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FLUID POWER CONTROL SYSTEM

Dr. K. Sekar
Assistant Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Calicut, Kerala 673601
Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes Newton Leibniz Bernoulli Euler


(C. 287-212 BC) (1642-1727) (1646-1716) (1667-1748) (1707-1783)

Navier Stokes Reynolds Prandtl Taylor


(1785-1836) (1819-1903) (1842-1912) (1875-1953) (1886-1975)
2
BASIC LAWS OF FLUIDS
 Bernoulli’s equation
 Reynolds number
 Pascal’s law
 Boyleslaw
 Charles’ law
 Gay – Lussac’s law
 General Gas laws
Types of Flow
 Laminar flow

 Turbulent flow
PASCAL’S LAW
FORCE F1
SMALL AREA
A1

PRESSURE
P = F1
P
A1
F2 = P x A2

LARGE AREA
A2
FORCE F2
10
MULTIPLICATION OF FORCES
POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Power Transmission Methods
1. Mechanical Power Transmission :
2. Electrical Power Transmission Systems
Electrical Network Systems
3.Fluid Power Systems
THE SOURCE OF HYDRAULIC POWER
Hydraulic reservoir
Pumps
• Converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy
The mechanical energy is delivered in the pump via a prime mover such as electric
motor due to mechanical action. The pump creates a partial vacuum at its inlet. This
permits atmospheric pressure to force the fluid through the inlet line into the pump,
then pushes the fluid into the hydraulic system.

Non positive displacement pumps


• Low pressure, high-volume flow applications
• Maximum pressure capacity is 250 - 300 psi
• Using for transporting fluids from one location to another location

Positive displacement pumps


Positive displacement pump ejects a fixed amount of fluid into the hydraulic system
per revolution of pump shaft rotation
Advantages of positive displacement pumps over non positive displacement pumps
• High pressure capability (upto 10000 psi or higher)
• Small, compact size
• High volumetric efficiency
• Small changes in efficiency
• Great flexibility of performance
CLASSIFICATION OF PRINCIPAL TYPES OF
HYDRO - PUMPS
Pumps

Positive displacement Non- positive displacement (roto-dynamic)

Rotary Reciprocating (fixed & variable)


Centrifugal Axial flow Radial flow

Gear Vane Screw


Axial piston Radial piston

Ext. gear
Int. gear
Inline Bent axis Stationery Rotating cylinder
Gerotor
cylinder block block

Fixed Variable
displacement displacement

Variable plate Inclinable Cam/crankshaft driven


Unbalanced Balanced swash plate piston pump
vane pump vane pump
Non positive displacement pumps
Hydrostatic (or) Positive Displacement Pump

•Positive displacement pumps must be protected against over pressure


•Pressure relief valve is used to protect the pump against over pressure by diverting
pump flow back to the hydraulic tank
Gear pump

External gear pump, which develops flow by carrying fluid


between the teeth of two meshing gears. One of the gears is
connected to a drive shaft connected to the prime mover. The
second gear is driven as it meshes with the driver gear. Oil
chambers are formed between the gear teeth, the pump
housing, and the side wear plates. The suction side is were
teeth some out of mesh, and it is here that the volume
expands, bringing about a reduction in pressure to below
atmospheric pressure.
Volumetric Displacement and Theoretical Flow Rate

Gear Pump Nomenclature

1.
2

3
Positive displacement pump Q versus N and P versus Q curves (a)Flow
versus speed curve (b) Flow versus pressure curve at constant pump
speed

Volumetric Efficiency :
Internal gear pump
Lobe pump operation
Gerotor pump operation
Vane pump operation
The following analysis and nomenclature is applicable for vane pumps
VANE PUMP HELD BY SPRING FORCE
Balanced Vane Pump
Piston Pumps
BENT AXIS PUMP
•In this pump, the
pistons are at an
angle to the drive
shaft and Thrust
Plate. The piston
block shaft is
connected to the
drive shaft by a
universal joint,
not shown. The
drive shaft, thrust
plate, piston block
shaft, and piston
block all revolve.

•The connecting rods are attached to the thrust plate and revolve with it, unlike the swash
plate pump where the piston rods slide past a stationary swash plate.
Bent axis piston pump
Radial piston pumps

•Radial Piston Pumps can produce a very smooth flow under extreme pressure.
Generally they are variable-displacement pumps.

