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Jan G.

Johansson, Power Systems – HVDC, Addis Ababa, 2013-11-30

HVDC Technology Seminar


HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 1
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
The HVDC Classic Converter Station
Transmission
line or cable

Smoothing
reactor
Converter

AC bus

DC filter

Shunt
capacitors AC filters
or other
reactive
equipment Telecommunication ~~
Control
system

”Black box”: Optimization and Requirement Specifications of


© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 2
equipment made by HVDC Converter suplier
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
General Technical Specification

 Locations and Environment


 Geograhical locations, Elevation above sea level, Humidity, Ambient temperatures (Max,
Min, 24 hour-averages), Air Pollution, Isokeraunic level, Wind velocity, Seismic
requirements, Other ambient conditions (Snow, ice, Frost, Solar radiation), Topology
 AC System Characteristics
 Voltages (Nominal, Max, Min – Steady State and Temporary/duration), AC-system fault
clearings, Short-Circuit Characteristics, Frequency (Nominal, Max, Min – Steady State
and Temporary/duration), Harmonic Impedances, System Voltage distortions, System
Grounding, AC-system topology, System Equivalents (before contract), Auxiliary Power
Systems
 HVDC Performance Requirements
 Main Circuit Arrangement, Power Transmission Capacity, Rated DC-voltage,
Filtering and Reactive Power compensation, Reliability and Availability, Audible
noise, Control Features (Frequency Control, Damping Control, Emergency Power
Control)
 Evaluation Criteria/ Guarantees/ LD’s (Price, Losses, Other Guaranteed parameters)
 Scope of Works
 Interfaces, Site conditions, Ground Electrodes (if included)

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 3
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
Locations and Environment – Ambient temperatures

T  Ambient temperatures
 Every degree counts
 Preferably also Daily averages (transformers)
Tmax*
T amb 1
T amb 1
T amb 1

Number of
radiators
 Tmax* for example,
 For thyristors,
 For transformers (hot spot),
© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 4
 etc
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
AC System Characteristics – Short-Circuit characteristics

Minimum short-circuit levels of AC-systems at point of


connection of HVDC-stations should be given

Suppplier should be required to guarantee operation at


given short-circuit levels, possibly by including
synchronous condensers and/or other reactive power
compensation devices

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 5
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
AC System Characteristics – Frequency

Frequency variations
 Frequency variations affect
 AC Filter design
 DC Filter design
 Saturation of transformers
 The auxiliary systems (and their cooling capability)
 Potentially: The short-circuit current in the valve hall (only if a low
frequncy may occur simultaneously with the maximimum short-circuit
level)
 Proposed requirements:
 Narrow band for normal operation (Power, filtering, redundancy, etc. )
 Medium band, where requirements on filtering and redundancy are
relaxed: Only dimensioning
 Band with duration, where also power requirements are relaxed

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 6
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
AC System Characteristics – Harmonic impedances

Examples of representations of AC-system harmonic impedances:

Example 1 Example 2

h Zmin Zmax Φ jX

2-4 h Z min s.c. hZ max s.c. 0 to 80


5-10 h Z min s.c. hZ max s.c. 75
+
11-19 h Z min s.c. hZ max s.c. 70 Z min

R
20-34 h Z min s.c. hZ max s.c. 60
Z max
-
35-50 h Z min s.c. hZ max s.c. 45

51 Open Net -- --

Zmin s.c. and Zmax s.c. are the min. and max. fundamental frequency Example of network impedance points
short circuit impedances. and envelope, for one harmonic

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 7
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
AC System Characteristics – Auxiliary Power Systems

Source of auxiliary power supply should be given, preferrably two


independent MV supplies
 Supply from tertiary winding of converter transformer?
 Diesel generator/-s?

Medium Voltage Switchgear

Low Voltage Switchgear

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 8
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Main Circuit Arrangement

 Bipole, Monopole or Back-to-back


 One or two twelve pulse converters per pole
 Impact of loss of power
 Connection to AC switchyard
 Busbar arrangement, use of filters and shunt banks also
when HVDC converter is switched off
 Transformers
 Preferably leave it to the supplier to optimize

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 9
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Main Circuit Arrangement/2

Transformer configurations:
Number of units / pole and
12-pulse bridge

1 (+n x 1 spares)

2 (+n x (1+1) spares)

3 (+n x 1 spares)

6 (+n x (1+1) spares)

