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Verification Samples

Spandrel Curtain Wall


1 Objective
To check the safety of using a single (4CS2X059, 33Ksi) section as a Spandrel curtain-wall
typical member, given the following data:

The design is based on AISI-NASPEC 2001 with 2004 supplementary, using LRFD method.

The wall span = 8 ft, and the cantilever height = 4 ft.

The stud spacing = 24 in.

The bridging members are located @ 48 in o.c.

The lateral bracing spacing is considered equal to the bridging members spacing.

The torsional bracing spacing is considered equal to the bridging members spacing.

The wind load intensity (IWL) = 20 psf.

The wind load factor for strength = 1.25.

The wind load factor for lateral deflection = 1.0.

The web is unreinforced for shear strength calculation.

The factor (Cb) = 1.0 for lateral-torsional buckling stress calculation.

The web-crippling check is considered, and the bearing length (N) = 1.25 in.

The strength increase due to cold-work of forming is not considered.

The effect of the standard punch-out (4" X 1.5") is not considered.

The maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360, where (L) is the height of the supported span
and twice the cantilever height.

The absolute deflection at free end of parapet is considered for deflection check.

The maximum absolute deflection is 0.5 in.

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2 Modeling with SteelSmart® System

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3 Statical System, Loads for Strength, and Forces

08.4 0.20 0.20

50.00

4.80 0.20 0.20

(a) Loading (lb/ft) (b) BMD (kips.in) (c) SFD (kips)

Figure 1 Statical System, Loads for Strength, and Forces

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4 Safety Check
4.1 Design for Flexural Moment (Mx)
Figure 2 shows the cross-section elements with their corresponding labels.

1'

2'

Figure 2 Elements of the Cross-Section and Their Numbering


The major flexural strength of the section (Mx-all) is the least of the flexural strength at the initiation
of the cross-section yielding and the strength for lateral-torsional buckling.

4.1.1 Flat Widths Calculation


Considering (D) the section depth, (B) the flange width, (C) the lip width, (t) the section
thickness, and (R) the inside bend radius of the section corners; the flat widths of the elements
subjected to compressive stresses can be calculated as follows (Figure 3):

W 1 = C – (t + R)

= 0.867 – (0.059 + 0.1875) = 0.6205 in.

W 2 = B – 2(t + R)

= 2 – 2(0.059 + 0.1875) = 1.507 in.

W 3 = D – 2(t + R)

= 4 – 2(0.059 + 0.1875) = 3.507 in.

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W
2

W
1

W
3

Figure 3 Flat Widths of Elements Subjected to Compressive Stresses

4.1.2 Initiation of Yielding (Section C3.1.1 in 2001 Specification)


The effective properties are calculated by loading the section by a stress gradient
(tension-compression) which has a value of (Fy) at the top fiber of the compression flange (Figure
4).

2 f F = 33 ksi
2 top
f and f
1-1 1-3
1
f
2-1

Mx
3 N.A.

Ycg0 = 2 in.

1' f
2-3

2'
F = Ftop = 33 ksi
bottom

Figure 4 Location of N.A., Stress Distribution, and Critical Stresses on the Fully Effective
Section for Initiation of Yielding

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Iteration (1)

The section is assumed to be fully effective, i.e. the N.A. will be located at a distance from the
bottom fiber of the tension flange equal to half the section depth (Figure 4).

4.1.2.1 Effective properties calculation

4.1.2.1.1 Element (1) and Element (2)

Element (1) is classified as an unstiffened element under stress gradient, thus, the
plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width of (W 1) is determined in
accordance with section B3.2 (a) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

f1-1 = compression stress at the upper end of W 1, (Figure 4)

 D  Ycgo  t  R 
=   Fy
 D  Ycgo 
 

 4  2  0.059  0.1875 
=   * 33 = 28.93275 ksi
 42 

f2-1 = compression stress at the lower end of W 1, (Figure 4)

 D  Ycgo  C 
=  F
 D  Ycgo  y
 

 4  2  0.867 
=   * 33 = 18.6945 ksi
 42 

 = f2-1/ f1-1
1
(Eq. B3.2-1)

= 0.6461363
1
K = 0.578/ ( + 0.34) (Eq. B3.2-2)

