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Professional Communications

Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

Verbal - Types,
Listening skills,
Speaking skills
Non verbal –
Body Language,
Para Language,
Visuals and
Visual aids.
Verbal and non-verbal
 Verbal communication is the things we
 Non-verbal communication is the things
we don’t say, but communicate through our
body language.
 Both verbal and non-verbal communication
are important and can say different things.
 It is important we are aware of our own and
others verbal and non-verbal communication.
Non-verbal communication includes
 Facial expressions,

 Eye contact,

 Posture and motions,

 Tone of voice,

 Smell,

 Touch,

 Time & distance,

 It may also include the way we

wear our clothes
 or the silence we keep.

“Only 7% of a message’s effect are carried

by words, the other 93% through non
-verbal means.”
 All the ways we convey
messages and feelings without
 Organized into three categories:
 Sounds (tone of voice, laughter)
 Body Language (movement,
posture, eye contact)
 Environmental factors (touch,
distance, objects, etc.)
 Nonverbal Communication: a system of
symbolic behaviors that includes all forms of
communication except words.
Example: body language

“The most important thing in communication

is to hear what
isn’t being said.”
- Peter F. Drucker
Austrian writer and editor
in g
S p eak  According to the social anthropologist,
Edward T. Hall, in a normal
conversation between two persons,
less than 35% of the social meanings
is actually transmitted by words.
 So, at least 65% of it is conveyed
through the body (non-verbal
 The human body can produce over
700,000 unique movements. These
movements have been partitioned into
about 60 discrete and symbolic
signals and around 60 gestures,
postures, and expressions
 Some basic nonverbal behaviors seem to
be reliable cues as to a person’s state of
 Facial expressions are not learned but

biologically determined.
 Most people can tell what another

person’s facial expression means, but

there are of course exceptions.

 To understand the inner turmoil going on inside the mind

of a person.
 To keep the upper hand in arguments and negotiations.
 Tell that if a person talking to you is telling a lie?
 Detect and send messages of friendship.
 Convey your inner feelings without words.
 Recognize and overcome boredom or defensiveness.
 Recognize the gestures purposely used to make you
 Succeed in delicate and tricky situations
 And many more………..
Why is it important to be aware of your
verbal and non-verbal communication
when going for a job interview?
Job interview
 What would the following body language
communicate to a interviewer:
 Crossed arms
 Frowning face
 Looking at the floor
 Dressed in scruffy clothes
 Tapping foot

 Do you think this body language would help

someone to secure a job?
Job interview
 Remember, first
impressions count and
an interviewers decision
will be largely be
influenced by ‘what you
don’t say’.
 So make sure you polish
your non-verbal
presentation as much as
your verbal.
Nonverbal Communication
& Professional Image
A positive professional image is important to your success
in professional and social contexts.
Through nonverbal communication you can
create a professional image that projects
 confidence
 poise
 Assertiveness

Functions of Nonverbal
 Expands verbal communication by:
 Reinforcing a message
 Contradicting the message
 Substituting for messages

 Conveys emotional and relationship

dimensions of a message.
Characteristics of
Nonverbal Communication
 Subconscious: nonverbal communication is often sent
and received on a subconscious level. We are usually
not aware of the messages we send nonverbally.
• Contextual: nonverbal communication
depends on the situation in which is
• Ambiguous: the meaning is open to
interpretation and often confusing.
• Cultural: nonverbal communication has a
distinct cultural nature.
There are 7 types of nonverbal
 Proxemics
 Haptics
 Chronemics
 Kinesics
 Artifacts
 Vocalics or Paralanguage
 Environment
Body movement and gestures

The study of body movements,

Facial expressions, and
Gestures is called ‘kinesics’.

It is the non-verbal behaviour of

the whole or part of the body.

Body language is scientifically

known as kinesics or non verbal
 Kinesic behavior, or body movement, includes
 gestures,
 hand and arm movements,
 leg movements,
 facial expressions,
 eye gaze and blinking,
 and stance or posture.
 Although just about any part of the body can be
used for communicating nonverbally, the face,
hands, and arms are the primary kinesic
channels through which nonverbal messages
are sent.
Elements of body language:

-Eye contact
- eyebrows
- smile
- handshake
- face
Let’s Examine How Body
Communicates, from head to toes
 Small head nods show continuous attention
 Head is down shows negative emotion
 Lifting chin up and looking down nose is
symbol of superiority
 Straight head indicates neutral position
Eye Contact-Oculesics

-Eye contact : shows attention, Interest and

-Glancing : indicates passing Interest
-Gazing : indicates intense interest
-Staring : interpreted as anger or confusion
-Blinking : indicates ignorance

“The eyes are the windows to the soul.”

