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Building plants offsite in
modules and then transporting
them to the finallocation
pays dividends in both cost and
shorter construction time.

Roy Whittaker, lm/Jerial Chemical Industries PLC

o In every project, the optimum balance al' costs must use of ofl'site preassembly in the building of convention-
be sought. We try to achieve a minimum for the total ally-sited U.K. chemical plants.
costs al' design and procurement, onsite construction,
transport and lifting, and offsite assembly. Effects on costs and timing
Historically, the cost al' labor has risen at a las ter rate Offsite preassembly is undertaken because it is expect-
than the cost al' materials, so that there has been a ed to have beneficial efFects on the cost or timing al' the
continuing trend toward methods al' construction that project, or both. The cost savings arise from the more
use labor more el'l'ectively, even though this may increase productive use al' labor in a more stable environment,
sorne other costs. One construction method that permits with better working conditions. The weather will have
high productivity is oflsite preassembly, and the gTadual less inJ1uence, working at heights will probably be avoid-
transfer of work away from the site has long been a ed, sal'ety will be improved. Wage costs tend to be lower
feature of process plant construction. 1'0 illustrate this, where continuity of employment is greater, and setting-
we have only to compare current methods in the devel- up and overhead charges should be less. These are the
oped countries with those used in sorne third-world benefits of employing an established manufacturing
countries where labor costs are still low. organization rather than a transient construction force.
In recent years, we have had to build in sorne of the Offsite preassembly also offers the potential lor reduc-
least hospitable parts al' the globe-e.g., the Alaskan ing the program time since preassembly can overlap with
North Slope and the North Sea-and this has stimulated onsite civil eng'ineering work. Several preassembly loca-
major advances in offsite preassembly. It was then a tions may be operated simultaneously and the remaining
natural development for the expertise and techniques work onsite is freed al' congestiono Elapsed time can be
learned in these dillicult areas to be put to use in shortened in preassembly, not only because al' higher
ordinarv onshore construction to oflset the effects of produetivity but also because it can be easier to organize
ever-rising wages. 1'his has resulted in a quite significant the work ellieiently in an established situation.
step-change in the methods available for onshore Preassembly probably reduces the risk al' delay; cer-
construction. tainly, it is to site construction that we look l'or examples
This articie will discuss sorne recent experience in the of really serious delays. The extremes of poor perfor-



