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APPLICATION OF SMART STRUCTURE CONCEPT

IN CIVIL ENGINEERING: IMPLEMENTATION AND


FUTURE SCOPE.
L.Y.B.TECH SEMINAR REPORT

Submitted to Government College of Engineering, Jalgaon In Partial Fulfilment of the


Requirement of the Degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In Civil Engineering

By
JOSHI PRACHI SUNIL
(1451024)

Guide
Prof. V.T.PATIL

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, JALGAON 425002
DEC 2017
GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, JALGAON 425002

Department Of Civil Engineering

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project/ dissertation entitled, “APPLICATION OF


SMART STRUCTURE CONCEPT IN CIVIL ENGINEERING:
IMPLEMENTATION AND FUTURE SCOPE”, which is being submitted herewith for
the award of B.TECH. is the result of the work completed by PRACHI S. JOSHI under
my supervision and guidance within the four walls of the institute and the same has not
been submitted elsewhere for the award of any degree.

Prof. V.T.Patil DR. S. S. PUSADKAR


Associate Professor in Electronics Head of Civil Department
Guide

Prof. Dr. R. P. Borkar


Principal
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project/ dissertation entitled, “APPLICATION OF SMART


STRUCTURE CONCEPT IN CIVIL ENGINEERING: IMPLEMENTATION AND
FUTURE SCOPE” was carried out and written by me/ us under the guidance of Prof
V.T.Patil, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Govt. College of
Engineering, Jalgaon. This work has not been previously formed the basis for the award of
any degree or diploma or certificate nor has been submitted elsewhere for the award of any
degree or diploma.

Place: Jalgaon JOSHI PRACHI SUNIL

Date:
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 General

Smart structures trace their origin to a field of research which envisioned devices and
materials that could mimic human muscular and nervous systems. The idea is to produce
non biological structures that will achieve the optimum functionality observed in biological
systems through emulation of their adaptive capabilities and integrated design. We can
trace the concept of smart structures was originated in the field of aerospace engineering,
where the smart structural system was defined as “a system that can detect damage, restrain
damage propagation, control the response from external disturbances actively, and adapt its
configuration to optimum state for the environment.” A smart structure can adapt to the
changing environmental conditions. Smart materials are used to construct these smart
structures, which can perform both sensing and actuation functions. These structures
consist of sensors and actuators that are either embedded in, or attached to a structure, to
form an integral part of the structure. The structure or material and its related components
form a system that will react in a predicted manner and in a pattern that emulates biological
function.
The definition of smart structures was a topic of controversy from the late 1970’s
to the late 1980’s. In order to arrive at a consensus for major terminology, a special
workshop was organized by the US Army Research Office in 1988, in which ‘sensors’,
‘actuators’, ‘control mechanism’ and ‘timely response’ were recognized as the four
qualifying features of any smart system or structure (Rogers, 1988). In this workshop,
following definition of smart systems/ structures was formally adopted (Ahmad, 1988).

“A system or material which has built-in or intrinsic sensor(s), actuator(s) and control
mechanism(s) whereby it is capable of sensing a stimulus, responding to it in a
predetermined manner and extent, in a short/ appropriate time, and reverting to its
original state as soon as the stimulus is removed”

In the last few years, research has been conducted in the area of advanced composites to be
used as smart materials for smart structures. Smart structures and materials are defined as
systems which have two basic functions: the first is to sense any external stimuli and the
second to respond to those stimuli in some appropriate ways in real or near real time. This
intelligent health monitoring is very beneficial to aerospace, mechanical or civil structures.
The use of advanced composites for reinforcement as well as for sensing and actuating
purposes combined with sophisticated data acquisition and monitoring apparatus has been
proposed.
By its nature, the technology of smart materials and structures is a highly interdisciplinary
field encompassing basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mechanics, computing and
electronics as well as applied sciences and engineering such as aeronautics and mechanical
engineering. This may explain the slow progress of the applications of smart structures in
engineering systems even if the science of smart materials is moving very fast. The many
research have been done on the smart structures and they mainly focused on Concept and
performance evaluation, Sensing of structure performance and the Development and
evaluation of smart structural elements. The objectives and needs of a smart structural
system for building engineering are different from those for aerospace engineering. The
design philosophy in building engineering is to put smart functions to a structure to achieve
objective performance at minimum life cycle cost. Structure must be safe in rare events,
such as strong winds or an earthquake. Free-maintenance is desirable. And the research
needs are the development of a system effective for objective performance and structural
health monitoring.
In conjunction with smart or intelligent structures, Rogers (1990) defined following
additional terms, which are meant to classify the smart structures further, based on the
level of sophistication. . The relationship between these structure types is clearly
explained in Fig. 1

(a) Sensory Structures: These structures possess sensors that enable the
determination or monitoring of system states/ characteristics.
(b) Adaptive Structures: These structures possess actuators that enable the
alteration of system states or characteristics in a controlled manner.
(c) Controlled Structures: These result from the intersection of the sensory and
the adaptive structures. These possess both sensors and actuators integrated in
feedback architecture for the purpose of controlling the system states or characteristics.
(d) Active Structures: These structures possess both sensors and actuators that
are highly integrated into the structure and exhibit structural functionality in addition to
control functionality.
(e) Intelligent Structures: These structures are basically active structures
possessing highly integrated control logic and electronics that provides the cognitive
element of distributed or hierarchic control architecture.

