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WHAT THE F*@#: THE EFFECTS OF WATCHING MOVIES WITH VIOLENCE AND

PROFANITY AS PERCEIVED BY STUDENTS OF SELECTED SENIOR HIGH


SCHOOLS IN THE CITY OF BATAC

Mary Grace S. Caballero

Practical Research II
October 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract……………..……………………………..………………………………….……..…..i

Acknowledgments………..…………………….……….………………………………....….ii

Chapter I: Introduction……..............….……………………….…………………….………1

Background of the Study.…….……..…..………………………...……..…………..…1

Statement of the Problem………………….…….……………………..………………4

Significance of the Study………………….…….…………………….…..……………4

Scope and Delimitations…………….…….………………………….……...……...….6

Chapter II: Review of Related Literature.……………………..…………….…..………....7

Related Studies…………………………………………….……………….…....……..7

Theoretical Framework…………….……………………………………….………....25

Conceptual Framework…..………………….……………………………….…….…26

Research Paradigm…..…..………………….……………………………….…….…27

Chapter III: Methodology…………………...………………………………….…………....28

Research Design…………………………………………………………….….……..28

Locale of the Study..……………………….……….……………………….………....28

Population and Sample….………….……….…….………………………….…….…29

Research Instrument….………….……….……….……………………….……….…29

Research Process……….………….……….…….………………………….…….…30

Statistical Treatment….….………….……….……………………………….…….…31

Chapter IV: Results and Discussion……….……………..….………………….…..……32


Chapter V: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations………………………..…48

Summary……………………………………………….…..…………………….…….48

Findings………………………………………………………………..…….….……...49

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..….……...51

Recommendations……………………………...……………………………..………51

References……………………………..…………………………………………………..….53

Appendices…………………………...…………………………………………………….…56

Appendix 1: Letter to the Respondent..……………………..……………………….57

Appendix 2: Survey Questionnaire...………………………..……………………….58

Appendix 3: Biodata…….……..……………………………….……………………...60
ABSTRACT

The focus of this study was to investigate the effects of media violence and
profanity as perceived by students of selected senior high schools in the City of Batac.
The researcher used the descriptive quantitative research method and conducted a
survey using questionnaires with a sample of 40 respondents. The data-gathered were
then carefully analyzed and interpreted. Results show 32.5% of the respondents spend
4-7 hours watching movies during weekdays and 55% also spend 4-7 hours during
weekends. Furthermore, 68.25% of the respondents answered that using violence is not
appropriate on most situations and 251 or 62.75% of the respondents answered that
swearing is also not appropriate on most situations. The profiles of the respondents show
a relation to the results of the analysis on the attitudes of the students towards movie
violence and profanity.
The following conclusions were then drawn: despite being underage, most
teenagers have already watched a lot of R-Rated movies which are deemed appropriate
for their age; teenagers are already critical thinkers who evaluates movie content before
applying what they see in real life; and watching movies with violence and profanity does
not guarantee that viewers would also be violent and profane. However, negative effects
are more probable through continuous watching of movies with violence and profanity
towards children than in teenagers.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Three words sum up my experience in finishing this journey: blood, sweat, and

tears. Though not literally, it really felt like this study was going to be the end of me. I

pulled countless all-nighters; darkened and deepened my eyebags which I thought had

reached its limits, but it turned out I was wrong; sacrificed my pocket money and lunch

breaks; and spent most of my hours in front of my laptop screen. However, the success

of this study could not be credited to my own efforts only. A lot of wonderful people have

contributed to the success of this research.

First and foremost, to God Almighty, thank You for lending me the knowledge and

wisdom that I need to complete this journey. I also thank the Lord for giving me the

strength to continue and persevere during the times when I wanted to give up. I am forever

grateful to the Almighty One in all aspects of this study and my life.

To my parents, Harold and Janeth, thank you for fully emotionally and financially

supporting me. I love you both.

My sincerest gratitude goes out to the forty Senior High School Students who

willingly participated in the survey. The completion of this study would not have been

possible without them.

Through it all, my extremely talented mentor, Ms. Eufe P. Madariaga, never

ceased to give her genuine support and guidance. Thank you for your constructive

criticisms, patience, and sacrifices.