mance that are sometimes experienced in work at the

plantsite are scldom, ir ever, encountcred in a manufac-
turing' organization.
OfTsetting these potential aclvantages are some sub-
stantial increases in time and efTon, which ofTsite preas-
sembly dcmands. Essentially, the savings expected dur-
ing plant construction are purchased at the cost of
considerable extra design and procurement cffort. Addi-
tional design resources are needed to pro vide the extra
steelwork for lifting and transpon, to design the inter-
cOllnections between assernblies, lo split the design into
separate packages, to carry out transport ancl lifting
studies, perhaps to improve site access. There will be
additional procurement and coordination of materials,
which now need to be delivered to a variety oflocations.
Besides extra steelwork, there will be greater transport
andlifting costs, as well as the need for supervision and
inspection at the preassembly yards.
The net effect of all these considerations can only be
jlldged for each individual project. Detailed and accurate
quantif1cation of the efTects on costs and timing of the
difTerent possibilities is unlikcly to be availablc. Even in
retrospect, there is a good deal of judgment, not to say Addition to plant being moved into position Fig.2
speculation, in volved in an economic assessment. The
extremes of what is possible will, of course, be g'overned
by the size of the proposed plant and by access to the divicled into a number of modules of transportable size,
site. Access andlifting capacity at the preassembly yard leaving only the civil work and hookup ofthe units to be
may also be a limitation. Within the broad limits ofwhat carried out onsite. Even so, as much as 40% of the total
is possible, decisions on the extent of offsite preassemblyconstruction manhours may still need to be expended at
must be made early in the project, based as much on the si te. Transpon limitations can be significantiy eased
judgment and experience as cm comparative estimates of if preassembly takes place at a location adjacent to the
cost and timing. final plantsite. This may be appropriate where the actual
site has very restricted access, 01' is in an opel'ating works
Complete offsite preassembly ancl thus subject to restrictiollS on wclding' 01' other
'T"here is a fundamental difference between a plant that construction activities.
is built completely by olhite preassembly and one f()r If aH the modules are to be assembled in cme location,
which only partial ofISite assembly is envisagecl. 1"01' ofTsite preassembly does 1l0t present any significantly
complete offsite preassembly to be undertaken, the plant greater problem in procllrement, delivery and general
must be relatively small, so that it can be completcly coordination of material. 'ro a great extent, the prob-
lelOS of managing a construction si te
disappear. being exc:hanged for the
Lift over existing pipe bridge required careful preplanning Fig. 1 lesser problems of supervising the as-
sembler's operations.
Nevenheless, some additional de-
sign problems are posed. The sizes of
the modules are fixed at an eady stage
and chang'es in the layout are more
difflcult to make subsequently than
they are with conventional construc-
tion. Additional steclwork will proba-
bly be required becallse the structures
will need LO be designed 101' lifting
from the top ancl may well require
extra bottom support. Estimating and
controlling module weights is an im-
portant new task. Access I()r mainte-
nance and operation may be more
c1iflicult to arrange. but lower stan-
dards of acc:ess \ViII harclly be tolerat-
ed in an onshore plant merely be-
cause of the methocl of construction
The savings accrumg from c:om-
plete offsite preassembly will obvious-
Iy vary from one project to another
ami will depend very much on the
standard of project execution. The
savings claimed will also depend on
the assumptions made of what the
cost would have been had convention-
al methods of construction been used.
There is scope for wide variation, but
the range of savings possible can be
indicated. The complete offsite pre-
assembly of a plant mal' be expected
lO produce savings on the order of
10% of the construction cost and
10% of the construction time. This
would be a not unreasonable expecta-
tion: Better results are undoubtedly
possible and, of course, no account is
taken above of any benefns that might Pilot plant being Iifted for placement inside blast wall Fig.3
accrue fi'om having the plant in ser-
vice earlier.
Some examples of plants that have been completeh' last could have been transponed over public roads. A
preassembled offsite: temporary construction site was established within the
factory boundary about a half-mile fi'om the final plant
A small-scale process plant location. Temporary weather protection of scaffolding
The plant illustrated on p. 81 was small enough for and polyethylene sheet was erected.
complete offsite preassemblv [1]. It was to be located in Preassembly, carried out using a two-shift system, was
an existing works where construction work would be completed in four months: 7,000 m of pipework was
hindered by difI1cult access ami by fire restrictions. It was erected in seven weeks. Transpon ancl lifting into po si-
decided to divide the plant into three modules: a tower tion caused no problems, although a difficult lift over an
module 26 m hig'h X 4 m square in cross-section, weigh- existing pipebridge (Fig. 1) required careful planning.
ing 65 tons, a large module ofthree floors 4 m X 14 m X Hookup and commissioning took three months.
6 m high and 140 tons in weight, and a smaller module Preassembly provided good working conditions with
7.5 m X 4 m X 4.5 m hig'h, weighing 40 tons. Only the no access or permit-to-work restrictions: space \\'as avail-

Sile information information

and orders


Pipe lisl delivery input

Pipe·fabricating material s
receipts PAU pipe-fabricating material
PPA fabricating/erection material

orders, drawings
frorl' •

Key: PAU ~ preassembled unit; PPA = piping preassembly

operating, and to shut these clown for more than a very
short periocl was economically unacceptable. Temporary
bracing of the steelwork and partial completion 01' fire
protection can clearly be seen.

