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Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen: Digital Storytelling and Stop Motion in the

Elementary Classroom

Danielle Peters, Natalie Roberts, and Justin Wu

ETEC 532 Technology in the Arts & Humanities Classroom

Dr. Alexander De Cossan

University of British Columbia

March 17, 2018

Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

Annotated Bibliography

Bailin, E. (2014, June 16). ​The Power of Digital Storytelling. TEDx Talks​ [Video file]. Retrieved
from ​

Bailin discusses how digital storytelling, presented orally, with music, and/or images is a
different experience than reading. The process of digital storytelling brings people together,
helping us experience where someone is from, who they are, and what they are; not merely a
geographical location. She uses digital storytelling, modeled on “Where I’m From” poems to
build a foundation amongst students at the beginning of a semester, as she strongly believes that
this allows trust to be established, and respect gained. Technology is used to provide a deeper

Dunford, M., & Jenkins, T. (2017). ​Digital storytelling: Form and content​. Retrieved from

This edited collection brings together practitioners and academics from Europe, North America,
Africa and Asia to explore the uses of Digital Storytelling, which places the greatest possible
emphasis on the voice of the storyteller. Case studies and examples are used to investigate the
concepts and practice of Digital Storytelling. Participants originate and edit their own material,
while gaining the creative and technical skills needed to tell a story using words and imagery.
The author’s focus is on ‘story’ rather than ‘digital’ and the approach to participation is firmly
grounded in the facilitation of the ‘story circle.’

Emert, T. (2013). “The transpoemations project”: Digital storytelling, contemporary poetry, and
refugee boys. ​Intercultural Education, 24​, 355–365. Retrieved from

Emet’s 2013 article outlines a literacy program developed to support English language learners
through digital storytelling. These refugee students came from a variety of backgrounds and life
experiences, which mirrors the variety of student that we have in our British Columbia school
system. This article is important because students were shown to increase their English language
learning, learn to incorporate multiliteracies, and socially connect with peers as they partake in a
variety of creative and collaborative activities during the implementation of the
“Transpoemations Project”. This fusion of language and technology allowed students to share
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

part of their culture with others through the sharing of their projects and the rich conversations
arising from them.

Emert, T. (2014). “Hear a Story, Tell a Story, Teach a Story”: Digital Narratives and Refugee
Middle Schoolers. ​Voices in the Middle, 21​(4). Retrieved from

The author’s passion for the importance of literacy, especially when working with vulnerable
students, is an aspect of this article that resonates with us. Taking literacy and combining it with
educational technology not only helps to solidify English language learning, but Emet has noted
that multiliteracy assignments, such as digital narratives, creates a sense of trust between
students and educators. Students moved from hearing stories (from educators), to telling their
own stories, and concluding with teaching a story through text and technology. Throughout this
process, students were continuously supported and worked collaboratively with peers. Not only
did students acquire literacy skills, they were challenged with other skills as well.

Fell, A. (2017, July 13). ​Why Storytelling is so powerful in the digital era. TEDxUniMelb ​[Video
File]. Retrieved from ​

Fell focuses on STEM and CLASS: Communications, Language, Arts and Social Science.
Looking at how you can bring info data to life through infographics. Written word goes into our
short term memory, visuals go straight into our long term brain. 90 percent of information
transmitted to the brain is visual, and we process visuals faster (60,00 times faster than text). She
expresses the importance of communicating through visuals, specifically digital storytelling.
Storytelling is visual, even without the use of pictures. Digital storytelling can interest us,
instruct us, involve us and inspire us. Research affects us best when it tells a story. She expresses
that great stories have colours, pictures, and movement.

Hansen, A. K., Iveland, A., Harlow, D. B., Dwyer, H., & Franklin, D. (2015). Programming
Digital Stories and How-to Animations. ​Science And Children​, ​53​(3), 60-64. ​Retrieved
from ​​?

This article discusses how teachers can combine computer programming, science, and
engineering, to teach design thinking using tasks like creating a digital story to describe a science
phenomena or a “how-to” animation. Students are using Scratch to create programs and digital
stories. The students work through defining problems, developing solutions, and optimizing
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

solutions. The final project is a digital story, aligned with any science content area. They include
video, digital photos, and drawings that use video editing software. Students create a meaningful
artifact. This article includes lesson plans for working through the design thinking framework,
helping students with storyboards that depict how-to animations, as well as a rubric.

