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Hydraulics SLIP VELOCITIES

(WENB E-6)
PUMP OUTPUTS (WENB E-2)
Turbulent Flow – Spherical Chips
Double Acting Duplex Pumps (FIELD UNITS)
gal/min = 0.006790 (L)(2D2 – d2)(SPM)(Ev) dC  C  df 
bbl/min = 0.000162 (L)(2D2 – d2)(SPM)(Ev) VS  K Where K=9.41 (SI), K=156 (Field)
ft3/min = 0.000909 (L)(2D2 – d2)(SPM)(Ev) df
L/min = 0.025700 (L)(2D2 – d2)(SPM)(Ev)
Turbulent Flow – Flat Chips
Single Acting Triplex Pumps (FIELD UNITS)
d C   C   df 
gal/min = 0.010200 (L)(D2)(SPM)(Ev) VS  K Where K=3.66 (SI), K=60.6 (Field)
bbl/min = 0.000243 (L)(D2)(SPM)(Ev)  df
ft3/min = 0.001364 (L)(D2)(SPM)(Ev)
L/min = 0.038600 (L)(D2)(SPM)(Ev) Laminar Flow – Spherical Chips
Kd C   C   df 
2
**NOTE: Above equations use inches VS  Where K=75.0 (SI), K=160,000 (Field)
Double Acting Duplex Pumps (SI UNITS)

L/min = 1.568 x 10-6 (L)(2D2 – d2)(SPM)(Ev) Laminar Flow – Flat Chips
KdC   C   df 
2
Single Acting Duplex Pumps (SI UNITS) VS  Where K=29.1 (SI), K=62,100 (Field)
L/min = 2.355 x 10-6 (L)(D2)(SPM)(Ev) 
**NOTE: Above equations use mm
NOZZLE SIZES AND FLOW AREAS
(WENB E-4)
Flow Area Flow Area Flow Area
BIT HYDRAULIC EQUATIONS Nozzle Size Nozzle
(1 Nozzle) (2 Nozzles) (3 Nozzles)
Number
in mm in2 mm2 in2 mm2 in2 mm2
Bit Pressure Drop (WENB E-3) 7/32 5.5 7 0.0376 24.3 0.0752 48.5 0.1127 72.7
8/32 6.4 8 0.0491 31.7 0.0982 63.4 0.1473 95.0
K 2 Q 2  df
Pb  Where K=3.96 (SI), K=0.0421 (Field) 9/32
10/32
7.1
7.9
9
10
0.0621
0.0767
40.1
49.5
0.1242
0.1534
80.1
99.0
0.1864
0.2301
120.2
148.4
An 2 11/32 8.7 11 0.0928 59.9 0.1856 119.7 0.2784 179.6
12/32 9.5 12 0.1104 71.2 0.2209 142.5 0.3313 213.7
N&C Values (WENB E-3) 13/32 10.2 13 0.1296 83.6 0.2592 167.2 0.3889 250.9
14/32 11.1 14 0.1503 97.0 0.3007 194.0 0.4510 291.0
Ps  Pt  Pb 15/32 11.9 15 0.1726 111.4 0.3451 222.6 0.5177 334.0
16/32 12.7 16 0.1963 126.6 0.3927 253.4 0.5890 380.0
18/32 14.3 18 0.2485 160.3 0.4970 320.6 0.7455 481.0
 PS1  20/32 15.9 20 0.3068 197.9 0.6136 395.9 0.9204 593.8
Log 
PS 2 
22/32 17.5 22 0.3712 239.5 0.7424 479.0 1.1137 718.5
 PS1 PS 2 24/32 19.0 24 0.4418 285.0 0.8836 570.1 1.3254 855.2
N C N
 N 28/32 22.3 28 0.6013 287.9 1.2026 775.9 1.8040 1163.9
Q  Q1 Q2
Log 1  OPTIMAL POWER AT BIT
 Q2  N
Optimal Power %
N1
Ps  CQN
PUMP OUTPUT TO GIVE ANNULUAR VELOCITY
Optimum Hydraulic Horsepower (WENB E-4) (WENB E-7)