A small pilot plant

Fig. 3 shows a small pilot plant that was requirecl to be
completely enc!osec1 by a blast wal!. The steel structure
for the plant was brought to the site complete, ancl was
placed temporarily in a horizontal position while me-
chanical, instrument and electrical work was carried out.
Simultaneously the blastproof enc!osure was being built.
On completion the plant structure-about 6 m square bv
15 m tall ancl weighing 22 tons-was lifted and installed
in position within the blast wal!. Thus construction ofthe
enc!osure and mechanical work on the structure over-
lapped completely without interference. Access to the
structure for construction was much improvecl and work
at heights was eliminated. 1'he resulting savings were at
least 20ro 01' both construction cost and time.

Partial offsite preassembly

Rclatively few onshore process plants are srnall
enough to ll1ake complete offsite preassembly a reason-
A PAU being installed 19 m above grade Fig.5 able option. 1'he typical plant does provide a number 01'
opportunities for preassembling parts of the plant, but
taken together these form a relatively small part 01' the
able 1'01' the acljacent ,torage 01' materials and 1'01' the whole. Perhaps 10 to 15% ofthe construction manhours
usual construction facilities. High p1'()ductivity anc1 can be transferred ofEite in an average case. 1'0 reduce
good-quality workmanship were achieved. As a result it ,ite manhours by more than this woulc1 probably require
is estimated that three months (15%)) was saved on the shipment of very large modules of around 500 tons.
construction time and lOro on construction cost. The process plant at the Sullom Voe oil terminal in the
Shetlanc1 Islancls emploved moc1ules 01' this size and
A replacement plant section
about 30% 01' the manhours were transferrecl offsite [2].
Fig. 2 shows an adc1ition to an existing plant being It is clear, therefore, thal partial ofTsite preassembly is
movec1 into position. The ne,,' section measuring 8 m X not the complete answer to site-managemenl problems.
Gm X 11 m high was constructed just outsicle the facton' Rec1uclion in ,ite manhours by 10 - 30% and in lhe peak
bounclarv. No other option was available, as construction labor force bv perhaps twice this amounl can have only
work in ~itu was not possible while acljacent plants were secondary ef[ecl on the management 01' sile conslruc-
lion. Incleed, insofar as conslruclion difficulties may be
causec1 by ddiciencies in the supply 01' accurate and
limely design information ancl malerials, partial offsile
preassembly, because il imposes a greater load on design
and procurell1ent, may even make matters worse.
With partial offsite preassembly, lhe major part 01' lhe
site construclion is unchangec1. Sile work l11ay however
be significantly hclpec1 bv the recluction in congeslion
that can resull if certain kev items of conslruction are
done ofIsile. By perl11ilting sil11ultaneous progress 01'
civil work onsite ancl mechanical work olfsite, lhe critical
palh may be shortenecl. Projecl management in total,
however, is being asked to satisfv greater c1emancls. The
managemenl 01' site conslruction may be marginally
eased bUl special demands are being imposecl elsewhere
by lhe preassembly programo
Partial ofIsile preassemblv involves a variely 01' items
with dilfering responsibilities for clesign and procure-
ment. 1'hese clifrerences in responsibility result in the
various ilems being c!assif:¡ec1 as follows.

Preassembled unit (PAU)

The preassembled unit 01' PAl- (often called a module,
A PAU: steam drum and associated equipment Fig. 6 01' if small, a skid) is the archetypal unit. 1'his is a