• Eye contact is VERY culturally
Eye contacts
Encouraged in America, Canada, Europe
Rude in most Asian countries and in Africa
Raising eyebrows
“Yes” in Thailand and some Asian countries
“Hello” in the Philippines
Winking eye
Sharing secret in America and Europe
flirtatious gesture in other countries
Closed eyes
bored or sleepy in America
“I’m listening and concentrating.” in Japan,
Thailand, China
Eyes and forehead- business transaction
Forehead to lips- social
From head to toe- intimate
Eyes keep shifting- lack of concentration
Blinking and trying to get in focus – shifty
 Vertical- worry
 Horizontal shows happiness
 Raised eyebrow- suspicion
 Eyebrows lowered- disagreement
 Felt smile- upturned mouth with lips closed-
interaction and happiness
 Miserable smile – only half the mouth is
smiling- dissatisfaction
 False smile- slight turn at the end of the
mouth, does not reach eyes- sarcastic,
• Smile universally recognized as sign of friendliness, it has
other meaning to other culture.
• Germans smile less than people from US, but doesn’t
mean Germans are less friendly.
• U.S. wives are usually shown smiling at their husband but
Japanese wives are rarely shown smiling.
Hand movements
 Hugging of the self- uncertainity, lack of
 Arms folded with thumb pointing upward-
superiority complex
 Clasping of hands behind the back- used
by royalty
 Lightly scratching one side of the neck-
 Quick rubbing of hands- excitement
 Rubbing of hands as if hands were being
washed- over with the issue
 Pressing of hands in front of oneself-
 Hands resting lightly on the neck- analyse
the problem
 Stroking of the chin- ideas behind given
careful consideration
Hand shake
 Equal handshake – equal in behaviour
 Tight grasp- superiority complex
 Limp handshake- inferiority complex
 Informal handshake- informal behaviour
Tips on a Perfect Handshake
1. Hand shake is always done with a right hand.
2. Hand should be vertical to the ground.
3. Elbow should be slightly bent.
4. web ( palm) of one person should meet the web of the other
5. Fingers and thumb should entwine.
6. Give slight pressure to show warmth.
7. Look into the eyes of a person.
8. Say some nice words as greeting.
10. up-down-centre movement at least Twice.
11. Release the hand in 3 seconds.
Posture & Gait
Posture & Gait
 Expressions related  In Western culture, an
upright, yet relaxed body
to posture, gait posture, is associated with
 “grow a spine” confidence, positivity, high
 walking with a “spring self esteem (Guerrero &
in your step” Floyd, 2006).
 “stand up for yourself”
 “stand up straight”
 “hold your head high”
 “don’t slouch.”
 “stand still”
Styles of walking
 Hands in pocket, walk disorganized, head
bent – depressed
 Hands in pocket walk disorganized, kicking
an imaginary object – angry
 Focusing of eyes on the ground- lost in
 Focusing of eyes in the air – looking for
 Strutting style of walking- extreme confidence
Posture –Cultural context
 Bowing (not done, criticized, or affected
in US; shows rank in Japan)
 Slouching (rude in most Northern

European areas)
 Hands in pocket (disrespectful in

 Sitting with legs crossed (offensive in
Ghana, Turkey)
 Showing soles of feet.(Offensive in
Thailand, Saudi Arabia)
Are these people expressing the same
emotion, in differing degrees, or different
emotions altogether?
The face is capable of conveying
250,000 expressions (Birdwhistle, 1970)
Face-Express Emotion or Affect
 Blank face- relaxation
 Positive face – desire to be liked
 Negative face –no one likes
 Humans have uniquely
expressive hands.
 A gesture is a movement of the head ,hands
or legs to express an idea feeling or emotion .
 Gestures can be seen as subtle or not so
subtle cues
 We use gestures to take the place of words,
or help us to increase understanding of what
is being said
 Open palm while talking- positive
 Eye to eye confrontation – honest and
 Smile – open personality
• Fidgeting shows
boredom and restlessness.
• Pressing fingers together to form
a steeple
shows interests, assertiveness and
• Touching the nose or rubbing eyes
indicates discomfort.
• A hand to the back of the neck
may indicate
• withdrawal from a conversation.
Open Gestures