= 0.5861259

1
Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

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The effective width of (W 1) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.1 (a) in the 2001
specification as follows:

2
 2E  t 
Fcr = K   (Eq. B2.1-5)
2 W 
12 (1   )  1 

2
 2 * 29500  0.059 
= 0.5861259*   = 141.2897 ksi
12 (1  0.3 2 )  0.6205 

f11
 = (Eq. B2.1-4)
Fcr

28.93275
= = 0.4525219 < 0.673
141.2897

 d'1 = effective width of (W 1)

= W1 (Eq. B2.1-1)

= 0.6205 in. (fully effective)

Element (2) is classified as a uniformly compressed element with an edge stiffener, thus, the
plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width of (W 2) is determined in
accordance with Section B4.2 (a) in the 2001 specification as follows:

f2 = compression stress at the centerline of W 2

 4  2  0.5 * 0.059 
=   * 33 = 32.51325 ksi, (Figure 4)
 42 

S = 1.28 E f2 (Eq. B4-1)

= 1.28 29500 32.51325 = 38.5559

W 2/ t = 25.54237 > (0.328S = 12.646334)

3
W t 
Ia = 399t 4  2  0.328 (Eq. B4.2-10)
 S 

3
4  25.54237 
= 399 0.059   0.328 = 1.809162 * 10-4 in4
 38.5559 

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 W t 
Ia-max = t 4 115 2  5 (Eq. B4.2-10)
 S 

4 25.54237 
= 0.059 115 *  5 = 9.837454 * 10 in > Ia
-4 4

 38.5559 

Is =
W1 3 t Sin2  (Eq. B4-2)
12

=
0.62053 * 0.059 * Sin2 90 -3
= 1.174616 * 10 in
4
12

Is
RI = (Eq. B4.2-9)
Ia

= 6.492599 > 1.0  RI = 1.0

 W t
n = 0.582  2  (Eq. B4.2-11)
 4S 

 25.54237 
= 0.582   = 0.4163809 > (1/3)
 4 * 38.5559

C W2 = 0.867 1.507

= 0.5753152, > 0.25 and < 0.8

Using Table B4-2;

 
RI n  0.43
5C
K =  4.82 
 W2 

 5 * 0.867  0.4163809
=  4.82  1  0.43 = 2.373424 < 4.0
 1.507 

The effective width of (W 2) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.1 (a) in the 2001
specification as follows:-

2
 2E  t 
Fcr = K   (Eq. B2.1-5)
2 W
12 (1   )  2 

2
 2 * 29500  0.059 
= 2.373424*   = 96.9956 ksi
12 (1  0.3 2 )  1.507 

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f2
 = (Eq. B2.1-4)
Fcr

32.51325
= = 0.5789675 < 0.673
96.9956

 b2 = effective width of (W 2)

= W2 (Eq. B2.1-1)

= 1.507 in. (fully effective)

d1 = reduced effective width of (W 1)

= d'1RI (Eq. B4.2-7)

= 0.6205 * 1 = 0.6205 in. (fully effective)

Rem1 = removed width of (W 1) due to local buckling

= W 1 – d1

= 0.6205 – 0.6205 = 0

Rem2 = removed width of (W 2) due to local buckling

= W 2 – b2

= 1.507 – 1.507 = 0

4.1.2.1.2 Element (3)

Element (3) is classified as a stiffened element under stress gradient (tension-


compression), thus, the plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width
of (W 3) is determined in accordance with section B2.3 (a) in the 2001 specification as follows:

f1-3 = compression stress at the upper end of W 3, (Figure 4)

 D  Ycgo  t  R 
=   Fy
 D  Ycgo 
 

 4  2  0.059  0.1875 
=   * 33 = 28.93275 ksi
 42 

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f2-3 = tensile stress at the lower end of W 3, (Figure 4)

 Ycgo  t  R 
=   Fy
 D  Ycgo 
 

 2  0.0569 0.1875 
=    * 33 = -28.93275 ksi
 42 

 = f23 f13 (Eq. B2.3-1)

= - 28.93275 28.93275 = 1.0

= 4 + 2(1 + ) + 2(1 + )
3
K (Eq. B2.3-2)
3
= 4 + 2(1 + 1) + 2(1 + 1) = 24

The effective width of (W 3) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.3 (a) in the 2001
specification as follows:

2
 2E  t 
Fcr = K   (Eq. B2.1-5)
2 W 
12 (1   )  3 

2
 2 * 29500  0.059 
= 24 *   = 181.1102 ksi
12 (1  0.3 2 )  3.507 

f13
 = (Eq. B2.1-4)
Fcr

28.93275
= = 0.3996901 < 0.673
181.1102

 b3 = effective width of the compressed part of (W 3)

= W 3-Comp (Eq. B2.1-1)

= D – Ycg0 – t – R = 1.7535 in. (fully effective)

Rem3 = 0

Remt = the total removed length of the section due to local buckling

= Rem1 + Rem2 + Rem3

=0+0+0=0

Ae = effective area of the section


2
= Ag – (Remt * t) = 0.5383608 in (fully effective)

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From the previous analysis, we can conclude that there is no need for additional iterations since
Ycg (final location of the neutral axis measured from the bottom fiber of the tension flange) will be
equal to Ycg0. The effective section modulus at initiation of yielding (Sxe) can be calculated as
follows:

Ixe = Ix
4
= 1.345668 in

Sxe = Ixe/ (0.5D)


3
= 1.345668/ 2 = 0.6728339 in

4.1.2.2 Calculation of the flexural strength for Initiation of Yielding (Mx-Yielding)


Mnx-Yielding = SxeFy (Eq. C3.1.1-1)

= 0.6728339 * 33 = 22.2035 kips.in.

Mx-Yielding = bMnx-Yielding

= 0.95 * 22.2035 = 21.0933 kips.in.

4.1.3 Lateral-Torsional Buckling (Section C3.1.2.1 in 2001 Specification)

4.1.3.1 Calculation of the lateral-torsional buckling stress (Fc)

 2E
ey
K yL y ry 2
= (Eq. C3.1.2.1-8)

 2 * 29500
= = 77.58378 ksi
48 0.78354842
1   2EC W 
t =  GJ   (Eq. C3.1.2.1-9)
Ar02  K tL t 2 

1  4  2 * 29500 * 1.560299
= 11300 * 6.24678 * 10  
0.5383608* 2.534562  482
2

= 59.05328 ksi

Sf = Ix/ (0.5D)
3
= 1.345668/ (0.5*4) = 0.6728339 in

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C b ro A
Fe =  ey  t (Eq. C3.1.2.1-5)
Sf

1 * 2.534562* 0.5383608
= 77.58378* 59.05328
0.6728339

= 137.2701 ksi > (2.78Fy = 91.74 ksi)

Fc = Fy (Eq. C3.1.2.1-2)

Since Fc = Fy, the section will not be subjected to lateral-torsional buckling.

4.1.4 Determination of the Allowable Flexural Strength (Mx-All) and Check


of Safety
Mx-all = Mx-Yielding

= 21.0933 kips.in.

Act/ All (span # 1) = 4.80/ 21.0933

= 0.2276 < 1.0  safe

Act/ All (span # 2) = 4.80/ 21.0933

= 0.2276 < 1.0  safe

Act/ All (span # 3) = 4.80/ 21.0933

= 0.2276 < 1.0  safe

4.2 Design for Shear (Vy)


The shear strength of the section (Vy-all) can be calculated in accordance with Section
(C3.2.1) in the 2001 specification as discussed in the following sections.

4.2.1 Calculation of the Nominal Shear Stress (Fv)


h = flat portion of the solid web

= D – 2(t + R)

= 4 – 2(0.059 + 0.1875) = 3.507 in

h/ t = 3.507/ 0.059 = 59.44068

Web is unreinforced  Kv = shear buckling coefficient = 5.34.