84 CllDlIC,\L E:\Gl:\EERl:\G ~l.'\ Y ~K. I!lS-l

complete section of plant assemblecl
offsite by an assembler who has no
responsibility for clesign ancl procure-
ment, except possibly for fabricatecl
steel ancl pipework. It is probable that
an assembler will be clealing with a
number of PAUs ancl, on a large pro-
ject, there may be a number of
Design ancl procurement will be
complicatecl by the neecl to split out
each PAU as a separate mini-project
with a separate package of clesign in-
formation ancl material.s. Piping iso-
metrics, for example, will be in-
creasecl in number because cut-lines
neecl to coincicle with the PAU bouncl- Transport of a complete distillation column Fig.7
aries. Extra clesign effort may be re-
quirecl on stee1 framing ancl site con-
nections. There may also be a neecl to provicle some of
the clesign information in more c1etail if the assembler
lacks familiarity with some pan of the work. Logistic
problems will cenainly be increasecl, ancl there will be a Cast af affsite wark,
neecl for supervision ancl inspection at tbe assemblers' tI man-haur
works. Fabrication costs, including
The Row of clesign information ancl materials for a transport 10 site 10.00
major [3] plant for the procluction of 250,000 tons/yr of Supervision of fabricator 1.28
terephthalic aeicl, recently completecl at the Wilton Sort and sh ip materials 0.31 esto
Works of ICI, is illustratecl in Fig. 4. This was a very Additional design and procurement 2.04
complicatecl system, ancl carefÍlI organizatlon ancl goocl Rectification work onsite 1.04 esto
management was requirecl to make it work effective1y. Extra Iifts o nsite NIL
More panies were involvecl than with conventional site Onsite savings, s1Orage, scaffolding,
temporary construction services 10
construction ancl the system incurrecl consiclerably in- 0.83 esto
contractors, supervision (credit)
creasecl overheacl costs.
Foster Wheeler Ltcl. (Reacling, U.K.) was responsible Total 13.84
for clesign ancl procurement, inclucling the procurement
of preassemblies ancl fabricatecl
pipework. Foster vVhee1er also man-
agecl the site stores ancl a separate
staging warehouse. °rhe lalter was
originally proposecl as a means of
controlling piping fabrication: all pip-
ing materials ancl isometrics were cle-
liverecl to the staging warehouse fi'om
which batches of isometrics ancl the
corresponcling fabrication material
were issuecl at regular intervals to the
various piping fabricators. Fielcl pipe-
erection material was clispatchecl to
the site stores. It quickly became ap-
parent that a single management 01'-
ganization shoulcl control not only the
staging warehouse ancl offsite piping
fabrication, but also offsite preassem-
bly ancl the sitestores. Site construc-
tion was manag'ecl by Engineering
Services (Wilton) Ltcl., a subsicliary
company of ICI.
The project involvecl 27 PAUs vary-
ing in weight f[om 3 to 64 tons, ancl
two separate assemblers were em-
ployecl. Tbe costs, especially of the
aclclitional clesign ancl management Distillation columns being dressed in an assembly workshop Fig.8

CIIDIICAL E"GI"EERI'-:G 'I.-\Y 28. 1984 85


droft required, are somewhat diffi-

cull lo separale oul and are perhaps
besl expressed as the cosl per man-
hour ol' offsite labor expended. The
lable gives such an analysis for the
lO tal PAl' programo It will be seen thal
paymenl to the assemblers averaged
fIO.OO gross per manhour, inclucling
lhe COSlS 01' transpon LO sile. The
aclclitional costs 01' extra clesign and
procuremenl, supervision, malerial
shipment and reclification work on-
sile. afler allowing l'or sorne onsile
savings. amounted lO a l'unher f3.84
per manhouL In lOlal, each manhour
ofoffsile work cost f:l3.84.
The aClual average COSl ol' compa-
rable work onsile-slee! ereclion,
fireproofing, lagging, mecha ni cal
A eompressor train bought as a vendor-paekaged unit (vpu) Fig. 9 u-acles, painting-was f 13.40 per on-
sile manhouL In order lo break ever:.
lhe offsile assembler musl show a pro-
ductivitv aboul 5% higher lhan is achieved onsile. The
differenliallike!y lo be achievecl is a maller forjudgmenl
in lhe panicular circumstances 01' lhe projecl. A 5%
procluclivily differenlial belween an eSlablishec! yarcl and
a conslruction site would. however, appear easily achiev-
able. AnYlhing grealer lhan lhis would result in a saving
for lhe o!fsile preassembly programo
Sorne examples 01' PAl's construclecl for lhis project
are shown in Fig. 5 ancl 6. Fig. 5 shows a l'Al' measuring
II m X 20 m X 9 m high. ancl weighing 64 lons. being
inslallecl in pos ilion 19 m aboye gracle. The second
example. Fig. 6. shows a sleam drum ancl associaled
ec¡uipmenl measuring II m X 8 m X 8 m high. ancl
weighing 58 lons. which was subsequenlly inslallecl 31 m
aboye grade.