1.2 Need of smart structures

Moving from academic research into practice, the conception of smart civil structures is
perhaps becoming the most challenging innovation that pushes modern structural
engineers to face problems and techniques that will most likely produce a deep change to a
very long tradition. To say the truth, this revolution in structural engineering, after nearly
twenty years since the first actively controlled buildings have been realized in Japan [1],
has been announced for a long time but, despite of the very extensive research activity that
has been performed on smart structures, still we don’t see any real sign of its impact on
today’s practice.
The traditional design approach has chained the structures to an inherently small material
damping, fixed ductility and total dependence on stiffness to resist loads. The ever-
changing environmental excitations have placed questions on resilience of modern
structures and there will be a time when conventionally designed structures will no longer
be able to provide life safety. Smart structures on the other-hand exhibit smart materials
and adaptive systems that can automatically adjust themselves to improbable
environmental changes. A smart structure has the ability to sense any change in the
environment or system, diagnose any problem at critical locations, store and process
measured data, and command appropriate action to improve system performance and to
preserve structural integrity, safety, and serviceability.

Structures are subjected to geophysical and man-made loads during their service life. When
the magnitude of these loads exceed the capacity or strength of the structures, they are
likely to be damaged. Sometimes the strength of a structure is reduced because of the use
of substandard materials in its construction or due to the application of additional load
because of change in functioning or due to seismic forces for which the structure had not
been designed originally. These situations warrant strengthening or up-gradation of the
structure to carry the enhanced loading. Considering the economy of putting up another
new structure in place of the damaged structures with the associated loss of revenue due to
interruption in the functioning of the structure as well as economic and environmental
factors, a decision to repair the structure becomes essential. Today’s buildings are too
inefficient. They have relied on multiple systems for lighting, heating and other necessities
with each one operating independently of the other, as if in silos. This has come at the
expense of energy, building use and cost-effectiveness. Smart buildings promise to
improve efficiency by connecting these systems to reduce operating costs and increase the
safety, productivity and quality of life of those who work and live inside their walls.

Although the capital costs associated with smart buildings are higher than those for
conventional ones, the life-cycle costs of smart buildings are lower and payback happens
quicker. A key driver for integrating systems and making buildings more intelligent is the
energy savings that can be achieved. The operational benefits obtained from integration,
however, are equally important. A single platform, integrating multiple systems, can save
precious time. If a fire broke out in one part of a building, operators viewing the scene
from security cameras would be able to activate fire suppression equipment, open doors
using an access control system and turn off the ventilation system that would otherwise
feed fresh air to the blaze.

Smart technologies are not limited to provide sensing and actuation devices but also
include innovative materials, able to provide built-in sensing and actuation functions and
properties like self healing or energy harvesting capabilities. Researches aimed at studying
potential applications of such materials to civil engineering structures are up to now quite
limited but they can be of great interest looking at the capability that smart structures offer
to integrate different functions in nonconventional solutions. Non-conventional structural
concepts like deployable, inflatable and morphing structures may indeed provide
innovative solutions to some of the problems that the civil engineer of tomorrow will be
called to face. To give some examples, the search for low-energy consumption or even
energy- producing green buildings and infrastructure, pushed by environmental and
economical considerations, the need for saving constructed space by concentrating
different conflicting functions in the same space within a building or different lifelines in
the same corridors are amongst such problems.
Smart structures can enhance the health, happiness and productivity of the people in them.
Improved air quality can boost worker productivity between a half percent and 5 percent,
according to a study by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Improved air quality
may also be associated with better test scores, according to the Journal of Indoor Air.
Green schools, with features such as acoustical ceiling tiles, lined ductwork and
appropriately placed vents, create fewer distractions and increase student participation,
according to the U.S. Green Building Council. Smart buildings have been shown to save
energy, streamline building management and prevent expensive equipment failures.
Although they are more expensive to build, over the long run, they actually cost less than
conventional buildings over time as a result of how efficiently they run. The added benefits
of increased safety and a higher quality of life for those inside make smart buildings a good
bet for the future.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

According to Vardan and Vardan (2000), smart system refers to a device which can
sense changes in its environment and can make an optimal response by changing its
material properties, geometry, mechanical or electromagnetic response. Both the
sensor and the actuator functions with their appropriate feedback must be properly
integrated. It should also be noted that if the response is too slow or too fast, the
system could lose its application or could be dangerous (Takagi, 1990). Previously, the
words ‘intelligent’, ‘adaptive’ and ‘organic’ were also used to characterize smart
systems and materials. For example, Crawley and de Luis (1987) defined ‘intelligent
structures’ as the structures possessing highly distributed actuators, sensors and
processing networks. Similarly, Professor H. H. Robertshaw preferred the term
‘organic’ (Rogers, 1988) which suggests similarity to biological processes. The human
arm, for example, is like a variable stiffness actuator with a control law (intelligence).

