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Overview of Research Design

By: Prof. Monali Jani

What is Research Design??
• Research Design Constitutes the blueprint for
the collection, measurement and analysis of

Research Design




Aspects of a Good Research Design
• Flexible
• Appropriate
• Efficient
• Economical
• Minimizes Bias
• Maximizes Reliability of the data
• Smallest experimental error
• Provides an opportunity for considering
different aspects of a business
Considerations while choosing
Research Design
• The means of obtaining information;
• The availability and skills of the researcher and
his staff, if any;
• The objective of the problem to be studied;
• The nature of the problem to be studied; and
• The availability of time and money for the
research work.
Types of

Exploratory Descriptive Causal

Sectional Longitudinal
Research Research
Exploratory Research
• Is mainly used to explore the insight of the general
research problem

• Obtaining Background Information (current and

relevant information)

• Research Problem Formulation or defining it more


• Identifying and Defining key research Variables

• Developing Hypothesis
Methods of Conducting Exploratory
• Qualitative Techniques
▫ Depth Interviews
▫ Participant Observation
▫ Projective techniques and psychological testing
▫ Case Studies
▫ Secondary Data analysis
▫ Focus Group
▫ Two-stage Design
Descriptive Studies
• Who, what, when , where, and how of the topic
• Description of phenomena or characteristics
• Estimates the proportion of the population that
have these characteristics
• Description of association among different
• Co relational studies
• Cross Sectional
▫ One time data collection
• Longitudinal
▫ Panel : Studying a group of people over the time
▫ Cohort Group: different subjects over the time
Causal Studies
• A produces B or A forces B to occur
• Causal Relationships

▫ Symmetrical Relationship
▫ Reciprocal Relationship
▫ Asymmetrical Relationship

▫ Ex. Income, Living Style, Expense,etc.


Mills Method of Agreement


Mills Method of Difference

• Experimental Designs
• Ex-post Facto Designs
Comparison of Research Designs
Designs Exploratory Descriptive Causal
Objective: Discovery of ideas Describe market Determine Cause
and insights characteristics or and effect
functions relationship
Characteristics: Flexible, versatile Marked by the prior Manipulation of one
formation of specific and more
hypothesis independent
Often the front end Pre-planned and Control of other
of total research structured design mediating variables
Methods: Expert surveys, Secondary data, Experiments
Pilot surveys, quantitative analysis,
Secondary data: survey, Panels,
Qualitative observations and
Research other data
Descriptors of Research Design
• The degree to which research questions has been
▫ Exploratory Study
▫ Formal Study

• The method of data collection

▫ Monitoring
▫ Communication Study
• The power of the researcher to produce effect in
the variables under study
▫ Experimental
▫ Ex post facto
• The purpose of the study
▫ Descriptive
▫ Causal
• The time dimension
▫ Cross-sectional
▫ Longitudinal
• The scope, breadth and depth of the study
▫ Case
▫ Statistical study
• The research environment
▫ Field Setting
▫ Laboratory Research
▫ Simulation

• The participants’ perceptions of research activity

▫ Actual Routine
▫ Modified Routine
Thank you