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# Hindawi Publishing Corporation

## Mathematical Problems in Engineering

Volume 2013, Article ID 159027, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/159027

Research Article
NURBS-Based Isogeometric Analysis of Beams and Plates
Using High Order Shear Deformation Theory

## Xinkang Li, Jifa Zhang, and Yao Zheng

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

## Academic Editor: Song Cen

Copyright © 2013 Xinkang Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Isogeometric analysis (IGA) based on nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) is developed for static analysis of beams and plates
using the third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT). TSDT requires C1 -continuity of generalized displacements; quadratic,
cubic, and quartic NURBS basis functions are utilized to satisfy this requirement. Due to the noninterpolatory nature of NURBS
basis functions, a penalty method is presented to enforce the essential boundary conditions. A series of numerical examples of thick
and thin beams and plates with different boundary conditions are presented. Results are compared with analytical solutions and
other numerical methods. First-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is also employed and compared with TSDT in the stress
analysis. The effects of aspect ratios and boundary conditions are discussed as well.

## 1. Introduction To overcome the limitations of FSDT, a more accurate

high order shear deformation theory, especially for thick
Various kinds of beams and plates have become the most beams and plates, termed the third-order shear deformation
significant applications in modern industries, which makes theory (TSDT) is proposed and widely used [6, 7]. TSDT
their analysis very important. However, theoretical analyses matches the actual situation better, so the shear correction
of complicated shapes of beams and plates are usually factors do not need to be calculated, and more accurate trans-
very difficult. Therefore, numerical techniques such as finite verse shear stresses can be yield. However, TSDT requires C1 -
element method (FEM) have been developed and achieved continuity of generalized displacements, which is not an easy
remarkable success in the analyses of beams and plates. task to achieve in FEM. To overcome this difficulty, several
Based on different assumptions for displacement fields, methods including some mesh-free approaches have been
several theories for the analysis of beams and plates have used, for example, the moving least-squares (MLS) method
been developed. The Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and the [8] and the radial point interpolation method (RPIM) [9]. In
Kirchhoff plate theory [1], which both can be regarded as this paper, we demonstrate that such a C1 -TSDT formulation
fourth-order problems [2], can be applied if beams and plates can be conveniently achieved by using NURBS-based isoge-
are thin because transverse shear stresses are not considered. ometric analysis.
The first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) which Isogeometric analysis (IGA) was first proposed by
accounts for transverse shear effects [3, 4] can be applied for Hughes and coworkers [10, 11]; the basic idea is that basis
both moderately thick and thin beams and plates. However, functions, usually NURBS basis functions, which accurately
in FSDT, the transverse shear strain is assumed to be constant represent the geometry, are directly used as the interpolation
along the thickness direction, and thus a shear correction functions of the unknown field variables. Thus, one of its
factor (SCF) has to be considered. The SCF depends on many advantages over FEM is that it can provide an accurate
factors, such as material coefficients, stacking scheme, plate geometry during analysis process. Mesh refinement, that is, ℎ-
geometry and boundary conditions; therefore, the evaluation refinement of knot insertion, 𝑝-refinement of order elevation,
of the SCF remains a subject of research [5]. and the unique 𝑘-refinement of increasing the continuity of
2 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

