Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

Running head: STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT 1

Study of Student Achievement


Christa Tait
Drexel University
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 2

Focus
I am student teaching at Beaumont Elementary School in Tredyffrin/Easttown School
District. The school as a lot of available resources that I am able to use. The class I worked with
is a second-grade class. The students switch classes for math based on ability level. The students
that I worked with are the above level class. These students are learning second-grade and third
grade math concepts throughout the year.
The students in the math class are of all different backgrounds. Some of the students are
English Language Learners, and some of the students are part of the challenge or gifted
program that the school offers. To make sure that the students’ reading ability does not affect
their math, the problems and directions are read to the students. Reading should not affect the
student’s ability to perform as well as they can in math.
One of the math chapters the class covers is mental math. As I was looking through the
curriculum for this chapter, I noticed that it is a lot of explaining the strategy and then they
practice the strategy. There were not very many hands-on activities for the lessons. The pre-
assessment lessons that I taught were based on how the curriculum suggested the lessons to be
taught. I then created lessons for the post-assessment lessons to be more engaging and interactive
to the students. In order to know if the students understood the strategies and reached the goals of
the lessons, the students completed an exit slip at the end of each lesson. The exit slip was then
used to see if the more interacting and engaging lessons help the students learn the concepts
better than the strategies being explained and doing practice problems.
This study focused on the Instruction Domain in the Danielson Framework. The specific
areas that it focuses on are using questioning and discussion techniques (Domain 3b), engaging
student learning (Domain 3c), and using assessment in instruction (Domain 3d). I used
questioning and discussion techniques so the that students would learn from each other instead of
them just listening to me talk the whole class period. Students can learn more from their students.
Their peers can explain concepts in ways that could help the other students to understand better.
Engaging the students is very important. Without activities that are engaging and interesting, the
students may become bored and zone out of the lesson. The students then do not learn anything
or learn very little. The assessments in each lesson were the exit slips. This helped me understand
that the students understood the strategies and found a strategy that works best for themselves. I
also observed the students by walking around the room to see if the students understood when
they were completing the practice problems and the hands-on activities.

Pre-assessment Lessons
Mental Addition Lesson Plan
Content and Standards:
• 2.NBT.5: Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value,
properties or operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction
• 2.NBT.6: Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and
properties of operations
• 2.NBT.7: Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies
based on place value, properties or operations, and/or the relationship between addition
and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or
subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and
tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or
hundreds.
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 3

• 2.NBT.8: Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100-900, and mentally subtract 10
or 100 from a given number 100-900.
• 2.NBT.9: Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and
the properties of operations.
• 2.OA.1: Use addition and subtraction within 100 to some one- and two- step word
problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and
comparing with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a
symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
• 2.OA.2: Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies.
• CC.K-12.MP.1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
• CC.K-12.MP.3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
• CC.K-12.MP.4: Model with mathematics.
• CC.K-12.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically.
• CC.K-12.MP.6: Attend to precision.

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know number bonds in addition and subtraction.
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and ones.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.

Essential Questions:
• What does the word 'sum' mean?
• How is 'sum' related to addition?
• How can we add 2-digit numbers mentally?

Instructional Objective:
• Students will be able to add numbers with up to 2-digits mentally with and without
regrouping by correctly answering three out of four problems

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
• Review what number bonds are
• Ask the students what 'sum' means
• Have the students find the sum on the problems on the lesson 1 PowerPoint
• Have the students draw number bonds for these problems

• Ask the students if they know what it means to add mentally


• Add 10 then subtract the extra ones strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
• Add to a 2-digit number mentally using the add the ones strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 4

• Add ones to a 2-digit number mentally using the add 10 then subtract the extra ones
strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
• Add tens to a 2-digit number mentally using add the tens strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
After:
• Workbook pages 1-6 with a partner
• Exit slip individually
• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Computer
• Projector
• SmartBoard
• Workbooks
• PowerPoint
• Whiteboards (1 per student)
• Dry erase markers (1 per student)
• Tissues
• Homework worksheets (pg. 3-4)
• Exit slips

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Workbook pages
• Exit slip
• Homework worksheet