Interested people always have an erect posture, pay

attention and lean forward
A firm handshake will give the impression of
assertiveness or honesty
People showing open hands, both feet planted on
the ground are accepting
A head tilted to the side indicates
Closed Gestures
• Leaning backwards demonstrates
aloofness or rejection
• Folding arms across ones chest or body is protective
gives the impression of a closed, guarded and defensive
• People with arms folded, legs crossed and bodies
turned away are signalling
that they are rejecting messages.
• A head down is negative and judgmental
 Openness, Confidence
 Open hands
 Eye contact
 Smile, leaning forward, relaxed
 Standing straight
 Indifference
 Legs crossed
 Shaking one foot
 Glancing at exit
 Yawning
 Fidget
Haptics /Tactilics – Study of Touch as
Nov verbal communication
 Physical contact is the easiest and
one of the earliest forms of human
 The observation of physical
contact gives revealing clues of
non- verbal message
 Touching and being touched are
essential to a healthy life
 Touch can communicate power,
• Who can you touch?
empathy, understanding
• When can you touch?
• How can you touch?
It is a study of how physical contact or touch is used to
communicate the
Examples of haptics are –
-Patting(Back ,Shoulder )
-Shaking hands, Holding hands .
TOUCH-Cultural Context
•In Western culture, handshake is common (even for strangers),
hugs, kisses for those of opposite gender or of family (usually) on
an increasingly more intimate basis.

• Most Africans touch on greeting but are annoyed if touched on

the head (good boy, good girl overtones).

• Islamic and Hindu: typically don’t touch with the left hand. To do
so is a social insult. Left hand is for toilet functions.

• Islamic cultures generally don’t approve of any touching

between opposite-sex (even hand shakes). But consider such
touching (including hand holding, hugs) between same sex to be
Proxemics (space language /distance)

Each communicator has a personal zone and territory

built or constructed around himself which he does not
allow to be invaded during communication unless the
relationship between the speaker and the listener is
Proxemics means nearness between people or
distance maintained during communication.
Personal Space Language
Countless messages are communicated the
way people use space around them
 The way they claim the space for themselves
,or the way they share it .
 How close do you stand to the once your are
communication ?
 Where do you sit in the room ?

 How do you position yourself with respect to

others at a meeting ?
 How furniture is arranged ?
Space Language Communicates
 Relationship with others
 Status
 Level of Confidence
 Purpose of Communication
 Type of event
Four kinds of distances are
Proxemics is divided into four major zones –Informal Space

-Intimate - physical contact to 18 inches.

-Personal- 18 inches to 4 feet
-Social - 4 feet to 12 feet
-Public - 12 feet to range of eyesight and hearing

Edward T. Hall’s 4 levels of distance

Interpersonal Distances
Distance Description Voice

Intimate Touching to 18 Private situation Whisper, Low

inches with people who
are emotionally
Personal 18 inches to 4 Handshake Soft Voice
feet distance.
Social 4 to 12 feet Distance Full Voice
Customers and
Public 12 feet Teacher in a Loud Voice
“ Cultures differ substantially in their use of
personal space“ – Edward Hall(1959).
 Interpersonal distance is
another Non verbal indicator
of power .
 3 basics principle summarize
your use of personal space
in an organization
 The more & better space you
will have
 Better protected territory
 Easier to invade the territory of
lower status personnel
Level of Confidence

 Choices about seating can influence

 Confident persons –often select the position
at a table where they can be seen & see
 People who don’t want to indulge in
communication look for seats where
they can’t be seen
Use of Space for purpose of
Personal Space at Work

 Your office
 Your desk

 A table in the
cafeteria that you
sit at regularly

Microsoft Photo
When you invade my space.
Reactions to an invasion of your space:-

1 Feel troubled
2 Get defensive
3 Become aggressive
4 Retaliate
How is time used to communicate?
 What does it mean to you when someone is
always late?
 A study conducted by Burgoon (1989) found that
people who arrive 15 minutes late are
considered dynamic, but much less competent,
composed and sociable than those that arrive on
 America is an extremely time conscious culture
 Latin cultures versus Anglo cultures
Chronemics:Time language
 How do we manage
and react to others’
management of time
 Punctuality
 Waiting Time
 Duration (Time given to
a task/Person)