I am also very much thankful to Mr. Jan Marc S. Duyao, our dearest homeroom

adviser, who fully supported and understood me. I hope I made you proud sir!

MGSC
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

For decades, films have been an integral part of the entertainment industry catered

to people of all ages. The history of film began in the 1890s and only continued to evolve

through time anchored in the advancement of technology while also matching the

changes in the preference of the audience.

It has become a vital part of most people that in a tally made by the IHS Screen

Digest Cross Platform Movie Market Monitor in 2012, it was shown that worldwide

consumers spent 62.4 billion dollars on movies in 2012 which include theater and buying

and renting movies (on discs, pay-per-view, and digitally) in 37 countries.

However, with the advancement of technology at an unprecedented rate, not only

can consumers watch movies in televisions and theaters, people can also already watch

on their own gadgets such us laptops, tablets, and mobile phones. According to a report

released by Nielsen (2015), it showed that more than two thirds of Filipinos watch movies

on a computer. These heavily imply that movies are not only made available to adults,

but is also gave teenagers and children easy access to films of all genres.

While media effects on students are still debatable, it is important to look after

teenagers and give them the best environment conducive to learning. Teenagers are

undoubtedly still fairly dependent on their parents or caregivers. Thus, looking after them

carefully and monitoring what they do, hear, watch, and say are essential for their

physical, cognitive, emotional, and moral growth.

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It is undebatable that there are various advantages of the advancement of

technology as well as movies in the life of students. Learners can discover new

information that could help them in the different areas of life. It is considered a boon to

the society. However, that same principle could be applied to technology and film’s

disadvantages.

The influence of media equipped by the advancement of technology and the time

they spend on media exposure has given open doors for children and teenagers to adapt

different characteristics they hear or watch. In fact, in a study conducted by Kaiser Family

Foundation (2010), it is revealed that children and teens consume many hours of media

content: a whooping average of seven hours of screen-media per day.

With this fact, it could be deduced that this could pose a problem since a lot of films

are inappropriate for children and even teens, especially films with violence and profanity.

Accordingly, it was roughly estimated from research in the past that about 90% of movies

include some depictions of violence, as do 68% of video games, 60% of TV shows, and

15% of music videos (Wilson, 2008).

Furthermore, The National Television Violence Studies conducted in the mid-

1990s found that 90% of movies shown on television included violent content (Smith et

al., 1998). A look at movie previews that were included in home video releases in 1996

found that 76% included at least one scene of physical aggression, and 46% contained

at least one gun-scene (Oliver & Kalyanaraman, 2002).

In addition to these, in the United States of America, surveys found that even young

audiences have seen violent, R-rated movies. On 2002, one survey of 4,000 ten to 14-

year-olds found that one in four (28%) had seen “extremely violent” movies that were in

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that year’s top box-office hits (Sargent, Heatherton, Ahrens, Dalton, Tickle, & Beach,

2002).

Not only is media violence prominent in the U.S., it is also common in the

Philippines. In a 2001 study by the Philippine Children’s Television Foundation, it was

founded that half of TV programs in the Philippines contain violence. That study says that

at the time its research was conducted, viewers were seeing one violent incident on TV

every 10 minutes, or an average of 6.2 incidents per hour.

The National Council for Children’s Television study found that for every 10

children who said they received guidance from their parents or guardians, only three said

it was “always” while four said it was “often” and three said it was “seldom.” About eight

percent of the respondents said they received no guidance at all.

With these facts and studies in mind, it is most likely probable that problems may

arise as there are some parents who are negligent enough to allow their children to watch

movies like such. These could lead to undesirable effects on the character of the

teenagers which they could assimilate until they become adults.

Even in the local setting of Batac, citizens patronize watching in movie theaters

and movies by including these in their family and peer bonding activities. However, there

might be effects of watching movies with violence and profanity towards teenagers if left

watching unattended or worse, knowingly watching movies with such content.

While there have been limited studies in the past that tackles the effects of

exposure of teenagers to violence and profanity in media, studies on its effects in the local

setting of Batac are scarce. Learning what these effects are would be beneficial to both

teenagers and parents. This inspired the researcher to conduct a study on the said matter.

