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# Lossy & Lossless Dielectrics Questions and

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Lossy and Lossless Dielectrics”.

## 1. For a dielectric, the condition to be satisfied is

a) σ/ωε > 1
b) σ/ωε < 1
c) σ = ωε
d) ωε = 1

Explanation: In a dielectric, the conductivity will be very less. Thus the loss tangent will be less
than unity. This implies σ/ωε < 1 is true.

## 2. For a perfect dielectric, which parameter will be zero?

a) Conductivity
b) Frequency
c) Permittivity
d) Permeability

Explanation: The conductivity will be minimum for a dielectric. For a perfect dielectric, the
conductivity will be zero.

3. Calculate the phase constant of a wave with frequency 12 rad/s and velocity 3×108 m/s(in 10-8
order)
a) 0.5
b) 72
c) 4
d) 36

Explanation: The phase constant is given by β = ω√(με), where ω is the frequency in rad/s and
1/√(με) is the velocity of wave. On substituting √(με) = 3×108 and ω = 12, we get β = 12/(3×108)
= 4 x 10-8m/s.
4. For a lossless dielectric, the attenuation will be
a) 1
b) 0
c) -1
d) Infinity

Explanation: The attenuation is the loss of power of the wave during its propagation. In a lossless
dielectric, the loss of power will not occur. Thus the attenuation will be zero.

5. Calculate the velocity of a wave with frequency 2 x109 rad/s and phase constant of 4 x 108
units.
a) 0.5
b) 5
c) 0.2
d) 2

Explanation: The velocity of a wave is the ratio of the frequency to the phase constant. Thus V =
ω/β. On substituting the given values, we get V = 2 x109/ 4 x 108 = 5 units.

6. Which of the following is the correct relation between wavelength and the phase constant of a
wave?
a) Phase constant = 2π/wavelength
b) Phase constant = 2π x wavelength
c) Phase constant = 1/(2π x wavelength)
d) Phase constant = wavelength/2π

Explanation: The phase constant is the ratio of 2π to the wavelength λ. Thus β = 2π/λ is the
correct relation.

7. In lossy dielectric, the phase difference between the electric field E and the magnetic field H is
a) 90
b) 60
c) 45
d) 0

Explanation: In a lossy dielectric, the E and H component will be in phase. This implies that the
phase difference between E and H will be 0.
8. The intrinsic impedance is the ratio of square root of
a) Permittivity to permeability
b) Permeability to permittivity
c) Phase constant to wavelength
d) Wavelength to phase constant

Explanation: The intrinsic impedance is the impedance of a particular material. It is the ratio of
square root of the permeability to permittivity. For air, the intrinsic impedance is 377 ohm or
120π.

## 9. Calculate the skin depth of a material with attenuation constant of 2 units.

a) 2
b) 1
c) 0.5
d) 4

Explanation: The skin depth of a material is the reciprocal of the attenuation constant. Thus δ =
1/α. On substituting for α = 2, we get δ = ½ = 0.5 units.

10. Calculate the phase constant of a wave with skin depth of 2.5 units.
a) 5/2
b) 5
c) 2
d) 2/5

Explanation: The skin depth is the reciprocal of the phase constant and the attenuation constant
too. Thus δ = 1/β. On substituting for δ = 2.5, we get β = 1/δ = 1/2.5 = 2/5 units.

## 11. An example for lossless propagation is

a) Dielectric waveguide propagation
b) Conductor propagation
c) Cavity resonator propagation
d) It is not possible

Explanation: There are many techniques employed to achieve zero attenuation or maximum
propagation. But it is not achievable practically. Thus lossless propagation is not possible
practically.
12. Skin depth phenomenon is found in which materials?
a) Insulators
b) Dielectrics
c) Conductors
d) Semiconductors

Explanation: Skin depth is found in pure conductors. It the property of the conductor to allow a
small amount of electromagnetic energy into its skin, but not completely. This is the reason why
EM waves cannot travel inside a good conductor.

## Dielectric vs Conductor Wave Propagation

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Dielectric and Conductor Wave Propagation”.

## 1. In conductors, which condition will be true?

a) σ/ωε > 1
b) σωε > 1
c) σ/ωε < 1
d) σωε < 1

Explanation: For conductors, the conductivity will be maximum. Thus the loss tangent is greater
than unity. This is given by σ/ωε >1.

## 2. For metals, the conductivity will be

a) 0
b) 1
c) -1
d) Infinity

Explanation: Metals are pure conductors. Examples are iron, copper etc. Their conductivity will
be very high. Thus the metal conductivity will be infinity. Practically the conductivity of
conductors will be maximum.
3. In conductors, which two parameters are same?
a) Wavelength and phase constant
b) Phase and attenuation constant
c) Attenuation constant and skin depth
d) Skin depth and wavelength

Explanation: In conductors, which are considered to be lossy, the attenuation and the phase
constant are the same. It is given by α=β= √(ωμσ/2).

4. Calculate the velocity of wave propagation in a conductor with frequency 5 x 108 rad/s and
phase constant of 3 x 108 units.
a) 3/5
b) 15
c) 5/3
d) 8

Explanation: The velocity of wave propagation is the ratio of the frequency to the phase constant.
It is given by V = ω/β. On substituting the given values, we get V = 5/3 units.

