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You are on page 1of 22

1 Objective

To check the safety of using a single (4CS2X059, 33Ksi) section as a Spandrel curtain-wall

typical member, given the following data:

The design is based on AISI-NASPEC 2001 with 2004 supplementary, using LRFD method.

The lateral bracing spacing is considered equal to the bridging members spacing.

The torsional bracing spacing is considered equal to the bridging members spacing.

The web-crippling check is considered, and the bearing length (N) = 1.25 in.

The maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360, where (L) is the height of the supported span

and twice the cantilever height.

The absolute deflection at free end of parapet is considered for deflection check.

Page 1 of 22

2 Modeling with SteelSmart® System

Page 2 of 22

3 Statical System, Loads for Strength, and Forces

50.00

Page 3 of 22

4 Safety Check

4.1 Design for Flexural Moment (Mx)

Figure 2 shows the cross-section elements with their corresponding labels.

1'

2'

The major flexural strength of the section (Mx-all) is the least of the flexural strength at the initiation

of the cross-section yielding and the strength for lateral-torsional buckling.

Considering (D) the section depth, (B) the flange width, (C) the lip width, (t) the section

thickness, and (R) the inside bend radius of the section corners; the flat widths of the elements

subjected to compressive stresses can be calculated as follows (Figure 3):

W 1 = C – (t + R)

W 2 = B – 2(t + R)

W 3 = D – 2(t + R)

Page 4 of 22

W

2

W

1

W

3

The effective properties are calculated by loading the section by a stress gradient

(tension-compression) which has a value of (Fy) at the top fiber of the compression flange (Figure

4).

2 f F = 33 ksi

2 top

f and f

1-1 1-3

1

f

2-1

Mx

3 N.A.

Ycg0 = 2 in.

1' f

2-3

2'

F = Ftop = 33 ksi

bottom

Figure 4 Location of N.A., Stress Distribution, and Critical Stresses on the Fully Effective

Section for Initiation of Yielding

Page 5 of 22

Iteration (1)

The section is assumed to be fully effective, i.e. the N.A. will be located at a distance from the

bottom fiber of the tension flange equal to half the section depth (Figure 4).

Element (1) is classified as an unstiffened element under stress gradient, thus, the

plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width of (W 1) is determined in

accordance with section B3.2 (a) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

D Ycgo t R

= Fy

D Ycgo

4 2 0.059 0.1875

= * 33 = 28.93275 ksi

42

D Ycgo C

= F

D Ycgo y

4 2 0.867

= * 33 = 18.6945 ksi

42

= f2-1/ f1-1

1

(Eq. B3.2-1)

= 0.6461363

1

K = 0.578/ ( + 0.34) (Eq. B3.2-2)

= 0.5861259

1

Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

Page 6 of 22

The effective width of (W 1) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.1 (a) in the 2001

specification as follows:

2

2E t

Fcr = K (Eq. B2.1-5)

2 W

12 (1 ) 1

2

2 * 29500 0.059

= 0.5861259* = 141.2897 ksi

12 (1 0.3 2 ) 0.6205

f11

= (Eq. B2.1-4)

Fcr

28.93275

= = 0.4525219 < 0.673

141.2897

= W1 (Eq. B2.1-1)

Element (2) is classified as a uniformly compressed element with an edge stiffener, thus, the

plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width of (W 2) is determined in

accordance with Section B4.2 (a) in the 2001 specification as follows:

4 2 0.5 * 0.059

= * 33 = 32.51325 ksi, (Figure 4)

42

3

W t

Ia = 399t 4 2 0.328 (Eq. B4.2-10)

S

3

4 25.54237

= 399 0.059 0.328 = 1.809162 * 10-4 in4

38.5559

Page 7 of 22

W t

Ia-max = t 4 115 2 5 (Eq. B4.2-10)

S

4 25.54237

= 0.059 115 * 5 = 9.837454 * 10 in > Ia

-4 4

38.5559

Is =

W1 3 t Sin2 (Eq. B4-2)

12

=

0.62053 * 0.059 * Sin2 90 -3

= 1.174616 * 10 in

4

12

Is

RI = (Eq. B4.2-9)

Ia

W t

n = 0.582 2 (Eq. B4.2-11)

4S

25.54237

= 0.582 = 0.4163809 > (1/3)

4 * 38.5559

C W2 = 0.867 1.507

RI n 0.43

5C

K = 4.82

W2

5 * 0.867 0.4163809

= 4.82 1 0.43 = 2.373424 < 4.0

1.507

The effective width of (W 2) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.1 (a) in the 2001

specification as follows:-

2

2E t

Fcr = K (Eq. B2.1-5)

2 W

12 (1 ) 2

2

2 * 29500 0.059

= 2.373424* = 96.9956 ksi

12 (1 0.3 2 ) 1.507

Page 8 of 22

f2

= (Eq. B2.1-4)

Fcr

32.51325

= = 0.5789675 < 0.673

96.9956

b2 = effective width of (W 2)

= W2 (Eq. B2.1-1)

= W 1 – d1

= 0.6205 – 0.6205 = 0

= W 2 – b2

= 1.507 – 1.507 = 0

compression), thus, the plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width

of (W 3) is determined in accordance with section B2.3 (a) in the 2001 specification as follows:

D Ycgo t R

= Fy

D Ycgo

4 2 0.059 0.1875

= * 33 = 28.93275 ksi

42

Page 9 of 22

f2-3 = tensile stress at the lower end of W 3, (Figure 4)

Ycgo t R

= Fy

D Ycgo

2 0.0569 0.1875

= * 33 = -28.93275 ksi

42

= 4 + 2(1 + ) + 2(1 + )

3

K (Eq. B2.3-2)

3

= 4 + 2(1 + 1) + 2(1 + 1) = 24

The effective width of (W 3) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.3 (a) in the 2001

specification as follows:

2

2E t

Fcr = K (Eq. B2.1-5)

2 W

12 (1 ) 3

2

2 * 29500 0.059

= 24 * = 181.1102 ksi

12 (1 0.3 2 ) 3.507

f13

= (Eq. B2.1-4)

Fcr

28.93275

= = 0.3996901 < 0.673

181.1102

Rem3 = 0

Remt = the total removed length of the section due to local buckling

=0+0+0=0

2

= Ag – (Remt * t) = 0.5383608 in (fully effective)

Page 10 of 22

From the previous analysis, we can conclude that there is no need for additional iterations since

Ycg (final location of the neutral axis measured from the bottom fiber of the tension flange) will be

equal to Ycg0. The effective section modulus at initiation of yielding (Sxe) can be calculated as

follows:

Ixe = Ix

4

= 1.345668 in

3

= 1.345668/ 2 = 0.6728339 in

Mnx-Yielding = SxeFy (Eq. C3.1.1-1)

Mx-Yielding = bMnx-Yielding

2E

ey

K yL y ry 2

= (Eq. C3.1.2.1-8)

2 * 29500

= = 77.58378 ksi

48 0.78354842

1 2EC W

t = GJ (Eq. C3.1.2.1-9)

Ar02 K tL t 2

1 4 2 * 29500 * 1.560299

= 11300 * 6.24678 * 10

0.5383608* 2.534562 482

2

= 59.05328 ksi

Sf = Ix/ (0.5D)

3

= 1.345668/ (0.5*4) = 0.6728339 in

Page 11 of 22

C b ro A

Fe = ey t (Eq. C3.1.2.1-5)

Sf

1 * 2.534562* 0.5383608

= 77.58378* 59.05328

0.6728339

Fc = Fy (Eq. C3.1.2.1-2)

of Safety

Mx-all = Mx-Yielding

= 21.0933 kips.in.

The shear strength of the section (Vy-all) can be calculated in accordance with Section

(C3.2.1) in the 2001 specification as discussed in the following sections.

h = flat portion of the solid web

= D – 2(t + R)

Page 12 of 22

(h/ t) < EK v Fy

Aw = area of the flat portion of the web

= ht

2

= 3.507 * 0.059 = 0.206913 in

Safety

Vny = nominal shear strength of the section

= A wF v (Eq. C3.2.1-1)

Vy-all = vVny

Page 13 of 22

4.3 Design for Web-Crippling (Py)

Web-crippling can be checked at the location of vertical reactions at supports (which are

identical) in accordance with Section (C3.4.1) in the 2001 specification as follows:

R N h

= Ct 2Fy Sin1 CR 1 CN 1 Ch (Eq. C3.4.1-1)

t t t

= w-IOFPny-IOF

R N h

= Ct 2Fy Sin1 CR 1 CN 1 Ch w IOF

t

t t

Considering the flanges are fastened to support, and using Table C3.4.1-2 for C-Sections;

Py-all-IOF = 13 * 0.0592 * 33 * Sin901 0.23 0.1875 1 0.14 1.25 1 0.01 3.507 * 0.90

0.059

0.059

0.059

Page 14 of 22

4.4 Combined (Mx) and (Vy)

The critical combined corresponding values of bending moment (M x) and shear force (Vy)

were found at the location of supports (which are identical), and can be checked in accordance

with Section (C3.3.2) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

2

Mx

2

Vy

Interaction = must be ≤ 1.0 (Eq. C3.3.2-1)

2

M v Vny

b nxo

2 2

4.80 0.20

= = 0.2333 < 1.0 safe

21.0933 3.8920

The combined corresponding values of bending moment (M x) and crippling force (Py) at

support can be checked in accordance with Section (C3.5.2) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

Py M

= 0.91 x must be ≤ 1.33 3

Interaction (Eq. C3.5.2-1)

Pny Mnxo

(Where = 0.90)

0.40 4.80

Interaction = 0.91

1.3371 22.2035

2

Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

3

Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

Page 15 of 22

4.6 Lateral Deflection (act)

4.6.1 Lower Cantilever

all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 2 * 4 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum

absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection

= 0.487

all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 8 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum

absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection

= 0.071

all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 2 * 4 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum

absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection

= 0.487

5 Conclusion

It is safe to use a single (4CS2X059, 33Ksi) section as a typical stud for this curtain wall.

Page 16 of 22

6 Verification of SteelSmart® System

6.1 Forces and Deflection Diagrams

6.1.1 Bending Moment Diagram (Kips.in.)

Page 17 of 22

6.1.2 Shear Force Diagram (Kips)

Page 18 of 22

6.1.3 Lateral Deflection Diagram (in.)

Page 19 of 22

6.2 Output

6.2.1 Span#1

Page 20 of 22

6.2.2 Span#2

Page 21 of 22

6.2.3 Span#3

Page 22 of 22

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