However, many participants at the US Army Research Office Workshop (e.g. Rogers
et al., 1988) sought to differentiate the terms ‘intelligent’, ‘adaptive’ and ‘organic’
from the term ‘smart’ by highlighting their subtle differences with the term ‘smart’.
The term ‘intelligence’, for example, is associated with abstract thought and learning,
and till date has not been implemented in any form of adaptive and sensing material or
structure. However, still many researchers use the terms ‘smart’ and ‘intelligent’ almost
interchangeably (e.g. In the U.S.-Japan Workshop: Takagi, 1990; Rogers, 1990),
though ‘adaptive’ and ‘organic’ have become less popular.

The idea of ‘smart’ or ‘intelligent’ structures has been adopted from nature, where all
the living organisms possess stimulus-response capabilities (Rogers, 1990). The aim of
the ongoing research in the field of smart systems/ structures is to enable such a
structure or system mimic living organisms, which possess a system of distributed
sensory neurons running all over the body, enabling the brain to monitor the condition
of the various body parts. However, the smart systems are much inferior to the living
beings since their level of intelligence is much primitive.
Building Research Institute, Japanese Ministry of Construction, initiated a 5-year research
and development project of “Smart Materials and Structural Systems” in 1998 as a part of
U.S.-Japan cooperative research efforts. U.S. Counterpart is National Science Foundation.
Smart Structural Systems (also called as Auto-adaptive Media) are defined as systems that
can automatically adjust structural characteristics, in response to the change in external
disturbance and environments, toward structural safety and serviceability as well as the
elongation of structural service life.
Smart Structural Systems are defined as structural systems with a certain-level of
autonomy relying on the embedded functions of sensors, actuators and processors, that can
automatically adjust structural characteristics, in response to the change in external
disturbance and environments, toward structural safety and serviceability as well as the
elongation of structural service life [Otani 1999].
Several categories of smart structural systems have been proposed, studied and transferred
into practice in different fields of engineering. Monitored structures, active control,
adaptive or morphing structures are amongst these categories.

Chapter 3

SMART MATERIALS

3.1 General

The sensor-actuator-controller combination can be realized either at the macroscopic


(structure) level or microscopic (material) level. Accordingly, we have smart structures
and materials respectively. The concept of smart materials is introduced in this
chapter. The smart behaviour of structures can be achieved by using smart materials.
Smart materials are new generation materials surpassing the conventional structural and
functional materials. These materials possess adaptive capabilities to external stimuli,
such as loads or environment, with inherent intelligence. In the US Army Research
Office Workshop, Rogers et al. (1988) defined smart materials as materials, which
possess the ability to change their physical properties in a specific manner in response to
specific stimulus input. The stimuli could be pressure, temperature, electric and
magnetic fields, chemicals or nuclear radiation. For the smart structures of the future,
any new material has to fulfill not only the technical and technological requirements but
also the economical, environmental and sustainability criteria as well as the sensing and
actuating functions as follow:

 The technical properties include: the mechanical characteristics such as plastic


flow, fatigue, yield strength, etc. and the behavioural characteristics such as damage
tolerance, electric, heat and fire resistance, etc.

 The technological properties encompass manufacturing, forming and welding


abilities, thermal processing, waste level, workability, automation and repair capacities,
etc.

 The economical criteria are the raw material and production costs, supply,
availability, etc.

 The environmental characteristics mean the toxicity, pollution, etc.

 The sustainable development criterion implies reuse and recycling capacities, etc.

 The sensing and actuating functions imply adaptation to the solicitations.

The associated changeable physical properties could be shape, stiffness, viscosity or


damping. This kind of ‘smartness’ is generally programmed by material composition,
special processing, introduction of defects or by modifying the micro- structure, so as to
adapt to the various levels of stimuli in a controlled fashion. Like smart structures, the
terms ‘smart’ and ‘intelligent’ are used interchangeably for smart materials. Takagi
(1990) defined intelligent materials as the materials which respond to environmental
changes at the most optimum conditions and manifest their own functions according to
the environment. The feedback functions within the material are combined with
properties and functions of the materials. Optical fibres, piezo-electric polymers and
ceramics, electro-rheological (ER) fluids, magneto-strictive materials and shape
memory alloys (SMAs) are some of the smart materials. Fig. 2 shows the associated
‘stimulus’ and ‘response’ of common smart materials. Because of their special ability to
respond to stimuli, they are finding numerous applications in the field of sensors and
actuators. A very detailed description of smart materials is covered by Gandhi and
Thompson (1992).
3.2 Active and Passive Smart Materials