Note! The power rating of an HVDC Classic transformer is approximately


1,2 times the active power through it, i.e. Sn ~ 1.2 x Pdn (MVA)
© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 10
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Power Transmission Capacity/1
 Rated Power Transmission Capacity (Bi-directional?)
 ”Reverse” power: 80-90%, without effecting rating of transformers
and thyristor valves
 Overload requirements (Amplitude, Duration)
 Permanent
 5% with use of redundant cooling
 X% during low ambient temperatures (discrete case/cases)
 Less than two hours
 10% - 30%
 Permitted to use redundant cooling
 For thyristor valves this is a permanent state
 For bushings this is nearly a permanent state
 For transformers this only elevates temperatures marginally (if no extra
flows are created) . Aging: See later slid.
 Five to ten seconds
 25% - 50%
 Utilize transient capacity of thyristor valves
 Could result in over-dimensioning for normal load

 Minimum Power Transmission Capacity


 Typically 5-10%
 Reduced Voltage Transmission
 Example: Max. 70% power capacity at 80% DC-voltage
© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 11
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Power Transmission Capacity/2

Indicative ”overloadability” of transformers:

P (p.u.) Transformer designed for max. 40o C ambient temperature


1,5

1,4

1,3

1,2

1,1

0,9
0 50 100 150 Time (min.)
w/o red cooler, 40 C w red. cooler, 40 C
w/o red. cooler, 30 C w red cooler, 30 C

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 12
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Power Transmission Capacity/3

Ageing of oil-immersed power transformers, due to loading:

Source IEC 60076-7


IEC 60076-7 gives recommendations for:
- Short-time emergency loading
- Long-time emergency loading
© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 13
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Filtering and RPC/1
 HVDC Classic converters absorb reactive power, approximately 50% to 60% of their
active power
 Harmonic filters are installed on the AC side for filtering the current, and for
generation of reactive power
 The reactive power absorption increases with the transmitted power
 The reactive power compensation has to take care of the unbalances by switching
of filters
Q
Supply of Reactive
0,5 Power from Shunt
Capacitor Banks and
Harmonic Filters

0,15
Shunt Capacitor
Banks 1,0 Id
Harmonic Reactive Power
balance with AC-
Filters
network

- 0,5
Reactive Power
consumption of converter
© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 14
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Filtering and RPC/3
Typical AC filters:

Series resonance filter High-pass filter Double-tuned filter


3
1 10
4 4
1 10 1 10

Impedance (ohms)
Impedance (ohms)
Impedance (ohms)

3 100
1 10 3
1 10
100
10
100
10

1 10 1
0 10 20 30 0 20 40 60 5 10 15

© ABB Group
Harmonic num ber Harmonic num ber Harmonic num ber
November 30, 2013 | Slide 15
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Filtering and RPC/4
Size and number of Harmonic Filters and Shunt Capacitor Banks:

 Redundancy requirements
 Reactive power compensation and/or filtering performance?
 Minimum filter requirements
 Hysteresis
 Consumed reative power as function of Id / Pd
 AC voltage step when switching:
D
Q
D
U
SQ
sc f
il
ter
 Increase of firing and extinction angles
 Reactive power unbalance, DQexport = Qfilter - Qconv

© ABB Group


November 30, 2013 | Slide 16
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Filtering and RPC/5

Minimum filter requirements:

Formula Typical
value
𝑚
Total root sum square voltage distortion 1 ≤ 2%
𝐷𝑒𝑓𝑓 = ×√ 𝑈𝑛 2
𝑈1
𝑛=2

Individual harmonic voltage distortion 𝑈𝑛 ≤ 1%


𝐷𝑖𝑛𝑑 =
𝑈1
𝑚
Telephone interference factor (TIF) ≤ 40
𝑇𝐼𝐹 = √ 𝑇𝐼𝐹𝑛 2

𝑛=2
𝑈
Where: Un = voltage at harmonic n, U1 = nominal fundamental voltage, 𝑇𝐼𝐹𝑛 = 𝑛 ∗ 𝐹𝑛 ,
𝑈1
Fn=Weighting factor for the n:th harmonic according to EEI Publication 60-68 (1960)

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 17
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Filtering and RPC/6
Example:
 Assume a 2000 MW HVDC Bipole
 Assume consumption of 1100 Mvar (QF) at full load
 Assume a minimum short-circuit level (Sscmin) of 6000 MVA
 A requirement for a maximimum AC voltage step of 3% gives:
 Maximum size of Filter/Shunt Bank: 180 Mvar
 Number of Filters/Shunt Banks:  6
 Maximum Reactive Power exchange: 180 Mvar (Less, if first
filter is smaller)
 A requirement for a maximimum AC voltage step of 5% gives:
 Maximum size of Filter/Shunt Bank: 300 Mvar
 Number of Filters/Shunt Banks:  4
 Maximum Reactive Power exchange: 300 Mvar (Less, if first
filter is smaller)

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 18
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Filtering and RPC/7

Example, AC-Filters and Shunt Banks:

AC Network Thyristor valve

Filter banks

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 19
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Filtering and RPC/8