5. Calculate the wavelength of the wave with phase constant of 3.14 units.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 0.5
d) 4

Explanation: The wavelength is the ratio of 2π to the phase constant β. On substituting for β =
3.14, we get λ = 2π/β = 2π/3.14 = 2 units.

## 6. For dielectrics, which two components will be in phase?

a) E and wave direction
b) H and wave direction
c) Wave direction and E x H
d) E and H

Explanation: In dielectrics, the electric and magnetic components E and H will be in phase with
each other. This is due the variation in the permittivities and the permeabilities of the dielectric
surfaces. The phase difference between E and H will be 0.
7. In perfect conductors, the phase shift between the electric field and magnetic field will be
a) 0
b) 30
c) 45
d) 90

Explanation: For perfect conductors, the electric and magnetic field E and H respectively vary by
a phase of 45 degree. This is due to the polarisation phenomenon in the conductors, unlike
dielectrics.

## 8. The expression for phase constant is given by

a) Phase constant β = ωμε
b) Phase constant ω = με
c) Phase constant β = ω√(με)
d) Phase constant β = 1/ωμε

Explanation: The phase constant is represented as β. It is a complex quantity representing the
constant angle of the wave propagated. It is given by β = ω√(με).

## 9. In waveguides, which of the following conditions will be true?

a) V > c
b) V < c
c) V = c
d) V >> c

Explanation: In waveguides, the phase velocity will always be greater than the speed of light.
This enables the wave to propagate through the waveguide. Thus V > c is the required condition.

## 10. The attenuation constant in lossless dielectrics will be

a) 0
b) 1
c) -1
d) ∞

Explanation: In lossless dielectrics, the attenuation constant will not be same as the phase
constant, unlike conductors. Also, due to the lossless behaviour, the attenuation will be nearly
zero. Practically, zero attenuation is not possible.
Plane Waves in Free Space Questions and
by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Plane Waves in Free Space”.

## 1. In free space, the charge carriers will be

a) 0
b) 1
c) 100
d) Infinity

Explanation: Free space is not a conductor. Thus the charge carrier in free space is assumed to be
zero. But the free space consists of particles or ions that get ionized during conduction.

## 2. In free space, which parameter will be unity?

a) Permittivity
b) Absolute permittivity
c) Relative permittivity
d) Permeability

Explanation: The relative permittivity is a constant for a particular material. It is unity for free
space or air. The absolute permittivity is a constant given by 8.854 x 10-12 C/m2.

## 3. Which parameter is unity in air medium?

a) Permittivity
b) Absolute permeability
c) Relative permeability
d) Permeability

Explanation: In free space or air medium, the relative permeability is also unity, like relative
permittivity. The absolute permeability is given by 4π x 10-7 units.

## 4. The conductivity in free space medium is

a) Infinity
b) Unity
c) Zero
d) Negative

Explanation: As the charge carriers are not available in free space, the conductivity will be very
low. For ideal cases, the conductivity can be taken as zero.

## 5. Zero permeability/permittivity implies which state?

a) No ions are allowed in the medium
b) No current is generated in the medium
c) No magnetic or electric energy is permitted in the medium
d) No resistivity

Explanation: The zero permittivity in an electric field refers to the ability of the field/medium to
permit electric charges in it. Similarly, zero permeability in a magnetic field refers to the ability
of the field/medium to permit the magnetic energy into the field.

## 6. The intrinsic impedance of free space is

a) 489
b) 265
c) 192
d) 377

Explanation: The intrinsic impedance is the square root of ratio of the permeability to the
permittivity. In free space, the permeability and the permittivity is same as the absolute
permeability and permittivity respectively. This is due to unity permeability and permittivity in
free space. Thus η = √(μ/ε), where absolute permeability is given by 4π x 10-7 and absolute
permittivity is given by 8.854 x 10-12. The intrinsic impedance will be 377 ohms.

## 7. In free space, the condition that holds good is

a) Minimum attenuation and propagation
b) Minimum attenuation and maximum propagation
c) Maximum attenuation and minimum propagation
d) Maximum attenuation and propagation

Explanation: The free space does not have any barrier for attenuation. Thus it enables minimum
attenuation and maximum propagation. This technique is employed in line of sight
communication.
8. In free space, the ratio of frequency to the velocity of light gives the phase constant. State
True/False.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The phase constant is given by the ratio of the frequency in radian/sec to the
velocity of the wave propagating. In free space, the velocity is considered to be the velocity of
light. Thus the statement is true.

9. The velocity of a wave travelling in the air medium without transmission lines or
waveguides(wireless) is
a) 6 x 108
b) 3 x 108
c) 1.5 x 108
d) 9 x 108

Explanation: In free space or air medium, the velocity of the wave propagating will be same as
that of the light. Thus the velocity is the speed of light, V = c. It is given by 3 x 108m/s.

## 10. The vectors of the electromagnetic wave propagation can be expressed in

a) Dot product
b) Cross product
c) Unit vector
d) Perpendicular vector

Explanation: In an EM wave, the electric and the magnetic fields will be perpendicular to each
other and with the direction of the propagation. Thus it can be expressed in cross product where
iE x iH = iw. Here iE is the electric vector component, iH is the magnetic vector component and
iw is the vector of the wave propagating.

