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# PHYSICS

Aakash
STUDY PACKAGE – 02
For – JEE / NEET
Electrostatics
AIEEE Syllabus
Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-forces between
two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle
CHAPTER
1
and continuous charge distribution. Electric field: Electric field due to a point
charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque
on a dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric flux, Gauss’s law and its
applications to find field due to infinitely long, uniformly charged straight
wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin
spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge,
electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical
potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
Conductor and insulator, Dielectric and electric polarisation, Capacitor,
Combination of capacitor in series, in parallel, Capacitance of parallel plate
capacitor and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored
in capacitor.

THIS CHAPTER
ELECTROSTATICS
COVERS :
Electrostatics is the branch of electromagnetism where we study charges
at rest. It actually means that either they are at rest or moving with constant  Electric Charge and its
velocity. Properties
 Coulomb’s Law
Electric Charge
 Electric Field
It is the inherent property of certain fundamental particles. It accompanies
 Electric Lines of Force
them whereever they exist. Commonly known charged particles are proton
and electron. The charge of a proton is taken as positive and that of electron  Electric Field due to
is taken as negative. It is represented by symbol e. Electric Dipole
e = 1.6 × 10–19 coulomb  Electric Dipole in
Uniform Electric Field
Charge of proton = +e
 Electric Flux
Charge of electron = –e
 Gauss’ Law and its
Positive and negative sign were arbitrarily assigned by Benzamin Franklin. Applications
This does not mean that charge of proton is greater than charge of electron.
 Electric Potential and
Properties of Electric Charge electrostatic Potential
Energy
(1) Charges interact with each other i.e., they exert force on each other.
Like charges do not like (repel) each other while unlike charges like each  Electric Capacitor
other (attract).  Parallel Plate
(2) Charge is of two kind : Positive and negative. Capacitor with
Dielectric and
(3) Total charge of an isolated system is conserved (Consevation of Conducting Slab
charge)
 Energy Stored in the
(4) Charge is quantised Capacitor
(5) Charge can be transferred : Charge can be transferred from one body  Capacitors in Series
to other. This occurs due to transfer of electrons from one body to other. and Parallel
One of the common example of transfer of charge is charging by friction. Combinations

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Frictional Electricity : When two bodies are rubbed with each other, they are found to attract each other.
This is so because, on rubbing, transfer of electrons takes place from one body to other. One of them
acquires a positive charge and other acquires a negative charge.

e–
Rubbing Transfer
A B

Neutral Neutral

## (6) Charge is invariant : Charge of a particle is independent of speed.

(7) Charge cannot exist without mass, while mass can exist without charge.

## INTERACTION BETWEEN CHARGES

Coulomb’s Law
It gives an expression for the force between two charged particles or particles like objects.

1 q1q 2
| F 2 1 |  | F12 | 
4 0 r 2 F12 r F21
q1 q2

1
where,  8.99  10 9 Nm 2 /C2
4 0

## 0 = 8.85 × 10–12 C2/m2N. This is called absolute permittivity of free space.

Important Points :
1. If q1q2 > 0, force is repulsive.
2. If q1q2 < 0, force is attractive.
3. This force is central and conservative.
4. This force is between two charges and is independent of the presence of other charges i.e., if some other
charges are present in the region, the force between two given charges remains same.

## 1 q1q 2 ˆ 1 q1q 2 ˆ F12 x F21

F12  i , F2 1  i x-axis
4 0 x 2 4 0 x 2 q1 q2

ELECTRIC FIELD
This space around a charge distribution, in which the charge can exert force on other charges is called electric
field.

## Electric Field Intensity

We define electric field intensity at a point as the force experienced per unit charge when a very small positive
test charge is placed at that point.

