Sie sind auf Seite 1von 26

HEBAT Bacaan BI

Unit 10

UNIT 10
UNDER MY SKIN

Why are
How
vaccines
Have you many What are some
important?
been types of myths about
vaccinated? vaccines vaccination?
are
What are
there?
vaccines?

211
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR BEGINNER LEVEL

BY THE END i. Find relevant information in a reading text.


OF THE ii. Construct Wh-questions from headings in a text.
LESSON, iii. Read a text and fill in a record of vaccination beginning from
STUDENTS childbirth.
CAN:

Reading strategy: Skim and Scan


5W1H
STRATEGIES/ LOTS: Understanding
APPROACHES HOTS: Applying
Analysing
21st Century Learning

VALUES
Love for Life
Youtube
LEARNING/
TEACHING Picture
AIDS Worksheet
SITUATION Educational
TEXT FORMAT Single
TEXT TYPE Description
COGNITIVE Scan and locate
PROCESS
*refer to HEBAT Bacaan Bahasa Inggeris Reading Strategies
**refer to 21st Century Learning: Cooperative Learning Structures
***refer to Guide to Using HOTS in a Reading Classroom

212
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES/
APPROACHES

STEP 1
Reading Strategy:
a. Students view a Youtube video entitled 'Immunity Skim and Scan
and Vaccine' (SCREENSHOT 1).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXMc15dA-vw LOTS:
Understanding
b. Students find listed words in Word Search puzzle
(WORKSHEET 1).

STEP 2
Reading Strategy:
a. Students read a text about immunisation (TEXT 1). 5W1H

b. Students construct 'Wh-' questions based on the HOTS:


headings in the text (TEXT 1), and write these Analysing
questions in the 5W1H chart* (WORKSHEET 2).

c. In pairs, students find the answer to the questions 21st Century Learning:
and complete the chart in WORKSHEET 2. Collaboration

STEP 3

a. In groups, students do a survey on the types of HOTS:


immunisation their classmates have taken. Analysing
Applying
b. Students present their findings in a graphic form
such as graphs and charts( teacher to give 21st Century Learning:
examples). Collaboration

c. Students present their findings to the class.

213
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

SCREENSHOT 1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXMc15dA-vw

214
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

WORKSHEET 1

215
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

TEXT 1

216
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

WORKSHEET 2

Vaccination

217
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR INTERMEDIATE LEVEL


BY THE END
OF THE i. Complete a FRAME chart about vaccines.
LESSON, ii. Skim and scan information to create a brochure to raise awareness
STUDENTS of vaccinnation.
CAN:
Reading Strategy: Skim and Scan
FRAME Routine
LOTS: Understanding
STRATEGIES/ HOTS: Applying
APPROACHES Analysing
Evaluating
Creating
21st Century Learning

VALUES Love for Life

LEARNING/ Youtube
TEACHING Website
AIDS Worksheet
SITUATION Personal
TEXT FORMAT Single
TEXT TYPE Description
COGNITIVE Represent literal and gist meaning
PROCESS Reflect on content and form
*refer to HEBAT Bacaan Bahasa Inggeris Reading Strategies
**refer to 21st Century Learning: Cooperative Learning Structures
***refer to Guide to Using HOTs in a Reading Classroom

218
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES/
APPROACHES

STEP 1

a. Students view a video about vaccination LOTS:


(SCREENSHOT 1). Understanding
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NaGndICPT8I
HOTS:
b. Students respond to questions: Analysing
Do you think vaccination is neccessary? Evaluating
Why?
List the importance of vaccines.

STEP 2 Reading Strategy:


Skim and Scan
a. Students read a text about vaccinations (TEXT 1). FRAME Routine

b. Students extract information from the text and fill in


the FRAME* chart (WORKSHEET 1). HOTS:
Analysing

STEP 3

a. In groups, using the information in TEXT 1, students HOTS:


create a brochure to increase awareness about Applying
vaccination. Creating

b. Students present the brochures in a Gallery Walk**


activity. 21st Century Learning:
Gallery Walk

219
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

SCREENSHOT 1

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NaGndICPT8I

220
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

TEXT 1
What are some of the myths – and facts – about vaccination?