How People handle time

is a reflection of their
Involves the following :
 Have you taken any appointment ?
 Do you inform that the meeting shall be of
certain duration ???
 Do you limit your meeting to certain time
limit ?
 Do you intervene and hijack the talk ?
 Do you keep people waiting if someone has
come to see you ?
 Are you punctual for your appointments??
Examples of use of time language
-Delay in replying letters,
-Late coming to office
-Late coming to class or meetings
-Completion of specific task within a time span
communicates -
Frequent late coming or running from office or
Class communicates –

-lack of loyalty, etc
Para linguistics
 Refers to Vocal Communication
 Consists of:
 Pitch
 Tone of Voice
 Vocally produced noises-Laughs
,screams ,sighs etc
 Pause/Silence
 Volume
 Rate of Speech
 Word Stress /Intonations
 Speech Breakers
Ingredients of Paralanguage
Vocal Characteristics:
 laughing, crying, whispering, snoring, yelling, moaning,
groaning, yawning, sneezing, sighing, hiccups
Vocal Interferences
 Extraneous sounds or words
that interrupt fluent speech
 “uh,” “um”
 “you know,” “like”
 Filler
Silence can communicate
 – Agreement.
 – Disagreement.
 – Confusion.
 – Respect.
 – Sadness.
 – Thoughtfulness, or any number of
“Silence in Asia has commonly been entirely acceptable whereas in
the West silence has generally been considered socially
disagreeable.“ – Oliver(1971)
Artifactual Communication
 Physical Appearance
 Clothing ,style
,belongings etc

 What message do
you wish to send
with your choice of
clothing and
Microsoft Photo
personal grooming?
• Clothing can reflect cultural heritage.
• Example:– Traditional clothing of Gambia

• Clothing can reflect subgroup identity.

• Example:– US Army Combat Uniform.

 Communication through the use of artifacts.

 Communicate
 Marital status
 Economic status
 Social status/membership
 Personality

 A smell can trigger the oldest of memories

 We can remember what we smell longer than
what we see & hear.
 Americans are very smell conscious
 Can even be used as a warning system

The study of communication via smell is called Olfactics.

“In all cultures, women can detect odors in lower concentrations,
identify them more accurately and remember them longer than men“
– Doty et al.(1984)
• Western culture — fear of offensive natural smells (billion
dollar industry to mask objectionable odors with what is perceived to be
pleasant ) — again connected with “attractiveness” concept.
• Many other cultures consider natural body odors as normal(Arabic).
• Asian cultures (Filipino, Malay, Indonesian, Thai, Indian) stress
frequent bathing — and often criticize western culture of not bathing
often enough!

 Can communicate pleasure, displeasure or

 We can savor flavors we enjoy.
 What one person perceives as mildly spicy
may be hot and displeasureable to another
Improving Nonverbal
Communication Skills

• When sending messages

• Be conscious of nonverbal behavior
• Be purposeful in use of nonverbals
• Make sure nonverbals are not distracting
• Match verbal and nonverbal communication
• Adapt to the situation
Improving Nonverbal
Communication Skills

• When receiving messages

• Don’t automatically assume
• Consider gender, culture and individual
• Pay attention to all aspects of nonverbal
• Use perception checking
Aspects of Non Verbal
 Kinesics (body language) Body motions such as shrugs, foot
tapping, drumming fingers, eye movements such as winking, facial
expressions, and gestures
 Proxemics (proximity) Use of space to signal privacy or attraction
 Haptics Touch
 Oculesics Eye contact
 Chronemics Use of time, waiting, pausing
 Olfactics Smell
 Vocalics Tone of voice, timbre, volume, speed
 Sound symbols Grunting, mmm, er, ah, uh-huh, mumbling
 Silence Pausing, waiting, secrecy
 Posture Position of the body, stance
 Adornment Clothing, jewellery, hairstyle
 Locomotion Walking, running, staggering, limping
Steepling Hands

This is frequently used in superior/subordinate

interaction. It demonstrates confidence and a
'know-it-all' attitude.