## Plane Waves in Good Conductor Questions

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Planes Waves in Good Conductor”.
1. For conductors, the loss tangent will be
a) Zero
b) Unity
c) Maximum
d) Minimum

Explanation: In conductors, the conductivity will be more. Thus the loss tangent σ/ωε will be
maximum.

## 2. In metals, the total permittivity is

a) Absolute permittivity
b) Relative permittivity
c) Product of absolute and relative permittivity
d) Unity

Explanation: The total permittivity is the product of the absolute and the relative permittivity.
For metals or conductors, the relative permittivity is unity. Thus the permittivity is simply the
absolute permittivity.

## 3. The total permeability in a conductor is

a) Absolute permeability
b) Relative permeability
c) Product of absolute and relative permeability
d) Unity

Explanation: The total permeability is the product of the absolute and the relative permeability.
For metals or conductors, the relative permittivity is not unity. Thus the permittivity is the
product of absolute and relative permeability.

4. Calculate the phase constant of a conductor with attenuation constant given by 0.04 units.
a) 0.02
b) 0.08
c) 0.0016
d) 0.04

Explanation: The phase constant and the attenuation constant are both the same in the case of
conductors. Given that the attenuation constant is 0.04, implies that the phase constant is also
0.04.
5. Calculate the attenuation constant of a conductor of conductivity 200 units, frequency 1M
a) 11.2
b) 1.12
c) 56.23
d) 5.62

Explanation: The attenuation constant of a conductor is given by α = √(ωμσ/2). On substituting ω
= 106, σ = 200 and μ = 4π x 10-7, we get α = 11.2 units.

## 6. The skin depth of a conductor with attenuation constant of 7 neper/m is

a) 14
b) 49
c) 7
d) 1/7

Explanation: The skin depth is the measure of the depth upto which an EM wave can penetrate
through the conductor surface. It is the reciprocal of the attenuation constant. On substituting for
α = 7, we get δ = 1/α = 1/7 units.

## 7. The expression for velocity of a wave in the conductor is

a) V = √(2ω/μσ)
b) V = √(2ωμσ)
c) V = (2ω/μσ)
d) V = (2ωμσ)

Explanation: The velocity is the ratio of the frequency to the phase constant. In conductors, the
phase constant is given by √(ωμσ/2). On substituting for β,ω in v, we get v = √(2ω/μσ) units.

## 8. In conductors, the E and H vary by a phase difference of

a) 0
b) 30
c) 45
d) 60

Explanation: The electric and magnetic component, E and H respectively have a phase difference
of 45 degrees. This is due to the wave propagation in conductors in the air medium.
9. EM waves do not travel inside metals. State True/False.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The conductors or metals do not support EM wave propagation onto them due the
skin effect. This is the reason why mobile phones cannot be used inside lifts.

10. The propagation constant of the wave in a conductor with air as medium is
a) √(ωμσ)
b) ωμσ
c) √(ω/μσ)
d) ω/μσ

Explanation: The propagation constant is the sum of the attenuation constant and the phase
constant. In conductors, the attenuation and phase constant both are same and it is given by
√(ωμσ/2). Their sum will be √(ωμσ), is the propagation constant.

## 11. An example for electromagnetic wave propagation is

a) refrigerator
b) electric fan
c) mobile transponder
d) relays in actuators

Explanation: The refrigerator, electric fan and relays are electrical devices. They do not use
electromagnetic energy as medium of energy transfer. The mobile transponder is an antenna,
which uses the EM waves for communication with the satellites.

12. The phase shift in the electric and magnetic fields in an EM wave is given by which
parameter?
a) phase constant
b) attenuation constant
c) propagation constant
d) intrinsic impedance

Explanation: The intrinsic impedance in a conductor is given by η = √(ωμ/2σ) x (1+j). The phase
shift is represented by the 1+j term. In polar form it indicates 45 degree phase shift.
Electromagnetic Theory Question Bank -
Sanfoundry
by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Question Bank focuses on “Plane Waves in Dielectrics”.

## 1. The loss tangent of a perfect dielectric will be

a) Zero
b) Unity
c) Maximum
d) Minimum

Explanation: Dielectrics have poor conductivity. The loss tangent σ/ωε will be low in dielectrics.
For perfect dielectrics, the loss tangent will be minimum.

## 2. In pure dielectrics, the parameter that is zero is

a) Attenuation
b) Propagation
c) Conductivity
d) Resistivity

Explanation: There are no free charge carriers available in a dielectric. In other words, the charge
carriers are present in the valence band, which is very difficult to start to conduct. Thus
conduction is low in dielectrics. For pure dielectrics, the conductivity is assumed to be zero.

3. The total permittivity of a dielectric transformer oil (relative permittivity is 2.2) will be (in
order 10-11)
a) 1.94
b) 19.4
c) 0.194
d) 194

Explanation: The total permittivity is the product of the absolute and the relative permittivity.
The absolute permittivity is 8.854 x 10-12 and the relative permittivity(in this case for transformer
oil) is 2.2. Thus the total permittivity is 8.854 x 10-12 x 2.2 = 1.94 x 10-11 units.
4. The permeability of a dielectric material in air medium will be
a) Absolute permeability
b) Relative permeability
c) Product of absolute and relative permeability
d) Unity

Explanation: The total permeability is the product of the absolute and the relative permeability.
In air medium, the relative permeability will be unity. Thus the total permeability is equal to the
absolute permeability given by 4π x 10-7 units.