F
E  Limit
q 0 q

Units : SI units of electric field intensity are (i) N/C (ii) volt/metre

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## Electric Field due to a Point Charge (Q) :

+Q P ( q )
1 Qq ˆ F 1 Q ˆ
F i , E  i
4 0 r 2 q 4 0 r 2 F, E x-axis
r
1 Q ˆ
 E i
4 0 r 2

Application
Direction of Electric Field at Various Points (when charge Q is placed at origin) :

y-axis

1 Q ˆ
E j 1 Q xiˆ  yˆj
4  0 y 2 E  2
rˆ , where rˆ 
4  0 r x2  y 2
r

1 Q ˆ y
E i
4  0 x 2
–x-axis x-axis
Q
x x 1 Q ˆ
E i
y 4  0 x 2

1 Q ˆ
E j
4  0 y 2

–y-axis

## Electric Field Intensity at O in Each Case Shown Below is zero

+Q

a a
r r
(1) (2) O
+Q O +Q

+Q a +Q

+Q a +Q +Q a +Q

a a
O O
(3) a a (4) +Q +Q
a a

a +Q a +Q
+Q +Q

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+Q

a a

(5) +Q O +Q

a a

+Q a +Q

## ELECTRIC LINES OF FORCE

Invented by Faraday to visualise electric field in a region.
They are imaginary lines drawn such that
(1) If they are straight, they give the direction of electric field.
(2) If they are curved, then tangent drawn at any point gives the direction of electric field.
(3) Number of field lines crossing a cross-section is proportional to strength of electric field present.

## Electric Lines of Force due to Various Configurations

(1) Isolated point charge (+) (2) Isolated point Charge (–)

q –q

## (3) Electric dipole (4) Two identical charges

–q +q
+q +q

Properties
From above examples, a few properties of electric lines of force can be seen.
(1) They come out of a positive charge or infinity and terminate at negative charge or at infinity.
(2) In free space, electric lines of force are continuous curves i.e., do not have sudden breaks.
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(3) Two field lines do not intersect each other, as at point of interaction, we will get two different directions
of electric field which is not possible.
(4) They contract longitudinally on account of attraction between opposite charges.
(5) They exert lateral pressure on each other on account of repulsion between like charges.
Following pattern of lines of force are not possible

1. +q 2. 3. 4.

ELECTRIC DIPOLE
An arrangement of two equal and opposite charges separated by some distance.
p

–q +q
2a
Dipole Moment

Dipole moment is a vector quantity directed from negative to positive charge. It is represented by p .

## The most practical example of an electric dipole is a water molecule.

p
Hydrogen 105° Hydrogen

Oxygen

Ideal Dipole
An ideal dipole is a short dipole with large value of q and negligible value of 2a.
In c.g.s. system, units of dipole moment is Debye.
1 Debye = 10–18 esu-cm
For an electron and a proton separated by 1Å.

## 1Å p = 1.6 × 10–19 C × 10–10 m.

–e +e
p = 1.6 × 10–29 C-m
p = 4.8 × 10–19 esu-cm = 4.8 Debye

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## Electric Field due to an Electric Dipole

1. For a point P on axial line

 2pr
E axial 
4  0 ( r 2  a 2 ) 2

## For an ideal dipole (r2 – a2  r2)

 2p
 E axial 
4 0 r 3
Q
2. For a point Q on equatorial line Eequatorial

 r
 p
E equatorial  –q +q
4 0 (r 2  a 2 )3 / 2
O Eaxial
(–a, 0) (a, 0) P
For an ideal dipole (r2 + a2  r2) r

 p
 E equatorial 
4 0 r 3

  E axial
3. For an ideal dipole E equatorial 
2

## 4. Electric Field at any point in the plane of a short dipole

P is a point in x-y plane at a distance r from the centre of dipole, such that OP makes an angle  with dipole
moment.
p sin  Enet
Eeq  3
4 0r
2 p cos 
y-axis P Eax 
4  0 r 3
Enet
r

s
co
p  Eeq 
 
O Eax
p x-axis
p sin P

1 p
(a) Enet  1  3 cos 2 
4 0 r 3

E eq 1 1
(b) tan    tan   tan   tan 
E ax 2 2
(c) The net electric field makes angle  + with dipole moment.