basis functions can be simply accomplished by reindexing the If each B-spline basis function 𝑁𝑖,𝑝 (𝜉) is given a weight 𝜔𝑖 ,
parametric space without interaction with the CAD system. 𝑝
respectively, NURBS basis function 𝑅𝑖 (𝜉) then can be defined
This offers a possibility to build high order continuity basis as
functions and closes the existing gap between Computer
Aided Design (CAD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). 𝑝 𝑁𝑖,𝑝 (𝜉) 𝜔𝑖 𝑁𝑖,𝑝 (𝜉) 𝜔𝑖
Since the pioneer work of Hughes et al. described above, 𝑅𝑖 (𝜉) = = . (4)
𝑊 (𝜉) ∑̂𝑛𝑖=1 𝑁̂𝑖,𝑝 (𝜉) 𝜔̂𝑖
IGA has been widely applied to various engineering problems
[12–17]. In the field of plate analysis employing NURBS-
based IGA, Shojaee et al. [18] conducted the analysis of thin A NURBS curve can be constructed by using NURBS
𝑝
composite laminates based on the Kirchhoff plate theory; basis functions 𝑅𝑖 (𝜉) and control points P𝑖 :
Thai et al. [19] performed the analysis of composite laminates
𝑛
using FSDT; Tran et al. [20] first studied the behavior of 𝑝
functionally graded material plates based on TSDT. However, C (𝜉) = ∑𝑅𝑖 (𝜉) P𝑖 . (5)
𝑖=1
numerical examples of these previous researches usually con-
fined themselves into a small limit range of plate thickness, Given two knot vectors Ξ = {𝜉1 , 𝜉2 , . . . , 𝜉𝑛+𝑝+1 }, H =
and the effects of TSDT on the analysis of beams have not {𝜂1 , 𝜂2 , . . . , 𝜂𝑚+𝑞+1 } and control points P𝑖,𝑗 , a NURBS surface
been discussed yet. is defined as
This paper focuses on the NURBS-based isogeometric
approach on static analysis of beams and plates by using 𝑛 𝑚
𝑝,𝑞
TSDT. Different from the previous researches, primary S (𝜉, 𝜂) = ∑∑ 𝑅𝑖,𝑗 (𝜉, 𝜂) P𝑖,𝑗 , (6)
focuses are placed on exploring the advantages of the present 𝑖=1 𝑗=1
method in the analysis of extremely thin and thick beams and
𝑝,𝑞
plates in a wide range of aspect ratios and also in the inner where 𝑅𝑖,𝑗 (𝜉, 𝜂) is the tensor product of NURBS basis
stresses analysis. The remainder of the paper is organized functions in two parametric dimensions 𝜉 and 𝜂:
as follows: first, B-splines, NURBS, and NURBS-based IGA
are introduced in Section 2; according to TSDT, isogeomet- 𝑁𝑖,𝑝 (𝜉) 𝑀𝑗,𝑞 (𝜂) 𝜔𝑖,𝑗
𝑝,𝑞
ric formulations for both isotropic beams and plates are 𝑅𝑖,𝑗 (𝜉, 𝜂) = . (7)
derived in Section 3; Section 4 presents a series of numerical ∑̂𝑛𝑖=1 ∑𝑚
̂ 𝑁̂𝑖,𝑝 (𝜉) 𝑀𝑗,𝑞
𝑗=1 ̂ (𝜂) 𝜔̂𝑖,𝑗̂
examples of beams and plates with various geometries under
different boundary conditions, and numerical results are 2.2. NURBS-Based IGA. IGA utilizes the concept of isopara-
compared with analytical solutions and those available data metric, which refers to the use of the same basis functions for
obtained by other numerical methods; and finally, some both geometry and unknown field discretization:
concluding remarks are given in Section 5.

𝑛
2. B-Splines, NURBS, and NURBS-Based IGA x = ∑Φ𝑖 (𝜉) P𝑖 , (8a)
𝑖=1
2.1. B-Splines and NURBS. Consider a parametric space 𝜉 ∈
[0, 1]; a knot vector Ξ is defined as 𝑛
uℎ (x) = ∑Φ𝑖 (𝜉) u𝑖 . (8b)
Ξ = {𝜉1 , 𝜉2 , . . . , 𝜉𝑛+𝑝+1 } , (1) 𝑖=1