Vendor-packaged unit
The vendor-packaged unil (VPl') is a preassembly
procluced by lhe vendor 01' the principal ec¡uipmenl
items which lhe unil conlains. It mav be customary fór
such unils to be procluced-for example. oil-fue! pump-
ing ancl healing units, reli-igeration units-in which case
lhere is litlle problem providecl that lhe slanclarcl units
salisf)' lhe specif1cation rec¡uirements ol' lhe purchaser.
The second lype ol' VPl' is where lhe vendor 01' the
principal ilem is asked to eXlend his normal supply-for
example, a fully lrayecl anc! clressed clistillation column.
VPLs are individual iterns ralher lhan pafts ol' a com-
prehensive programo and each neecls to be judged sepa-
rale!y on ils merils. They usually reduce lhe design and
procuremenl elfoft required and can oflen achieve sub-
stanlial savings. Fig. 7 shows lhe lranspon ol' a lrayed
and dressecl clistillation column. This weighs 250 tons,
has overall climensions 01' 61 m X 8 m dia. outsicle
platl'orrns, ancl conlains 80 travs. Il was manufactured in
Holland and shippecl lo lhe U.K. The saving in man-
hours by ofFsite preassembly will be large in such a case,
since nol only is much ol' lhe work carriec! oul indoors in
beller working' conditions. but it also benelils fi-om being
done al grouncllevel.
Lifting a large silo ¡nto position Fig.10 Traying, dressing and lagging lhe column illuslrated

86 UI¡'::-IICAL E:\GI:\EERI:\G ~IAY 28.198,\

took a mere 6 weeks from start to
finish-very much quicker than could
possibly have been done onsite. Fig. 8
shows a number of columns being
dressed in workshop conditions, in
this case not by the vendor but by a
separate assembler. T'he poten ti al for
greater productivity than can be
achieved onsite seems obvious.
The economics of offsite preassem-
blyare so favorable in the case of
traying ancl dressing distillation col-
umns that onsite work should be un-
dertaken only where it is impossible
to do the work offsite. lt is estimated
that the cost of traying ami dressing a
column offsite in a horizontal position
is about hal[ the cost oí' doing the
same work a[ter the column has been
installed onsite. There are additional
bendits in that the congestion that
usually occurs around the base oí' a
distillation column being trayed ami
dressed onsite is eliminated.
Silo being transported by a floating crane Fig.11
Another example of a vendor-pack-
aged unit is the compressor train illus-
trated in Fig. 9. This contains a 21-MW double-ended run at full speed, though not at full power, by supplying
squirrel-cage motor that drives-through a gear box at steam to the expanders. Another beneht of assembling
either end-separate low-pressure ami high-pressure offsite was elimination of the need to mobilize special
compressors. Power recovery from the process is accom- skills onsite for machine assembly. Although the estima-
plished by expanding the offgas through two expanders tion of comparative costs is difficult, there is no doubt
outboard oí' the HP amI LP compressors. The whole that offsite preassembly can save money in such a case.
train is about 24 m long ami 7 m square in cross section, Fig. 10 shows the erection of one of three silos, each
weighing about 270 tons. II m dia., 34 m high overall, and weighing 160 tons.
A prerequisite oí'offsite assembly in this case is the use They were installed onsite with the bottom of the vertical
o[ a steel bedplate instead of the more conventional walls 16 m abo ve grade; f~lbrication in place would have
reinforced-concrete structure.' The VPU includes the required working al a considerable height. The silos
interslage piping ami coolers, the lubrication syslem and could ha ve been built at grade Elirly close to their final
the local instrumentation. location, but this woulcl have requirecl fairly considerable
An important feature of this example of ofEite assem- expenditure for onsite preparation ami facilities. Fabri-
bly was the opporlunity for more eXlensive tesling in the cation at lhe manufacturer's yard a few miles away
manuf~lCturer's plant. Although it was not possible to involvecl higher transport cosls-the silos had to be
drive the machine with lhe molor, lhe whole train was carried several miles down the River Tees on a floating
crane (see Fig. II)-but this was
judged to be the economic choice.
They were fitted with access stairways,
handrails ancl piping befo re being
As a resull of offsite preassembly,
the silos were completecl well ahead
oí' the rest oí' the project ami were put
into use for finishecl-procluct storage
12 months aheacl of scheclule. Happi-
Iy, because of lhe then-current pat-
tem oí' production ami sales, this
resultecl in useful aclclitional cost-sav-
ings. Fig. 12 shows the movement,
using an air cushion, o[ the inner tank
of a clouble-walled cryogenic storage
tank. This measurecl 25 m dia. ami 25
m high, ami weighecl about 200 tons.
By builcling the tank slightly away
Cryogenic-storage inner tank being moved on air cushions Fig. 12 fí'om its permanent location, it was