There are 2 versions:

1)The raised steeple - when the person is talking,

expressing their opinion

2) The lowered steeple - when the person is listening

Palm Gripping

This is a confidence/superiority position. The

person has their stomach, heart and throat regions
exposed which is an unconscious act of

If you are in stressful situation assuming this

position can help calm you down and take control
of the situation.
Arms Crossed

This is a negative or defensive position.

Most people will assume this position if they

disagree with what they are hearing.

Even if someone is agreeing with you, if their

arms are crossed they will have a negative
attitude towards you.
Mirroring Positions

This is one of the most important interpretations of body

language we can learn.

You often see two people talking, standing in the same pose.
This indicates that they are in agreement with each other,
they like each other.

If you want to establish a rapport with someone, mirror their

poses - this will have the effect of relaxing them and giving
them a non-verbal indication that you are both thinking along
the same lines.
Brisk, erect walk Confidence
Standing with hands on hips Readiness, aggression
Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly Boredom
Sitting, legs apart Open, relaxed
Walking with hands in pockets, shoulders hunched Dejection
Hand to cheek Evaluation, thinking
Touching, slightly rubbing nose Rejection, doubt, lying
Head resting in hand, eyes downcast Boredom
Sitting with hands clasped behind head, legs crossed Confidence, superiority
Open palm Sincerity, openness, innocence
Tapping or drumming fingers Impatience
Tilted head Interest
Stroking chin Trying to make a decision
Looking down, face turned away Disbelief
Pulling or tugging at ear Indecision
END NOTE : Smile Please !!!!!
Behavior based on
What does this symbol mean to

 In the United States it is a

symbol for good job
 In Germany the number one
 In Japan the number five
 In Ghana an insult
 In Malaysia the thumb is
used to point rather than a

-Atlantic Committee89
for the Olympic Games
Eye Contact and Gaze
Western cultures:
 Direct eye contact seen as positive
 Differs for some races
 African American—more eye contact when talking, less when
 Anglo Americans—often the opposite
 Prolonged eye contact may be seen as sexual interest

Arabic cultures:
 Prolonged eye contact is common
 Shows interest
 Helps them understand truthfulness

Japan, African, Latin American, & Caribbean cultures:

 Avoid eye contact to show respect
Facial Expressions
Many Asian cultures:
Suppress facial expression
as much as possible

Many Mediterranean cultures

Exaggerate grief or sadness

Most American men

Hide grief and sorrow
Western Cultures
 Handshake is common
 Hugs, kisses for those of opposite gender, family
 Some differences between African American & Anglo Americans
Islamic/Hindu cultures
 Typically don’t touch with left hand
 Generally don’t touch between genders; with same sexes is
 Common to see two men or two women holding hands
Many Asian cultures
 Don’t touch the head because it houses the soul
Latino, Middle-Eastern, & Jewish cultures
 Touch is okay—emotion encouraged
 Opposite-sex handshakes acceptable; usually same-sex
English, German, Scandinavian, Chinese & Japanese cultures
 Do not subscribe to overt displays of affection
 Bowing
 Not done, criticized, or affected in US
 Shows rank in Japan

 Slouching
 Rude in most Northern European areas

 Hands in pocket
 Disrespectful in Turkey

 Sitting with legs crossed

 Offensive in Ghana, Turkey

 Showing the soles of feet

 Distasteful in Thailand, Saudi Arabia
 Some cultures are animated, others restrained
 Amount of gesturing varies from one culture
to another
 A gesture acceptable in your culture may be
offensive in another
 e.g. Pointing
 US, Asia with index finger
 Germany with little finger
 Japan with entire hand
General Appearance and

Differing cultural standards

 What is attractive
 What constitutes modesty
 What is required by one’s religion
Different gestures in different
 These gestures are accepted both by Chinese and
Americans as having the same meanings:

 A smile and handshake show welcome ,

 Waving one‘s hand is to say“goodbye”,
 nodding the head means agreement,while shaking it
means disgreement . ( 但是在保加利亚 , 希腊的一些
地方 , 和伊朗 , 却是点头否定 , 摇头肯定。但这是极个别
 Putting up a hand means"May I ask a question?".
 Kissing means"love".
 Waving one's arms show happiness.
Because culture influences
communication. Different country has
different culture. So the way people in
different countries communicate is different
 The gesture of putting a hand on a person' neck is
different for Chinese and Americans. For Chinese,it is to
say"someone will be killed". For Americans, it
shows"I'm full” .
 In Thailand, If you want to signal a person to come
near, you should move the fingers back and forth with
palm down.But in the United States, you ask someone
to come by holding the palm up and moving the fingers
towards our body.
 Crossing one's legs in the United States is a sign of
being relaxed. But in Korea , it's not allowed.
 In Chinese,people hand everything with both hands to
show their respect,but for Muslims,they think the left
hand is unclean and do not eat or pass something with
Because of special culture influences
some counties, some body languages
should attract our attention