## where 𝑝 is the order of the B-spline and 𝑛 is the number of

Equation (8a) shows the mapping from the parametric
basis functions (control points) necessary to describe it. A
space to the physical space, where 𝜉 is the parametric coor-
knot vector is said to be open if its first and last knots are
dinate, x is the physical coordinate, Φ𝑖 is the basis function
repeated (𝑝 + 1) times [21]. Open knot vectors are standard
and P𝑖 is control point in IGA or node in FEM. Equation (8b)
in the CAD literature. Unless otherwise stated, open knot
indicates that in an isoparametric formulation, the unknown
vectors are always used.
field is approximated by the same shape functions used
With the given knot vector Ξ, the univariate B-spline basis
in constructing the geometry. u𝑖 denotes the value of the
functions can be constructed by the Cox-de Boor recursion
formula [11]: unknown field at control point or node P𝑖 , and uℎ is the
approximate field value.
{0 if 𝜉𝑖 ≤ 𝜉 < 𝜉𝑖+1 , In FEM, basis functions chosen to approximate the
𝑁𝑖,0 (𝜉) = { for 𝑝 = 0, (2) unknown field are then used to approximate the known
{1 otherwise, geometry. In most cases, these basis functions are Lagrange
interpolation functions, which makes geometries only
𝜉 − 𝜉𝑖 approximated. However, in IGA, NURBS basis functions
𝑁𝑖,𝑝 (𝜉) = 𝑁 (𝜉)
𝜉𝑖+𝑝 − 𝜉𝑖 𝑖,𝑝−1 are first chosen to exactly capture the geometry and then be
(3) used to approximate the unknown field. Thus, the geometry
𝜉𝑖+𝑝+1 − 𝜉 can keep exact at the very beginning and during the mesh
+ 𝑁𝑖+1,𝑝−1 (𝜉) , for 𝑝 ≥ 1.
𝜉𝑖+𝑝+1 − 𝜉𝑖+1 refinement process.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 3

3. Isogeometric Formulations for Beams and The global force matrix F is defined as
Plates Based on TSDT
F = ∫ 𝑝Φ𝐼 𝑑𝐿, (16)
3.1. Isogeometric Formulation for Beams. The displacement 𝐿
field of a beam based on TSDT [7] is
when there is only transverse uniform pressure applied all
4𝑧3 𝜕𝑤 along the beam.
𝑢 (𝑥, 𝑧) = 𝑢0 (𝑥) + 𝑧𝜃 (𝑥) − 2 (𝜃 + ),
3ℎ 𝜕𝑥 (9)
3.2. Isogeometric Formulation for Plates. The displacement
𝑤 (𝑥, 𝑧) = 𝑤0 , field of a plate based on TSDT is as follows [7]:
where 𝑢0 and 𝑤0 are, respectively, the axial and transverse
displacements of a point on the beam reference plane; 𝜃 4𝑧3 𝜕𝑤
𝑢 = 𝑢0 + 𝑧𝜑𝑥 − (𝜑𝑥 + ),
denotes the rotation of the cross section about 𝑦 axis, and ℎ 3ℎ2 𝜕𝑥
is beam thickness.
4𝑧3 𝜕𝑤 (17)
The linear strains with respect to the displacement field V = V0 + 𝑧𝜑𝑦 − 2
(𝜑𝑦 + ),
are 3ℎ 𝜕𝑦

𝜕𝑢 𝑤 = 𝑤0 ,
{
{ }
}
𝜀𝑥𝑥
{ } = { 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑤 }
𝜀𝑥𝑧 { } where (𝑢0 , V0 , 𝑤0 ) are the displacements of a point on the plate
+
{ 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 } reference plane; (𝜑𝑥 , 𝜑𝑦 ) are the rotations of the normal to the
reference plane with respect to 𝑦- and 𝑥-axes, respectively; ℎ
(10)
𝜕𝑢0 𝑧𝜕𝜃 4𝑧3 𝜕𝜃 𝜕2 𝑤 } is the plate thickness.
{
{ }
{ 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑥 − 3ℎ2 ( 𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑥2 )}
{ } When applying TSDT theory to plates, five degrees of
={ 2 } . freedom, 𝑤, 𝜑𝑥 , 𝜑𝑦 , 𝑢0 , and V0 are considered. The linear
{
{ 4𝑧 𝜕𝑤 }
}
{ (1 − 2 ) (𝜃 + ) } strains with respect to the displacement field are
{ ℎ 𝜕𝑥 }
T
When applying TSDT theory to beams, three degrees of [𝜀𝑥𝑥 𝜀𝑦𝑦 𝜀𝑥𝑦 𝜀𝑥𝑧 𝜀𝑦𝑧 ]
freedom, 𝑤, 𝜃, and 𝑢0 , are considered. Equation (11) can then
𝜕𝑢 𝜕V 𝜕𝑢 𝜕V 𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑤 𝜕V 𝜕𝑤 T
be transformed into the following form: =[ + + + ] = Lu,
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦
4𝑧3 𝜕2 4𝑧3 𝜕 𝜕
[ − (𝑧 − ) ]
𝜀 [ 3ℎ2 𝜕𝑥2 3ℎ2 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 ] (18)
{ 𝑥𝑥 } = [ ]
𝜀𝑥𝑧 [ 4𝑧2 𝜕 4𝑧2 ]
(1 − 2 ) 1− 2 0 where u = [𝑤 𝜑𝑥 𝜑𝑦 𝑢0 V0 ]T and the differential oper-
[ ℎ 𝜕𝑥 ℎ ] (11)
ator matrix L is
{𝑤} 4𝑧3 𝜕2 4𝑧3 𝜕 𝜕
× { 𝜃 } = Lu, − (𝑧 − ) 0 0
[ 3ℎ2 𝜕𝑥2 3ℎ2 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 ]
{𝑢0 } [
[ 4𝑧3 𝜕2 4𝑧 3
𝜕
]
𝜕 ]
[ − 2 0 (𝑧 − 2 ) 0 ]
where L is the differential operator matrix. [ 3ℎ 𝜕𝑦2 3ℎ 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 ]
[ ]
Static discrete equation is as follows: [ 8𝑧3 𝜕2 4𝑧3 𝜕 4𝑧3 𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 ]
[ − 2 (𝑧 − 2 ) (𝑧 − 2 ) ]
L=[
[ 3ℎ
𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦 3ℎ 𝜕𝑦 3ℎ 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 ].
]
KU = F. (12) [ 2
4𝑧2 ]
[(1 − 4𝑧 ) 𝜕 1 − 0 0 0 ]
[ ℎ 2 𝜕𝑥 ℎ 2 ]
The global stiffness matrix K is defined as [ ]
[ 2 2 ]
[(1 − 4𝑧 ) 𝜕 4𝑧 ]
[ ℎ 2 𝜕𝑦
0 1− 2