Smart materials can be either active or passive. Fairweather (1998) defined active
smart materials as those materials which possess the capacity to modify their
geometric or material properties under the application of electric, thermal or magnetic
fields, thereby acquiring an inherent capacity to transduce energy. Piezoelectric
materials, SMAs, ER fluids and magneto-strictive materials are active smart materials.
Being active, they can be used as force transducers and actuators. For example, the

SMA has large recovery force, of the order of 700 MPa (105 psi) (Kumar, 1991),
which can be utilized for actuation. Similarly piezoelectric materials, which convert
electric energy into mechanical force, are also ‘active’.

The smart materials, which are not active, are called passive smart materials. Although
smart, these lack the inherent capability to transduce energy. Fibre optic material is a
good example of a passive smart material. Such materials can act as sensors but not as
actuators or transducers.

Electric field

3.3 Applications of Piezoelectric Materials

Since this thesis is primarily concerned with piezoelectric materials, some typical
applications of these materials are briefly described here. Traditionally, piezoelectric
materials have been well-known for their use in accelerometers, strain sensors (Sirohi
and Chopra, 2000b), emitters and receptors of stress waves (Giurgiutiu et al., 2000;
Boller, 2002), distributed vibration sensors (Choi and Chang, 1996; Kawiecki, 1998),
actuators (Sirohi and Chopra, 2000a) and pressure transducers (Zhu, 2003). However,
since the last decade, the piezoelectric materials, their derivative devices and structures
have been increasingly employed in turbo- machinery actuators, vibration dampers and
active vibration control of stationary/ moving structures (e.g. helicopter blades, Chopra,
2000). They have been shown to be very promising in active structural control of lab-
sized structures and machines (e.g. Manning et al., 2000; Song et al., 2002). Structural
control of large structures has also been attempted (e.g. Kamada et al., 1997). Other
new applications include underwater acoustic absorption, robotics, precision
positioning and smart skins for submarines (Kumar, 1991). Skin-like tactile sensors
utilizing piezoelectric effect for sensing temperatures and pressures have been reported
(Rogers, 1990). Very recently, the piezoelectric materials have been employed to
produce micro and nano scale systems and wireless inter digital transducers (IDT) using
advanced embedded system technologies, which are set to find numerous applications
in micro- electronics, bio-medical and SHM (Varadan, 2002; Lynch et al., 2003b).
Recent research is also exploring the development of versatile piezo-fibres, which can
be integrated with composite structures for actuation and SHM (Boller, 2002).

The most striking application of the piezoelectric materials in SHM has been in the
form of EMI technique. This is the main focus of the present thesis and details will be
covered in the subsequent sections.

3.4 Smart Materials: Future Applications


Seasoned researchers often share visionary ideas about the future of smart materials in
conferences and seminars. According to Prof. Rogers (Rogers, 1990), following
advancements could be possible in the field of smart materials and structures.

 Materials which can restrain the propagation of cracks by automatically


producing compressive stresses around them (Damage arrest).

 Materials, which can discriminate whether the loading is static or shock and
can generate a large force against shock stresses (Shock absorbers).

 Materials possessing self-repairing capabilities, which can heal damages in


due course of time (Self-healing materials).

 Materials which are usable up to ultra-high temperatures (such as those


encountered by space shuttles when they re-enter the earth’s atmosphere from outer
space), by suitably changing composition through transformation (thermal mitigation).

Takagi (1990) similarly projected the development of more functional and higher
grade materials with recognition, discrimination, adjustability, self-diagnostics and self-
learning capabilities.

The “I.Q.” of smart materials is measured in terms of their “responsiveness” to


environmental stimuli and their “agility.” The first criterion requires a large amplitude
change, whereas the second assigns faster response materials with higher “I.Q.” Commonly
encountered smart materials and structures can be categorized into three different levels: (i)
single-phase materials, (ii) composite materials, and (iii) smart structures. Many ferroic
materials and those with one or more large anomalies associated with phase-transition
phenomena belong to the first category. Functional composites are generally designed to
use nonfunctional materials to enhance functional materials or to combine several
functional materials to make a multifunctional composite. The third category is an
integration of sensors, actuators, and a control system that mimics the biological body in
performing many desirable functions, such as synchronization with environmental changes,
self-repair of damages, etc. These three levels cover the general definition of smart
materials and structures. In this short summary, we will use a few examples to illustrate
such systems and to provide some general guidelines for designing “smart” systems.