McKnight, A., Hoban, G., & Nielsen, W. (2011). Using "Slowmation" for Animated Storytelling
to Represent Non-Aboriginal Preservice Teachers' Awareness of "Relatedness to
Country". ​Australasian Journal Of Educational Technology​, ​27​(1), 41-54. Retrieved
from ​

This study talks about how a group of non-Aboriginal preservice teachers creating digital stories
of what they learned when they visited Aboriginal sites to listen to stories shared by Aboriginal
elders. They created their own animated story using an approach called ​Slowmation, ​which is a
narrated stop-motion animation that is played slowly at 2 photos per frame. Slowmation is a
simplified way to make animations that integrates aspects of Claymation, digital storytelling and
object animation. Creating these animated stories allowed the teachers to develop awareness of
cultural diversity and Aboriginal ways of know, being and doing.

Ohler, J. (2013). ​Digital storytelling in the classroom: New media pathways to literacy, learning,
and creativity. ​Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.

Ohler presents a relevant approach to teaching technology and emphasizes the importance of
storytelling in the curriculum and how students and teachers can be transformed by learning the
art of storytelling. ​Digital Storytelling in the Classroom​ is divided into three parts. Part I is an
overview of storytelling and new media in the context of education. Part II focuses completely
on the components of storytelling, storytelling structure, and teaching students to brainstorm,
map, and create compelling stories. Part III moves on to discuss how digital media technology
plays a role in teaching students to become storytellers.

PBS Learning Media (2017, March 23). ​Digital Storytelling with Stop Motion Animation

This website and corresponding video series provides an excellent introduction to using stop
motion animation alongside digital storytelling. For educators interested in getting their students
to tell stories, their own or others’, this site provides a thorough guide to get started. From
understanding what stop motion is, to what tools you can use with your students, the video
scaffolds the learning for educators and helps facilitate and develop digital stories from our
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

Suwardy, T., Pan, G. & Seow, P. ​ (2013). Using digital Storytelling to Engage Student Learning.
Accounting Education, 22​(2). Retrieved from ​

This article explores how digital storytelling can address and engage students’ visual and
auditory senses in ways that traditional, written text cannot. While using a financial accounting
course as an example, it was noted that digital storytelling was helpful for students even in what
was considered “a dull and boring subject”. With this consideration, how might we incorporate
digital storytelling into other areas of the B.C. curriculum that students may not consider
engaging? Creative digital storytelling helped to fuse financial theories and case studies
allowing students to make deeper connections with their learning.

Wilson, C. (n.d.). What is Digital Storytelling and How to Get Started | Athabasca University
e-Lab. Retrieved from ​

This website features a workshop that is designed to introduce you to what digital storytelling is,
what makes a good digital story, and how to produce your own digital stories. The workshop
links viewers to many resources dedicated to digital storytelling, as well as websites for the
different technologies the viewers may want to use. Viewers are informed that this website only
acts as a guide, stressing the importance of understanding why and how stories are being
produced, and encouraging storytellers and collaborating partners to share their stories in ways
that support positive individual and collective change.

Wolz, U., Stone, M., Pearson, K., Pulimood, S. M., & Switzer, M. (2011). Computational
Thinking and Expository Writing in the Middle School. ​ACM Transactions On
Computing Education​, ​11​(2). doi:​10.1145/1993069.1993073

A multidisciplinary approach, focusing on computational thinking and expository writing, this

research project aimed to demonstrate how interactive journalism could be used to promote
computational thinking in middle school. Drawing directly from Papert (1980) and Turkle
(1984), empowering learners through constructivist learning, and evidence that shows that some
children, especially girls, are captivated by computing when they can “tell stories” digitally.
Topics include: purposeful writing, computer programming and interactive journalism. A
three-year project, working with 7th and 8th graders and their teachers, to create an online
newsmagazine. Evidence shows that students and teachers became empowered as computational
thinkers, and their confidence increased in their computing abilities.
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

Literature Review

Children in today’s classroom are growing up digital, as they are surrounded by technology such

as computers, tablets and smartphones. Parents and educators are acknowledging the importance

of teaching our students what it means to be literate in the digital age. BC’s new curriculum aims

to provide flexibility to inspire the personalization of learning that addresses the diverse needs

and interests of BC students (BC Ministry of Education, 2016). Our group chose the topic of

digital storytelling using coding and stop motion animation at the elementary level. Digital

storytelling is a creative way for our students to combine telling a story while interacting with

technology. “Digital storytelling is even more important as a tool to humanize teaching and

learning and to make the learning even more relevant to the students” (Ohler, 2013). Students are

communicating and thinking creatively and critically to turn their designs into digital artifacts.