0 0 ]
K𝐼𝐽 = ∫ BT𝐼 DB𝐽 𝑑𝐿, (13)
𝐿 [ ]
(19)
in which
The discretization method of plate displacement field is
B𝐼 = LΦ𝐼 , (14) similar to that of beams. Static discrete equation is as follows:
where Φ𝐼 are the NURBS basis functions. KU = F. (20)
D is a matrix of material constants:
𝐸 0 The global stiffness matrix K is defined as
D=[ ]. (15)
0 𝐺
K𝐼𝐽 = ∫ BT𝐼 DB𝐽 𝑑Ω, (21)
𝐸 is elastic modulus, and 𝐺 is shear modulus. Ω
4 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

## in which where the differential operator matrix L𝑏 is

B𝐼 = LΦ𝐼 . (22) 1 0 0 0 0
[ 0 𝑛𝑥 𝑛𝑦 0]0
D is a matrix of material constants: [ ]
[ 0 −𝑛𝑦 𝑛𝑥 0]0
𝐸 [ ]
L𝑏 = [ 0 0 0 0]1. (28)
D= [ ]
1 − ]2 [ 0 0 0 1]0
[ ]
𝜕
1 ] 0 0 0 [ 𝜕𝑛 0 0 0 0]
[] 1 0 0 0 ]
[ (1 − ]) ]
[ ] (23) By imposing essential boundary conditions using penalty
[0 0 0 0 ]
×[
[ 2 ].
] method, the final static discrete equation is as follows:
[0 (1 − ])
[ 0 0 0 ] ]
[ 2 ] ̃ U = F.
(K + K) (29)
(1 − ])
0 0 0 0
[ 2 ] ̃ is obtained by using
Matrix K
𝐸 is elastic modulus, and ] is poisson ratio.
The global force matrix F is defined as ̃ = ∫ ΨT 𝛼Ψ𝐽 𝑑Γ,
K (30)
𝐼
Γ𝑏