The difference between an ordinary and a “smart” material can be demonstrated through
the following positive temperature coefficient (PTC)-resistance materials. A large group of
temperature sensors is based on the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of
conductors. Platinum, for example, is a widely used metal for PTC sensors. The resistance
rises constantly with increasing temperature over a wide range from about 20 to 1,500 K.
Temperature sensors based on this material show the advantage to be chemically and
mechanically robust and to cover a large temperature range with an almost linear
characteristic. The change, however, is less than 0.03 μΩ⋅cm/K. Therefore, the material
cannot be used for self-regulated heating purposes. An example of smart PTC materials is
donor-doped barium titanate ceramics. In this case, there is a temperature range (from ≈350
to 450 K) in which the resistivity rises by almost six orders of magnitude,

FIG: 3 Temperature dependence of resistivity in smart PTC materials


as shown in Fig 3 Resistive heating elements are usually built with materials of
intermediate resistivity level. Applying an electrical voltage to these elements causes a
current to flow, which generates Joule’s heat in the resistor. If there is a surge of current or
a blockage of heat circulation, the resistor frequently overheats and may even cause a fire.
When a smart PTC resistor material is used, it can form a self-protection circuit. The
principle can be understood as follows. At the beginning, the PTC heater is at room
temperature with low resistance. Closing the switch in the circuit will produce a large
current, which causes a fast temperature increase. Because of this rise in temperature, the
resistance increases drastically (see Fig. 3); hence, the current will be reduced under a
constant voltage source. Finally, this self-regulation leads to a temperature stabilization at
the steepest part of the characteristic curve. This established temperature is quite
independent of the ambient temperature and the amount of heat extracted from the heating
element. Therefore, a smart self-regulating heating circuit is formed. Donor-doped BaTiO3
ceramics can be regarded as a typical smart material in which the sensed temperature signal
is inherently fed back to the heat generation. A temperature control is achieved with no
additional electronics. Magnetic probe is a good example of a multifunctional composite
in which a magnetostrictive material is integrated with a piezoelectric material to produce a
large magnetoelectric effect. The magnetostrictive material will produce shape deformation
under a magnetic field, and this shape deformation produces a stress on the piezoelectric
material which generates electric charge. The so obtained magnetoelectric effect could be
two orders of magnitude larger than that of Cr2O3.

Smart structures are an integration of sensors, actuators, and a control system. Apart from
the use of better functional materials as sensors and actuators, an important part of a
“smarter” structure is to develop an optimized control algorithm that could guide the
actuators to perform required functions after sensing changes. Active damping is one of the
most studied areas using smart structures. By using collocated actuator and sensors (i.e.,
physically located at the same place and energetically conjugated, such as force and
displacement), a number of active damping schemes with guaranteed stability have been
developed. These schemes are categorized on the basis of feedback type in the control
procedure, i.e., velocity, displacement, or acceleration.

FIG: 4 Impulse response of a stiff beam with active damping control


Fig. 4 is an illustration of a stiff beam with active damping. The system used an acceleration
feedback scheme with an accelerometer as the sensor. The comparison between the open and
closed circuit situations is shown in Fig. 4 Upper.

Another example is a piezoelectric qualitative health monitoring system, which is based on


impedance measurement on the piezoelectric transducers bonded or embedded in structures.
The principle of operation is to excite the structure with the piezoelectric transducer and
measure impedance change (>30 kHz). The impedance equation is

When a structure is damaged, the elastic moduli, effective mass, and capacitance change so
that the impedance also varies. The technique has been implemented in space structures as
shown in Fig. 5.
FIG: 5 A space structure with impedance monitoring unit

The advantages of the technique are as follows:

 No structure model needed.


 Is nonintrusive.
 Can be used in inaccessible locations.
 Allows on-line health monitoring.
 Very sensitive to small amounts of damage.
 Localized sensing, unaffected by changes in boundary conditions, loading, or
operational vibrations.
 Can warn of incipient damage.
3.5 Composite materials

Combining two or more single materials in an attempt to utilize synergistically the best
properties of their individual constituents is the ultimate objective of any composite
materials. That is why advanced composite materials are very close to satisfy all the above
requirements. Their advantages and adaptability to the above design requirements have led to
a profusion of new products. There are basically two types: man-made completely tailored
composite materials and a combination of single/composite materials or fibre reinforced
polymers (FRP).