•In variable models, flow


rate changes when the
shaft holding the rotating
pistons is moved with
relation to the casing (in
different models either
the shaft or the casing
moves.) Output can also
be varied by changing the
rotation speed.
In-line Piston Pump/Swash plate
piston pump
Variation in Pump Displacement
Pump Performance Curves
Pump -SYMBOLS

Basic Hydraulic demo


HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS

ACTUATORS

ROTARY LINEAR

SINGLE ACTING DOUBLE ACTING

RAM TYPE SPRING TYPE TELESCOPIC TYPE SINGLE ROD DOUBLE ROD
single acting.swf

Single Acting Hydraulic Cylinder

Double-acting hydraulic cylinder construction


(A) External view (B) Cutaway view
double acting.swf
Double Acting Cylinder Design
Typical Mechanical Linkages that can be combined with Hydraulic Cylinders
Cylinder Force, Velocity and Power
Operation of Cylinder Cushions
HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS

1
Hydraulic Motors
There are three basic types of hydraulic motors : Gear, Vane, Piston

Torque Development by a Gear Motor


The radial piston motor
Vane-type rotary actuator (A)
Clockwise rotation (B) Counter-
clockwise rotation
Gear motors are normally limited to 2000 psi operating pressures and 2400 rpm operating
speeds. They are available with a maximum load capacity of 150gpm. The main advantage
of gear motor are its simple design and subsequent low cost. Hydraulic motors can also be of
thee internal gear design. This type can operate at high pressure and speeds and also has
greater displacements than the external gear motor.

External Gear Motor


Operation of a vane motor
Inline Piston Motor Operation
Two configurations of in-line piston motors
Motor displacement varies with Swash plate angle
Bent-axis piston motor
Hydraulic Motor Performance

Motor Efficiencies
Basic Hydraulic demo
VALVES
CONTENTS

• PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES


The most common valves for controlling pressure include relief, reducing,
sequence, counterbalance, and unloading valves

• DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES


a summary of the different types, configurations, and uses

• FLOW CONTROL VALVES


•Orifices •Flow regulator
•Bypass flow regulator •Demand-compensated flow control

•Pressure-compensated, variable flow-control valve


•. Pressure- and temperature-compensated, variable flow-control valve

•Priority valve.
•Deceleration valve
Check Valve Pilot-operated Check Valve
Ball valve-type manual shutoff Manual shutoff graphic symbol
Spool positions inside two-way valve Spool positions inside four-way valve
Manually actuated four-way valve
Actual solenoid-actuated
directional control valve Single solenoid-actuated, four-
way, two-position spring-offset
directional control valve
Pressure Relief Valve
Needle Valve
Flow Control Valve
Pressure and temperature-
compensated FCV symbol.

Pressure-compensated flow control valve

Balanced pool flow divider


Flow directions through a flow control valve
Non-pressure-compensated flow
control valve

Operation of pressure-
compensated flow
control valve
Bourdon tube pressure gauge
Piston accumulator construction Bladder accumulator
Diaphragm accumulator Spring loaded accumulator
Accumulator graphic symbols
Weight loaded accumulator
Accumulator with pressure switch

Accumulator supplementing pump flow


Accumulator with a discharge valve

Accumulator used with a press


Lines and Connections

or
Working Line (Main)

Crossing Lines

Pilot Control Line

Drain Line Connecting Lines

Flexible Line
Flow Direction

105
Make hose assemblies long enough
and routed in a manner that Left hand drawing show how hose twists
prevents exceeding the minimum because it is bent in one plane while
bend radius recommendations oscillating motion bends in a second plane.
Rerouting the hose eliminates multi plane
bending
SYMBOLS
Thank you
Design of Hydraulic Circuits
Control of single acting hydraulic cylinder Control of double acting hydraulic cylinder
Two way valves can be used to fill and drain
a vessel
Drilling machine application

Pump unloading circuit


Schematic shows simple circuit to control cylinder
extension and retraction using a 4-port, 3-position
spool valve.
Double pump hydraulic system
Double acting Pressure intensifier
Pressure intensifier
Counterbalance circuit (A) Hold Cylinder (B) Extend Cylinder (C) Retract Cylinder
Counterbalance valve application
Multispool, 4 way DCV
Parallel circuit with a pressure-compensated Load-sensing pump
pump
Meter-in flow control, extend stroke Meter-out flow control, extend stroke
Cylinder with meter-in flow control of both Cylinder with meter-out flow control of both
strokes strokes
Cylinder with meter-in control of the extend
stroke and meter-out control of the retract
stroke.