Digital storytelling is a powerful tool that allows students from a variety of backgrounds and

skill sets to work collaboratively with their peers, while engaging in projects that develop their

language skills. This style of learning is “one that demands they demonstrate an understanding of

narrative structure, voice, grammatical constructions, technology tools, and composing and

editing processes” (Emert, 2013). Storytelling is a traditional method used to teach about cultural

beliefs, values, customs, rituals, history, relationships, and ways of life, that goes back from

many generations ago (Ohler, 2013) and happens around the world. Through digital storytelling,

we can continue the tradition of storytelling alongside our digital native learners, with relevant

and engaging technologies.

Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

Objective of the literature review

This paper reviews the literature on the importance of storytelling in the curriculum and explores

how educators have incorporated technology, through the lens of stop motion and programming

languages, to facilitate students’ creation and sharing of their stories in a digital manner. Schools

have invested in classroom technologies to equip students with the latest innovations to help

them become digitally literate. Drawing on Seymour Papert’s theory of constructivism (1980),

we review literature detailing ways educators are actively and consciously engaging students in

their learning, through digital storytelling. Schools are adapting a more hands-on approach to

learning rather than the traditional lecturing and tests. Being hands-on is especially important in

the classroom today because it allows students to engage in kinesthetic learning, which involves

students carrying out physical activities rather than listening to lectures – doing helps them better

understand the material. It allows students to experiment with trial-and-error, learn from their

mistakes, and understand the potential gaps between theory and practice. In addition, it allows

educators to provide their students with meaningful education that is unique to their learning

needs as information is presented in new and engaging ways. Through this review of the

literature, we have noticed an increasing number of publications related to digital storytelling;

however, there are far fewer directly related to the use of stop motion as an innovative platform

for storytelling. The articles selected address themes we feel are imperative in the successful

implementation of digital storytelling in elementary school classrooms. It is crucial that we

understand how the technology we utilize in schools will facilitate our students’ learning.
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

Digital Stories

Digital Stories are multimedia artifacts that can include photographs, animations, video, music,

and text. Digital stories are being used in the classroom as a way for students to evidence their

learning, developing creative thinking, critical thinking, and communication. Research shows

that storytelling as a pedagogical tool, is an effective means of imparting knowledge, beliefs, and

traditions (Suwardy, Pan, & Seow, 2013). Digital Stories can be drawn from the theories of

constructionism. Papert stated that constructionism involves two stages, internal and external.

The internal stage is an active process where students construct their knowledge from

their experiences in the world, whereas the external stage is based on the idea that student

learning is most effective when they design artifacts and share with others (Karahan &

Roehrig, 2015; 2014).

Through digital storytelling, students can share their understanding of curricular content, and

their ability to perform curricular competencies, through a hands-on project. “The constructionist

design process supported by a social constructivist learning environment resulted students with

focusing on a particular issue in-depth” (Karahan & Roehrig, 2015; 2014). Digital stories can be

used cross-curricular, not limited to language arts. Combining the arts & humanities curriculum

to other areas of study gives students a better understanding in how their learning ebbs and

flows, providing deeper learning contexts. STEAM merges science, technology, engineering, art

and math together, naturally involving art and creative thinking. Technology affordances allow
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

students to combine different media to create an animated, engaging digital artifact, that

showcases evidence of their learning.

In the elementary classroom, digital storytelling often includes app smashing; combining

multiple apps to create a project. Students are using stop motion, green screen technologies,

voice overs, video, coding programs and iMovie to create their final projects. Digital stories are

helping students become digitally literate, able to interact with different digital media, utilizing

critical thinking and computational thinking skills. This is an important twenty-first century skill

for learners.

In Language Arts, students can turn their written short stories into short animated films. Research

shows that written text goes into our short term memory, and visuals go straight into our long

term (Fell, 2017).

Digital storytelling harnesses the power of audiovisuals to engage students’ visual and

auditory senses in ways that printed textbooks can never accomplish. The combination

text, image and audio motivates students to engage in deep learning, something which is

far from surprising given the extent to which today’s students are familiar with this form

of interaction (Suwardy, Pan, & Seow, 2013).