## (d) When E  p + = 90°    tan 1 2

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Electric Dipole Placed in a Uniform Electric Field (Torque on dipole in uniform electric field)
Case 1 : p | | E Case 2 : p | | (  E )

p p
–qE qE –qE
–q +q +q q E –q

## (a) Net force = q E  q E  0 (a) Net force = q E  q E  0

(b) Net torque = Zero (b) Net torque = Zero

E +q E
+q qE qE
2a
2a –qE  2a sin
–qE
–q –q

## (a) Net force = Zero (a) Net force = Zero

(b) = qE × 2a = pE (b)   p  E or  = p E sin 
In vector form   p  E

## Potential Energy of Dipole

1. The external work required to change the orientation from 1 to 2 is Wext = – pE[cos2 – cos1]
2. Change in potential energy of dipole is U2 – U1 = –pE[cos2 – cos1]
3. Potential energy of dipole is U = –pE cos 

ELECTRIC FLUX
It is defined as the number of field lines that pass through a surface in a direction normal to the surface.

Mathematically,   E . A (If E is uniform)

In general,   E . d A

N- m 2
Units : or, V-m
C

Important cases :
(1) E | | A (2) EA (3) E and A make angle 

A
A E
E A 

E
 = EA  =0
 = EA cos
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R
(4)

A

h
E
 Base  E . A  E  R 2
lateral = –E × R2 ( field lines enter through curved surface)

R
(5)

R
A
E
Base = 0
curved = 0 (Total flux that enters = Total flux that leave)

1 
φ entered  E   πR 2 
 2 

R 2
leaving  E 
2

R
(6) base  E  R 2

A O curved  E  R 2

GAUSS LAW
  qenc

  E . dA 
0

Illustration :

R q
(1)  sphere 
0
q Sphere

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=0

(2)

q
 sphere 1   sphere 2 
(3) 0
q
1 2

–q +q
(4)

Sphere 1
Sphere 2

Surface 3
q
Electric flux through sphere 1: 1  ,
0
q
Electric flux through sphere 2:  2 
0
Electric flux through surface 3: 3 = 0

## Application of Gauss Law

(1) Field Due a Point Charge
The field due to a point charge is spherically symmetric. So if we draw a gaussian sphere around the
charge, the strength of electric field will be same every where. Using above formula
1 q
E
4 0 r 2

E
E

r
E
q
dA

E E
Gaussian sphere

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## (2) Field Due to a Uniformly Charged Spherical Shell (r > R)

Q
E (outside)
4 0 r 2

E
E
r

O
R dA E
Q
E
Gaussian sphere

A charged spherical shell behaves as if whole charge is concentrated at the centre of shell.
At any point inside the shell, if we draw a gaussian sphere, the charge enclosed = zero

  E = 0 (inside)
E . dA  0

E=0

Gaussian sphere
If we draw a graph showing variation of electric field with distance from centre, it will be like this.

Er

1
E
r2

R r

(3) Expression for electric field at any point inside the sphere due to non-conducting solid sphere
having uniform volume charge distribution (sphere of charge)

qr qr
 E . In vector form E 
4 0 R 3 4 0R 3 r
R

4  r Gaussain
If we put q   R 3  , E  Surface
3  3 0

## Similarly, fields due to other bodies can be derived.

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Electric Flux

q
a/2
q
cube 
0
q q
1. a  square  2. q
6 0 each face 
60
a

E q
 ABCD=
F 24 0
q
 ABEF = 0
q q
3. 4. cube 
C  q 2 0
B cube =
8 0
A D

q
5. cube 
40

Important results for fields due to different bodies (derived by Gauss Law)

kQ
1. Point charge Q : 2
r

kQ
2. Shell of charge with charge Q and radius R : (outside) zero (inside)
r2

kQr kQ
3. Sphere of charge with charge Q and radius R : (inside) (outside)
R2 r2

2k
4. Infinite line of charge with linear charge density  :
r

5. Infinite plane surface of charge with charge density  :
2 0

6. Infinite conducting sheet of charge with charge density  : .
0

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## Electric Potential Difference (V)

1. It is the work done against electric field in moving a unit positive charge from one point to other. That is

  2

V2 – V1 =  E .dr .
1

## 2. V for two points at a distance r1 and r2 from a point charge Q

 1 1
V2 – V1 = V = KQ  r  r 
 2 1

## ELECTRIC POTENTIAL (V)

1. V at a point is work done against electric field in moving a unit positive test charge from infinity to that
r
 

point, V   E. dr .