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Statement of the Problem

This research study aimed to identify the effects of watching movies with violence

and profanity as perceived by students of selected senior high schools in the City of Batac:

It specifically sought to answer the following sub-questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Violence

1.2 Profanity

1.3 Grade/Year level

1.4 Religion

2. What is the attitude of respondents towards movies in terms of:

2.1 Violence

2.2 Profanity

3. What are the evident effects of watching movies with violence and profanity

towards teenagers on the following:

3.1 their language

3.2 their behavior

Significance of the Study

This study would be beneficial to the general public as it focused on the effects of

movies with violence and profanity as perceived by teenagers who are the future of the

nation. This would help the massive percentage of teenagers and even the general public

in the Philippines to become responsible consumers of movies as it influences behaviors

of people especially young children and teens.

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This research also specifically benefits the following:

Movie and Television Review and Classification Board. This research would

aid the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (MTRCB) in maintaining a

strict and responsible regulation and classification in movies and films. It would promote

and support the mandate given to the board, as well as their mission and vision for the

entertainment industry of the Philippines. The results of this study could also be of aid in

reflecting the validity of the cause of MTRCB.

Parents. The results of this research would help parents in identifying the effects

of watching movies with violence and profanity towards their children. It would help them

practice deliberation, full-time guidance, and choosing the right movies and even videos

which are appropriate for their children who are teenagers. Moreover, this study would

aid the parents in ingraining vital moral values towards their children that they would carry

until they become adults.

Teenagers. With the help of the parents, this study would benefit the teenagers in

avoiding the undesirable effects of watching movies with violence and profanity. They

would be able to choose more appropriate films for their age that could instill moral values

and is educational that is more beneficial for them. Furthermore, they would be able to

distinguish movies that contain inappropriate scenes and foul language and learn which

the effects that could happen if children continue to watch them.

Future Researchers. Future researchers would be able to use this study as a

reference for future researches related to the topic. This study also serves as an additional

knowledge to come up with new information and ideas in the same field.

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Scope and Delimitations

It focused on the effects of watching movies with violence and profanity towards

teenagers. It also concentrated on the frequency of families watching movies with

violence and profanity; the teenagers’ reactions on the appropriateness of using

aggressive behavior; and the evident effects of watching movies with violence and

profanity towards teenagers on their language and actions. The questionnaire included

the following specific movies: Deadpool, Logan, The Hangover, 21 Jump Street, Lucy,

Baby Driver, John Wick, Saw, Kick-Ass, X-Men, Transformers, The Wolverine, Guardians

of the Galaxy, The Expendables, and The Final Destination.

This study only focused on movie violence and profanity and did not include sex.

It also did not investigate the relationship between the profile of the informants and their

attitudes towards movies with violence and profanity.

This study is a quantitative research in which the researcher utilized surveys in the

data-gathering with a sample size of 40 informants. This was conducted in the City of

Batac, Ilocos Norte during the months September to October 2017.

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This section presents the review of literature and studies that have relevance to

the investigation of the problem under the study. It provides the basis for conducting the

present study and present similarity and differences with the previous researches

conducted relevant to the subject. This chapter also includes the theoretical framework,

conceptual framework, and research paradigm.

Popular Hollywood Movies with Violence and Profanity

Deadpool

Deadpool is a Rated R movie depicting the story of former Special Forces

operative who became a mercenary named Wade Wilson (Ryan Reynolds). After being

the subject of a rogue experiment that gave him accelerated healing powers, Wade

adopts the alter ego Deadpool. Armed with his new capabilities and a dark, twisted sense

of humor, Deadpool pursuits the man who nearly destroyed his life.

According to Common Sense Media (2013), it has lots of graphic violence, sex,

adult humor, and non-stop strong language. Unlike most other Marvel superhero films,

Deadpool is decidedly grown-up, bloody, and raunchy by comparison.

Logan

Logan is a Rated R movie that tells the story of the mutant superhero once known

as Wolverine. Logan’s (Hugh Jackman) healing powers are starting to wane, everything

is harder for him, and he is always in pain. He hides out in a desert with aged Professor

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Xavier (Patrick Stewart) and albino mutant Caliban (Stephen Merchant). Their superhero

days are over, and no new mutants have appeared in years. One day, a woman arrives,

asking Logan to look after a young girl named Laura (Dafne Keen) and take her to a safe

place in North Dakota.