 In Turkey , putting one's hand in one's pockets is a sign of


 In some Asican countries, you must not touch the head of another
 And in China, people don't kiss or hug each other ,except hisher
 For an Arab, it is a good manners to stand close to his friend when
they are talking, but for English people, they don't like to be close to
one another.
 And in parts of Asia, you must not sit with your foot pointing at
another person.
All above show that it is important to know
the meaning of gestures and movements in
foreign country, foreigners should follow
these customs, should learn their culture. So
we can communicate with them in a correct
way, not only by words, but also by body
language. I think that it is important in our
lives to show and learn body language .
 Listening: a physical and psychological
process that involves acquiring, assigning
meaning, and responding to symbolic
messages from others.
 The primary reason for listening is to acquire
oral messages from others.

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Importance of Listening
Many important aspects of your life
are influenced by your listening
skills – or lack thereof. Areas in life
directly affected by your
effectiveness as a listener include:
social groups

the workplace

public dialogue

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The Listening Process
Listening is more than hearing sounds
or understanding language. Listening
involves four active steps that build
upon one another:
 Acquiring

 Attending
 Understanding
 Responding

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Acquiring is the act of picking up

some type of stimulus through
the senses, such as hearing.

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Attending is the act of
choosing, consciously
or subconsciously, to
focus your attention on
verbal or nonverbal

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Understanding is
a complex mental
process that
involves decoding
the symbolic
message received
from others and
then interpreting
and assigning
personal meaning
to that message.
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Responding is important to clarify and convey to the
speaker that you are listening. Responding can take
several forms.
• Reflect the speaker’s words (paraphrase).
“What I heard you say was…”
• Ask questions to clarify.
“When you said________, did you mean_______?”
• Summarize the speaker’s points.

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Factors that Affect
The Listening Process
 Noise: anything that interferes with a
 Barriers: any obstacle that blocks
 Memory: the process of retaining or
recalling information.

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 Gestures may be
 Yawning while saying
you are not tired.
 Looking involved but
saying, “I don’t care,”
Emblems :
Movement communicates meaning
 Emblems are body
movements that substitute
for words and phrases.

 We beckon with are index

finger to mean “come here.”
 We use an open hand held
up to mean “stop.”

be wary of emblems,
they may mean something
different in a different
 Emblems are used
 They have verbal
 They have a clear,
consistent meaning
within a particular culture
 Cross my heart
 Shame on you
 Peace sign
 I’m crazy
 Illustrators are used Examples of illustrators
intentionally. Two palms held up signify “I

 Illustrators are tied to don’t know.

Wagging a finger while making a
 They reinforce or supplement point
Rolling one’s eyes in disbelief
what is being said.
“For example” gesture
 Illustrators are most
Just a pinch
common in face-to-face Hitting one’s fist for emphasis
interaction A double head nod
 Illustrators are so habitual, Pointing when giving directions
people use them when I caught a fish this big.
talking on the phone After you
Affect displays
Are these people expressing
the same emotion, in differing
degrees, or different emotions
Affect displays
 Interpreting affect
 Affect displays may or
may not be intentional  Look at the face to
 Affect displays convey determine the emotion
feeling and emotion  Look at body cues to
determine the strength or
 They are often
intensity of the emotion.
communicated via
facial expressions
 They can be difficult to
 Regulators are primarily
unintentional  Types of turn-taking
 They regulate turn-taking Turn-requesting cues
 Turn maintaining cues
 Conversational give and
 Turn yielding cues
take depends on regulators
 Turn denying cues
 Regulate the ebb and
flow of conversation
 Adaptors are usually  Examples of adaptors
unintentional.  Fiddling with one’s hair
 Adaptors include self-  Chewing one’s fingernails
touching behaviors  Tapping one’s foot or leg
 Adapters signal  Biting one’s lips
nervousness,  Scratching one’s arm
anxiousness, boredom  Wringing one’s hands
 Generally speaking,
 Clenching one’s jaw
adapters are
perceived negatively
 However, adaptors may
be perceived as more
genuine, authentic
 Hair twirling is
an adaptor, but
does it always
mean the same
 Object adaptors  Adaptors when
include: students take tests
 Tapping a pencil  Hair twirling
 Drumming one’s
 Scratching
 Ear pulling
 Forehead rubbing
 Adjusting one’s
 Playing with jewelry
Body language
 Mirroring – building rapport with others by
mimicking their nonverbal cues
 People like those who are similar or equal to
 “Mirroring” body language facilitates
 Many self-help books suggest mirroring
techniques to get people to like them
Example: The book Unlimited Power by, Anthony
Features that accompany speech and contribute to
communication but are not considered part of the
language system.
The nonverbal voice qualities, modifiers, and sounds
which we use consciously or unconsciously supporting
or contradicting the linguistic, kinesic, or proxemic
messages either simultaneously or alternating with
How something is said rather than what is said
Vocal Cues

