoalition.org/.../8%20Weld%20Quality%20&%20Weld%20Testin
g.ppt

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 76


Advance Manufacturing Technology MDB 4213

A.P. Dr. Shahrul Kamaruddin Jan 2018 Page 77