## 5. The attenuation in a good dielectric will be non- zero. State True/False.

a) True
b) False

Explanation: Good dielectrics attenuate the electromagnetic waves than any other material. Thus
the attenuation constant of the dielectric will be non-zero, positive and large.

## 6. Calculate the phase constant of a dielectric with frequency 6 x 106 in air.

a) 2
b) 0.2
c) 0.02
d) 0.002

Explanation: The phase constant of a dielectric is given by β = ω√(με). On substituting for ω = 6
x 106 , μ = 4π x 10-7, ε = 8.854 x 10-12 in air medium, we get the phase constant as 0.02 units.

7. The frequency in rad/sec of a wave with velocity of that of light and phase constant of 20 units
is (in GHz)
a) 6
b) 60
c) 600
d) 0.6

Explanation: The velocity of a wave is given by V = ω/β. To get ω, put v = 3 x 108 and β = 20.
Thus ω = vβ = 3 x 108 x 20 = 60 x 108 = 6 GHz.

## 8. The relation between the speed of light, permeability and permittivity is

a) C = 1/√(με)
b) C = με
c) C = μ/ε
d) C = 1/με

Explanation: The standard relation between speed of light, permeability and permittivity is given
by c = 1/√(με). The value in air medium is 3 x 108 m/s.

## 9. The phase constant of a wave with wavelength 2 units is

a) 6.28
b) 3.14
c) 0.5
d) 2

Explanation: The phase constant is given by β = 2π/λ. On substituting λ = 2 units, we get β =
2π/2 = π = 3.14 units.

## 10.The expression for intrinsic impedance is given by

a) √(με)
b) (με)
c) √(μ/ε)
d) (μ/ε)

Explanation: The intrinsic impedance is given by the ratio of square root of the permittivity to
the permeability. Thus η = √(μ/ε) is the intrinsic impedance. In free space or air medium, the
intrinsic impedance will be 120π or 377 ohms.

11.The electric and magnetic field components in the electromagnetic wave propagation are in
phase. State True/False.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: In dielectrics, the electric and magnetic fields will be in phase or the phase
difference between them is zero. This is due to the large attenuation which leads to increase in
phase shift.

12. The skin depth of a wave with phase constant of 12 units inside a conductor is
a) 12
b) 1/12
c) 24
d) 1/24

Explanation: The skin depth is the reciprocal of the phase constant. On substituting for β = 12,
we get δ = 1/β = 1/12 units.

## Power & Poynting Vector - Electromagnetic

Theory Questions and Answers - Sanfoundry
by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Power and Poynting Vector”.

1. The total power of a wave with average power 15 units in a surface density of 0.5 units is
a) 15
b) 30
c) 7.5
d) 0.75

Explanation: The total power is given by the surface integral of the average power. Thus ∫Pavg
ds is the total power. On substituting for Pavg = 15 and ∫ds = 0.5, we get total power as 7.5 units.

## 2. The power of a wave with electric field intensity of 3 units in air is

a) 0.01
b) 0.03
c) 0.05
d) 0.07

Explanation: The Poynting vector gives the power of a wave. It is given as P = E2/2η. On
substituting for E = 3 and η = 377 in air, the power is P = 32/(2×377) = 0.01 units.

3. Find the power of an EM wave, given that the cross product of the E and H component is 2 +
3j.
a) 2
b) 1
c) 4
d) 8

Explanation: The Poynting power vector for complex quantity of E x H is P = 0.5 x Re(E x H).
In the given data, Re(E x H) = 2, thus we get P = 0.5 x 2 = 1 unit.

4. The power in a electromagnetic wave with electric field and magnetic field intensities 12 and
8 respectively is
a) 96
b) 12
c) 8
d) 48

Explanation: The Poynting vector is given by P = 0.5 EH. Given that E = 12 and H = 8, we get P
= 0.5 x 12 x 8 = 48 units.

## 5. The power in a wave given that H component is 0.82 units in air.

a) 126.74
b) 621.47
c) 216.47
d) 745.62

Explanation: The power of a wave is given by P = ηH2/2. In air medium, η = 377 and given that
H = 0.82. We get power P = 377 x 0.822/2 = 126.74 units.

6. Find the power of a wave given that the RMS value of E and H are 6 and 4.5 respectively.
a) 24
b) 27
c) 29
d) 32

Explanation: The power is the product of the RMS electric field and the RMS magnetic field.
Thus P = Erms X Hrms. On substituting Erms = 6 and Hrms = 4.5, the power is P = 6 x 4.5 = 27
units.

7. The electric and magnetic fields vary with time in which of the following fields?
a) DC
b) AC
c) Static
d) It does not vary with time

Explanation: The electric and magnetic fields vary with time in oscillating fields. It is certain that
such fields are AC fields.

8. The power per unit velocity of a wave with electric field as 8 units and density 10 units is
a) 40
b) 20
c) 80
d) 160

Explanation: The power per unit velocity P/v is given by the product of electric field and the
density. Thus P/v = E.d = 8 x 10 = 80 units.

