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Mar 17, 2018

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Preface

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1 Aufrufe

Preface

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Bakom Why Logic is Needed for Mathematics
- cory whyte - instructional design document
- day 3
- Nature of Inquiry
- Reflection and Metacognition in Mathematics
- Milton Harvey Sanchez Pag. 44
- frit 7235 article reveiws
- lutheran education queensland inquiry based learning
- K-12 Science Ed
- Eseiment Math 2
- Project Overview
- 20164170 rationale
- Destini Baldonado Independent Study May 2008
- 1 wilke straits
- critical reflection part a sanoviag
- teorie
- classroom management plan
- Anil Banerjee.pdf
- Oh Ope Beach School Milestone 8
- Mar 09

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Instructors

Math textbooks are usually heavy behemoths. They try to provide ev-

ery argument and example ever wanted. In other words, they hope to

be used like an encyclopedia during and after the course. This text-

book is gloriously lightweight, even when printed, which is possible

because this book has different goals from a traditional book. We hope

this text will guide its users to develop the skills, attitudes, and habits

of mind of a mathematician.

Of course, it only makes sense to hire a guide if you’ve got some

new territory to explore. Users of this book will become active explor-

ers—experiencing mathematical thinking on their own. What equip-

ment should you bring with you on this exploration? In short, all you

need is the desire to work hard and an interest in thinking more clearly.

You are not expected to have any previous experience with mathemati-

cal proof. If you have some exposure to calculus, then you will already

have some experience with mathematical abstraction that will support

your exploration, but the content of a calculus course is not needed

for this adventure.

This book encourages its users to behave as much like practic-

ing mathematicians as possible. We want students and other people

who use this book to learn and to enjoy the process of distilling and

exploring ideas. This book helps to embed habits of inquiry in users

through the exploration of interesting mathematical content. The book

presents a carefully designed sequence of exercises and theorem state-

ments so that its users will be guided to discover both mathematical

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x Preface

ideas and also strategies of proofs and strategies of thinking. This pref-

ace to students and to instructors explains how the book might be used.

ematics deeply, it is important to actively grapple with each new idea,

putting the pieces into context and seeing connections and meaning.

This book presents you with a sequence of challenges that are de-

signed to give you the experience of developing mathematics for your-

self. During your work with this book, you will become increasingly

proficient at proving theorems on your own and at learning new ideas

on your own. You will find that you gain confidence and competence

in facing challenging issues.

The strategy of presentation in this book may be a bit unusual to

you. You may wonder why we didn’t simply write the proofs of the

theorems in the book, rather than omitting the proofs and expecting

you to figure them out for yourself. Researchers in the field of human

learning have found that the best learning occurs through a process

of engaged struggle with the ideas. In mathematics, this means con-

structing proofs. The struggle can be enjoyable along the way, but

personally working through ideas lies at the heart of how to learn.

And learning how to learn is the real goal of an education.

At first you may be uncertain about what constitutes a mathemati-

cal proof and how to even begin to prove something on your own, but

after a short while, you will find that you have mental strengths that

you did not have before. Like a beginner at tennis, at first it seems im-

possible to imagine how to strike the ball, much less direct it to where

you want it to go. Watching videos of expert tennis players or hearing

explanations can only help so much. The basic part of learning a skill

is in doing it yourself, including those early steps during which you

will inevitably make many mistakes. Just be confident that through

your own attempts at doing the exercises and proving the theorems,

you will find yourself becoming better and better.

At the very heart of this book is the assumption that you can and

will be asked to think about many questions before a teacher or class-

mate tells you how to think about them. This process can be uncom-

fortable for many students, but it is absolutely critical for making the

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Preface xi

is the goal of a college education. In general, you should read the text

up to the point of an exercise or theorem and then work on that ques-

tion, only reading more when you are finished. Many students have

had this experience before you, and the exercises and theorem state-

ments are designed to present challenges that will guide you toward

increased independent mathematical ability. Try not to get discour-

aged in the early days when you might well feel a bit confused and

overwhelmed. Instead, confidently keep trying and you will become a

better thinker.

a guided discovery, Inquiry Based Learning method of instruction.