Ω

## if there is only transverse uniform pressure applied all over Ψ 𝐼 = L𝑏 Φ 𝐼 . (31)

the plate.
𝛼 is a diagonal matrix of the penalty parameter. In this
3.3. Impose Essential Boundary Conditions in IGA. Similar to paper, the penalty parameter is set to 104 𝐸, where 𝐸 is elastic
the moving least square (MLS) or reproducing kernel (RK) modulus [22].
mesh-free shape functions, NURBS basis functions generally
do not satisfy the Kronecker-Delta property. Special treat- 4. Numerical Examples
ments of essential boundary conditions have to be employed
taking the ideas in MLS/RK-based mesh-free method. Tech- In this section, static behaviors of isotropic beams and plates
niques available include Lagrange multiplier method [18], are studied based on the TSDT. Unless otherwise stated, the
penalty method [22, 23], and Nitsche’s method [24, 25]. It material used in the numerical examples is isotropic with
is worth noting that the MLS/RK shape functions associated elastic modulus 𝐸 = 104 MPa and poisson ratio V = 0.3.
with the interior nodes may also cover the boundary nodes Numerical results are obtained using full (𝑝 + 1) Gauss
with nonzero measures; however, by using the open knot integration points in beam analysis or (𝑝 + 1) × (𝑞 + 1) Gauss
vectors, NURBS basis functions associated with the interior integration points in plate analysis, where 𝑝 and 𝑞 are the
control points vanish at the boundary, thus the NURBS orders of the NURBS basis functions in parametric directions
control points can be clearly partitioned into boundary and 𝜉 and 𝜂, respectively.
interior groups, which makes the treatments of essential
boundary conditions in isogeometric analysis much easier 4.1. Beams under a Uniform Pressure. A simply supported-
than in mesh-free method [25]. simply supported (SS) and a clamped-free (CF) beam sub-
In this paper, we use penalty method to impose boundary jected to a uniform pressure 𝑃 = −1 N is considered. The
conditions. length of the beam is 𝐿 = 1 m and thickness ℎ = 0.1 m.
Take a clamped boundary of a plate for example. The Boundary conditions are, respectively,
boundary conditions are
𝑤 = 0, 𝑢0 = 0 (32)
𝑤 = 0, 𝑢0 = 0, V0 = 0,
(25) for a simply supported end and
𝜕𝑤
𝜑n = 0, 𝜑s = 0, = 0, 𝜕𝑤
𝜕n 𝑤 = 0, 𝑢0 = 0, 𝜃 = 0, = 0, (33)
𝜕n
where n = (𝑛𝑥 , 𝑛𝑦 ) is the unit vector normal to the essential
boundary and s is the unit vector perpendicular to n. 𝜑n and for a clamped end. Penalty method proposed in Section 3.3 is
𝜑s can be decomposed into the following equations: used to impose boundary conditions.
Two types of numerical analyses are conducted, one is
𝜑n = 𝑛𝑥 𝜑𝑥 + 𝑛𝑦 𝜑𝑦 , 𝜑s = 𝑛𝑥 𝜑𝑦 − 𝑛𝑦 𝜑𝑥 . (26) IGA based on TSDT with quadratic NURBS basis functions;
Then, (26) can be changed into the other is FEA based on FSDT with quadratic Lagrange
interpolation functions. Both of these two analyses utilize ten
𝜕𝑤 T uniform elements and no special treatment such as reduced
[𝑤 𝜑n 𝜑s 𝑢0 V0 ] = L𝑏 u = 0, (27) integration method is used.
𝜕n
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 5

