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Samples Orientalism and its Effects on Today’s Society essay part 2 Orientalism and its E


Orientalism and its Effects on Today’s Society essay part 2

In addition, in the United States, the major focus for the development of criticism of colonist representatio India. Actually, this criticism re ected the inuences of Orientalism on human minds (Burke & Prochaska 22). A States was focused on cultural, economic and political domination, the ambitions of many Americans were cap Orientalist views. According to researchers, “as the United States expanded its sphere of inuence into the motivated strongly by Manifest Destiny, American Orientalism also expanded and shifted, re ecting the U increasing global inuence as well as its increasing interactions with Asia and the Pacic Rim” (Leong 8).

Undoubtedly, the development of Orientalist views depended on a number of factors, including th industrialization, the growth of population and the growth of prosperity of the nation. In the late 19-th centu th century, the Gilded Age in America contributed not only to considerable social changes, but also to the progressive ideas in dierent spheres of human activity (Leong 8). American Orientalism was based on the re key aspects of American ideology, including the ideology of race, gender and class (Rotter 1205). American p inuenced the formation of American Orientalism through adoption of new progressive idea aimed at con people to American lifestyle. Manifest Destiny was the major cause of the spread of American identity American Orientalism based on special virtues, beliefs and attitudes of the American people. America’s missio on the idea of remaking the West through expansion (Leong 8).

The E ects of American Orientalism on Art, Literature and Music

American Orientalism has a strong impact on art, literature, music, theatre, cinema, and photography. Many de ne American Orientalism as a national cultural dialogue, which inuences various aspects of Ame (Gersdorf 102).The intense interest of Americans in the Orient, especially the Oriental culture and traditions c the American Orientalist thinking (Gersdorf 102). For example, the increased widespread popularity of the Ar among Americans inuenced the development of tourism to the Orient. According to Catrin Gersdorf, “Ame the Oriental landscape during 1850-1860s by way of the literary and visual faculties in some of the nation’s writers and painters”(103). Among the most popular writers was Mark Twain. In his The Innocents Abroad (186 emphasis on the new development associated with Orientalism (Gersdorf 103).

Actually, the signicance of the Oriental culture was found in aesthetic and ethical discourse in America. images were found in the representation of Oriental landscapes. Sanford Robinson Giord, a well-know landscape painter was impressed by the Oriental landscapes (Gersdorf 108). His paintings The Desert at Ass Long Branch Beach (1867) and other works exemplify Oriental approaches to landscape painting (Gersdorf 10 to researchers, the works of many American painters show that “the discourse of Orientalism was highly ins gauging the signicance of the desert for the cultural and historical imaginary of the United States (Gersdorf 11

Besides, Orientalist views were re ected in American music. Many composers produced Oriental music in res growing rate of Asian immigrants. Researchers state that American popular music revealed various patterns of including “de- masculinization, exoticism and dehumanization” (Garrett 127). Due to musical representat immigrants, Americans could establish and assess the dierence between the East and the West. The Orien American music as a fantasy projected by the civilized society (Garrett 127). For example, “Jerome and Sch which portrays local Chinatowns as foreign entities within the U.S. borders, participated in an American bran Orientalism” (Garrett 127). In general, music industry re ected American Orientalism and contributed to the of national identity.

The E ect of American Orientalism on Cinema and Film Production

American Orientalism inuenced lm production through the representation of Asian culture in lms, docum television shows produced in the United States. According to researchers, there were “four major stereotypes Asian Americans emerged from the imagination of primarily white cultural producers in Hollywood: Yellow Lady, Charlie Chan and Lotus Blossom (Shah 1). The images of Asians and Asian Americans could be interpret called “controlling images” because of the e ects of negative and positive stereotypes developed in America fact, these negative stereotypes provide justications for the necessity of social control, while positive stereot justications for the development of normative models for Orientalist thought (Shah 4). At the same time, place emphasis on the role of resistance to the development of these images, which was found in the lat development of “triangular cinema” by Asian American lmmakers was focused on the political strate promoting Asian American community, developing political mobilization, and the establishment of the so- American lm aesthetic” (Shah 4). Many lms that were produced in the context of triangular cinema are cons “liberating images” that “stake out a position for independence and autonomy for Asian American communities