EK v Fy = 29500 * 5.34 33 = 69.091507

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(h/ t) < EK v Fy

Fv = nominal shear stress

= 0.6Fy (Eq. C3.2.1-2)

= 0.6 * 33 = 19.8 ksi

4.2.2 Calculation of the Shear Resisting Area (Aw)


Aw = area of the flat portion of the web

= ht
2
= 3.507 * 0.059 = 0.206913 in

4.2.3 Determination of the Allowable Shear Strength (Vy-All) and Check of


Safety
Vny = nominal shear strength of the section

= A wF v (Eq. C3.2.1-1)

= 0.206913 * 19.8 = 4.096877 Kips

Vy-all = vVny

= 0.95 * 4.096877 = 3.8920 kips

Act/ All (span # 1) = 0.20/ 3.8920

= 0.0514 < 1.0  safe

Act/ All (span # 2) = 0.20/ 3.8920

= 0.0514 < 1.0  safe

Act/ All (span # 3) = 0.20/ 3.8920

= 0.0514 < 1.0  safe

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4.3 Design for Web-Crippling (Py)
Web-crippling can be checked at the location of vertical reactions at supports (which are
identical) in accordance with Section (C3.4.1) in the 2001 specification as follows:

Pny = Nominal web crippling capacity

 R  N  h 
= Ct 2Fy Sin1  CR 1  CN 1  Ch (Eq. C3.4.1-1)
 t  t  t 

Py-all-IOF = strength of the section in web-crippling at support

= w-IOFPny-IOF

 R  N  h 
= Ct 2Fy Sin1  CR 1  CN 1  Ch  w IOF
 
t   
t   t 

Considering the flanges are fastened to support, and using Table C3.4.1-2 for C-Sections;

   
Py-all-IOF = 13 * 0.0592 * 33 * Sin901  0.23 0.1875 1  0.14 1.25 1  0.01 3.507  * 0.90
 0.059   
0.059  
0.059 

= 1.3371 * 0.90 = 1.2034 kips

Act/ All (span # 1) = 0.40/ 1.2034

= 0.3324 < 1.0  safe

Act/ All (span # 2) = 0.40/ 1.2034

= 0.3324 < 1.0  safe

Act/ All (span # 3) = 0.40/ 1.2034

= 0.3324 < 1.0  safe

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4.4 Combined (Mx) and (Vy)
The critical combined corresponding values of bending moment (M x) and shear force (Vy)
were found at the location of supports (which are identical), and can be checked in accordance
with Section (C3.3.2) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

2
 Mx 
2
 Vy 
Interaction =     must be ≤ 1.0 (Eq. C3.3.2-1)
2
 M    v Vny 
 b nxo   

2 2
 4.80   0.20 
=     = 0.2333 < 1.0  safe
 21.0933  3.8920 

Act/ All = 0.2333/ 1.0

= 0.2333 (for all spans)

4.5 Combined (Mx) and (Py)


The combined corresponding values of bending moment (M x) and crippling force (Py) at
support can be checked in accordance with Section (C3.5.2) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

 Py   M 
= 0.91  x  must be ≤ 1.33 3
Interaction (Eq. C3.5.2-1)
 Pny   Mnxo 

 

(Where  = 0.90)

 0.40   4.80 
Interaction = 0.91  
 1.3371  22.2035

= 0.4884 < 1.197  safe

Act/ All = 0.4884/ 1.197

= 0.4080 (for all spans)

2
Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
3
Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

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4.6 Lateral Deflection (act)
4.6.1 Lower Cantilever
all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 2 * 4 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum
absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection

= wind load intensity * stud spacing * wind load deflection factor)

= 0.13 in (from structural analysis) < all  safe

Act/ All = 0.13/ 0.267

= 0.487

4.6.2 Middle Span


all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 8 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum
absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection

= wind load intensity * stud spacing * wind load deflection factor)

= 0.019 in (from structural analysis) < all  safe

Act/ All = 0.019/ 0.267

= 0.071

4.6.3 Upper Cantilever


all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 2 * 4 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum
absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection

= wind load intensity * stud spacing * wind load deflection factor)

= 0.13 in (from structural analysis) < all  safe

Act/ All = 0.13/ 0.267

= 0.487

5 Conclusion
It is safe to use a single (4CS2X059, 33Ksi) section as a typical stud for this curtain wall.

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6 Verification of SteelSmart® System
6.1 Forces and Deflection Diagrams
6.1.1 Bending Moment Diagram (Kips.in.)

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6.1.2 Shear Force Diagram (Kips)

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6.1.3 Lateral Deflection Diagram (in.)

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6.2 Output
6.2.1 Span#1

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6.2.2 Span#2

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6.2.3 Span#3

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