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students

Technology:
• PowerPoint

Self-Assessment:
The students seemed to understand the strategies during the lesson. Some strategies are harder
than other for some students. After looking through the students’ workbooks and exit slips, not
all the students understand. The lesson was not very hands-on, and they seemed to be bored and
zoned out of the lesson. I will try to make the next lesson more interactive for the students. I
will also make sure the students know that they can use the best strategy for them. They do not
have to use all the strategies that are taught. The point is for the students to be introduced to
different strategies to help them with mental addition.
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 5

Mental Subtraction Lesson Plan


Content and Standards:
• 2.NBT.5: Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value,
properties or operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction
• 2.NBT.6: Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and
properties of operations
• 2.NBT.7: Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies
based on place value, properties or operations, and/or the relationship between addition
and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or
subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and
tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or
hundreds.
• 2.NBT.8: Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100-900, and mentally subtract 10
or 100 from a given number 100-900.
• 2.NBT.9: Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and
the properties of operations.
• 2.OA.1: Use addition and subtraction within 100 to some one- and two- step word
problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart,
and comparing with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with
a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
• 2.OA.2: Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies.
• CC.K-12.MP.3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
• CC.K-12.MP.4: Model with mathematics.
• CC.K-12.MP.6: Attend to precision.

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know number bonds in addition and subtraction.
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and ones.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.

Essential Questions:
• How is 'difference' related to the subtraction operation?
• How can one subtract numbers mentally without regrouping?

Instructional Objective:
• Students will be able to subtract to 2-digit numbers mentally with and without
regrouping by correctly solving three out of four problems

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
• Review subtraction number bonds
• Ask the students what 'difference' means
• Have the students find the difference on the problems on the lesson 3 PowerPoint on their
whiteboard
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 6

• Have the students draw number bonds for these problems on their whiteboard

During:
• Ask the students if they know what it means to subtract mentally
• Subtract 10 then add the extra ones strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
• Subtract the 'ones' strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
• 2-digit numbers: subtract 10 then add the extra ones strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
• 2-digit numbers: subtract the tens strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
After:
• Workbook pages with a partner
• Exit slip individually
• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Computer
• Projector
• SmartBoard
• Workbooks
• PowerPoint
• Whiteboards (1 per student)
• Dry erase markers (1 per student)
• Tissues
• Homework worksheets (pg. 9-10)
• Exit slip

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Workbook pages
• Exit slip
• Homework worksheet

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 7

Technology:
• PowerPoint

Self-Assessment:
The students had trouble with the regrouping of subtraction problems mentally. The strategies
were hard to understand with just an explanation and talking through the problems. There were
some students that understood. It may be beneficial for the students that understand to teach the
rest of the students how they solve the problems. This way the students are hearing an
explanation from a peer and maybe understanding it better from them. It also might be helpful
for the students to use the strategies in a different way other than be given a problem and solving
it. That does not really happen in real-life. If I could make a situation where mental math would
be used in real life for the students, maybe that will help them understand it better.

More Mental Addition Lesson Plan


Content and Standards:
• 3.NBT.2: Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and
subtraction
• CC.K-12.MP.1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
• CC.K-12.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically
• CC.K-12.MP.8: Look up and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know number bonds in addition and subtraction.
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and ones.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.

Essential Questions:
• How can we add 2-digit numbers mentally?

Instructional Objective:
• Students will be able to add to 2-digit numbers mentally with and without regrouping by
correctly solving two problems correctly

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
• Review the strategies that were discussed during the mental addition lesson
• Students solve some warm-up addition problems on their whiteboard
During:
• Adding 100, the subtracting the extra ones strategy
o Think out load a problem
o Have the students do the next 4 problems on their own on (write answers on
whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class by having some students share how they got
their answer
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 8

• Add the hundreds, then subtract the extra ones strategy


o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 4 problems on their own (write the answers on
whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class by having some students share how they got
their answer

After
• Workbook pages with a partner
• Exit slip individually
• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Computer
• Projector
• SmartBoard
• Workbooks
• PowerPoint file
• Whiteboards (1 per student)
• Dry erase markers (1 per student)
• Tissues
• Homework worksheets
• Exit slip

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Workbook pages
• Exit slip
• Homework worksheet

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students

Technology:
• PowerPoint

Self-Assessment:
The students are understanding mental addition a little better now that this was their second
lesson on it. Some of the students just add in their heads without using the strategies. This
works for most of them, however, some are not able to do it. I try to explain what the strategies
are for and how they help, but they do not always understand the different strategies. It is hard
from them to see how they work since most of their peers are not using them. It is also hard for
them since they are just solving problems mentally and writing their answer down. It is not very
interactive or engaging for them.