Our students have been raised in the digital age. It has changed the way they learn, multi-task,

and share their learning. Students are learning to advocate for their needs, and share evidence of
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

their learning in innovative ways. Digital stories are interactive, engaging, and relevant to today's


Design Thinking

John Spencer and A.J. Juliani state that using design thinking boosts creativity and brings out the

maker in every student (Spencer & Juliani, 2016). British Columbia’s Applied Design, Skills and

Technologies (ADST) curriculum implements design thinking through ideating, making and

sharing. Spencer and Juliani (2016) use these curricular competencies in similar stages, coining

the acronym LAUNCH, which walks the students through specific stages of the creative journey.

Digital stories involves creation, where students turn their ideas into digital artifacts. The

research shows that through explicit teaching of design thinking using a motivating task such as

programming a story, teachers can better support their students, allowing for more flexibility and

creativity (Hansen, Iveland, Dwyer, Harlow & Franklin, 2015). A design thinking framework

can support student learning, helping them step-by-step towards success.

Engagement, empowerment and differentiation

There is power in digital storytelling. Growing up in a technologically savvy world, students

have high expectations when they come to school and teachers have the challenging role to

educate our students in engaging and empowering ways. Though looking at young adults, the

study by Sudwardy, Pan & Seow (2013) describes how digital storytelling can be used as an

“effective teaching pedagogy for engaged student learning” (p. 109). Digital storytelling was

shown to increase the engagement and learning of students even in courses that have traditionally
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

been seen as “dull and boring” (Sudwardy, Pan & Seow, 2013) such as financial accounting.

Given the opportunity to display their knowledge through stories and utilizing technology,

students are able to customize, contextualize, and make abstract concepts relatable. However, are

elementary aged students engaged and empowered by the deeper connections to digital

storytelling itself, especially over time, or does the novelty of using the technology wear off?

Campbell (2012) found that not only were students engaged, but that they produced higher

quality writing skills and maintained these over several years. Do these gains seen transfer over

to traditional storytelling?

As educators in the British Columbia school system, our students come from diverse

backgrounds and bring their own, unique stories to our classrooms. Some excellent examples of

this can be seen in Emet’s articles (2013 & 2014) and in Emily Bailin’s TED Talk (2014). The

benefits of digital storytelling as a point of connection with students from refugee and/or English

Language Learning backgrounds is apparent. These articles anchor digital storytelling as a

strategy that supports strong, student-centered teaching practice while allowing the students to

experience multiliteracies, collaboration, and giving voice to their unique backgrounds and


Research evidences that the process of digital storytelling attracts students to participate, be

engaged and better learn the concepts (Suwardy, Pan, & Seow, 2013). When students take

ownership over their learning, and have choice within their projects, they become empowered.

Digital stories, especially student-led productions, demand a prerequisite level of understanding

Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

about the topic at hand, thus prompting students to engage in reflective learning, deeper thought

processes, as they learn to communicate their ideas with their peers through digital platforms

(Suwardy, Pan, & Seow, 2013). Digital storytelling is an innovative way to provide

differentiated learning for our students, encouraging independent thinking, and a variety of

projects that provide new contexts of discussion.

Computer Programming

Digital Stories can be created through coding programs such as Scratch and Scratch Jr. The

research shows that improving thinking skills in computer education, in particular, computational

thinking, develops logical thinking and creativity (Jun, Han & Kim, 2017). Students can program

choose your own adventure scenes of a story, that can be changed with the click of a mouse.

Fortunately, graphical programming makes coding accessible to elementary school children,

allowing children to use their imagination and creativity to animate anything (Hansen, Iveland,

Harlow, Dwyer, & Franklin, 2015). The Scratch website includes programming tutorials for

students to help them navigate and learn digital animation.

Scratch is a student-friendly, graphical programming interface designed to be accessible

to novice computer programmers. It is free, making it a reasonable choice for elementary

school classrooms. In Scratch, programmers create scripts (short programs) to make

sprites (two-dimensional pictures of people, animals, or objects) move, make noises, and

interact with other sprites (Hansen, Iveland, Harlow, Dwyer, & Franklin, 2015).
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

Students use design thinking to map out their stories. They choose an idea to pursue in the

ideating stage, which includes character and plot development. In the making phase, students

learn how to use programming software to bring their ideas to life. They learn how to

decompose, by breaking a problem down into smaller pieces, developing computational and

critical thinking to find solutions. The rich user-centered interaction of Scratch supports

constructivism as students are learning by designing meaningful projects, creating things and

sharing them in the community (Papadakis, Kalogiannakis, Orfanakis, & Xaranis, 2017).