9. The power of a wave in a cylindrical waveguide of radius 2m with electric field 12 units is
a) 2.39
b) 3.92
c) 9.23
d) 9.32

Explanation: The power of a wave is given by ∫P ds, where P = E2/2η and ∫ds = πr2. On
substituting for E = 12, η = 377 in air and r = 2, we get P = 2.39 units.

10. The work done in the power transmission with E and H given by 50 and 65 respectively. The
velocity of propagation is 20m/s.
a) 162.5
b) 621.5
c) 562.1
d) 261.5

Explanation: The work done is given by W = EH/v, where E = 50, H = 65 and v = 20. On
substituting, we get W = 50 x 65/20 = 162.5 units.

11. The Poynting vector is the power component that is calculated by the
a) Product of E and H
b) Ratio of E and H
c) Dot product of E and H
d) Cross product of E and H

Explanation: The Poynting vector P is the cross product of the electric field E and the magnetic
field H. It is given by P = E X H. It is used to calculate the power in wave propagation in
transmission lines, waveguides and antenna.

## 12. The maximum power transceived by the antenna is in the region of

a) Aperture
b) Effective aperture
c) Maxima lobe
d) Minima lobe

Explanation: An antenna is a device that transmits and receives power. The transmitting and
receiving is in the region called aperture. Maximum or efficient power transmission occurs in the
region called effective aperture.

Electromagnetic Theory Questions and Answers – Refractive Index and Numerical Aperture

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Refractive Index and Numerical Aperture”.

## 1. The expression for refractive index is given by

a) N = v/c
b) N = c/v
c) N = cv
d) N = 1/cv

Explanation: The refractive index is defined as the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to its
velocity in a specified medium. It is given by n = c/v. It is constant for a particular material.

## 2. Numerical aperture is expressed as the

a) NA = sin θa
b) NA = cos θa
c) NA = tan θa
d) NA = sec θa

Explanation: The numerical aperture is the measure of how much light the fiber can collect. It is the
sine of the acceptance angle, the angle at which the light must be transmitted in order to get
maximum reflection. Thus it is given by NA = sin θa.
3. For total internal reflection to occur, which condition must be satisfied?
a) N1 = N2
b) N1 > N2
c) N1 < N2
d) N1 x N2=1

Explanation: The refractive of the transmitting medium should be greater than that of the receiving
medium. In other words, the light must flow from denser to rarer medium, for total internal reflection
to occur.

## 4. Find the refractive index of a medium having a velocity of 1.5 x 108.

a) 0.5
b) 5
c) 0.2
d) 2

Explanation: The refractive index is given by the ratio of the speed of light to the velocity in a
particular medium. It is given by n = c/v. On substituting for v = 1.5 x 108 and c = 3 x 108, we get n =
3/1.5 = 2. The quantity has no unit.

## 5. The refractive index of water will be

a) 1
b) 2.66
c) 5
d) 1.33

Explanation: The velocity of light in water as medium will be 2.25 x 108. On substituting for the speed
of light, we get refractive index as n = 3/2.25 = 1.33(no unit).

## 6. The refractive index of air is unity. State True/False.

a) True
b) False

Explanation: The velocity of light in the air medium and the speed of light are both the same. Since
light travels at maximum velocity in air only. Thus the refractive index n = c/v will be unity.

7. The numerical aperture of a coaxial cable with core and cladding indices given by 2.33 and 1.4
respectively is
a) 3.73
b) 0.83
c) 3.46
d) 1.86

Explanation: The numerical aperture is given by NA = √(n12 – n22), where n1 and n2 are the
refractive indices of core and cladding respectively. On substituting for n1 = 2.33 and n2 = 1.4, we
get NA = √(2.332-1.42) = 1.86.

8. Find the acceptance angle of a material which has a numerical aperture of 0.707 in air.
a) 30
b) 60
c) 45
d) 90

Explanation: The numerical aperture is given by NA = n sin θa, where n is the refractive index. It is
unity in air. Thus NA = sin θa. To get θ= sin-1(NA), put NA = 0.707, thus θa = sin-1(0.707) = 45
degree.

9. The numerical aperture of a material with acceptance angle of 60 degree in water will be
a) 1.15
b) 2.15
c) 5.21
d) 1.52

Explanation: The numerical aperture is given by NA = n sin θa, where n is the refractive index. It is
1.33 for water medium. Given that the acceptance angle is 60, we get NA = 1.33 sin 60 = 1.15.

10. The core refractive index should be lesser than the cladding refractive index for a coaxial cable.
State True/False
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The light should pass through the core region only, for effective transmission. When
light passes through cladding, losses will occur, as cladding is meant for protection. Thus core
refractive index must be greater than the cladding refractive index.

11. The refractive index is 2.33 and the critical angle is 350. Find the numerical aperture.
a) 2
b) 1.9
c) 2.33
d) 12
Explanation: The numerical aperture is given by NA = n cos θc, where θc is the critical angle and n is
the refractive index. On substituting for n = 2.33 and θc = 35, we get NA = 2.33 cos 35 = 1.9(no unit).

12. Choose the optical fibre material from the given materials.
a) Glass
b) Plastic
c) Silica
d) Quartz

Explanation: Silica is the most dominant optical fibre material. This is because of its hardness,
flexibility, melting point. Also it is an easily available material.