The movie showcased extreme, bloody comic book violence, including characters

being sliced through flesh and skulls, shot, shown in pain, and killed. A young girl is

involved in the fights, and there's disturbing footage of children being mistreated in a

laboratory setting. Language is also really salty, with many uses of "f--k," "motherf----r,"

"s--t," and much more and suicide is also considered (Common Sense Media, 2013).

The Hangover

The Hangover tells the story of Doug (Justin Bartha) and his three friends (Bradley

Cooper, Ed Helms, Zach Galifianakis) who, two days before Doug’s wedding, drove to

Las Vegas for a wild and memorable stag party. When the three groomsmen wake up the

next morning, they cannot remember a thing; nor can they find Doug. With little time to

spare, the three friends try to re-trace their steps and find Doug so they can get him back

to Los Angeles in time to walk down the aisle. The movie was Rated R for sexual

references, nudity, intensively strong language and drug use.

21 Jump Street

21 Jump Street is a Rated R movie about Schmidt (Jonah Hill) and Jenko

(Channing Tatum) who were not friends in high school. Schmidt was sensitive and smart

and not particularly sporty; Jenko was the opposite. But the police academy they both

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attended is the great equalizer, and they each learn from the other's strengths. They go

to prove they have what it takes by busting a major drug ring by pretending to be in high

school again. The storyline leads to plenty of drug content and also contains lots of strong

language (including "f--k," "s--t," and more), crude references, and sexual innuendoes.

Lucy

This Rated R movie tells the story of Lucy (Scarlett Johansson) who was tricked

by her boyfriend into delivering a briefcase to a supposed business contact and was

abducted by thugs who intend to turn her into a drug mule. She is surgically implanted

with a package containing a powerful chemical, but it leaks into her system, giving her

superhuman abilities. With her former captors in pursuit, Lucy seeks out a neurologist

(Morgan Freeman), who she hopes will be able to help her.

In this movie, the main female character is manhandled, punched, and kicked, and

she also kills some bad guys without consequence. There are some quick documentary-

like flashback scenes of sex between animals as well as between humans, and the main

character sometimes wears sexy, objectifying outfits (Common Sense 2013).

Baby Driver

Baby Driver is a Rated R action-packed crime drama about a young getaway driver

(Ansel Elgort) for a group of bank robbers. In this movie, violence is constant as there are

several mass shootings, with machine-gun deaths choreographed to music; you'll also

see several car accidents with splintering glass and bloody dead bodies, sudden deaths,

blood, and gore. Many of the characters eventually die sudden, terrible deaths.

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The main character is a reckless driver who performs over-the-top stunts.

Characters kiss and make references to "getting it on" or "role-playing." There's lots of

swearing, including "f--k," "ass," "goddamn," and more. One man calls another a "retard"

and a "freak"; he also calls men things like "ladies" to imply they're weak. There are some

smoking and social drinking; one character has a drug addiction he feeds by stealing

(Common Sense 2013).

John Wick

John Wick is a Rated R brutally violent, frequently bloody thriller starring Keanu

Reeves as an assassin. This film presents characters getting shot, maimed, stabbed,

beaten, threatened, killed with firearms at close range, blown to bits in an explosion,

strangled with bare hands, and more. A streak of humor also runs through it, and fight

scenes are choreographed so thrillingly – albeit a gunshot-riddled, rough-and-tumble one.

Lots of swearing are also littered throughout the movie ("f--k," "s--t," and more) and a fair

amount of drinking, as well as pot smoking.

Saw

Saw includes images of torture and death are brutal and explicit, lingering in mind

long after the movie ends. Photographer Adam Stanheight (Leigh Whannell) and

oncologist Lawrence Gordon (Cary Elwes) regain consciousness while chained to pipes

at either end of a filthy bathroom. The two men realize they have been trapped by a

sadistic serial killer nicknamed "Jigsaw" and must complete his perverse puzzle to live.

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In this Rated R movie, there are multiple deaths, a child's life is threatened,

characters die, a father is forced to make terrible decisions to protect his family, and there

are no scenes free of peril. There are also references to suicide, adultery, drug addiction,

madness, and self-mutilation. There's strong language ("f--k," "s--t," and more), and

characters smoke. Underlying the killer's motive is the belief that everyone deserves to

be tortured and that there are no innocents.