3.5.1 Man-made tailored composite

The relative ease with which a non metallic particulate material can be introduced into a
powder alloy to form a metal matrix composite encourages the belief that a new range of
materials offering improved properties at prices that are attractive to industry may become
available in the near future. The gains that can be made in terms of specific strength and
specific stiffness by incorporating a strong, fibrous material with some high modulus such as
boron or silicon into a matrix of aluminium or titanium are considerable. Here are a few
examples: An example from high-tech applications is provided by materials created by
mixing a solid with minute spheres of glass, ceramic, or polymer. Manufacturers have pushed
the limits of polymer, glass, and other materials by turning them into sturdy foams. Even
some metals are getting the same treatment. New material such as syntactic foams use
prefabricated and manufactured bubbles that are mechanically combined with a resin to form
composite materials. These new foams could be combined with thin panels or outer skins to
create laminated composite or sandwich construction.
As mentioned previously, the use of advanced composite materials is due to the recent
progress in their design and manufacturing technologies. As a consequence, the integration of
a smart system concept with the composite design could potentially result in significant
improvement in the performance of these materials. Numerous investigations have recently
demonstrated the feasibility of the integrated concept through the use of simple structures. As
an application for domestic use, an active vibration reduction in sporting goods includes a
new generation of tennis rackets and golf clubs providing less strain on elbows and wrists
while diminishing vibration induced inaccuracies. The next generation of stealth applications
for the military requiring noise reduction includes silent running ships and extremely quiet
aircraft and vehicles. A smart structure for defence purposes is constructed with a patented
technique for producing continuous filaments of piezoelectric ceramic fibre to be shaped into
complex geometries using conventional textile processing. Once the forms are made, the
ceramic is processed into dense fibres, and the piezoelectric ceramic fibre form is integrated
into the structure. The application of an electric current causes the fibres to bend, shrink or
stretch. By timing these movements to counter vibration, noise and/or shaking can be reduced
in applications ranging from helicopter rotor blades, to air conditioner fans, to automobile
dashboards. Even if several analyses and numerical models have already been proposed to
analyse the integrated materials and structures, a thorough and comprehensive development
in theory and numerical methods is still critically needed to allow this technology to deal with
complicated and large scaled structures.

3.5.2 Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP)

In many structural applications of civil, mechanical or other engineering, more and more are
designed and produced with composites. There has been an increasing popularity of aramid,
glass and carbon reinforced polymer (FRP) to replace steel bars, strands, wires or tendons
used in reinforcing and prestressing techniques for the construction, rehabilitation and
upgrading of civil engineering works, such as retaining walls, beams and bridges. FRP is
used, for the entire project or for an autonomous component of the structure, as the initial
reinforcement or to strengthen the existing structure. In recent years, a myriad of FRP
composite products has been proposed and each has its particularities, advantages and
disadvantages. Beside the use of FRP as bars, filaments, fibres or tendons, FRP panels,
membranes or textiles are used more and more in all types of constructions. Despite the
significant advances in the latest manufacturing processes, including automated or hand
fabric layups, fibre placement, resin moulding, pultrusion, thermoplastic or/and
thermoforming, their cost is still high. Their selection as alternative to other materials is only
possible because the tradeoffs between the cost on one hand and the weight, handling,
transportation and flexibility of various design configurations prior to concept selection are
very attractive and economic. In the last decades, this subject has been widely studied and the
number of conferences and meetings dealing with this issue, including this meeting, is
growing rapidly.

In the future, with the help of miniaturized devices such as electromechanical devices, we
expect to see structures that can be smart enough to communicate directly with the human
brain. The development of supersensitive noses, ears, and eyes would enable us to smell more
scents, hear beyond our frequency range, and see what we cannot normally see, such as the
infrared spectrum. There are a lot of demands on smart structures, and the imagination of
scientists is unlimited. We can expect to see smarter materials and structures being developed
in the near future.