## Brewster Angle - Electromagnetic Theory

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Brewster Angle”.

## 1. Brewster angle is valid for which type of polarisation?

a) Perpendicular
b) Parallel
c) S polarised
d) P polarised

Explanation: The parallel polarisation of the electromagnetic waves is possible only when the
transmission occurs at the Brewster angle.

## 2. The Brewster angle is expressed as

a) Tan-1(n)
b) Tan-1(n1/n2)
c) Tan-1(n2/n1)
d) Tan (n)

Explanation: The tangent of the Brewster angle is the ratio of the refractive indices of the second
medium to that of the first medium. It is given by tan θb= n2/n1. Thus the Brewster angle will be
θb = tan-1(n2/n1).
3. The refractive index of a material with permittivity 16 is given by
a) 16
b) 256
c) 4
d) 8

Explanation: The refractive index is the square root of the permittivity. Thus n = √ε. Given that ε
= 16, we get refractive index as n = 4. It has no unit.

4. The reflection coefficient in the wave propagation when it is transmitted with the Brewster
angle is
a) 0
b) 1
c) -1
d) Infinity

Explanation: Brewster angle propagation refers to complete transmission. The wave transmitted
at the Brewster angle will be completely transmitted without reflection. Thus the reflection
coefficient will be zero.

## 5. The transmission coefficient of a wave propagating in the Brewster angle is

a) 0
b) 1
c) -1
d) Infinity

Explanation: The transmission coefficient is the reverse of the reflection coefficient. At Brewster
angle, the reflection will be zero. Thus the transmission is T = 1-R. Since R = 0, T = 1. It is to be
noted that T and R lies in the range of 0 to 1.

6. A circularly polarised wave transmitted at the Brewster angle will be received as linearly
polarised wave. State True/False
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The Brewster angle is said to be the polarisation angle. When a circularly polarised
wave is incident at the Brewster angle, the resultant wave will be linearly polarised.
7. An elliptically polarised wave transmitted at the Brewster angle will be received as an
elliptically polarised wave. State True/False
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Any polarised wave transmitted at the Brewster angle will be linearly polarised. It
can be a parallel, perpendicular, circular or elliptical polarisation. The resultant wave is always
linearly polarised. This is the reason why the Brewster angle is called polarisation angle.

8. Find the Brewster angle of a wave transmitted from a medium of permittivity 4 to a medium
of permittivity 2.
a) 35.26
b) 53.62
c) 26.35
d) 62.53

Explanation: The Brewster angle is given by θb = tan-1(n2/n1), where n = √ε. Thus we can
express the formula in terms of permittivity as θb = tan-1√ (ε 2/ε 1). Here ε1 = 4 and ε2 = 2. Thus
we get θb = tan-1√ (2/4) =
tan-1(0.707) = 35.26 degree.

9. Find the ratio of refractive index of medium 2 to that of medium 1, when the Brewster angle is
60 degree.
a) 0.707
b) 1.5
c) 0.866
d) 1.732

Explanation: The tangent of the Brewster angle is the ratio of the medium 2 permittivity to the
medium 1 permittivity. Thus tan θb = (n2/n1). Given that θb = 60 degree, the ratio n2/n1 will be
tan 60 = 1.732.

## 10. The Brewster angle is the angle of

a) Incidence
b) Reflection
c) Refraction
d) Transmission
Explanation: The Brewster angle is the angle of incidence at which complete transmission of the
electromagnetic wave occurs.

## Snell Law & Critical Angle Questions and

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Snell Law and Critical Angle”.

## 1. The Snell’s law can be derived from which type of incidence?

a) Incidence angle
b) Reflected angle
c) Refracted angle
d) Oblique incidence

Explanation: The oblique incidence refers to the interface between dielectric media. Consider a
planar interface between two dielectric media. A plane wave is incident at an angle from medium
1 and reflected from medium 2. The interface plane defines the boundary between the media.
This is the oblique medium.

## 2. The Snell’s law is given by

a) N1 sin θi = N2 sin θt
b) N2 sin θi = N1 sin θt
c) sin θi = sin θt
d) N1 cos θi = N2 cos θt

Explanation: The Snell law states that in an oblique medium, the product of the refractive index
and sine of incidence angle in medium 1 is same as that of medium 2. Thus it is given by N1 sin
θi = N2 sin θt.

3. Calculate the ratio of sine of incident angle to the sine of reflected angle when the refractive
indices of medium 1 and 2 are given as 2.33 and 1.66 respectively.
a) 0.71
b) 1.4
c) 2
d) 3.99
Explanation: The Snell law is given by N1 sin θi = N2 sin θt. To get sin θi/sin θt, the ratio is
N2/N1. On substituting for N1 = 2.33 and N2 = 1.66, we get 1.66/2.33 = 0.71.

4. Find the ratio of the refractive index of medium 1 to that of medium 2, when the incident and
reflected angles are given by 300 and 450 respectively.
a) 0.5
b) 1
c) 2
d) 4

Explanation: The Snell law is given by N1 sin θi = N2 sin θt. For getting N1/N2, the ratio is sin
θt/sin θi. On substituting for θi = 30 and θt = 45, we get sin 45/sin 30 = 2.