Estimate Sums with Rounding Lesson Plan


STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 9

Content and Standards:


• 2.MD.6: Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with
equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-
number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram
• 2.NBT.6: Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and
properties of operations
• 2.NBT.9: Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the
properties of operations
• 3.NBT.1: Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100
• 3.NBT.2: Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and
subtraction
• 2.OA.1: Use addition and subtraction within 100 to some one-and two- step word problems
involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and
comparing with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a
symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem
• 2.OA.2: Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies
• 3.OA.8: Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems
using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of
answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding
• CC.K-12.MP.1: Make sense of problems and preserve in solving them
• CC.K-12.MP.3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
• CC.K-12.MP.4: Model with mathematics
• CC.K-12.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically
• CC.K-12.MP.6: Attend to precision
• CC.K-12.MP.8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and hundreds.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.

Essential Questions:
• How do we know when to round up or down?
• Why would we need to estimate the sum?

Instructional Objective:
• Students will be able to estimate the sum of 2-digit and 3-digit numbers mentally with and
without regrouping by correctly solving three out of four problems

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
• Review how to round numbers to the tens place
• Review how to round numbers to the hundreds place
• Ask the students why rounded numbers are helpful to use in addition problems
During:
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 10

• Explain to the students how to do an example problem with rounding to the nearest ten
o Have the students mentally estimate the next 4 problems using rounding and write
the answers on their whiteboard
o Go over how to estimate the problems by allowing students to explain how they
estimated the answer
• Explain to the students how to do an example problem with rounding to the
nearest hundred
o Have the students mentally estimate the next 4 problems using rounding and write
the answers on their whiteboard
o Go over how to estimate the problems by allowing students to explain how they
estimated the answer
After:
• Workbook pages with a partner
• Exit slip individually
• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Computer
• Projector
• SmartBoard
• Workbooks
• PowerPoint
• Whiteboards (1 per student)
• Dry erase markers (1 per student)
• Tissues
• Homework worksheets
• Exit slip

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Workbook pages
• Exit slip
• Homework worksheet

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students

Technology:
• PowerPoint

Self-Assessment:
The students are able to round without much of a problem. They do not understand why an
estimated answer might be used. It is hard for the students to do something when they do not
understand why they are doing it. I tried to explain that estimated answers can help see if an
answer that they received for a problem would be reasonable or not. This is a way for them to
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 11

check their answers. It was still hard for them to see the point of doing it since they all have
methods of checking their answers already before this lesson.

Estimate Differences using Rounding Lesson


Plan Content and Standards:
• 2.MD.6: Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with
equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-
number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram
• 2.NBT.6: Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and
properties of operations
• 2.NBT.9: Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the
properties of operations
• 3.NBT.1: Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100
• 3.NBT.2: Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and
subtraction
• 2.OA.1: Use addition and subtraction within 100 to some one-and two- step word problems
involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and
comparing with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a
symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem
• 2.OA.2: Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies
• 3.OA.8: Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems
using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness
of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding
• CC.K-12.MP.1: Make sense of problems and preserve in solving them
• CC.K-12.MP.3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
• CC.K-12.MP.4: Model with mathematics
• CC.K-12.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically
• CC.K-12.MP.6: Attend to precision
• CC.K-12.MP.8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and ones.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.

Essential Questions:
• How do we know when to round up or down?
• Why would we need to estimate the difference?