Students can share their digital stories with their peers, teachers, and parents. Students can also

share with the online Scratch community, so that other students can learn from their ideas.

Students can decide on how and with whom to share their products. Using coding programs to

create digital stories is making programming more interesting, more relevant, and more powerful

(Guzdial, 2004). Digital stories designed through programming encourage students to take

ownership over their learning.

Stop Motion

When creating a stop motion animation, students are simply taking a lot of frames of pictures

and putting them together to tell a story. Students are capturing one frame at a time, with objects

moving slightly between each frame – creating the illusion of movement. Stop motion is a free

resource that is used to create wordless digital stories, building important literacy skills. Students

can include image, voice overs, backgrounds, and different text boxes, or attempt old-fashioned

by drawing images into their animations (PBS Learning Media, 2017). Stop motion is based on
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

several important principles that explore the Applied Designs Skills and Technology (ADST)

core competencies: communication, creative thinking & critical thinking, outlined in BC’s new

curriculum (BC Ministry of Education, 2015). Stop motion allows students to be creative and

personalize a story through their own eyes.

A ‘slowmation’ is a narrated stop motion animation that is played slowly at 2 photos per second

to tell a story. The reason why a slowmation is played at 2 frames per seconds is to explain a

story or science concept, whereas a typical stop motion animation is played at 20 frames per

second to animate the story (McKnight, Hoban, & Nielsen, 2011). At the elementary level,

slowmation might be the perfect way to experiment with animation. This simplified version

allows students to create a flipbook like animation using less photos, while placing an emphasis

on the explanation of a story or concept.

By using stop motion in the classroom, students are given the opportunity to learn literacy in a

tangible way. ​They are learning to tell a story solely through illustrated animations​. In addition,

students with different learning styles and multiple intelligences can all find success in creating

these digital artifacts that demonstrate their learning.

Core Competencies

Digital storytelling inspires students to become confident creators and communicators of media,

as they develop their digital literacy skills. The process of creating a digital story using stop

motion, aligns with the three core competencies: thinking, communication, and social and
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

personal, found in the ADST curriculum (BC Ministry of Education, 2015). When students

create stop motion animations, they are using all of the competencies mentioned above. Students

are brainstorming how they can visually represent their stories through animation. They

collaborate with their peers to continually construct and reconstruct their digital artifacts, through

self-reflection, peer-editing, and formative assessment. Finally, when students share their

projects with peers, they will see the contribution to the learning that is taking place collectively

in their classrooms. Students are sharing the story of their design and construction, which is an

integral part of the design thinking framework. British Columbia’s new curriculum focuses on

personalized learning, which enhances student engagement and gives students choices, allowing

them to take ownership of their learning, which will lead to lifelong, self-directed learning (BC

Ministry of Education, 2015). Digital storytelling is just one example of how teachers can

combine literacy with technology, while making learning meaningful and relevant to our

students in today’s classrooms.


Student assessments are an integral part of the learning process. The research shows that

digital stories can be assessed for curricular content, engaging in design thinking, programming

concepts, or for any combination of these (Hansen, Iveland, Harlow, Dwyer, & Franklin, 2015).

According to BC’s new curriculum, ​“Assessment involves the wide variety of methods or tools

that educators use to identify student learning needs, measure competency acquisition, and

evaluate students’ progress toward meeting provincial learning standards” (BC Ministry of

Education, 2015). Many elementary schools in British Columbia have begun to eliminate
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traditional report cards and are replacing them with innovative platforms such as digital

portfolios. Students are able to access these digital portfolios throughout their educational

experience and can can contribute actively in their creation. Students are learning to self-reflect,

and set future goals, encouraging students to take responsibility of their learning. Through

reflection, students can identify things that went well and things that they can work on. Digital

stories provide opportunities for students to develop integral core competencies, understanding

that the process of design is as equally important to the final digital artifact. This design process

is cross-curricular, providing new contexts of learning, creativity, and sharing, developing

lifelong learning. ​Feedback from ongoing assessment in the classroom can be immediate and

personal for a learner, guiding the learner to understand their misconceptions and use the

information to set new learning goals (BC Ministry of Education, 2015). When creating a digital

artifact such as a stop motion animation or computer programming, students are discovering new

ways to think critically and share evidence of their learning, while educators facilitate the

construction of knowledge and activities in the classroom.