Example, DC-filtering:
Ldc
Pole Bus

C1 C1

L1 L1

C2 L2 C2 L2

Neutral Bus
Cnb

 The large smoothing reactor plays a major role in mitigating harmonic current flow
 DC filter tuned to characteristic harmonics connected on the line side of the
smoothing reactor, between pole and neutral bus
 Neutral bus capacitor providing a return pass for the harmonic current through
stray capacitances in the converter transformers to ground

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 20
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Reliability and Availability

 Common Availability and Reliability requirements:


 Forced Outage (FO), events annually: Typically 5 per pole
 Forced Energy Unavailability (FEU): Typically 1%
The Cigré Study Committee 14 – DC Links “Protocol For
Reporting The Operational Performance of HVDC Transmission
Systems” shall be used for definitions and for reporting and
determination of the yearly Availability.

 Observation period
 Mitigation opportunity for supplier
Liquidated damages for non-fulfilment; e.g. X USD/0.1% of
deviation from guaranteed FEU

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 21
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Audible Noise/1

 Main sound sources in HVDC converter station


 Converter Transformers;
 Converter Transformer’s Cooling Fans;
 AC Filter components (reactors and capacitors);
 DC Smoothing Reactors;
 Smoothing Reactor Cooling Fans;
 DC Filter components (reactors and capacitors);
 PLC reactors (AC and DC);
 Fans of valve cooling and air-conditioning systems.
 “External” influence factors
 Topography, classification of surrounding area, site
surrounding buildings, walls, vegetation, etc.
 Environmental parameters, such as temperature (incl. lateral
distribution), relative humidity and air pressure

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 22
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Audible Noise/2

 Mitigation methods:
 Acoustically optimise the station layout
 Adapt station area size for noise requirements (external fence)
 Surround station area with concrete walls or earth berms
 Use equipment especially designed to be silent (cost);
 Transformers, reactors, capacitors, low-speed fan motors
 Encase equipment by using walls or screens (cooling, air-clearances);
 Walls, roofs, acoustically optimised walls and/or roofs, acoustically optimised
ventilation openings.

Without any particular audible noise mitigation measures it is normally possible to


achieve a level of 65-70 dB(A) at the perimeter fence

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 23
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Audible Noise/3
Example, Flat grounds:

~750 m

~250 m

Image shows noise distribution from one 3150


MW, ±600 kV bipolar HVDC converter station
© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 24 (within white frame)
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements – Audible Noise/4
Example, With wall:
3000 MW Bipolar
HVDC converter station
DC-voltage: ± 500 kV
AC-voltage: 500 kV
~ 400 m

~ 300 m

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 25
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
HVDC Performance Requirements - Evaluation Criteria

Examples:
 Price (Currencies/Exchange rates, Adjustment formulas)
 Payment Schedule (Interest)
 Guaranteed parameters, subject to Liquidated Damages
 Losses (Present value)
 Availability
 Reliability
 Active power
 Delivery time
 Maintainability
 Other technical criteria
 Experience
 Delivery record
 Terms & Conditions of Contract

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 26
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
Evaluation Criteria – Guaranteed parameters, Losses (Present values)

 No-load losses (X USD/kW):


 With everything energized, to be able to start
operation in milliseconds?
 With only the control system (and some auxiliaries) in
operation, to be able to start in seconds?
 De-energized, but in stand-by, to be able to start in
minutes?

 Load losses (Y USD/kW)


 Considerations:
 Utilization factor?
 Substitution energy (hydraulic, thermal)?
 Substitution power
If yes, with what factor?
 15-20%?

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 27
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
Scope of Works – Interfaces

The following interfaces between the Contractor's Scope of Supply


and equipment supplied by others must be specified:

 Converter stations - DC overhead line or cable


 Electrode stations (if included) - Electrode lines or cables
 Converter stations - Electrode lines or cables
 Converter equipment - Telecommunication equipment
 Converter stations - AC networks
 Converter stations - AC auxiliary power supply

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 28
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
Scope of Works – Site conditions

 Exact location
 Earth work
 Drainage
 Soil investigations; piling?
 Access roads
 Perimeter fencing
 Water supply
 Sewage
 Outdoor lighting

 Buildings; workshops, office spaces, toilets, etc.

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 29
HVDC Classic – Converter Station Design
Scope of Works – Ground electrodes (if included)

 Location
 Operation modes; current/duration, bi-directionality
 Resistivity profile;

 Soil conditions; a first thick and low-resistive layer, preferably


10ths of meters, to avoid expensive (deep), electrode burials

 Surroundings; substations, railway systems, buried structures,


urban areas, major settlements,
 Step voltage, Touch voltage

© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 30
© ABB Group
November 30, 2013 | Slide 31