Instructional Objective:
• Students will be able to estimate the difference of 2-digit and 3-digit numbers mentally
with and without regrouping by correctly solving three out of four problems

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 12

• Review how to round numbers to the tens place


• Review how to round numbers to the hundreds place
• Ask the students why rounded numbers are helpful to use in subtraction problems
During:
• Explain to the students how to do an example problem with rounding to the nearest ten
o Have the students mentally estimate the next 4 problems using rounding and write
the answers on their whiteboard
o Go over how to estimate the problems by allowing students to explain how they
estimated the answer
• Explain to the students how to do an example problem with rounding to the
nearest hundred
o Have the students mentally estimate the next 4 problems using rounding and write
the answers on their whiteboard
o Go over how to estimate the problems by allowing students to explain how they
estimated the answer
After:
• Workbook pages with a partner
• Exit slip individually
• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Computer
• Projector
• SmartBoard
• Workbooks
• PowerPoint
• Whiteboards (1 per student)
• Dry erase markers (1 per student)
• Tissues
• Homework worksheets
• Exit slip

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Workbook pages
• Exit slip
• Homework worksheet

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students

Technology:
• PowerPoint

Self-Assessment:
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 13

The students were getting tired of mentally solving problems and explaining how they did it to
their classmates. I could tell they wanted to get up and move. It was hard to keep their attention
and have them participate. The exit slip showed that they understood the content. I do not think
they paid much attention because of how bored they were during the class.

Pre-Assessment Lessons Analysis


The pre-assessment lessons helped me see what the students need in order to understand
the concepts taught in the lessons. The lessons helped “gauge students’ understanding in addition
to their knowledge and skill” (Hockett, 2013). I was able to see if the students understood the
different mental and subtraction strategies based on the way I taught the lessons. In order for pre-
assessments to be useful “pre-assessment design begins with clearly articulating the goals of the
unit or lessons” (Hockett, 2013).
Some of the students were able to successfully reach the learning objectives for the
lessons. This showed me that they understood. However, with mental math it is hard to know if
the students understand the strategies of solving the problems since they are not writing down
their work. There were some students wrote down their work. This showed me that the students
were not comfortable enough with any of the mental strategies to be able to solve the problems
mentally. These students did not find a strategy that makes sense to them and they are
successful with. In the future, I will try allow the students come up with strategies that help
them instead of explaining strategies that they need to use.
It is important to check the students for understanding. Without this check, the teacher
could be moving on to another lesson when the students do not understand the last one. “I don’t
know how people could do without having ‘Formative Assessment’ because that’s what
you…that is what guide your lessons” (Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development, 2008). The exit slips help me see if the students understand the content. After the
pre-assessment lesson, the exit slips showed me that the students need additional help with
mental math. The students were bored during the lessons. They were not engaged in them at
all. It was hard to get the students to participate in the discussion. In the future the lessons will
need to be interactive, engaging, and reaching different learning styles. The post-assessment
lesson will hopefully help the students learn the content in a hands-on way.

Post-Assessment Lessons
Mental Addition Lesson Plan
Content and Standards:
• 3.NBT.2: Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and
subtraction.
• CC.K-12.MP.1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
• CC.K-12.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically
• CC.K-12.MP.8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know number bonds in addition and subtraction.
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and ones.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 14

Essential Questions:
• How can we add 2-digit numbers mentally?

Instructional Objective:
• Students will be able add 2-digit numbers mentally with or without regrouping by
correctly answering three out of four problems

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
• Review some strategies that were talked about in the previous lesson
During:
• Add the tens, then add the ones strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
• Add the tens, then subtract the extra ones strategy
o Think out loud a problem
o Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers on whiteboard)
o Go over the problems with the class
• The class works together to mentally solve the puzzle on
www.mathplayground.com/puzzle_pics_addition.html

• Exit slip individually


• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Computer
• Projector
• SmartBoard
• Online puzzle
• PowerPoint
• Whiteboards (1 per student)
• Dry erase markers (1 per student)
• Tissues
• Homework worksheets

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Homework worksheet

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students

Technology:
• PowerPoint
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 15

• Online puzzle

Self-Assessment:
The students enjoyed the game a lot. They liked trying to guess what the picture on the puzzle
was while solving problems to see more and more of it. It gave the students a reason to solve
the problem mentally instead of doing it because I asked them too. I had the students’ attention
the whole lesson. Also, more students were raising their hands to participate. After looking at
the exit slips, the students seemed to understand the lesson better. More of the students got the
three out of four problems correct than they did the first mental addition lesson.

