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# Verification Samples

## Spandrel Curtain Wall

1 Objective
To check the safety of using a single (4CS2X059, 33Ksi) section as a Spandrel curtain-wall
typical member, given the following data:

The design is based on AISI-NASPEC 2001 with 2004 supplementary, using LRFD method.

## The bridging members are located @ 48 in o.c.

The lateral bracing spacing is considered equal to the bridging members spacing.

The torsional bracing spacing is considered equal to the bridging members spacing.

## The factor (Cb) = 1.0 for lateral-torsional buckling stress calculation.

The web-crippling check is considered, and the bearing length (N) = 1.25 in.

## The effect of the standard punch-out (4" X 1.5") is not considered.

The maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360, where (L) is the height of the supported span
and twice the cantilever height.

The absolute deflection at free end of parapet is considered for deflection check.

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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2 Modeling with SteelSmart® System

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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3 Statical System, Loads for Strength, and Forces

50.00

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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4 Safety Check
4.1 Design for Flexural Moment (Mx)
Figure 2 shows the cross-section elements with their corresponding labels.

1'

2'

## Figure 2 Elements of the Cross-Section and Their Numbering

The major flexural strength of the section (Mx-all) is the least of the flexural strength at the initiation
of the cross-section yielding and the strength for lateral-torsional buckling.

## 4.1.1 Flat Widths Calculation

Considering (D) the section depth, (B) the flange width, (C) the lip width, (t) the section
thickness, and (R) the inside bend radius of the section corners; the flat widths of the elements
subjected to compressive stresses can be calculated as follows (Figure 3):

W 1 = C – (t + R)

## = 0.867 – (0.059 + 0.1875) = 0.6205 in.

W 2 = B – 2(t + R)

## = 2 – 2(0.059 + 0.1875) = 1.507 in.

W 3 = D – 2(t + R)

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W
2

W
1

W
3

## 4.1.2 Initiation of Yielding (Section C3.1.1 in 2001 Specification)

(tension-compression) which has a value of (Fy) at the top fiber of the compression flange (Figure
4).

2 f F = 33 ksi
2 top
f and f
1-1 1-3
1
f
2-1

Mx
3 N.A.

Ycg0 = 2 in.

1' f
2-3

2'
F = Ftop = 33 ksi
bottom

Figure 4 Location of N.A., Stress Distribution, and Critical Stresses on the Fully Effective
Section for Initiation of Yielding

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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Iteration (1)

The section is assumed to be fully effective, i.e. the N.A. will be located at a distance from the
bottom fiber of the tension flange equal to half the section depth (Figure 4).

## 4.1.2.1.1 Element (1) and Element (2)

Element (1) is classified as an unstiffened element under stress gradient, thus, the
plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width of (W 1) is determined in
accordance with section B3.2 (a) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

## f1-1 = compression stress at the upper end of W 1, (Figure 4)

 D  Ycgo  t  R 
=   Fy
 D  Ycgo 
 

 4  2  0.059  0.1875 
=   * 33 = 28.93275 ksi
 42 

## f2-1 = compression stress at the lower end of W 1, (Figure 4)

 D  Ycgo  C 
=  F
 D  Ycgo  y
 

 4  2  0.867 
=   * 33 = 18.6945 ksi
 42 

 = f2-1/ f1-1
1
(Eq. B3.2-1)

= 0.6461363
1
K = 0.578/ ( + 0.34) (Eq. B3.2-2)

= 0.5861259

1
Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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The effective width of (W 1) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.1 (a) in the 2001
specification as follows:

2
 2E  t 
Fcr = K   (Eq. B2.1-5)
2 W 
12 (1   )  1 

2
 2 * 29500  0.059 
= 0.5861259*   = 141.2897 ksi
12 (1  0.3 2 )  0.6205 

f11
 = (Eq. B2.1-4)
Fcr

28.93275
= = 0.4525219 < 0.673
141.2897

##  d'1 = effective width of (W 1)

= W1 (Eq. B2.1-1)

## = 0.6205 in. (fully effective)

Element (2) is classified as a uniformly compressed element with an edge stiffener, thus, the
plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width of (W 2) is determined in
accordance with Section B4.2 (a) in the 2001 specification as follows:

## f2 = compression stress at the centerline of W 2

 4  2  0.5 * 0.059 
=   * 33 = 32.51325 ksi, (Figure 4)
 42 

## W 2/ t = 25.54237 > (0.328S = 12.646334)

3
W t 
Ia = 399t 4  2  0.328 (Eq. B4.2-10)
 S 

3
4  25.54237 
= 399 0.059   0.328 = 1.809162 * 10-4 in4
 38.5559 

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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 W t 
Ia-max = t 4 115 2  5 (Eq. B4.2-10)
 S 

4 25.54237 
= 0.059 115 *  5 = 9.837454 * 10 in > Ia
-4 4

 38.5559 

Is =
W1 3 t Sin2  (Eq. B4-2)
12

=
0.62053 * 0.059 * Sin2 90 -3
= 1.174616 * 10 in
4
12

Is
RI = (Eq. B4.2-9)
Ia

## = 6.492599 > 1.0  RI = 1.0

 W t
n = 0.582  2  (Eq. B4.2-11)
 4S 

 25.54237 
= 0.582   = 0.4163809 > (1/3)
 4 * 38.5559

C W2 = 0.867 1.507

## Using Table B4-2;

 
RI n  0.43
5C
K =  4.82 
 W2 

 5 * 0.867  0.4163809
=  4.82  1  0.43 = 2.373424 < 4.0
 1.507 

The effective width of (W 2) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.1 (a) in the 2001
specification as follows:-

2
 2E  t 
Fcr = K   (Eq. B2.1-5)
2 W
12 (1   )  2 

2
 2 * 29500  0.059 
= 2.373424*   = 96.9956 ksi
12 (1  0.3 2 )  1.507 

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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f2
 = (Eq. B2.1-4)
Fcr

32.51325
= = 0.5789675 < 0.673
96.9956

 b2 = effective width of (W 2)

= W2 (Eq. B2.1-1)

## Rem1 = removed width of (W 1) due to local buckling

= W 1 – d1

= 0.6205 – 0.6205 = 0

## Rem2 = removed width of (W 2) due to local buckling

= W 2 – b2

= 1.507 – 1.507 = 0

## Element (3) is classified as a stiffened element under stress gradient (tension-

compression), thus, the plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width
of (W 3) is determined in accordance with section B2.3 (a) in the 2001 specification as follows:

## f1-3 = compression stress at the upper end of W 3, (Figure 4)

 D  Ycgo  t  R 
=   Fy
 D  Ycgo 
 

 4  2  0.059  0.1875 
=   * 33 = 28.93275 ksi
 42 

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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f2-3 = tensile stress at the lower end of W 3, (Figure 4)

 Ycgo  t  R 
=   Fy
 D  Ycgo 
 

 2  0.0569 0.1875 
=    * 33 = -28.93275 ksi
 42 

## = - 28.93275 28.93275 = 1.0

= 4 + 2(1 + ) + 2(1 + )
3
K (Eq. B2.3-2)
3
= 4 + 2(1 + 1) + 2(1 + 1) = 24

The effective width of (W 3) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.3 (a) in the 2001
specification as follows:

2
 2E  t 
Fcr = K   (Eq. B2.1-5)
2 W 
12 (1   )  3 

2
 2 * 29500  0.059 
= 24 *   = 181.1102 ksi
12 (1  0.3 2 )  3.507 

f13
 = (Eq. B2.1-4)
Fcr

28.93275
= = 0.3996901 < 0.673
181.1102

## = D – Ycg0 – t – R = 1.7535 in. (fully effective)

Rem3 = 0

Remt = the total removed length of the section due to local buckling

=0+0+0=0

## Ae = effective area of the section

2
= Ag – (Remt * t) = 0.5383608 in (fully effective)

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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From the previous analysis, we can conclude that there is no need for additional iterations since
Ycg (final location of the neutral axis measured from the bottom fiber of the tension flange) will be
equal to Ycg0. The effective section modulus at initiation of yielding (Sxe) can be calculated as
follows:

Ixe = Ix
4
= 1.345668 in

## Sxe = Ixe/ (0.5D)

3
= 1.345668/ 2 = 0.6728339 in

## 4.1.2.2 Calculation of the flexural strength for Initiation of Yielding (Mx-Yielding)

Mnx-Yielding = SxeFy (Eq. C3.1.1-1)

## = 0.6728339 * 33 = 22.2035 kips.in.

Mx-Yielding = bMnx-Yielding

## 4.1.3.1 Calculation of the lateral-torsional buckling stress (Fc)

 2E
ey
K yL y ry 2
= (Eq. C3.1.2.1-8)