## 5. The refractive index of a medium with permittivity of 2 and permeability of 3 is given by

a) 3.56
b) 2.45
c) 3.21
d) 1.78

Explanation: The refractive index is given by n = c √(με), where c is the speed of light. Given
that relative permittivity and relative permeability are 2 and 3 respectively. Thus n = 3 x 108 √(2
x 4π x 10-7 x 3 x 8.854 x 10-12) = 2.45.

6. The critical angle is defined as the angle of incidence at which the total internal reflection
starts to occur. State True/False.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The critical angle is the minimum angle of incidence which is required for the total
internal reflection to occur. This is the angle that relates the refractive index with the angle of
reflection in an oblique incidence medium.

7. The critical angle for two media of refractive indices of medium 1 and 2 given by 2 and 1
respectively is
a) 0
b) 30
c) 45
d) 60
Explanation: The sine of the critical angle is the ratio of refractive index of medium 2 to that in
medium 1. Thus sin θc = n2/n1. To get θc, put n1 = 2 and n2 = 1. Thus we get θc = sin-1(n2/n1) =
sin-1(1/2) = 30 degree.

8. The critical angle for two media with permittivities of 16 and 9 respectively is
a) 48.59
b) 54.34
c) 60
d) 45

Explanation: The sine of the critical angle is the ratio of refractive index of medium 2 to that in
medium 1. Thus sin θc = n2/n1. Also n = √ε, thus sin θc = √ε2/√ε1. Put ε1 = 16 and ε2 = 9, we
get θc = sin-1(3/4) = 48.59 degree.

9. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection for perfect reflection. State
True/False.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: For complete wave reflection, the angle of incidence should be same as the angle of
the reflection. In such cases, the reflection coefficient is unity and the transmission coefficient is
zero.

10. The angle of incidence of a wave of a wave with angle of transmission 45 degree and the
refractive indices of the two media given by 2 and 1.3 is
a) 41.68
b) 61.86
c) 12.23
d) 27.89

Explanation: The Snell law is given by N1 sin θi = N2 sin θt. To get θi, put N1 = 2, N2 = 1.3, θt
= 45 degree. Thus we get θi = sin-1(1.3 sin 45)/2 = 41.68 degree.

11. The angle at which the wave must be transmitted in air media if the angle of reflection is 45
degree is
a) 45
b) 30
c) 60
d) 90

Explanation: In air media, n1 = n2 = 1. Thus, sin θi=sin θt and the angle of incidence and the
angle of reflection are same. Given that the reflection angle is 45, thus the angle of incidence is
also 45 degree.

12. For a critical angle of 60 degree and the refractive index of the first medium is 1.732, the
refractive index of the second medium is
a) 1
b) 1.5
c) 2
d) 1.66

Explanation: From the definition of Snell law, sin θc = n2/n1. To get n2, put n1 = 1.732 and θc =
60. Thus we get sin 60 = n2/1.732 and n2 = 1.5.

## Polarization Types - Electromagnetic Theory

by staff10

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on
“Types of Polarization”.

1. When the phase angle between the Ex and Ey component is 00 or 1800, the polarisation is
a) Elliptical
b) Circular
c) Linear
d) Perpendicular

Explanation: The phase angle between the Ex and Ey component is 00 and 1800 for linearly
polarised wave. The wave is assumed to be propagating in the z direction.

2. The magnitude of the Ex and Ey components are same in which type of polarisation?
a) Linear
b) Circular
c) Elliptical
d) Perpendicular

Explanation: In circular polarisation, the magnitude of the Ex and Ey components are the same.
This is a form of the elliptical polarisation in which the major and minor axis are the same.

3. When the Ex and Ey components of a wave are not same, the polarisation will be
a) Linear
b) Elliptical
c) Circular
d) Parallel

Explanation: In elliptical polarisation, the magnitude of Ex and Ey components are not same.
This is due to the variation in the major and minor axes of the waves representing its magnitude.

4. Identify the polarisation of the wave given, Ex = Exo cos wt and Ey = Eyo sin wt. The phase
difference is +900.
a) Left hand circularly polarised
b) Right hand circularly polarised
c) Left hand elliptically polarised
d) Right hand elliptically polarised

Explanation: The magnitude of the Ex and Ey components are not same. Thus it is elliptical
polarisation. For +90 phase difference, the polarisation is left handed. In other words, the rotation
is in clockwise direction. Thus the polarisation is left hand elliptical.

5. Identify the polarisation of the wave given, Ex = 2 cos wt and Ey = sin wt. The phase
difference is -900.
a) Left hand circularly polarised
b) Right hand circularly polarised
c) Left hand elliptically polarised
d) Right hand elliptically polarised

Explanation: The magnitude of the Ex and Ey components are not same. Thus it is elliptical
polarisation. For -90 phase difference, the polarisation is right handed. In other words, the
rotation is in anti-clockwise direction. Thus the polarisation is right hand elliptical.

6. Identify the polarisation of the wave given, Ex = 2 cos wt and Ey = 2 sin wt. The phase
difference is +900.
a) Left hand circularly polarised
b) Right hand circularly polarised
c) Left hand elliptically polarised
d) Right hand elliptically polarised

Explanation: The magnitude of the Ex and Ey components are the same. Thus it is circular
polarisation. For +90 phase difference, the polarisation is left handed. In other words, the rotation
is in clockwise direction. Thus the polarisation is left hand circular.