transport all 100m larger. Nevertheless, wilh an early

decision on preassel11bly these problems can be handled
with no great dilliculty. Sile construction is reduced to
civil work amllhe hooking up of the completed modules.
In so me cases, for example wherc lhe proximity 01' an
operating planl il1lerferes wilh construction work, olEite
preassemblv may be the only practicable method avail-
able. OlI'sile preassembly is therdore a possibililv thal
should be evalualed for any process plant ofmodest size,
panicularly where there is a repetilive elemenl that can
lead LO greater savings.
Panial olLsite conslrucLÍon presenls rather more dillí-
cnll problems. Because the majoríty of construction
work is still earried out in the conventional way, ol!'site
prcassembly makes nol merelv difTerent, but additional
demands on the project managel11ent. More design and
Preassembled-piperack assembly line Fig.13 procuremel1l w'ork has to be managed, organized in
different wan. The additional problems of lí'eezing
design earlier, avoiding subsec¡uent ehanges, designing
possible lO construct the raised, piled foundation simul- additional steelwork. studying transport amllihing prob-
taneously with the fabrication of the tank, saving 5 Iems. controlling the !low of information and male¡'ials
monlhs' time on the projecl, at very small eXlra cost. to a number of locations, monitoring and inspeeting
work al those locaLÍons-all impose additional burdens.
Preassembled pipe rack OlI'sile preassembly is nol, therefore. a llIethod LO be
A preassembled piperack, 01' PAR, is a section of pipe- used to dig a project out 01' trouble. It rec¡uires a higber
rack assembled olI'site complele with piping ami cable standard 01' conlrol and organizaLÍon lhan does conven-
lravs. As lhe pipework on a piperack consisls predomi- tional construction. Given lhal bigher standard. signifí-
nanlly of slraighl leng·ths, a PAR needs lO be of consider- cant savings can be l11ade in eonslruction cosl and time-
able leng"lh if it is to be worthwhile. A piperack of lhe of up lo aboul I01r¡ in both depencling on lhe size amI
required leng"lh is difficult to transport, so lhal the nalure of lbe preassembly programo
assembly is more likely to be done acljacel1l to lhe main Ikcause lhe juslification for olrsile preassembly is tbat
site lhan al a dislanl location. il enablcs more effective use to be llIade of labor re-
Fig. 13 shows an assembly line for 1'.\Rs set up close to sources. and because we can expecl the COSl of labor lO
the plantsilc. The unils are disposed in lhe Ol'der in inCITase al a bster rate llian olher projeet cosls. lhere
which lhey will be finally located. ami provision is made seems lillle c.!OUbl lhal increasing use of lhe lechnic¡ue