CHAPTER 4
IMPLEMENTATION OF SMART STRUCTURES IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

4.1 Example

Bridges and tall buildings are good examples for smart structures. In recent years, the
fundamental theories of structural dynamics necessary for the concepts of passive energy
dissipation have been studied and explored in details to produce many systems of energy
dissipation devices. Some of these devices are installed in a wide variety of structures to
resist both wind and seismic loadings: metallic and metal type alloys dampers are used to
upgrade the seismic capability of existing structures in high earthquake regions. Other types
of dampers utilise the same friction techniques used in the automotive braking systems to
dissipate energy. A more recent third approach proposes viscoelastic dampers. In contrast to
these solid dampers, fluid type dampers based on liquid motion are also used as vibration
absorbers. All the previous dampers or vibration absorbers perform in a self-reliant and
passive way [16-18].
Passive control refers to systems that utilize the response of structures to develop the control
forces without requiring an external power source for their operation. New concepts for
active control to reduce the response of structures to wind, earthquake, blast and other
dynamic loadings, have recently been proposed. Active control refers to systems that require
a large power source to operate the actuators that supply the control forces, whose
magnitudes are determined using feedback from sensors that measure the excitation and/or
the response of the structure.
Until now, actuators have not been used to a great extent because of the large forces required
to excite a large structure like a building or a bridge. However, this situation is changing. A
variable orifice fluid damper has been discussed recently to control the motion of bridges
experiencing seismic motion [19-20] and a hydraulic actuator with a controllable orifice was
implemented in a single lane model bridge to dissipate the energy induced by vehicle traffic
[21]. Semi active control combines the features of active and passive systems, and with
variable dampers, they can be very effective in controlling the motion of a structure.
The smart materials and structures’ techniques could certainly improve the performance of
the previously described dampers. Many if not all these devices have processors to manage
and control their performance. A first level of smartness would be to allow all the dampers of
a structure to communicate with each other in such a way to act in coordination. This can be
achieved by using some of the FRP reinforcement as fibre optic cables for communication
purposes. Until recently, this coordination was theoretically possible but cumbersome,
difficult and expensive to enact. Now, with JINI of Sun Microsystems, HART (highway
Addressable Remote Transducer), Foundation Fieldbus or any similar process, the technology
provides mechanisms that can group easily and cheaply the dampers together into a service
network.
A second level of smartness is to use various new enhanced materials such as shape memory
alloys, piezoelectric materials, magneto or electro rheological fluids to construct dampers
capable to respond in real time when subject to particular solicitations. Thereafter, connect all
the dampers together to constitute a smart structure.
Finally, tailoring a structure to suit design requirements while minimizing weight and
optimizing other performance variables is still a challenge for design and manufacturing.
Usually, the composite materials’ behaviour is analysed from the lowest composite level such
as the fibre and matrix constituents to the higher level such as the ply and laminates using
composite micromechanics and laminates theories. A multilayered composite could also be
composed of multiple materials and subjected to a multitude of simultaneous loads. The
behaviour of composites is intimately related to the deformation and failure micro
mechanisms, including their exact sequence and interaction. These in turn are related to the
properties of the constituents (i.e., matrix, fibre, and interface or interphase), as well as
processing residual stresses. Although the micro mechanics of stress transfer and fracture
have been studied experimentally and analytically by many investigators and the failure
mechanisms are known and understood, their relative magnitudes, exact sequence,
interactions and quantitative effects on the overall macroscopic behaviour are still a challenge
and vary from case to case. For example, failure mechanisms in a multidirectional laminate
include matrix cracking, which can be intra laminar or inter laminar, fibre fracture and
fibre/matrix de-bonding. The predominant mechanism in the initiation stage, predicted by
first-ply-failure theories, is the formation of intra laminar matrix cracks in the off-axis plies.
In many applications, since it is not practical to limit the design to first ply failure, it is
critical to understand the entire damage process and the accompanying changes in properties
to be able to take advantage of their characteristics [7-8] and control their sensing and
actuating functions.
CHAPTER 5

SMART BUILDING STRUCTURES FROM AROUND THE WORLD

Automotive and aerospace engineering have the most profited from the smart structure
concepts. In civil engineering, the developments of the concept have been much slower
because of different reasons and only structural health monitoring and hybrid/active control
have really been partly transferred into practice, while other systems still remain at the stage
of studies and experiments. But some buildings around the world are constructed which find
the
1. nexus between
Gigaspace ecological
IT Park in Puneintegrity and human well-being and some of them are as given

below.
FIG: Gigaspace IT Park in Pune

When you enter Gigaspace IT Park in Pune, you will get acquainted with the fact that it is an
‘intelligent building’ that incorporates up-to-date technology to create a more productive,
healthier, energy-conserving work atmosphere. These are important factors that could boost
or hamper the productivity in an IT setup. Gigaspace has been created to tie in to Vaastu
Shastra norms and houses many different buildings, each with an optimum plate area. The
building in Gigaspace vary from 60,000 sq.ft to 150,000 sq.ft. and have floor plates of 12,000
to 30,000 sq.ft.

2. The Bullitt Center in Seattle, WA

FIG: The Bullitt Center in Seattle, WA

Urban ecology non profit The Bullitt Foundation set out to accelerate the pace of change in
the building industry by building the "greenest commercial building in the world." While
most buildings are developed with a 40-year life span in mind, the Bullitt Center was
designed to have a 250-year lifespan.

The Bullitt Center's features include net zero energy, net zero water, net zero carbon,
composting toilets, toxic-free materials, and over 80% day light using high-performance
windows— using only "off-the-shelf products" available to any building project. While the
world's only six-story composting toilet system is impressive, even more impressive: 575
solar panels, proving that it is possible to go net zero energy via solar—even in Seattle!