Figure 1 shows the comparison of numerical results with Table 1: Normalized tip displacements for extreme thickness can-
their corresponding exact solutions [26] for a SS beam and tilever beams under uniform pressure modeled with 10 NURBS
CF beam, respectively. It can be seen that with the same basis elements.
function order and number of elements, IGA based on TSDT Order of basis Very thick beam Very thin beam
can get more accurate results than FEA based on FSDT. It can functions (aspect ratio = 4.0) (aspect ratio = 100000)
also be noted that under the same basis function order and Quadratic 0.9954 0.6599
number of elements, FEA needs more nodes to represent the
Cubic 0.9976 0.8899
geometry than the control points needed in IGA.
Quartic 0.9981 0.9980
4.2. Beams at Extreme Thickness Situations. A test is per-
formed to confirm the capability of the present method for
Quadratic, cubic, and quartic NURBS basis functions
analysis of both extremely deep and extremely thin beams
are considered. The cubic and quartic cases are obtained
[27]. Two cantilever beams under a uniform pressure are
from the quadratic case by 𝑘-refinement, which is relatively
studied, one very deep with an aspect ratio of 4.0, and the
easy in IGA. Control points and physical mesh of a 10 ×
other extremely thin with an aspect ratio of 100000. Nor-
10 uniform meshed circular modeled by quadratic NURBS
malized tip displacements [1] of these two cantilever beams
basis functions are shown in Figure 3. Geometry can keep
modeled with different orders of NURBS basis functions are
precise at the very beginning and during the mesh refinement
presented in Table 1. For deep beams, even quadratic NURBS
process.
basis functions can get accurate results, as shear locking is not
The deflection shapes of both simply supported and
playing an important role when the beams are deep. However,
clamped plates with aspect ratio 100 are plotted in Figure 4.
for thin beams, NURBS elements modeled with low order
Center displacements obtained from different orders of
basis functions suffer from shear locking, and with the order
NURBS basis functions are normalized by analytical thin-
increases, shear locking is alleviated.
plate solutions [28]; the results are plotted against aspect
ratios in Figure 5 for simply supported and clamped bound-
4.3. Square Plate under a Uniform Pressure. We consider ary conditions, respectively.
a square plate with length 𝐿 = 1 m and subjected to a For both boundary conditions, at a small aspect ratio of
uniform load 𝑃 = −1 N. Both simply supported and clamped 10, that is, the plate is relatively thick, numerical results are
boundary conditions are analyzed. a little larger compared to analytical ones because analytical
For simply supported plate, the boundary conditions are solutions are based on Kirchhoff assumption of thin plates;
𝑤 = 0, 𝑢0 = 0, V0 = 0, 𝜑s = 0. (34) however, basis functions with different orders can produce
almost the same results. When the aspect ratio is larger than
Penalty method proposed in Section 3.3 is utilized to 100, NURBS elements modeled with low order basis functions
impose essential boundary conditions. suffer from shear locking, and cannot produce precise results.
A series of moderately thin square plates with aspect With the order increases, shear locking can be significantly
ratio of 1000 are examined to observe the convergence alleviated. It is worth noting that in comparison to simply
characteristics of IGA employing various densities of physical supported circular plates, the clamped circular plates are
meshes. Quadratic, cubic and quartic NURBS basis functions much easier to be shear locked for thin plates of same aspect
are considered. In Figure 2, center displacements obtained ratio.
from different orders of basis functions are normalized with
the corresponding analytical Kirchhoff plate solutions [28]; 4.5. Stress Analysis of Beams and Plates. In order to investi-
the results are plotted versus the number of elements per gate the suitability of the present method for the simulation
side of the plates for simply supported and clamped plates, of inner stresses, stress analysis for both beams and plates is
respectively. Convergence curves indicate that shear locking conducted in this section.
phenomenon is more obvious in clamped plates than in First a simply supported-simply supported (SS) beam
simply supported plates, and it can be improved during ℎ- subjected to a uniform pressure 𝑃 = −1 N are considered. The
refinement process. It can also be noted that increasing the length of the beam is 𝐿 = 1 m and thickness ℎ = 0.1 m. The
order of NURBS basis functions can be very effective to stress distributions along the thickness of the beam at location
alleviate shear locking. 𝑙 = 0.3𝐿 are plotted in Figure 6 for normal stress component
𝜎𝑥 and shear stress component 𝜏𝑥𝑧 , respectively. The results
4.4. Circular Plate under a Uniform Pressure. To demonstrate of FSDT are also shown in the pictures along with the
the applicability of IGA to model common engineering corresponding exact solutions [26]. As shown in Figure 6(a),
shapes, a circular plate under a uniform transverse pressure is both TSDT and FSDT can predict the normal stress precisely.
studied in this numerical example. The radius of the circular Figure 6(b) gives the shear stress distributions, and it can be
plate is assumed to be 𝑅 = 1 m and the uniform load seen that the results of TSDT coincide with the exact solutions
𝑃 = −1 N. Both simply supported and clamped boundary very well, and zero shear stresses are obtained at both the
conditions for a wide range of aspect ratios from 10 to 104 are bottom and the top surfaces, while the results of FSDT remain
analyzed [27]. A 10 × 10 uniform mesh is used in the following constant along the thickness and are not zero at the plate
numerical examples. surfaces, which contradict to the real situation.
6 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

0 0

−0.2

−0.5 −0.4

−0.6
w/(10−5 m)

w/(10−4 m)
−0.8
−1
−1

−1.2
−1.5
−1.4

−1.6
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
L/(m) L/(m)

Exact Exact
IGA IGA
FEA FEA
(a) (b)

Figure 1: Numerical results compared with exact solutions of (a) a SS beam and (b) a CF beam.