Kick-Ass

Teenager Dave Lizewski (Aaron Johnson) decides to reinvent himself as a

superhero after being inspired by the comics he loves – despite a complete lack of special

powers. Dave dons a costume, calls himself "Kick-Ass," and gets to work fighting crime.

This Rated R film features teen characters, and – most notably – an 11-year-old girl who

dole out extreme violence and language (including "f--k" and "c--t" out of the mouth of the

11-year-old). It also depicts some sex scenes between teens and references to drugs. It

has some arguably good messages about taking action instead of standing by when bad

stuff happens, but it also has a relentless, darkly humorous mean streak (Common Sense

Media, 2013).

X-Men

X-Men is a PG-13 film about the children of the atom who were born with a unique

genetic mutation, which at puberty manifested itself in extraordinary powers. In a world

filled with hate and prejudice, they are feared by those who cannot accept their

differences. Led by Xavier, the X-Men fight to protect a world that fears them. They

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engage in a battle with former colleague and friend, Magneto who believes humans and

mutants should never co-exist. X-Men involves a great deal of comic-book violence

executed with near-bloodless restraint but, at the same time, visceral efficiency.

Transformers

Transformers is a PG-13 explosion-heavy action movie based on the '80s cartoon

and action figures that is not for young. The film is packed with scenes of loud, hectic

combat (including gunfire), destruction, and flying missiles and bodies. Moreover, the

characters swear ("bitch," "s--t," "damn," a couple of incomplete "f--ks," etc.), and it

includes some sexual imagery (Common Sense Media, 2013).

The Wolverine

The Wolverine is a fascinating look at the iconic X-Men character and how his past

intersects with his present. It is a wild journey that is often punctuated with violence – the

action scenes are ferocious and vicious, with weapons (guns, knives, arrows, claws, and

more), explosions, and bloody hand-to-hand combat – and some melancholy. The film

also depicts some swearing ("s--t" and one use of "f--k"), a bit of drinking, and some

romance (one scene shows three underwear-clad characters kissing each other) between

the unrelenting action sequences.

Guardians of the Galaxy

Guardians of the Galaxy is a PG-13 Marvel Comics-based sci-fi action adventure

film about a group of misfit outlaws who band together to defend the universe against a

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murderous villain. There' is violence, but it is mostly hand-to-hand combat and a few

deaths (or near deaths) that are heartbreaking for other characters and viewers alike (one

involves a child's loss of a parent), in addition to grand-scale action violence with

explosions and weapons. Language isn't frequent but includes "s--t," "bulls--t," "bitch,"

"ass," "bastard," and "d--k"; at one point, the Guardians also drink an unidentified liquid

that makes them drunk.

The Expendables

The Expendables is an R-Rated film that has its cast filled with living action legends

like Sylvester Stallone, Jason Statham, Jet Li, Arnold Schwarzenegger and Bruce Willis.

It includes over-the-top action violence – including shootings, stabbings, severed limbs,

spurting blood, explosions, and burning bodies.

There's also some violence against women, and language is strong (including both

"f--k" and "s--t"), though not constant. Drugs are a vital part of a subplot, and one character

has a drug problem, even though viewers never see any drugs consumed. Other

characters smoke cigars, pipes, and cigarettes.

The Final Destination

The Final Destination is an R-Rated movie full of bloody, bleak, and violent deaths

– including dismemberment, disembowelment, explosions, impalements, brutal

mutilations, crushing blows, and more. There's also a sex scene with nudity, plenty of

strong language (including "f--k" and "s--t"), and some drinking and smoking (Common

Sense Media, 2013).

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Movie Classification Ratings of MTRCB

General Audience (G)

According to Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (2017),

movies that are rated G admits viewers of all ages. A G or General Audience classification

advises parents or supervising adults that the film is suitable for all audiences.

Parental Guidance (PG)

Viewers below 13 years old must be accompanied by a parent or supervising adult.

A PG or Parental Guidance classification advises parents or supervising adults that the

film may contain any of the elements that may not be suitable for children below 13 years

of age.

Restricted–13 (R-13)

Only viewers who are 13 years old and above can be admitted. An R-13

classification advises parents, supervising adults, or the would-be viewers themselves,

that the film may contain any of the elements that may not be suitable for children below

13 years of age.