The text combines two common names into one:

vocalics and paralanguage = paravocalics.
• It is all aspects of the voice other than the words
 Studies have found that people who talk
louder, faster, and more fluently are more
 Deep voices are often viewed as more
 Powerless style of communication (pauses,
umhs, uhs, tag questions) lowers perceptions
of credibility
Physical Appearance
 More attractive people are judged to be happier,
more intelligent, friendlier, stronger, and kinder
and are thought to have better personalities,
better jobs, and greater marital competence
(Knapp, 1992)
 Attractive people get more dates, higher grades,
higher tips, and lighter court sentences than
unattractive people (Dunn, 2000)
Meta communication
 Is an implied meaning conveyed by the
choice of words, tone of voice, fumbling ,
silence or omission .
 Eg “ Try to reach airport on time”
 What we surround ourselves with
 Example: The way we decorate our house
tells others a lot about us
Environment is often
used to influence
 Several researchers have found that
supermarkets strategically place products

 Staples such as dairy, meat and produce are in

the back or on opposite sides of the store, in
order to force shoppers to meander through
aisles where they’ll be tempted to buy all kinds
of other products
 Children’s products are usually placed on lower
shelves where they can easily be viewed

 Snack foods, which appeal to impulsive buyers

are usually placed near check-out areas and at
the end of isles where they are more likely to be
snatched up

(Field, 1996; Meyer, 1997: Tandingan, 2001)


Brisk, erect walk Confidence

Standing with hands on hips Readiness, aggression

Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly Boredom

Sitting, legs apart Open, relaxed

Arms crossed on chest Defensiveness

Walking with hands in pockets, shoulders hunched Dejection

Hand to cheek Evaluation, thinking

Touching, slightly rubbing nose Rejection, doubt, lying

Rubbing the eye Doubt, disbelief

Hands clasped behind back Anger, frustration, apprehension

Locked ankles Apprehension

Head resting in hand, eyes downcast Boredom

Rubbing hands Anticipation

Sitting with hands clasped behind head, legs crossed Confidence, superiority

Open palm Sincerity, openness, innocence

Pinching bridge of nose, eyes closed Negative evaluation

Tapping or drumming fingers Impatience

Steepling fingers Authoritative

Patting/fondling hair Lack of self-confidence; insecurity

Tilted head Interest

Stroking chin Trying to make a decision

Looking down, face turned away Disbelief

Biting nails Insecurity, nervousness

Pulling or tugging at ear Indecision

How does it help to know
about kinesics?
 Understanding nonverbal
communication can help us
communicate better. We avoid
misunderstandings. We are clearer
in the meanings we transmit.

Hope It Helps !
Thank you

Silence is a natural and fundamental aspect of


It is an integral part of interpersonal


In many cases it is perceived o.K.. And in many

cases it is perceived as embarrassing.
-silence when we are worrying about a problem on

-Silence which occurs when we are listening attentively

to a speaker or watching a movie

- Silence may depict disagreement

Belongings, etc.)
 Material objects as an extension of oneself
 Clothing has the power to influence
 Change left in a phone booth was returned to
well dressed people 77% of the time, poorly
dressed people only 38% of the time
 Several studies show that fancy suits, uniforms
and high-status clothing are related to higher
rates of compliance.
 The situation governs appropriate dress