PS 
Pt
Q

Va Dh  Dp
2 2
 Where K=1270 (SI), K=24.5 (Field)
N1 K
Optimum Jet Impact Force (WENB E-4)
FLUID VELOCITY INSIDE PIPE (WENB E-7)
2Pt
PS  KQ
N 2 VP  Where K=1270 (SI), K=24.5 (Field)
D2
Nozzle Flow Area (WENB E-4)
FLUID VELOCITY IN ANNULUS (WENB E-7)
 df KQ
A N  KQ Where K=3.96 (SI), K=0.0421 (Field)
Va 
Pb
Jet Velocity (WENB E-8)

D 2  D1
2
2
 Where K=1270 (SI), K=24.5 (Field)

KQ REYNOLD'S NUMBER
VN  Where K=16.7 (SI), K=0.32 (Field)
AN
1.3  105    Q 7298 .5    Q
Jet Impact Force (WENB E-8) Re  [SI Units] Re  [Field]
d d
KQ 2  df
Im pact  Where K=0.0283 (SI), K=0.0032
 = kPa/m, psi/ft
AN Q = m3/s, gpm
(Field)  = Pa s, cP
d = mm, in [Pipe ID, or hydraulic diameter (hole ID - pipe OD)]

If:
MINIMUM ANNULAR VELOCITY
Re < 2000 Laminar Flow (DLP – 7/1/28 – Drilling Hydraulics)
2000 < Re < 4000 Transition
Re > 4000 Turbulent  Based on Fullerton’s approximation
 Assumes cutting’s diameter is 6.35mm (0.25”)
 Assumes cutting’s density is 2510kg/m3 (157lb/ft3)
FANN NUMBERS  Assumes annular velocity is not less than twice cuttings settling
PV = 600 - 300 velocity
YP = 300 - PV
Approximation is:
A mud weighted with drilled solids has a higher viscosity than a mud
weighted with barite, therefore, it has a lower Re. This makes it harder to SI Units Field Units
put into turbulent flow. If df  14.1 If df  0.623
1789 613
then Vmin  then Vmin 
dh   df dh   df
If df  14.1, use table below If df  0.623, use table below

Hole Size Flow Rate


(in) (mm) (gal/min) (L/min)
6.1/2 165.1 140 525
7.7/8 200.0 220 835
CRITICAL VELOCITY INSIDE PIPE (RN=2,000) 8.1/2 215.9 270 1020
(WENB E-7) 8.3/4 224.2 280 1060
9.7/8 250.8 325 1230
11 279.4 290 1475

K 1  PV 
2
 
PV  K 2  D 2  YP   df   12.1/4
15
311.2
381.0
485
590
1835
2230
VC   
17.1/2 444.5 750 2840
 df  D 26 660.4 1325 5015
Where K1=588 (SI), K1=3.36 (Field)
K2=0.0163 (SI), K2=238 (Field)
VC=ft/min, or m/min MAXIMUM NORMAL RUNNING PRESSURE

CRITICAL VELOCITY IN ANNULUS (RN=2,000) Pump Type Maximum Normal Running Pressure
(WENB E-7) Duplex 20,000 kPa (2900psi)
Triplex 34,000 kPa (4500psi)


K 1  PV  PV  K 2   D 2  D1   YP   df
2 2
 
VC    Ploss DP
 df   D 2  D1 
Where K1=588 (SI), K1=3.36 (Field)
K2=0.0122 (SI), K2=179 (Field) Ploss OH/DP

PRESSURE LOSSES IN SYSTEM


(WENB E-7)
Ploss OH/DC Ploss DC
Turbulent Flow in a Circular Pipe
0.18
K  Q1.82   df  PV
0.82
L Ploss Bit mud static
P 
D 4.82 CIRCULATING LOSSES WITHOUT
Where K=794 (SI), K=8.65x10-4 HYDROSTATIC

Turbulent Flow in an Annulus


0.18
K  Q1.82   df
0.82
 PV L
P 
D 2  D1    D 2  D 1 
3 1.82

Where K=794 (SI), K=8.65x10-4


Ploss OH/DP Ploss DP
Laminar Flow in a Circular Pipe

L  YP L  PV  Vp
P  
K1  D K 2  D2
Where K1 = 0.392 (SI), K1=225 (Field)
K2 = 1.880 (SI), K2=90,000 (Field)

Laminar Flow in an Annulus

L  YP L  PV  Va Ploss OH/DC Ploss DC


P  
K 1  D 2  D 1  K 2   D 2  D1  2
Ploss Bit
K’s are same as above
mud static
CIRCULATING LOSSES WITH HYDROSTATIC
mud static
COMBINED CIRCULATING LOSSES

NOMENCLATURE