Restricted–16 (R-16)

Only viewers who are 16 years old and above can be admitted. An R-16

classification advises parents and supervising adults that the film may contain any of the

elements that may not be suitable for children below 16 years of age.

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Restricted-18 (R-18)

Only viewers who are 18 years old and above can be admitted. An R-18

classification advises viewers, parents, and supervising adults that the film may contain

any of the elements that may not be suitable for children below 18 years of age. This

rating does not mean that the film is "obscene," "offensive," or "pornographic," as these

terms are defined by law (Movie and Television Review and Classification Board, 2017).

Concept of Violence

The concept of violence was reflected in the Convention on the Rights of the Child

in articles 19, 34 and 37, and other human rights treaties and human rights instruments

such as the 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women.

Under article 19 of the Convention and the work of the Committee on the Rights of

the Child, violence included:

"all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent

treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse."

The general definition of child abuse was also agreed upon by the experts

participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Child Abuse

Prevention in 1999:

"child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of physical or emotional ill-

treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other

exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, survival,

development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power.”

(Child Rights International Network, 2017)

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Violence and abuse may occur only once, can involve numerous strategies of

subtle manipulation or may occur recurrently while escalating over a period of months or

years. In any form, violence and abuse deeply affect individual health and well-being. The

roots of all forms of violence are originated in the many types of inequality which continue

to exist and grow in society (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2017).

Types of Violence

Domestic Violence

There are several ways in which violence can be inflicted towards victims.

According to Community Against Violence, Inc. (2016) one of the main types of violence

is the domestic violence. It is a pattern of behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate,

isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone; can

be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions

used by one person to gain or maintain power and control over another or others.

Domestic violence includes physical abuse which involves hitting, slapping,

shoving, grabbing, pinching, biting, hair pulling, etc. Physical abuse also includes denying

a partner medical care or forcing alcohol and drug use. It occurs when someone uses a

part of their body or an object to control a person’s actions (Government of Newfoundland

and Labrador, 2017)

Domestic violence also includes sexual abuse which can be defined as coercing

or attempting to coerce any sexual contact or behavior without consent. Sexual abuse

includes but is certainly not limited to marital rape, attacks on sexual parts of the body,

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forcing sex after physical violence has occurred, or treating one in a sexually demeaning

manner.

Another one under domestic violence is the emotional abuse. It occurs when

people undermine an individual's sense of self-worth and self-esteem. This may include,

but is not limited to constant criticism, diminishing one's abilities, name-calling, or

damaging one's relationship with his or her children.

Economic abuse, on the other hand, is making or attempting to make an individual

financially dependent by maintaining total control over financial resources, withholding

one’s access to money, or prohibiting one’s attendance at school or employment.

Aside from these, under domestic violence is also psychological abuse. It is

caused when an individual inflicts fear by intimidation; threatening physical harm to self,

partner, children, or partner's family or friends; destruction of pets and property; and

forcing isolation from family, friends, or school and work.

Sexual Violence

Another type of violence is the sexual violence (assault/abuse). It is any sexual

behavior or advances towards a person that has not given consent that causes that

person to feel uncomfortable, frightened or intimidated is included in the sexual assault

category. Physical, sexual assault occurs when someone touches any part of another

person's body sexually, even through clothes, without that person's consent. It also

includes, but not limited to forced sexual intercourse (rape), sodomy (oral or anal sexual

acts), child molestation, incest, fondling and attempted rape (Community Against

Violence, Inc., 2016).

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Child Abuse

Violence could also be inflicted through child abuse which is defined as the

deliberate and serious injury inflicted upon a child by a caregiver. There are many ways

in which child abuse could be inflicted – one of which is child neglect. It is the most

frequently reported form of child abuse and the most fatal; defined as the failure to provide

safety, shelter, supervision or nutrition. It can also be physical, emotional, or educational.

Another form of child abuse is physical neglect. It is caused when caregivers refuse

or delay in seeking health care needed by children, abandon, expel from the home or

refuse to allow a runaway to return home, and inadequately supervises a child or children.

Child abuse also involves educational neglect which includes the allowance of

chronic truancy, failure to enroll a child of mandatory school age in school, and failure to

attend to special educational needs.