When we use the book in our own classes, we ask the students, work-

ing either individually or in groups, to do the exercises and prove

the theorems and then to present their work to the class; a substan-

tial amount of this work is done by the students in preparation for

class. Then we involve the other students by asking them to review

part of a proof or to otherwise comment on the presentation. This for-

mat of class activity soon gives students the idea that they need to

think through ideas on their own. Once they firmly accept that they

can personally explore the unknown and can personally determine

whether an argument is correct or not, then whole worlds open up

to them. They become producers of knowledge rather than consumers

of knowledge. Their standards about what they view as understanding

rise in this class and other classes; understanding comes to include the

ability to explain an idea.

Recent educational research has shown that an early inquiry-based

learning experience is particularly beneficial. These kinds of experi-

ences may seem as though they would only work for strong students,

but the research also shows that inquiry-based learning experiences

are more beneficial on average for previously low-achieving students.

If you do not have experience teaching using an Inquiry Based

Learning approach, there are many materials about Inquiry Based

Learning instruction available, including a mentoring network and

workshops. The website for the Academy of Inquiry Based Learn-

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xii Preface

resources. There are many strategies for conducting an IBL course,

and the AIBL website can help you to find a method that fits your

needs.

The Through Inquiry collection of resources is intended to provide

instructors with the flexibility to create textbooks supporting a whole

range of different courses to fit a variety of instructional needs. To

date, the series has four e-units treating, graphs, groups, "-ı calculus,

and number theory. You may combine any collection of these units to

create a textbook or textbooks tailored to your needs. Here are some

brief descriptions of these units.

Graphs: This unit asks users to explore the famous ideas flowing

from the Königsberg bridge problem, planarity, and colorability.

This unit is concrete and visual, which supports students who are

new to mathematical proof and abstraction; however, some stu-

dents find it challenging to be explicit about ideas that are visu-

ally obvious to them. It contains several situations that encourage

students to generate algorithmic constructions; this experience is

particularly effective at getting students to be explicit about their

ideas. The theorems in this unit have several applications, which

can help motivate those students who are attracted to the useful-

ness of mathematics.

Groups: This unit asks users to explore the fundamental algebraic

structures of addition, multiplication, and symmetry composition

towards a partial classification of groups. This unit is “categorical”

in the sense that it leads students to explore sub-objects, product

objects, quotient objects, et cetera; as a result, this exploration pro-

vides the most clear and explicit list of automatic responses that

mathematicians have to new definitions. This unit is quite abstract.

It is particularly good at helping students learn to return to the pre-

cise language of the definitions. This unit is particularly appealing

to those students who love the rigor and abstract beauty of mathe-

matics.

Calculus: This unit asks users to explore the rigor behind limits,

continuity, derivatives, and integrals in "-ı calculus. This unit con-

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Preface xiii

which is both helpful and challenging. The students who know

calculus will bring intuition about the results, which will allow

them to focus on the argumentation; however, the same students

are also more likely to try to recall vague explanations from previ-

ous courses instead of generating and evaluating new proofs. We

believe this unit could also be used with students who do not know

any calculus, though it should be taken at a much slower pace, and

the students should be asked to work with more examples than are

included here. The definitions in this unit contain the long strings

of quantifiers that make this topic especially challenging. This unit

is particularly appealing to students who intend to teach calculus

and to students who seek to understand the mathematical basis of

a familiar topic.

Number Theory: Number theory is a great vehicle for an intro-

duction to proof course. Students are familiar with basic proper-

ties of numbers, and yet the further study of number theory leads

to fascinating and extremely deep mathematics. This introduction

to number theory starts from familiar concepts about integers and

leads students to discover the strategies of using definitions, ex-

ploring examples, and proving theorems. It treats modular arith-

metic, primes, RSA encryption, and additional topics. This exten-

sive unit contains sufficient material for a one semester course plus

additional topics for independent study.

Inquiry-based instruction can be used in courses with several dif-

ferent goals. It can be used in introduction-to-proof courses. It can be

used to build an alternative entry to the mathematics major, giving stu-

dents a view of mathematics different from what they have probably

seen before, a little more like research. It can be used in a course that

gives students who may not be going on in mathematics a sense of

some abstract mathematics besides calculus. It is especially valuable

for future or current teachers. It is ideal for independent study. And it

can be used in more traditional courses to emphasize student-centered

learning.