A: Myth 1: Better hygiene and sanitation will make diseases disappear – vaccines are
not necessary. FALSE
Fact 1: The diseases we can vaccinate against will return if we stop vaccination
programmes. While better hygiene, hand washing and clean water help protect people from
infectious diseases, many infections can spread regardless of how clean we are. If people
are not vaccinated, diseases that have become uncommon, such as polio and measles, will
quickly reappear.

Myth 2: Vaccines have several damaging and long-term side-effects that are yet
unknown. Vaccination can even be fatal. FALSE
Fact 2: Vaccines are very safe. Most vaccine reactions are usually minor and temporary,
such as a sore arm or mild fever. Serious health events are extremely rare and are carefully
monitored and investigated. You are far more likely to be seriously injured by a vaccine-
preventable disease than by a vaccine. For example, in the case of polio, the disease can
cause paralysis, measles can cause encephalitis and blindness, and some vaccine-
preventable diseases can even result in death. While any serious injury or death caused by
vaccines is one too many, the benefits of vaccination greatly outweigh the risk, and many
more injuries and deaths would occur without vaccines.

Myth 3: The combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (whooping
cough) and the vaccine against poliomyelitis cause sudden infant death
syndrome. FALSE
Fact 3: There is no causal link between the administering of the vaccines and sudden infant
death, however, these vaccines are administered at a time when babies can suffer sudden
infant death syndrome (SIDS). In other words, the SIDS deaths are co-incidental to
vaccination and would have occurred even if no vaccinations had been given. It is important
to remember that these four diseases are life-threatening and babies who are not vaccinated
against them are at serious risk of death or serious disability.

Myth 4: Vaccine-preventable diseases are almost eradicated in my country, so there is


no reason to be vaccinated. FALSE
Fact 4: Although vaccine preventable diseases have become uncommon in many countries,
the infectious agents that cause them continue to circulate in some parts of the world. In a
highly inter-connected world, these agents can cross geographical borders and infect
anyone who is not protected. In western Europe, for example, measles outbreaks have
occurred in unvaccinated populations in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy,
Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom since 2005. So two key reasons to get
vaccinated are to protect ourselves and to protect those around us. Successful vaccination
programmes, like successful societies, depend on the cooperation of every individual to
ensure the good of all. We should not rely on people around us to stop the spread of
disease; we, too, must do what we can.

221
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

Myth 5: Vaccine-preventable childhood illnesses are just an unfortunate fact of life.


FALSE
Fact 5: Vaccine preventable diseases do not have to be ‘facts of life’. Illnesses such as
measles, mumps and rubella are serious and can lead to severe complications in both
children and adults, including pneumonia, encephalitis, blindness, diarrhoea, ear infections,
congenital rubella syndrome (if a woman becomes infected with rubella in early pregnancy),
and death. All these diseases and suffering can be prevented with vaccines. Failure to
vaccinate against these diseases leaves children unnecessarily vulnerable.
Myth 6: Giving a child more than one vaccine at a time can increase the risk of
harmful side-effects, which can overload the child’s immune system. FALSE
Fact 6: Scientific evidence shows that giving several vaccines at the same time has no
adverse effect on a child’s immune system. Children are exposed to several hundred foreign
substances that trigger an immune response every day. The simple act of eating food
introduces new antigens into the body, and numerous bacteria live in the mouth and nose. A
child is exposed to far more antigens from a common cold or sore throat than they are from
vaccines. Key advantages of having several vaccines at once is fewer clinic visits, which
saves time and money, and children are more likely to complete the recommended
vaccinations on schedule. Also, when it is possible to have a combined vaccination, e.g. for
measles, mumps and rubella, that means fewer injections.