Mental Subtraction Lesson Plan


Content and Standards:
• 3.NBT.2: Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and
subtraction.
• CC.K-12.MP.1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
• CC.K-12.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically
• CC.K-12.MP.8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know number bonds in addition and subtraction.
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and ones.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.

Essential Questions:
• How can we subtract 2-digit numbers mentally?

Instructional Objective:
• Students will be able subtract 2-digit numbers mentally with or without regrouping
by correctly answering three out of four problems

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
• Review some strategies that were talked about in the previous lesson
• Subtract the tens, then subtract the ones strategy
• Think out loud a problem
• Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers
on whiteboard)
• Go over the problems with the class
• Subtract the tens, then add the extra ones strategy
• Think out loud a problem
• Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers
on whiteboard)
• Go over the problems with the class
During:
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 16

• Explain the Hands-On activity


o Students work in partners
o Player 1 picks a card and player 2 chooses a number from 11-99
o Player 1 then subtracts the two numbers mentally
o Player 2 checks the problem on a piece of paper
o Player 1 and player 2 the reverses roles
o They continue playing until the first player mentally solves 10 problems correctly
• Split the class into groups of two
• Hand out the materials for the game to each group
• Walk around the room to make sure everyone knows what they are doing
After:
• Exit Slip individually
• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Computer
• Projector
• SmartBoard
• PowerPoint
• Whiteboards (1 per student)
• Dry erase markers (1 per student)
• Tissues
• Homework worksheets
• 12 groups of 10 cards with numbers 35-55 on them
• Exit slip

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Exit slip
• Partner discussion about the game
• Homework worksheet

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students

Technology:
• PowerPoint

Self-Assessment:
The students really enjoyed working with a partner on the activity in this lesson. They were able
to help each other out when one person got stuck. They also were able to challenge each other.
The partner choosing the number for the other one was able to choose whether or not to give
them more of a challenge or an easier problem. The students were then able to be challenged
and solve different problems with different numbers. Sometimes the problems in the workbook
use the same type of problem for the majority. The students that wanted and needed more of a
challenge were able to get one with this activity,
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 17

More Mental Addition Lesson Plan


Content and Standards:
• 3.NBT.2: Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and
subtraction.
• CC.K-12.MP.1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
• CC.K-12.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically
• CC.K-12.MP.8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know number bonds in addition and subtraction.
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and ones.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.

Essential Questions:
• What are the different strategies to add numbers mentally?

Instructional Objective:
• Use different strategies to add 2-digit numbers close to 100 mentally by correctly
answering two problems

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
• Review some strategies that were talked about in the previous lessons
• Adding 100, then subtracting the extra ones strategy
• Think out loud a problem
• Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers
on whiteboard)
• Go over the problems with the class
• Add the hundreds, then subtract the extra ones strategy
• Think out loud a problem
• Have the students do the next 2 problems on their own (write answers
on whiteboard)
• Go over the problems with the class
During:
• Explain the More Mental Addition Game on page 51
• Player 1 roles the dice and chooses a card
• Player 1 makes a 2-digit number with the dice
• Player 1 mentally adds the 2-digit number with the number on the card
• Player 2 checks the problem with paper and pencil
• Player 1 and Player 2 then reverses roles
• The first player to correctly mentally add 10 problems wins
• Split the class into groups of 2
• Hand out the materials for the game to each group
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 18

• Walk around the room to make sure everyone knows what they are doing
After:
• Exit slip individually
• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Computer
• Projector
• SmartBoard
• PowerPoint
• Whiteboard (1 per student)
• Dry erase markers (1 per student)
• Tissues
• Dice (2 for each group)
• 10 sets of cards with numbers 92-99
• Homework worksheets
• Exit slip

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Exit Slip
• Homework worksheet
• Discussion with partner

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students

Technology:
• PowerPoint

Self-Assessment:
The students benefit from being able to work elsewhere in the room besides in their seats and
working with a partner. The students really enjoyed the activity. They did much better on this
exit slip. The students were able add with regrouping much better. While I was walking around
the room listening the students play the game, it seemed like they found some strategies that
helped them with adding mentally. Some of the students were using strategies that were not gone
over in the lessons. The students found strategies that help them and were able to use them
successfully.