 2 * 29500
= = 77.58378 ksi
48 0.78354842
1   2EC W 
t =  GJ   (Eq. C3.1.2.1-9)
Ar02  K tL t 2 

1  4  2 * 29500 * 1.560299
= 11300 * 6.24678 * 10  
0.5383608* 2.534562  482
2

= 59.05328 ksi

Sf = Ix/ (0.5D)
3
= 1.345668/ (0.5*4) = 0.6728339 in

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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C b ro A
Fe =  ey  t (Eq. C3.1.2.1-5)
Sf

1 * 2.534562* 0.5383608
= 77.58378* 59.05328
0.6728339

## = 137.2701 ksi > (2.78Fy = 91.74 ksi)

Fc = Fy (Eq. C3.1.2.1-2)

## 4.1.4 Determination of the Allowable Flexural Strength (Mx-All) and Check

of Safety
Mx-all = Mx-Yielding

= 21.0933 kips.in.

## 4.2 Design for Shear (Vy)

The shear strength of the section (Vy-all) can be calculated in accordance with Section
(C3.2.1) in the 2001 specification as discussed in the following sections.

## 4.2.1 Calculation of the Nominal Shear Stress (Fv)

h = flat portion of the solid web

= D – 2(t + R)

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(h/ t) < EK v Fy

## 4.2.2 Calculation of the Shear Resisting Area (Aw)

Aw = area of the flat portion of the web

= ht
2
= 3.507 * 0.059 = 0.206913 in

## 4.2.3 Determination of the Allowable Shear Strength (Vy-All) and Check of

Safety
Vny = nominal shear strength of the section

= A wF v (Eq. C3.2.1-1)

Vy-all = vVny

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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4.3 Design for Web-Crippling (Py)
Web-crippling can be checked at the location of vertical reactions at supports (which are
identical) in accordance with Section (C3.4.1) in the 2001 specification as follows:

## Pny = Nominal web crippling capacity

 R  N  h 
= Ct 2Fy Sin1  CR 1  CN 1  Ch (Eq. C3.4.1-1)
 t  t  t 

## Py-all-IOF = strength of the section in web-crippling at support

= w-IOFPny-IOF

 R  N  h 
= Ct 2Fy Sin1  CR 1  CN 1  Ch  w IOF
 
t   
t   t 

Considering the flanges are fastened to support, and using Table C3.4.1-2 for C-Sections;

   
Py-all-IOF = 13 * 0.0592 * 33 * Sin901  0.23 0.1875 1  0.14 1.25 1  0.01 3.507  * 0.90
 0.059   
0.059  
0.059 

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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4.4 Combined (Mx) and (Vy)
The critical combined corresponding values of bending moment (M x) and shear force (Vy)
were found at the location of supports (which are identical), and can be checked in accordance
with Section (C3.3.2) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

2
 Mx 
2
 Vy 
Interaction =     must be ≤ 1.0 (Eq. C3.3.2-1)
2
 M    v Vny 
 b nxo   

2 2
 4.80   0.20 
=     = 0.2333 < 1.0  safe
 21.0933  3.8920 

## 4.5 Combined (Mx) and (Py)

The combined corresponding values of bending moment (M x) and crippling force (Py) at
support can be checked in accordance with Section (C3.5.2) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

 Py   M 
= 0.91  x  must be ≤ 1.33 3
Interaction (Eq. C3.5.2-1)
 Pny   Mnxo 

 

(Where  = 0.90)

 0.40   4.80 
Interaction = 0.91  
 1.3371  22.2035

## = 0.4080 (for all spans)

2
Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
3
Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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4.6 Lateral Deflection (act)
4.6.1 Lower Cantilever
all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 2 * 4 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum
absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection

= 0.487

## 4.6.2 Middle Span

all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 8 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum
absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection

= 0.071

## 4.6.3 Upper Cantilever

all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 2 * 4 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum
absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection

## Act/ All = 0.13/ 0.267

= 0.487

5 Conclusion
It is safe to use a single (4CS2X059, 33Ksi) section as a typical stud for this curtain wall.

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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6 Verification of SteelSmart® System
6.1 Forces and Deflection Diagrams
6.1.1 Bending Moment Diagram (Kips.in.)

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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6.1.2 Shear Force Diagram (Kips)

## Spandrel Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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6.1.3 Lateral Deflection Diagram (in.)

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6.2 Output
6.2.1 Span#1

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6.2.2 Span#2

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6.2.3 Span#3

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