Myth 7: Influenza is just a nuisance, and the vaccine isn’t very effective. FALSE
Fact 7: Influenza is much more than a nuisance. It is a serious disease that kills 300 000 -
500 000 people worldwide every year. Pregnant women, small children, elderly people with
poor health and anyone with a chronic condition, like asthma or heart disease, are at higher
risk for severe infection and death. Vaccinating pregnant women has the added benefit of
protecting their newborns (there is currently no vaccine for babies under six months). Most of
influenza vaccines offer immunity to the three most prevalent strains circulating in any given
season. It is the best way to reduce your chances of severe flu and of spreading it to others.
Avoiding the flu means avoiding extra medical care costs and lost income from missing days
of work or school.

Myth 8: It is better to be immunized through disease than through vaccines. FALSE


Fact 8: Vaccines interact with the immune system to produce an immune response similar to
that produced by the natural infection, but they do not cause the disease or put the
immunized person at risk of its potential complications. In contrast, the price paid for getting
immunity through natural infection might be mental retardation from Haemophilus influenzae
type b (Hib), birth defects from rubella, liver cancer from hepatitis B virus, or death from
measles.

Myth 9: Vaccines contain mercury which is dangerous. FALSE


Fact 9: Thiomersal is an organic, mercury-containing compound added to some vaccines as
a preservative. It is the most widely-used preservative for vaccines that are provided in multi-
dose vials. There is no evidence to suggest that the amount of thiomersal used in vaccines
poses a health risk.

222
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

Myth 10: Vaccines cause autism FALSE


Fact 10: The 1998 study which raised concerns about a possible link between measles-
mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism was later found to be seriously flawed, and the
paper has been retracted by the journal that published it. Unfortunately, its publication set off
a panic that led to dropping immunization rates, and subsequent outbreaks of these
diseases. There is no evidence of a link between MMR vaccine and autism or autistic
disorders.
http://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en/

223
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

WORKSHEET 1

224
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR ADVANCED LEVEL

BY THE END i. Identify concerns about taking vaccines.


OF THE ii. Add relevant information in the KWLH table.
LESSON,
STUDENTS
CAN:

Reading Strategy: ACID


KWLH
STRATEGIES/ LOTS: Understanding
APPROACHES Remembering
HOTS: Evaluating
21st Century Learning

VALUES Love for Life


LEARNING/ Website
TEACHING Worksheet
AIDS
SITUATION Personal
TEXT FORMAT Multiple
TEXT TYPE Argumentation
COGNITIVE Reflect on content and form
PROCESS Corroborate, identify and handle Conflict
*refer to HEBAT Bacaan Bahasa Inggeris Reading Strategies
**refer to 21st Century Learning: Cooperative Learning Structures
***refer to Guide to Using HOTS in a Reading Classroom

225
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES/
APPROACHES

STEP 1

a. Students view PICTURE 1 and share their LOTS:


experiences being vaccinated. Remembering
Understanding

STEP 2
Reading Strategy:
a. In pairs, students read the online news (TEXT 1) ACID
and put in ACID* marks accordingly.

http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/outrage-over- HOTS:
diphtheria-deaths-in-malaysia Evaluating
b. Students read TEXT 2 and identify Amy’s change
in view and perception regarding vaccination
(WORKSHEET 1).

http://www.voicesforvaccines.org/growing-up- 21st Century Learning:


unvaccinated/ Carousel Feedback**

c. Students present and justify their answers in a


Carousel Feedback** activity.

STEP 3

a. Based on both texts, student complete the KWLH* Reading Strategy:


chart (WORKSHEET 2). KWLH

b. Students take part in an Academic Controversy** HOTS:


activity on the issue: Evaluating

‘Childhood immunisation is not compulsory in


Malaysia.’

Is this policy relevant today?

*Academic Controversy is a debate without 21st Century Learning:


interruption (Point of Information) where both Collaboration
teams will switch sides after completing a full
round.