Children are innovative, creative, and have a passion for sharing their stories. Digital

storytelling, through the medium of Stop Motion and computer programming, has been shown to

allow all students the opportunity to collaborate, create and engage with language and share with

others using the technological skills needed for their future. Opportunities abound, with direction

and support from the new B.C. curriculum, for students to utilize technology and reflect on their

learning. Platforms such as stop motion, coding, and other forms of digital storytelling give
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

teachers options for differentiated instruction, personalized learning, and ways for students to

demonstrate their learning in individualized ways. There is value in students sharing their

learning. It is also important that teachers share their innovative approaches with the educational

community, through websites, blogs, and social media. Continued research, professional

development, and mentorship for educators is vital as they facilitate digital storytelling through

new mediums of technology and is important for its continued success.

Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.


Bailin, E. (2014, June 16). ​The Power of Digital Storytelling. TEDx Talks​ [Video file]. Retrieved
from ​

BC Ministry of Education. (2015). ​BC's New Curriculum​. Retrieved from


Campbell, T.A. (2012). Digital storytelling in an elementary classroom: Going beyond

entertainment. ​ Social and Behavioral Sciences 69​, 385 – 393. Retried from

Emert, T. (2013). “The transpoemations project”: Digital storytelling, contemporary poetry, and
refugee boys. ​Intercultural Education, 24​, 355–365. Retrieved from

Emert, T. (2014). “Hear a Story, Tell a Story, Teach a Story": Digital Narratives and Refugee
Middle Schoolers. ​Voices in the Middle, 21​(4). Retrieved from

Fell, A. (2017, July 13). ​Why Storytelling is so powerful in the digital era. TEDxUniMelb ​[Video
File]. Retrieved from ​

Hansen, A. K., Iveland, A., Harlow, D. B., Dwyer, H., & Franklin, D. (2015). Programming
Digital Stories and How-to Animations. ​Science And Children​, ​53​(3), 60-64. ​Retrieved
from ​​?

Guzdial, M. (2003). Programming environments for novices. ​Computer science education

research, 2004​, 127-154. Retrieved from

Jun, S., Han, S., & Kim, S. (2017;2016;). Effect of design-based learning on improving
computational thinking. Behaviour & Information Technology, 36(1), 43-53.

Karahan, E., & Roehrig, G. (2015). Constructing media artifacts in a social constructivist
Stop(motion). Collaborate and Listen.

environment to enhance students’ environmental awareness and activism. ​Journal of

Science Education and Technology, 24​(1), 103-118. 10.1007/s10956-014-9525-5

McKnight, A., Hoban, G., & Nielsen, W. (2011). Using "Slowmation" for Animated Storytelling
to Represent Non-Aboriginal Preservice Teachers' Awareness of "Relatedness to
Country". ​Australasian Journal Of Educational Technology​, ​27​(1), 41-54. Retrieved
from ​

Ohler, J. (2013). ​Digital storytelling in the classroom: New media pathways to literacy, learning,
and creativity. ​Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press.

Papadakis, S., Kalogiannakis, M., Orfanakis, V., & Zaranis, N. (2017). The appropriateness of
scratch and app inventor as educational environments for teaching introductory
programming in primary and secondary education. International Journal of Web-Based
Learning and Teaching Technologies (IJWLTT), 12(4), 58-77.

Papert, S. (1980). ​Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas​. New York:
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PBS Learning Media (2017, March 23). ​Digital Storytelling with Stop Motion Animation

Spencer, J. & Juliani, A. J. (2016). LAUNCH: Using design thinking to boost creativity and
bring out the maker in every student. San Diego, CA: Dave Burgess Consulting, Inc.

Suwardy, T., Pan, G. & Seow, P. ​ (2013). Using digital Storytelling to Engage Student Learning.
Accounting Education, 22​(2). Retrieved from

Thomas, A., & Tufano, N. (2010). ​DIY media: Creating, sharing and learning with new
technologies. ​New York: Peter Lang. Retrieved from​ ​

Torre, D. (2015). Boiling Lines and Lightning Sketches: Process and the Animated Drawing.
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