lór a movable weather-prolective screen. The I'ARs in lhe can be expecled in the fULUre.
phologTaph were assembled fi'om slructural modules I ~
m long, :) m wide and ~ m high. These were connecled Acknowledgment
two abreasl in fours al' sixes to form lhe I'ARs. which were All photos in tliis anicle \l'ere taken by J. Selwyn Fell.
lhen pipedup and the cable lrays added. Such a melhod Roy V. Hughson, L,}¡/ol"
obviales working al heighls ami allows higher productiv-
ilV. It also reduces congeslion onsite-which is very
importanl if, as is often lhe case, the piperack runs References
through the center of lhe plant. Increased costs are 1. Gilg, 1. E. e.. Tlie Packaging <Ir <1 Srnall Sede Proce.s.'i 1'1~1Il1. conI'ercnce
on \lodlllar 1)e."ig'll and Con."trlluion nl'oJlS/¡orc PlanL. Institu-
incmred in lifting ami transport ami il is necessary lor tioll nI' \lccJ¡anic~ll Engincers, :W SqH. lQ,sO.
lhe PARs to be designed for being lifted as well as 101' ~. Bollo R. \1.. SlIIJoI!l \'oe-TllC Prca.s . .,elllbly oC a l.argc Proccss Plant,
Conf'ercnce 011 \lodular Ik."igll ;llld <:onstrlluioll of onShorc Process
being supponed in lhe normal wav. The way the pipe- Plant, In."ílillllioll of' \lcchanical ElIginclTs, :·H) Sepl. 19.s0"
rack is secmedlo its supponing lrestles also needs to be :\. \Vhiuakcr. R .. <Inri \\'augil, T. \\". B.. Partíal Ofrsile Prea,..,...,cmhly in a
Large l:I\. C:1H"llli( ~l! Flalll. Confcrcncc U]J \Iodubl" I)c..,ign dlld (:011-
thought about. It is highlv desirable (as with all pre- struClioll oC onShore l'rocess PlalH. Instillllioll of \Icchanical Eilg'i-
IlCl'!".'. :\0 Sc,,\. I~)~(). '
assemblies) lo be able lo Iift the PAR into position ami
locale il on a horizol1lalmaling surbce so lhal lhe crane
can be released befare bolting'-up is compleled. The author
1t is nOllikely lhat very large savings in direct cosls will Roy Whittaker is a Senior Project
>'Iallagcr in thc Ellgillccring DepL oI'
be achieved by the use of P.·\Rs. The main bendíl \\'ill Imperial Chemical Industries PLC. P.O.
result from the reduction in congeslion onsile permit- Bo:-.: G. Billingham. C:k'\T!;¡¡¡d TS~:\
1LD. England. and 11;1:-' !leen elllploycd
ting greater producliYilv in olher sile work. b~'the COIllP,HIV COl' 0\ CI" ~;1 years.
mainly Cln cilclllical plant <lIld pO\\Tr
Discussion plant designo I[e holds a B.Sc. (Eng.)
and a Ph.n, in c¡\"¡¡ L'nginecring froTll
A small planl, the whole of which can be splil into a Londoll Lni\"crsit\", and is a IlIl'lllbel" oí
¡he InslillHioll of \Icchanical Engilll'cr.'i
nut11ber 01' preassembled units, prescnts ccrtain novel and ¡he Brilish CompUler Soc.
problems ifil is lo be buill by olI'silc preassembly. Design
has lo be fi'ozen earlier. changes are more dillícull, amI
the¡'e is additional sleelwork designo Layoul, lihing amI