226
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

PICTURE 1

227
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

TEXT 1

Parents had rejected vaccine, fearing 'pig DNA';


the authorities seek to quash rumours
KUALA LUMPUR • Two children have died in Malaysia from diphtheria this month,
apparently because their parents did not vaccinate them against the infectious disease,
believing the jabs contained elements of pig DNA.
The deaths have triggered outrage, prompting the Health Ministry, medical experts and a
state mufti to plead with parents not to believe in rumours.
Malaysian media reports say an "anti-vaccine movement" reportedly based in Kedah has
spread doubts about the contents of the vaccine and about its necessity.
The reports say the group claims the injections are part of a plot by enemies of Islam to
weaken Muslims.
Diphtheria is a highly contagious bacterial disease that can cause fatal heart and nerve
damage, but childhood immunisation is not compulsory in Malaysia. In Singapore,
immunisations against diphtheria and measles are compulsory by law.
Prime Minister Najib Razak, in an unusual intervention on a health issue, wrote on his blog
on Thursday that people should not listen to rumours. He said he felt sad after reading about
the deaths, as the national immunisation programme started 50 years ago had been
successful in stopping infectious diseases.

What is diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a contagious bacterial disease that causes inflammation of the mucous
membranes, potentially hindering breathing and swallowing. It could cause fatal heart
and nerve damage.
Childhood immunisation is not compulsory in Malaysia.
In Singapore, the childhood immunisation programme offers vaccination against nine
infectious diseases, including tuberculosis and mumps.
Only diphtheria and measles immunisations are compulsory by law, the Ministry of
Health said on its website.
"All these efforts will be a waste if there are among us those who spread rumours that raise
doubts about vaccine inoculations and immunisation," he wrote. "The worst part is when
these false reports are spread using the name of Islam by Muslims themselves."
A seven-year-old girl from Malacca died last Saturday after contracting the disease eight
days earlier, the New Straits Times (NST) daily reported yesterday.
She infected two siblings, aged nine and 10, who are recovering in hospital now after
receiving diphtheria anti-toxin and antibiotics.

228
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

In the second case, NST reported that a two-year-old boy in Kedah died after contracting
diphtheria. The toddler and three of his siblings had not been immunised against the
disease. The boy's 10-month-old sibling is in critical condition.
Perlis mufti Mohd Asri Zainal Abidin, the highest Islamic religious authority in the northern
state, said it was sinful for Muslims to refuse to take measures that prevent them from harm,
such as vaccinating against a known dangerous disease such as diphtheria.
"It is okay if those who are against vaccination could prove, based on facts, that the vaccine
is indeed dangerous. However, what happened recently proved otherwise," he told NST.
Terengganu's state director for health, Dr Mohammad Omar, said there were perceptions
that the vaccines were "not halal", so some people refused the vaccinations. "This should
not be happening. The Fatwa Council declared that immunisation is a must and that
vaccines are halal," he told The Star newspaper.
The Islamic Medical Association of Malaysia said the vaccinations are a proven method for
preventing infection and recognised by millions of Muslim doctors worldwide.
"The loss of lives resulting from a disease that can be prevented with vaccination should be
regretted," its president, Dr Abdul Rahim Mohamad, said in a statement on Wednesday.
A version of this article appeared in the print edition of The Straits Times on June 25, 2016,
with the headline 'Outrage over diphtheria deaths in Malaysia'.

http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/outrage-over-diphtheria-deaths-in-malaysia

229
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

TEXT 2

Growing Up Unvacci
nated
I am the 70s child of a health nut. I wasn’t vaccinated. I was brought up on an
incredibly healthy diet: no sugar til I was one, breastfed for over a year, organic
homegrown vegetables, raw milk, no MSG, no additives, no aspartame. My mother
used homeopathy, aromatherapy, osteopathy, we took daily supplements of vitamin
C, echinacea, cod liver oil. I had an outdoor lifestyle; I grew up next to a farm, walked
everywhere, did sports and danced twice a week, drank plenty of water. I wasn’t
even allowed pop; even my fresh juice was watered down to protect my teeth, and I
would’ve killed for white, shop-bought bread in my lunch box once in a while and
biscuits instead of fruit like all the other kids. We only ate (organic local) meat maybe
once or twice a week and my mother and father cooked everything from scratch – I
have yet to taste a Findus crispy pancake and oven chips were reserved for those
nights when mum and dad had friends over and we got a “treat.”