1 1
Normalized center displacements

## Normalized center displacements

0.98
0.8

0.96
0.6
0.94
0.4
0.92

0.9 0.2

0.88 0
10 15 20 25 30 10 15 20 25 30
Number of elements per side Number of elements per side

## Exact Cubic Exact Cubic

(a) (b)

Figure 2: Normalized center displacements versus the number of elements per side of (a) a simply supported square plate and (b) a clamped
square plate.

## A simply supported square plate subjected to a uniform 5. Conclusion

load 𝑃 = −1 N is then considered. The length of the plate is
𝐿 = 1 m and thickness ℎ = 0.1 m. The stress distributions In this paper, NURBS-based isogeometric analysis (IGA) is
along the thickness of the plate at location 𝑙 = (0.3𝐿, 0.3𝐿) developed for the analysis of beams and plates based on
are plotted in Figure 7 for normal stress component 𝜎𝑥 and the third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT). One of
shear stress component 𝜏𝑥𝑧 , respectively. The results of FSDT the advantages of the present approach is that it is easy to
are also shown in the pictures along with the corresponding build high continuity basis functions, which is required in
exact solutions [26]. Same conclusions can be obtained just the analysis of beams and plates based on TSDT. Compared
like the case in beam analysis. to theoretical solutions, the presented numerical results show
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 7

(a) (b)

Figure 3: A 10 × 10 uniform meshed circular plate: (a) control points and (b) physical mesh.

0
Deﬂection 𝜔

0
Deﬂection 𝜔

−0.05 −0.01

−1 1 −0.02
−1 1
0 0 0 0
1 −1 1 −1
(a) (b)

Figure 4: Deflection shapes of (a) simply supported circular plate and (b) clamped circular plate.

1.2 1.2
Normalized center displacement
Normalized center displacement

1.1 1.1

1.0 1.0

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7
10 100 1000 10000 10 100 1000 10000
Aspect ratio Aspect ratio

Cubic Cubic
Quartic Quartic
(a) (b)

Figure 5: Normalized center displacements versus aspect ratios for (a) simply supported circular plate and (b) clamped circular plate.
8 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

0.05 0.05
Thickness z

Thickness z
0 0

−0.05 −0.05
−60 −40 −20 0 20 40 60 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
𝜎x (0.3L) 𝜏xz (0.3L)

Exact Exact
TSDT TSDT
FSDT FSDT
(a) (b)

Figure 6: The distributions of (a) normal stress 𝜎𝑥 and (b) shear stress 𝜏𝑥𝑧 along thickness in a SS beam at location 𝑙 = 0.3𝐿.

0.05 0.05
Thickness z

Thickness z

0 0

−0.05 −0.05
−20 −10 0 10 20 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
𝜎x (0.3L, 0.3L) 𝜏xz (0.3L, 0.3L)

Exact Exact
TSDT TSDT
FSDT FSDT
(a) (b)

Figure 7: The distributions of (a) normal stress 𝜎𝑥 and (b) shear stress 𝜏𝑥𝑧 along thickness in a simply supported plate at location 𝑙 =
(0.3𝐿, 0.3𝐿).

that IGA based on TSDT can get very accurate results in the high order of NURBS basis functions. Further studies will
both thick and thin beams and plates with different boundary focus on the locking free IGA numerical methods for beams,
conditions. However, when the beams and plates become very plates, and shells [29–31].
thin, numerical results suffer from shear locking and it can be
alleviated by both ℎ-refinement and 𝑘-refinement.
In the present approach, we only find out the phe- Conflict of Interests
nomenon of shear locking and alleviate it by ℎ-refinement
and 𝑘-refinement. However, the computational cost will be The authors do not have any conflict of interests with the
increased due to an excessive increment of control points and content of the paper.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering 9

Authors’ Contribution [16] X. Qian, “Full analytical sensitivities in NURBS based iso-
geometric shape optimization,” Computer Methods in Applied
All the authors listed have reviewed the final version of the Mechanics and Engineering, vol. 199, no. 29–32, pp. 2059–2071,
paper and approved to submit it to journal. 2010.
[17] R. L. Taylor, “Isogeometric analysis of nearly incompressible
solids,” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engi-
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