Aside from these, emotional neglect is also included. It is caused by actions as

considered inattention to the child’s needs for affection, refusal of or failure to provide

needed psychological care, spouse abuse when the child is present, and consent of drug

or alcohol use by the child.

Physical abuse, on the other hand, is a physical injury inflicted upon the child with

cruel and malicious intent. It includes but is not limited to: beating, punching, burning,

shaking, kicking, biting, or otherwise bodily harming a child.

Emotional abuse is also included in child abuse. It is also called psychological child

abuse, verbal child abuse, or mental injury of a child. Emotional abuse includes acts or

lapses by parents or other caregivers that could cause serious behavioral, emotional, or

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mental disorders. Examples of this can be bizarre forms of punishment, such as detaining

a child in a dark closet, extreme name-calling, and other more.

In addition to these, sexual abuse is also under child abuse. It includes touching a

child’s genitals, exhibitionism, rape, incest, sodomy, intercourse, or commercial

exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials.

Youth and Dating Violence

The Community Against Violence, Inc. (2016) also added that youth & dating

violence is a type of violence that showcases a pattern of abusive behaviors used to exert

power and control over a dating partner. Teens and young adults experience the same

types of abuse in relationships as adults. This can include physical abuse and sexual

abuse.

Stalking

Stalking is another type of violence in the form of repeated, unwanted attention,

harassment, and contact. It can be caused by following or waiting for the victim; repeated

unwanted, intrusive, and frightening communications from the perpetrator by phone, mail,

and/or e-mail; damaging the victim’s property; making direct or indirect threats to harm

the victim, the victim’s children, relatives, friends, or pets; and repeatedly sending the

victim unwanted gifts.

Stalking also involves harassment through the Internet, known as cyberstalking,

online stalking, or Internet stalking; securing personal information about the victim by

accessing public records (land records, phone listings, driver or voter registration). It can

19
also be caused by using Internet search services, hiring private investigators, contacting

friends, family, work, or neighbors, going through the victim’s garbage, following the

victim, and other more.

Elder Abuse

Elder Abuse is another caused by either physical, sexual, emotional or financial

abuse of an older adult, usually, one who is disabled or frail by a caregiver (either in the

person's home or an institution). Elder abuse includes physical abuse, sexual abuse,

emotional (psychological), financial or material exploitation which is the improper/illegal

use of an elder’s funds, property or assets, neglect, and self-neglect.

Additionally, another type of violence that is more prevalent and relevant in today's

age is the technology-assisted abuse. It can be caused by using cell-phones, computers,

social networks and other electronic tools to bully, stalk, intimidate, harass, frighten or

otherwise harm someone.

It includes cyberstalking which is a pattern of threatening behavior or unwanted

advances directed at another using the Internet and other forms of online and computer

communications, as well as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a willful and repeated harm

inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices

(Community Against Violence, Inc., 2016).

Spiritual Violence

Furthermore, spiritual (or religious) violence, another type of violence, occurs when

someone uses a person’s spiritual beliefs to manipulate, dominate or control the person.

20
Spiritual violence includes, but is not limited to: not allowing the person to follow her or

his preferred spiritual or religious tradition; forcing a spiritual or religious path or practice

on another person; belittling or making fun of a person’s spiritual or religious tradition,

beliefs or practices; and, using one’s spiritual or religious position, rituals or practices to

manipulate, dominate or control a person (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador,

2017).

Background on Offensive Language

Functions of Swearing

In a study conducted by Wang (2013), it was stated that swearing or uttering

offensive language had been frowned upon by people in the society long before.

Nevertheless, a lot of people still swear in their everyday lives and is even presented in

the media. Therefore, researchers believed that swearing must have some unique

functions that other linguistic means cannot easily accomplish.

Similar research within this subject has been conducted by Pinker (2008). He

observed that swearing could be used for many different functions within numerous

situations. He pointed out that cursing can carry powerful emotional feelings – not only

negative but also positive emotions. However, this is only one of the many functions of

swear words.