As healthy as my lifestyle seemed, I contracted measles, mumps, rubella, a type of


viral meningitis, scarlatina, whooping cough, yearly tonsillitis, and chickenpox, some
of which are vaccine preventable. In my twenties I got precancerous HPV and spent
6 months of my life wondering how I was going to tell my two children under the age
of 7 that mummy might have cancer before it was safely removed.

So having the “natural immunity sterilised out of us” just doesn’t cut it for me. How
could I, with my idyllic childhood and my amazing health food, get so freaking ill all
the time? My mother was the biggest health freak around–she would put most of my
current “crunchy” friends to shame. She didn’t drink, she didn’t smoke, she didn’t do
drugs and we certainly weren’t allowed to watch whatever we wanted on telly or
wear plastic shoes or any of that stuff. She LIVED alternative health. And you know
what? I’m glad she gave us the great diet that we had, I’m glad that she cared about
us in that way.

But it just didn’t stop me getting childhood illnesses.

My two vaccinated children, on the other hand, have rarely been ill, have had
antibiotics maybe twice in their lives, if that (not like me who got so many illnesses
which needed treatment with antibiotics that I developed a resistance to them, which
led me to be hospitalized with penicillin-resistant quinsy at 21–you know that old
fashioned disease that killed Queen Elizabeth I and which was almost wiped out
through use of antibiotics).

My kids have had no childhood illnesses other than chickenpox, which they both
contracted while still breastfeeding. They too grew up on a healthy diet, home-grown
organics etc. Not to the same extent as I did, though, as I was not quite as strict as
my mother, but they are both healthier than I have ever been.

I find myself wondering about the claim that complications from childhood illnesses
are extremely rare but that “vaccine injuries” are rampant. If this is the case, I
230
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

struggle to understand why I know far more people who have experienced
complications from preventable childhood illnesses than I have EVER met with
complications from vaccines. I have friends who became deaf from measles. I have
a partially sighted friend who contracted rubella in the womb. My ex got pneumonia
from chickenpox. A friend’s brother died from meningitis.

Anecdotal evidence is nothing to base decisions on. But when facts and evidence-
based science aren’t good enough to sway someone’s opinion, then this is where I
come from. After all, anecdotes are the anti-vaccine supporter’s way. Well, this is my
personal experience. And my personal experience prompts me to vaccinate my
children and myself. I got the flu vaccine recently, and I am getting the whooping
cough booster to protect my unborn baby. My natural immunity from having
whooping cough at age 5 will not protect him once he’s born.

I understand, to a point, where the anti-vaccine parents are coming from. Back in the
90s when I was a concerned, 19-year-old mother, frightened by the world I was
bringing my child into, I was studying homeopathy, herbalism and aromatherapy; I
believed in angels, witchcraft, clairvoyants, crop circles, aliens at Nazca, giant ginger
mariners spreading their knowledge to the Aztecs, the Incas and the Egyptians and
that I was somehow personally blessed by the Holy Spirit with healing abilities. I was
having my aura read at a hefty price and filtering the fluoride out of my water. I was
choosing to have past life regressions instead of taking anti-depressants. I was
taking my daily advice from tarot cards. I grew all my own veg and made my own
herbal remedies. I was so freaking crunchy that I literally crumbled. It was only when
I took control of those paranoid thoughts and fears about the world around me and
became an objective critical thinker that I got well. It was when I stopped taking
sugar pills for everything and started seeing medical professionals that I began to
thrive physically and mentally.