KQ
2. Potential due to a point charge Q at a distance r is V  .
r

Kp cos 
3. Potential due to dipole at distance r at angle  V 
r2

 Kq Kq2 Kq3 
4. Potential due to system of charge VP   1   . q1
 r1 r2 r3  r1

x2 r2 P
If V and E are functions of x, then V2  V1   E dx . q2

x1
r3
q3

## Relation between Electric Field and Potential

1. In general,
r2
 

(a) V2 – V1 = –  E.dr
r1

r
 
(b) V = – 

E. dr

V V V
2. Ex   , Ey   , Ez   .
x x z

dV
3. If V is a function of single variable r, E   .
dr

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Equipotential Surface
An equipotential surface is a surface with a constant value of potential at all points on the surface.
Electric lines of force are always perpendicular to equipotential surface.
Shape of equipotential surface

## Point charge Concentric spheres

Line charge Co-axial cylinders
Uniform field Plane parallel to each other

## Electric Potential Energy

1. For a two point charge system

r Kq1q2
U
q1 q2 r

## 2. For a three point charge system

q3

r31 r23
1  q1q2 q2q3 q3q1 
U    
4 0  r12 r23 r31 
q1 q2
r12

CONDUCTORS
Conductor contain large amount of mobile charge carriers.
Properties :
1. Inside a conductor, electrostatic field is zero.
2. At the surface of charged conductor, electrostatic field must be perpendicular to the surface at every point.
3. The charge density will remain zero in interior of conductor static situtation.
4. Conductor is equipotential

5. Electric field at surface of charged conductor is  .
0

6. If conductor has a cavity with no charge inside the cavity then electric field inside cavity is zero, whatever
be the charge on or outside conductor (Electrostatic shielding).

CAPACITANCE
Capacitance of a conductor is measure of ability of conductor to store electric charge and hence electric energy
on it.
When charge is given to a conductor its potential increases. It is found that
VQ
or, Q  V
Q = CV
where C is the capacitance and its unit is farad (F).

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## Capacitance of Isolated Spherical Conductor

C = 40r
Capacitance of Earth Ce = 40Re = 711 F r

CAPACITOR
It is a device used to store electric energy in the form of electric field.
When an earthed conductor is held near an isolated conductor, a capacitor is obtained.

Working of Capacitor A B
If some charge is given to conductor A its potential increases, and soon
becomes maximum. If some more charge is given to it, it leaks out. Now if
an earthed conductor B is placed near A opposite charges induces on B,
hence more charge can be given to A.

## Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor

1. Electric field in between plates +Q –Q
+ –
Q 
E= 
A 0  0 + –
E
Qd d + –
2. Potential difference between the plates = A  
0 0
+ –
0 A d
3. Capacitance =
d Plate area = A

Q  2 A QE
4. Force of attraction between the plates =  
2 A 0 2 0 2

## Parallel Plate Capacitor with Dielectric Slab

 1
(a) Induced charge Qi  Q 1   , K is dielectric constant.
 K

(b) Capacitance, C  0 A .
t
(d  t ) 
K

## (c) For conducting slab, K = 

0 A
 Qi = – Q and C 
d t
(d) The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is C. If its plates
are connected by an inclined conducting rod, the new
capacitance is infinity.

C

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Spherical Capacitor
1. Potential difference between plates
b  a
V  KQ   M
 ba 
2. Electric field at any point P between plates
L
KQ r P
E a
r2
3. Potential at any point P between plates b
KQ KQ
V  
r b
4 0ab
4. Capacitance C 
ba
4 0b 2
5. Important : If the inner surface is grounded, capacitance C 
ba
Cylindrical Capacitance +Q
1. Potential difference between plates –Q
a
2KQ  b  + +
V l n  + b +
l a + +
+ +
+ + l
2KQ
2. Field E  + +
lr + +
+ +
3. Potential at any point between plates + +
+ +
2KQ  r 
V l n 
l a