7. Identify the polarisation of the wave given, Ex = cos wt and Ey = sin wt. The phase difference
is -900.
a) Left hand circularly polarised
b) Right hand circularly polarised
c) Left hand elliptically polarised
d) Right hand elliptically polarised

Explanation: The magnitude of the Ex and Ey components are the same. Thus it is circular
polarisation. For -90 phase difference, the polarisation is right handed. In other words, the
rotation is in anti-clockwise direction. Thus the polarisation is right hand circular.

## 8. For a non-zero Ex component and zero Ey component, the polarisation is

a) Parallel
b) Perpendicular
c) Elliptical
d) Circular

Explanation: When the Ex is non-zero and the Ey is zero, the polarisation is parallel. The parallel
polarisation is classified under the linear polarisation type.

9. Identify the polarisation of the wave given that, Ex = 2 cos wt and Ey = cos wt.
a) Elliptical
b) Circular
c) Parallel
d) Linear

Explanation: The magnitude of the Ex and Ey components are not the same. Thus it cannot be
circular polarisation. For a phase difference of 0, the polarisation is linear. In other words, the
waves are in phase. Thus the polarisation is linear.
10. The Snell law is applicable for perpendicular polarisation and the Brewster law is applicable
for parallel polarisation. State True/False.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The Snell law is calculated from the oblique incidence media. Thus it is applicable
for perpendicular polarisation. The Brewster law is applicable for perpendicular polarisation.

11. When the polarisation of the receiving antenna is unknown, to ensure that it receives atleast
half the power, the transmitted wave should be
a) Linearly polarised
b) Elliptically polarised
c) Circularly polarised
d) Normally polarised

Explanation: The polarisation of the transmitting and receiving antenna has to be the same. This
is the condition for maximum power transfer to occur. This is possible only when the
polarisation is circular.

12. Identify the polarisation of the wave given that, Ex = 2 sin wt and Ey = 3 sin wt.
a) Linear
b) Elliptical
c) Circular
d) Parallel

Explanation: The magnitude of the Ex and Ey components are not the same. Thus it cannot be
circular polarisation. For a phase difference of 0, the polarisation is linear. In other words, the
waves are in phase. Thus the polarisation is linear.

## Electromagnetic Theory Questions and Answers – S and P Polarised Waves

This set of Electromagnetic Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “S and
P Polarised Waves”.

## 1. The resultant electric field of a wave with Ex = 3 and Ey = 4 will be

a) 7
b) 1
c) 25
d) 5
Explanation: The resultant electric field of two electric components Ex and Ey is E = √(Ex2 + Ey2). On
substituting for Ex = 3 and Ey = 4, we get E = 5 units.

2. In S polarisation, the electric field lies in the plane perpendicular to that of the interface. State
True/False
a) True
b) False

Explanation: In the EM wave propagation, the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each
other. The S polarised wave is similar to the transverse magnetic (TM) wave, the electric field lies in
the plane perpendicular to that of the interface.

3. In P polarisation, the electric field lies in the same plane as the interface. State True/False.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: In the EM wave propagation, the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each
other. The P polarised wave is similar to the transverse electric (TE) wave, the magnetic field lies in
the plane perpendicular to that of the interface or the electric field lies in the same plane as the
interface.

4. The group delay of a wave with phase constant 2.5 units and frequency of 1.2 radian/sec is
a) 3.7
b) 1.3
c) 3
d) 2.08

Explanation: The group delay is given by td = β/ω. On substituting for β = 2.5 and ω = 1.2, we get
the group delay as td = 2.5/1.2 = 2.08 units.

## 5. The Brewster angle is valid for which type of polarisation?

a) S polarised
b) P polarised
c) Elliptical
d) Linear

Explanation: The Brewster angle is valid for perpendicular polarisation. The P polarised wave is also
a type of perpendicular polarisation. In P polarisation, the electric field lies in the plane of the
interface.
6. Find the reflection coefficient of a wave with an incident electric field of 5 units and reflected
electric field of 2 units.
a) 2.5
b) 0.4
c) 0.8
d) 1.2

Explanation: The reflection coefficient is the ratio of the reflected electric field to the incident electric
field. Thus τ = Er/Ei. On substituting for Ei = 5 and Er = 2, we get τ = 2/5 = 0.4(no unit).

7. The transmission coefficient of a wave with incident and transmitted electric field of 5 and 5
respectively is
a) 0
b) 1
c) 10
d) 5

Explanation: The transmission coefficient is the ratio of the transmitted electric field to the incident
electric field. Thus T = Et/Ei. On substituting for Et = 5 and Ei = 5, we get T = 5/5 = 1(no unit).
Simply, when the incident and transmitted field are same, no reflection occurs and the transmission
is unity.

8. Find the relative permittivity of the medium having a refractive index of 1.6
a) 0.4
b) 2.56
c) 3.2
d) 4.8

Explanation: The refractive index is the square root of the relative permittivity. It is given by n = √εr.
To get εr, put n = 1.6. We get εr = n2 = 1.62 = 2.56(no unit).

a) 0.6
b) 1
c) 0
d) 0.4