This collection of units contains sufficient material for several

semesters of courses, so you will have to choose which units will serve

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xiv Preface

your students for each course. You may choose to select only some of

the exercises and theorems in a given unit, particularly if you choose

to do more than one unit in a semester. No matter what units you

choose and approach you take, you should always leave room for stu-

dents to ask their own, additional mathematical questions and to state,

explore, and prove their own conjectures. Sample, specific threads are

described in the Instructor’s Resource; however, the main principle is

to modify your decisions based on your own students’ needs.

Here are some suggestions for which units to use for various pur-

poses.

proof need to include many opportunities for the students to con-

struct proofs; inquiry-based courses are ideal for providing those

opportunities. You could choose to spend the entire term on one

topic. Number theory contains enough material for a one semester

course; the graph, group, and calculus units would need to be

done in great depth or augmented with additional challenges if you

choose to treat only one of these topics. Instead, you could choose

two or three of these units. We think that graph theory and number

theory are particularly good topics for introducing proofs. One ad-

vantage of choosing multiple topics for this course is that students

get to start fresh with new definitions and see the progress they

have made in writing proofs. None of these options assumes that

the students have been taught about proof structures. When we use

these units for an introduction to proof course, the common proof

techniques are distilled through discussion and reflection from the

arguments generated by the students.

course is particularly important for teachers, because it models a

strategy of instructional design; it gives them practice communi-

cating mathematics; it allows them to see the learning process of

other students; and it encourages deep understanding of the ma-

terial that leads to a stable and nuanced understanding. Teachers

working with younger students would benefit from a course that

uses number theory because numbers are the central concept of el-

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Preface xv

students need to understand the basics of abstract algebra and real

analysis in order to provide coherence to the high school mathe-

matics. So they would benefit from a course that uses the group

theory and calculus units.

mathematics courses for mathematics majors has the unfortunate

drawback of avoiding topics in abstract mathematics beyond cal-

culus until later in the students’ careers. An alternative is to create

a non calculus-based introduction available to students as early as

the first year. Selecting topics from the graph, group, and calcu-

lus units could provide enticement to further study of mathematics

that gives them a taste for a variety of different flavors of mathe-

matics. Such a course is also ideal for science students who would

otherwise not see mathematics beyond calculus.

Survey for applied math majors –All mathematics majors should

have a working understanding of the basic ideas of algebra and

analysis. A course that uses the group theory and calculus units

could serve as a survey course treating these two topics.

Independent study – Any unit or collection of units could be used

as a resource for a single user or a small group of users who want

to learn independently about mathematics. This could be in the

form of an independent study under the guidance of a mathemati-

cian or a self-guided experience. Since there are many challeng-

ing exercises and theorems, learners can do a great deal of work

independently. Working through the units provides an excellent

quasi-research experience.

Core/Topics Courses – Inquiry-based learning is an effective way

for students to learn mathematics. These units represent core and

elective topics common in many mathematics departments. An

inquiry-based learning experience foster habits of mind, like in-

quisitiveness and self-efficacy, that are important for all students.

We hope that all users of this book will find it a rich source of

enjoyable challenges.

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xvi Preface

Acknowledgments

We thank the Educational Advancement Foundation and Harry Lucas,

Jr. for their generous support of the Inquiry Based Learning Project in

general and their support of our work on this project in particular.

The Inquiry Based Learning Project has inspired us and has inspired

many other faculty members and students across the country. The Ed-

ucational Advancement Foundation has a clear purpose of fostering

methods of teaching that promote independent thinking and student

creativity. We hope that this project will contribute to making in-

quiry based learning methods of instruction broadly available to many

faculty members and students nationally. We thank Chris Thoren for

his work on some of the images. We also thank the National Sci-

ence Foundation for its support of this project under NSF-DUE-CCLI

grants 0536839 and 0920173. In addition, we would like to thank the

Department of Mathematics at The University of Texas at Austin and

the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at Augustana

College for creating opportunities in which this work could be carried

out.

We would like to thank everyone who has helped this project

evolve and become more refined. Most importantly, we would like to

thank the many students who have used versions of these units in our

classes. They helped us to make the presentation more effective and

they energized us by rising to the challenges of personal responsibil-

ity, rigor, and curiosity. They inspired us to aim high in education–to

realize that mathematics classes can genuinely help students to be-

come better, more creative, more independent thinkers.

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