If you think your child’s immune system is strong enough to fight off vaccine-
preventable diseases, then it’s strong enough to fight off the tiny amounts of dead or
weakened pathogens present in any of the vaccines. But not everyone around you is
that strong, not everyone has a choice, not everyone can fight those illnesses, and
not everyone can be vaccinated. If you have a healthy child, then your healthy child
can cope with vaccines and can care about those unhealthy children who can’t.
Teach your child compassion, and teach your child a sense of responsibility for those
around them. Don’t teach your child to be self -serving and scared of the world in
which it lives and the people around him/her. And teach them to LOVE people with
ASD or any other disability for that matter, not to label them as damaged.

And lastly but most importantly for me – knowingly exposing your child to childhood
illnesses is cruel; even without complications these diseases aren’t exactly pleasant.
I don’t know about you, but I don’t enjoy watching children suffer even with a cold or
a hurt knee. If you’ve never had these illnesses you don’t know how awful they are–I
do. Pain, discomfort, the inability to breathe or to eat or to swallow, fever and
nightmares, itching all over your body so much that you can’t stand lying on bed
sheets, losing so much weight you can’t walk properly, diarrhea that leaves you lying
prostrate on the bathroom floor, the unpaid time off work for parents (and if you’re
self employed that means NO INCOME), the quarantine, missing school, missing

231
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

parties, the worry, the sleepless nights, the sweat, the tears and the blood, the
midnight visits to A and E, sitting in a doctor’s waiting room on your own because no
one will sit near you because they’re rightfully scared of those spots all over your
kids face.

Those of you who have avoided childhood illnesses without vaccines are lucky. You
couldn’t do it without us pro-vaxxers. Once the vaccination rates begin dropping, the
less herd immunity will be able to protect your children. The more people you convert
to your anti-vax stance, the quicker that luck will run out

Amy Parker is a 37 year old mother of two teenagers, with a new arrival on the
way. She was brought up in the idyllic countryside of the Lake District,
England by health conscious parents–an artist and a ballet teacher. She
currently lives on the Fylde coast where she teaches piano and singing. Amy
runs arts and crafts workshops for children and adults.

http://www.voicesforvaccines.org/growing-up-unvaccinated/

232
HEBAT Bacaan BI
Unit 10

WORKSHEET 1

TASK: Based on the story, find out Amy’s change in view about vaccination.

BEFORE VACCINATION AFTER VACCINATION

233
WORKSHEET 2
Complete the KWLH based on Text 1 and Text 2.

What We Know What We Want To Know What We Learned How We Can Learn More

234
ASSESSMENT PROJECT

Students have learned that being immunised is important for a person’s health. But lately,
there have been strong views against vaccination. People in the movement base their
understanding on hearsay and unproven opinions. However, as we have access to
technology and information, we must be wise to differentiate facts and myths.

ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES/
APPROACHES

STEP 1

a. Recall and reflect on the issue of vaccination LOTS:


how vaccines work and what they are Remembering
the advantages & disadvantages Analysing
the immunisation effect to one’s life

* This project can be done in pairs or small groups.

STEP 2

a. Students have to prepare a scrap book on


compulsory vaccination in Malaysia from
childbirth.
HOTS:
b. Have students consider these questions in their Applying
discussion for the scrap book: Evaluating
Creating
Why is vaccination important?
Is vaccination different from immunisation?
What are different vaccinations and how do they
protect a child?
When are children vaccinated?
What are the advantages of vaccines?
How do we get vaccines?
Is there any other reasons for vaccination other
than the compulsory ones while growing up. 21st Century Learning:
Students need to interview at least ONE medical ICT
practitioner to validate their sources. Collaboration

235
STEP 3
a. Students present their scrapbook in an “ala-viva” HOTS:
presentation. Applying
b. Each group must come up with: Creating
A power point presentation
A sample flyer promoting vaccination
A poster for an immunisation awareness
campaign.

236