Cylinders with bleed-off flow control


Cylinder synchronization with a flow Motor synchronization with a flow divider
divider
Fload

Fload
P1 Ap1  P 2( Ap1  AR1 )  F1
and

P2 Ap 2  P3 ( Ap 2  AR 2 )  F2
 P1 Ap1  F1  F2
• protection for sudden
extension of cylinder.
Speed control of hydraulic motor using flow control valve
If you take a look at the following picture , let me tell you ... it is not animated. Your eyes are making it move. To
test this, stare at one spot for a couple seconds and everything will stop moving. Or look at the black center of each
circle and it will stop moving. But move your eyes to the next black center and the previous will move after you take
your eyes away from it.... Thanks
Pneumatics: Air Preparation and Components
Operation of air filter
Palm -button valve Limit valve

Solenoid -actuated directional control valve


Hand-lever operated four -way valve
Operation of a single-acting cylinder
Operation of a double-acting cylinder
Air pilot control of a double-acting cylinder
Cylinder cycle timing system
Two-step speed control system
Two-handed safety control circuit
Control of an air motor
Deceleration air cushion of a pneumatic cylinder
CASCADE METHOD
Pneumatic circuit diagram
Position step diagram
Position-step diagram

Pneumatic circuit diagram


KARNAUGH-VEITCH MAPPING
METHOD

Position- step diagram

Transfer of position-step diagram to K-V map


Signal flow diagram with signal flow path
Looping of K-V map and minimization of logic equation
Pneumatic circuit
Semi -Automatic material handling circuit
Automatic Material Handling Circuit
Sequence operation by cam valve
Hydraulic operation of a planning machine
Hydraulic operation of a vertical milling machine
Hydraulic operation of a grinding machine
Hydraulic operation of a press
Pneumatic system for raising and lowering barriers
Many machines are being designed for automatic
operations to be controlled signals from the computers

1. Push button switches


2. Limit switches
3. Pressure switches
4. Solenoids
5. Relays
6. Timers
7. Temperature switches
Push button and Limit switches

Single-pole,single throw type


Pressure and Temperature switches
Relays
Timers
Solenoids and indicators
It is designed by logic function such as AND,OR and NOT for
controlling the operations of industrial equipment and processes

It is an electromechanical relay control system.


They are more reliable and faster in operation
Smaller size and can be more readily expanded
Require less electrical power and less expensive for the same
number of control functions .

Just like a brains of the PLC it contains a microprocessor with a fixed memory and
an alterable memory.
RAM(Random access memory, store the program for some operations)
ROM(Read only memory)
Whenever electrical signal is removed, it will store all operations and some
switches function also stored and continuously operation is running.
Sequence of operation of the fluid power system being controlled. PM
connected With CPU only, only the entering or monitoring the program
Program may be pressing keys on the PM’s keypad.
Keypad allows the operator to run programs continuously or single stepped
mode

Various signals received from(OR) send to the fluid power interfaces devices
such as push-button switch, pressure switch, limit switch, motor relay coils,
solenoid coils etc.
It contains a powerful 16-bit, 20-MHz processor, multitasking of up to 64
programs .
12 input and 8 output
PLC control of a hydraulic cylinder
Input output connection diagram
PLC ladder logic diagram
Interesting Links
Fluid Power Educational Hobbs Corporation SMC Pneumatics
Foundation www.hobbs-corp.com www.smcusa.com
www.fpef.org
Bimba Manufacturing Lord Corp Fluid Power Dist. Ass’n
www.bimba.com www.lordmpd.com www.fpda.org
Clippard Instrument Lab. Monnier, Inc. Fluid Power Society
www.clippard.com www.monnier.com www.ifps.org
Dresser Norgren Nat’l Fluid Power Ass’n
dresserinstruments.com www.norgren.com www.nfpa.com

Festo Parker Fluid Power Journal


www.FluidPowerJournal.com
www.festo.com www.parker.com
Thank you