Estimate Sums Using Rounding Lesson Plan


Content and Standards:
• 2.MD.6: Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with
equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-
number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram
• 2.NBT.6: Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and
properties of operations
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 19

• 2.NBT.9: Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and
the properties of operations
• 3.NBT.1: Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100
• 3.NBT.2: Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and
subtraction
• 2.OA.1: Use addition and subtraction within 100 to some one-and two- step word problems
involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and
comparing with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a
symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem
• 2.OA.2: Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies
• 3.OA.8: Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems
using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of
answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding
• CC.K-12.MP.1: Make sense of problems and preserve in solving them
• CC.K-12.MP.3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
• CC.K-12.MP.4: Model with mathematics
• CC.K-12.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically
• CC.K-12.MP.6: Attend to precision
• CC.K-12.MP.8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and hundreds.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.

Essential Questions:
• How do we know when to round up or down?
• Why would we need to estimate the sum?

Instructional Objective:
• Students will be able to estimate the sum of 2-digit and 3-digit numbers mentally with and
without regrouping by correctly solving three out of four problems

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
• Review how to round numbers to the tens place
• Review how to round numbers to the hundreds place
• Ask the students why rounded numbers are helpful to use in addition problems
During:
• Explain the activity to the students
o Students are given popsicle sticks with addition problems on it and bags with tens
or hundreds on each bag
o Students round the numbers on the popsicle sticks and add rounded numbers
together
o Students put the popsicle stick in the bag that says the rounded sum on it
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 20

• Split the students up into groups of 2 or 3


• Walk around the room to make sure the students understand
After:
• Exit slip individually
• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Homework worksheets
• Exit slip
• Popsicle sticks with addition problems
• Bags with tens and hundreds on them

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Small group discussion
• Exit slip
• Homework worksheet

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students

Technology:
• PowerPoint

Self-Assessment:
The students worked together with a partner. They were able to talk and discuss with each other
about the addition problem that was on the popsicle stick. They were able to explain why their
estimated answers were different or the same. The students were able to understand addition
with rounding a little better since they were able to discuss with their partner. They were hearing
another point of view besides myself and the couple of students that I called on to explain.

Estimate Differences Using Rounding Lesson Plan


Content and Standards:
• 2.MD.6: Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with
equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-
number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram
• 2.NBT.6: Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and
properties of operations
• 2.NBT.9: Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and
the properties of operations
• 3.NBT.1: Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100
• 3.NBT.2: Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on
place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and
subtraction
• 2.OA.1: Use addition and subtraction within 100 to some one-and two- step word problems
involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 21

comparing with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a
symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem
• 2.OA.2: Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies
• 3.OA.8: Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems
using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of
answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding
• CC.K-12.MP.1: Make sense of problems and preserve in solving them
• CC.K-12.MP.3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
• CC.K-12.MP.4: Model with mathematics
• CC.K-12.MP.5: Use appropriate tools strategically
• CC.K-12.MP.6: Attend to precision
• CC.K-12.MP.8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

Prerequisites:
• Students should already know how to add and subtract tens and hundreds.
• Students should already know how to count on and count back using a number line.
• Students should already know how to group numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones.

Essential Questions:
• How do we know when to round up or down?
• Why would we need to estimate the difference?

Instructional Objective:
• Students will be able to estimate the difference of 2-digit and 3-digit numbers mentally
with and without regrouping by correctly solving three out of four problems

Instructional Procedures:
Before:
• Review how to round numbers to the tens place
• Review how to round numbers to the hundreds place
• Ask the students why rounded numbers are helpful to use in subtraction problems
During:
• Explain rounding subtraction bingo to the students
o Students are given a bingo board with tens or hundreds on each square
o The teacher writes a subtraction problem on the board and says what place value
the students are rounding to
o The students have to mentally round the problem and then subtract
o They make the estimated difference on their board with a marker
o The first student to mark five in a row wins
• Walk around the room to make sure the students understand
After:
• Exit slip individually
• Pass out homework

Materials and Equipment:


• Whiteboard
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 22

• Dry Erase Marker


• Dry Erase Eraser
• Subtraction problem cards
• Bingo boards
• Markers
• Homework worksheets
• Exit slip

Assessment/Evaluation:
• Class Discussion
• Exit slip
• Homework worksheet

Differentiation:
• Read the problems to the students

Technology:
• PowerPoint

Self-Assessment:
The students in this math class are competitive. They like when I give them activities that they
get to compete against one another. The BINGO activity engaged the students. The students
noticeably were trying to correctly estimate each of the differences in this game. They really
wanted to win BINGO. It helped the students to notice mistakes they may have made and not
noticed on a worksheet or problems on the board. I also noticed on the exit slips that the students
made less rounding mistakes or subtraction mistakes on them.

Post-Assessment Analysis
The students enjoyed the interactive and hands-on lessons. Based on the exit slips, the
students were able to meet the learning goals of these lessons. The Danielson Framework in
Domain 3 have a section on engaging students. “When students are engaged in learning, they are
not merely ‘busy’ nor are they only ‘on task.’ Rather, they are intellectually active in learning
important and challenging content” (Danielson, 2014). The students were actively learning and
challenging themselves throughout these lessons.
The level of student achievement for mental math is now ninety percent. Mental math is
a concept that is hard to become comfortable with when the students did a lot of paper and pencil
problem solving in the past. Some of the students did not solve the problems mentally. With
practice the students will become more comfortable with solving the problems without pencil
and paper.
The students were able to mentally add and subtract when using different strategies.
Some of the students started to see the importance of mental math and that pencil and paper is
not always available to be used. “That is, they are engaged in discussion, debate, answering
‘what if?’ questions, discovering patterns, and the like” (Danielson, 2014). The students received
some instruction on strategies to help them mentally solve problems. These lessons allowed the
students to explore other strategies and the ones instructed on to see what works best for
themselves. They were not forced to use a strategy that they did not fully understand.
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 23

Conclusion
Students need to be engaged in the lesson. There are many different ways for students to
be engaged in a lesson. This can be with videos, hands-on activities, games, books, or
discussions. “Student tasks are organized to provide cognitive challenge, and then students are
encouraged to reflect on what they have done and what they have learned” (Danielson, 2014).
The post-assessment lessons were more engaging to the students than the pre-assessment lessons.
The exit slips from the students showed that the students learned more about mental math from
the post-assessment lessons than the pre-assessment lessons.
I will continue making lessons in engaging to the students. This may mean to do different
activities based on the students in the class. Each student has their own interests and likes. Some
students may enjoy more competitive activities while others may like activities that are not
competitive.
The study helped me see what can be told by assessments like an exit slip. The students
should know their progress in the material as well. “To celebrate the success of the student what
I always do is always complimenting” (Welch, 2008). If students are celebrated for their
successes then they will not get discouraged from school. I noticed that the pre-assessment
lessons were discouraging the students from participating and keep working on the assignments.
The post-assessment lessons gave the students something to celebrate. The celebrated being able
to solve a problem mentally, winning a game, and/or solving a problem. The students were
excited to learn and keep learning.
“When students are engaged in learning, they are not merely ‘busy’ nor are they only ‘on
task.’ Rather, they are intellectually active in learning important and challenging content”
(Danielson, 2014). Engaging students will have a positive impact on student learning. The
students learn more by doing activities that do not seem like work to them. The students are
young and they want to have fun. The hands-on activities will create learning fun for the students
while also challenging them. This brings back to the focus of the study that the students learn
more from engaging lessons.
STUDY OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Tait 24

References

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (2008). Part 3: Strategies


for Checking for Understanding. Alexandria, Virginia.

Danielson, C. (2014). The Framework for Teaching: Evaluation Instrument.

Hockett, J.A., & Doubet, K.J. (2013). TURNING ON THE LIGHTS WHAT PRE-
ASSESSMENTS CAN DO WHAT PRE-ASSESSMENTS CAN DO. Educational
Leadership. 71(4), 50-54.
https://ebookcentral-proquest.com.ezproxy2.library.drexel.edu

Welch, L.J. (2008). Program 1: Effective Instructional Strategies. Alexandria, Virginia.