2. The Edge (Deloitte HQ) in Amsterdam, Netherlands


FIG: The Edge (Deloitte HQ) in Amsterdam, Netherlands

Urban ecology non profit The Bullitt Foundation set out to accelerate the pace of change in
the building industry by building the "greenest commercial building in the world." While
most buildings are developed with a 40-year life span in mind, the Bullitt Center was
designed to have a 250-year lifespan. The Bullitt Center's features include net zero energy,
net zero water, net zero carbon, composting toilets, toxic-free materials, and over 80% day
light using high-performance windows— using only "off-the-shelf products" available to any
building project. While the world's only six-story composting toilet system is impressive,
even more impressive: 575 solar panels, proving that it is possible to go net zero energy via
solar—even in Seattle!
3 Glumac in Shanghai, China

FIG: Glumac in Shanghai, China

At first glance, engineering firm Glumac's 6,000 sq ft office in Shanghai, China, looks like
just another modern workplace that gets a lot of light. But unlike its neighbours, this office
was the first to apply for Living Building Challenge certification in Asia and is considered
one of the most sustainable office spaces on the continent. It features an indoor air monitoring
system that allows employees to see the toxicity of indoor air on their cell phones, based on
monitored oxygen levels, volatile organic compound (VOC) levels, humidity, and particulate
matter measurements. Fortunately for workers, Glumac has five air purification systems and a
planted green wall to weed out the often-unbearable pollution outside the building.
CHAPTER 5
FUTURE SCOPE

FIG: Visualisation of smart building

The future of buildings, warehouses, airports, homes, offices, hospitals, auditoriums, factories
etc. will be smart in every manner. Advanced sensors and controlling from mobile devices
will transform a building in a smart building. Wireless connectivity is another critical element
of tomorrow’s smart building and smart warehouse. Monitoring, control and tracking of
machines and supplies require a scalable wireless mesh network. Also, real-time
requirements of control loops have implications on the wireless network protocol. Asset
tracking, an early application of wireless networks, has additional requirements such as range
and locating features. Common to all these applications is the ultra-low power consumption
of wireless nodes with adequate local processing power of which most applications require
no battery replacement for the lifetime of a wireless node. This technology will be
implemented in design of smart buildings.

Smart buildings will be able to optimize energy consumption through the use of efficient
solar panels or other alternative energy sources such as a fuel cell combined with flow
batteries. Efficient generation, consumption and storage of energy will contribute to
significant energy cost savings without compromising quality or productivity. Smart
buildings will also draw their energy supply from a combination of grid electricity and
alternative energy sources, combined with large-capacity energy storage facilities which
require frequent energy conversion. To save energy, the efficiency of conversion and load
awareness is critical. High performance converters and inverters require efficient high voltage
power transistors and intelligent drivers/controllers. AC/DC energy conversion from the grid
to storage, DC/AC energy inversion from storage, or solar panels to AC load have benefited
from smart power solutions with digital control loops. New devices promise a high-efficiency
bi-directional energy conversion. In the future, buildings will have “energy routers” that can
direct all forms of energy from various sources to different loads, much similar to what data
routers are doing for uploading and downloading of data.

Semiconductor advances in sensing have already started deploying in smart buildings and
allow ambient-aware buildings to track and direct resources dynamically. Occupancy sensors,
thermal and chemical sensors, vision sensors, flow metering and many others are becoming
more widely used in modern commercial facilities. Security and safety will also be
significantly enhanced in a smart building. The deployment of connected vision sensors
including cameras, ultrasonic, optical and radar sensors will leave very few dark corners in a
smart building. Also, advanced gas and thermal sensors will track and analyze hazardous
chemicals or leaks, enabling the detection of hotspots or hazardous leaks accurately.

For example, smart building system of an organisation will generate, analyze and interpret
vast streams of information. This will allow next-gen smart buildings to marry usage data
with information about individual staff movements and work habits to help facilitate
collaboration between employees. Buildings will be able to link location data with
information from corporate databases and social media to engineer interactions between staff
members. Offices will soon become part of the management team of any business – for
example, notifying one employee working on a project that another specialist is nearby and
suggesting a meeting.

A confluence of innovations in big data processing, ultra-low power wireless mesh networks,
embedded sensor technology, low power energy management and other analog and
embedded processing electronics will expedite emergence of smart buildings. Higher levels
of safety, security, productivity, and quality will be smartly designed for these buildings.
Many developers of buildings are adopting innovative technologies today to make
tomorrow’s smart building a living reality.

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION
 Smart structures and materials have two basic functions: the first is to sense any
external stimuli and the second to respond to these stimuli in some appropriate ways
in real or near real time.
 These structures can automatically adjust structural characteristics, in response to the
change in external disturbance and environments towards safety and serviceability.
 Actively controlled and monitored structures are the smart structure categories that
look to be the more close to practical developments and applications. However, active
or semi-active structural control presents very different features from Structural
Health Monitoring and the respective perspectives in real applications may be
substantially different.
 The smart buildings will be able to do optimization of energy use, temperature
control, respond wireless controlling, advanced self air conditioning etc. with the help
of sensors and actuators.
 Development of this concept is slower in field of civil engineering and only structural
health monitoring and hybrid/active control have really been partly transferred into
practice.
 Conception of smart civil structures is becoming the most challenging innovation that
pushes modern structural engineers to face problems and techniques that will most
likely produce a deep change to a very long tradition.
 Higher levels of safety, security, productivity, and quality of building structures will
be achieved with the implementation of smart structure concept.
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