4. Capacitance C  2 0 l
b
l n 
a
System of Two Metal Balls
a b

d
4 0
Capacitance C 
1 1 2
   
a b d 
Dielectric Polarisation
When a dielectre glab is placed between the plates of capacitor it’s polarisation take place. Thus a charge
–Qi, appear on its left face and +Qi appears on its right face.
+Q –Qi +Qi –Q

 1
Qi  Q  1  
 k
Q
E0 
A 0

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## Effective Capacitance in Some Important Cases

0 A
1. C
t1 t2 t t
  3  4
K1 K 2 K 3 K 4 + K1 K2 K3 K4 –

t1 t2 t3 t4
For two capacitors

+ K1 K2 –

d
If t1  t 2 
2
0 A 2 0 A
C 
d d  1 1  d/2 d/2
 d   
2K1 2K 2
 K1 K 2 
 2K1K 2   0 A 2K1K 2
 C   
 K eq 
 K1  K 2  d K1  K 2
A1 K1
 [K A  K 2 A2  K 3 A3 ]
2. C 0 1 1
d A2
+ K2 –

A3 K3
For two capacitors,
A
If A1  A2 
2
 A A A/2
K1 A/2
 0  K1  K 2 
 C  2 2
d

 K  K 2  0 A K  K2 A/2 K2 A/2
 C   1  K eq  1
 2  d 2

COMBINATION OF CAPACITORS
1. Capacitors in series (three capacitors)
C1 C2 C3
Q Q Q
V1  V2  V3 
C1 , C2 and C3
V1 V2 V3
V = V1 + V2 + V3
V
1 1 1
V  Q   
 C1 C2 C3 
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Electrostatics IIT - JEE/NEET

Q
V 
Ceq

1 1 1 1
  
Ceq C1 C2 C3

## 2. Two Capacitors in Series

Q Q
V1  V2 
C1 C2

1 1 1
  C1 C2
Ceq C1 C2
V
CC
Ceq  1 2 Q = CeqV
C1  C2 V1 V2

C2 C1
V1  V V2  V Potential dividing rule
C1  C2 C1  C2
C1 Q1
3. Capacitors in parallel
Q1 = C1V, Q2 = C2V, Q3 = C3V
C2 Q2
 Q = C1V + C2V + C3V V
C3 Q3
Q = (C1 + C2 + C3)V and Q = CeqV
Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3

## Energy Stored in a Capacitor

Energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance C, charge Q and potential difference V across it is given by

1 Q2 1
U CV 2   QV
2 2C 2

Sharing of Charge
Case 1 : Two capacitors charged to potentials V1 and V2 are connected end to end as shown

C1V1  C2V2
(a) Final common potential V 
C1  C2

C1C2
(b) Charge flown through key  (V1  V2 )
C1  C2

C1C2
(c) Loss of energy = (V1  V2 )2
2(C1  C2 )

## (a) Final common potential V  C1V1  C2V2

C1  C2

C1C2 V2
(b) Loss of energy = (V1  V2 )2
2(C1  C2 )

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IIT - JEE/NEET Electrostatics

## Small Inserting a Dielectric Slab

1 When battery is disconnected (isolated)
Q0 = initial change
C0 = initial capacitance
V0 = initial potential
E0 = initial energy
(a) New capacitance = KC0

Q0 V0
(b) New potential difference = KC  K
0

2
1  V0  E0
(c) New energy stored = (KC0 )  
2 K
  K

## (d) Note that charge on each plate remains same.

2. When battery is connected
(a) C = KC0
(b) V = V0
(c) Q = KQ0

1
(d) E (KC0 ) (V0 )2 = KE0
2

## Combining Charged Drops

When n droplets of radius r0 having equal charge Q0 colasce to form a bigger drop of radius R.
4 3 4
(a) n r0  R 3
3 3

 R  n1/ 3r0

(b) C = n 1/3 C
0 R
(c) Total charge = nQ0
nQ0 nQ0
(d) V  C  1/ 3  n 2 / 3V0
n C0

1 Q 2 (nQ0 )2
(e) Total energy = 2 C  1/ 3 = n5/3 U0
2n C0

  

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