The E ect of American Orientalism on Political Decision Making

Many recent works are focused on analysis of the U.S and Middle East relations which helps to unders

e ect of Orientalist discourse on politics in general and political decision making in particular (Halabi 375). T

the “War on Terror” can be found in the domestic perception of people from Middle East, Islam and Arabic United States. American Orientalists describe Muslims as people with anti-Western ideology (Halabi 375). Be increased role of political Islam in Iran, Algeria, Sudan and other countries, the West has no ability to i development of political trends in the Middle East, as well as to control oil market in a proper way (Halabi 375).

In addition, the former president Regan linked the growth of terrorism with Muslim movements. In gener Orientalism inuences political decision making for a number of reasons. First, the West is interested in partici establishment of political trends in the Middle East, “which contains 60% of world oil reserves” (Halabi 376). United States is involved in the developing methods to promote security of Israel (Halabi 376). The third reaso geographical proximity of the Middle East to Europe makes the latter vulnerable to the inux of lega immigrants” (Halabi 376). American Orientalists believe that Islam is the major enemy of the West, and that decision making should not promote democracy in Islamic states because democracy will contribute to the gr of Islamic fundamentalists (Halabi 377).

As a matter of fact, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that occurred on 11 Sep (the events of 9/11) have led to complete destabilization of the U.S. philosophy of morale and sense of self American identity required considerable restatement of ideological views regarding gender and race. Th inuenced political decision making. According to Meghana Nayaka, “this identity draws upon hyper-masculinit code of ethics and the constitutive dierences between Self/Other necessitating the persistent and for interpretation and targeting of particular actors and politics as Islamic fundamentalist” (42). Thus, the ev created negative attitudes toward the Orient and the representatives of the Orient in the United Stat participation in an orientalist project was a necessity as it could help to “institutionalize gendered and racial through the infantilization, demonization, dehumanization and sexual commodication of the Other” (Nayaka was involved in the project in order to protect national identity from the negative eects of Orientalist v religious matters, American ideology and conict (Nayaka 42). In general, American Orientalism’s logic develo

years a ects the new identity formation.

The E ect of American Orientalism on Gender Politics

The gender politics that involves the representation of Afghani and Iraqi people in American society created a of Orientalism, namely Gendered Orientalism. Besides, after the events of 9/11, the images of the Middle Ea so-called Muslim ‘Other’, have been criticized in the Western world. Although Edward Said’s book Orientali much important information regarding the criticism of Orientalist views, today’s criticism of the Orient is co examination of the Muslim images’ functioning in ‘War on Terror’ discourses (Khalid 15). Special attention is pa of gendered representations of people in the so-called ‘War on Terror” discourse. In this case, Orientalism can an e ective tool of critical interpretation of events (Khalid 15). Researchers use the concept of ‘gendered o their analysis of current events. They e ectively apply this concept to the images taken from the War on Terr Orientalists are focused on the construction of masculinities and femininities based on race, “manipulating a representations of the ‘Other’ to justify military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq” (Khalid 15)


Thus, it is necessary to conclude that Orientalism as the concept that inuences various aspects of h highlights the role of the Orient in the life of the West. The study of the Orient helps to better understand p and civilizations through the Westerners’ views regarding the Arab and Islamic world. Orientalism refers no study of ancient traditions and customs and artistic representation of the Orient in Western world, but also political decisions and gender politics in the United States. This paper relates to the discussions in the confer and the textbook assigned for this course because it provides much important information on the e ects of O today’s society. In other words, the continuing e ects that Orientalism has on today’s American society includ on attitudes, image and knowledge re ected not only in art, literature and music, but also in political decision politics.

and music, but also in political decision politics. ( 1 votes, average: 5.00 out of 5)

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