According to the study conducted by Wang (2013), one primary function of

swearing is to express emotions. Jay (2000) suggests that the main purpose of swearing

is to show the speaker's emotional state to listeners. Usually, swearing is linked with

negative emotions, such as to release stress or tension or express anger. However,

21
Crawford (1995) stated that as a form of emotional expression, swearing could also be

used to exhibit a range of positive emotions such as excitement, enthusiasm, happiness,

and surprise.

Wang (2013) further added that emphasis is also a function of swearing. Emphasis

as a function of swearing displays the impact or emotional charge of a message. A

speaker is using swear words as a means of emphasizing his or her feelings about

something. In Stapleton's (2003) study, she stated that the emphatic function of swearing

is to help speakers to get their messages across.

Another important pragmatic purpose of using swearwords is to establish and

reinforce group identity or solidarity as between friends or classmates. In addition to the

other functions, Wang (2013) also included aggression. Aggression swearing can be used

for aggressive purposes towards a particular target.

Categories of Offensive Language

According to Battistella (2005), offensive language has several categories:

epithets, profanity, vulgarity, and obscenity. Epithets are various types of slurs, such as

wop, raghead, bitch, or fag. Usually, these refer to ethnicity, race, gender, or sexuality,

but they may also pertain to appearance, disabilities, or other characteristics (e.g., midget,

gimp, and retard).

Profanity, on the other hand, is known as religious cursing. This ranges from a mild

or damn or hell to a more emphatic goddamn, and it involves the ill-mannered use of what

is taken to be sacred.

22
Vulgarity and obscenity refer to words or expressions which characterize sex-

differentiating anatomy or sexual and excretory functions in a crude or lewd way, such as

shit and fuck. The main difference between vulgarity and obscenity is only the degree of

prurience. The categories of epithet, profanity, and vulgarity or obscenity are not

exclusive.

Stages of Adolescent Development

Early Adolescence (11–13 years old)

According to World Health Organization (2010), early adolescence is the time

wherein puberty takes place. Young girls and boys aged eleven to 13 years old start to

undergo physical development including growth of body hair and increase perspiration

and oil production in hair and skin.

In this stage, girls’ breasts and hips start to develop and most begin to have their

menstruation. On the other hand, boys’ testicles and penis start to grow, have wet

dreams, and experience deepening of the voice. Both girls and boys also experience

tremendous height and weight gain, and they also start to have higher sexual interest.

Cognitive development in this stage includes their growing capacity for abstract

thought. However, most are interested in the present with limited thought to the future.

Their intellectual interests also start to expand and become more important, and they

begin to think deeper morally.

Furthermore, World Health Organization (2010) also stated social-emotional

development in this stage that includes: struggle with their sense of identity; feelings of

awkwardness about one’s self and one’s body; and worrying about being normal. In this

23
stage, young boys and girls begin to realize that their parents are not perfect and there is

also an increased conflict with parents as well as an increased influence of peer group.

They begin to desire for independence; however, there is still the tendency for the

adolescents to return to “childish” behavior, particularly when stressed. Moodiness is also

present, and they take a greater interest in privacy.

Middle Adolescence (13–18 years old)

In this stage, puberty is already completed. World Health Organization (2010)

added that physical growth slows for girls; however, it continues for boys. In their cognitive

development, there is continued growth of capacity for abstract thought; greater capacity

for setting goals; interest in moral reasoning; and thinking about the meaning of life

Adolescents in this stage also undergo several social-emotional developments

including: intense self-involvement, changing between high expectations and poor self-

concept; continued adjustment to changing body and worries about being normal;

tendency to distance selves from parents as a result of continued drive for independence;

adolescents driven to make friends and greater reliance on them; and feelings of love and

passion.

Late Adolescence (19–21 years old)

In this stage, young women, typically, are fully developed. However, young men

continue to gain height, weight, muscle mass, and body hair. Cognitive developments

include ability to think ideas through; ability to delay gratification; examination of inner

24
experiences; increased concern for future; continued interest in moral reasoning; and

firmer sense of identity.

It also includes: increased emotional stability; increased concern for others;

increased independence and self-reliance; peer relationships remain important;

development of more serious relationships; social and cultural traditions regain some of

their importance (World Health Organization, 2010).

Theoretical Framework

According to Common Sense Media (2013), media violence indicates reasons to

be concerned that viewing (or playing) violent content increases the chance that a child

will engage in violent behavior later in life — especially if the child is aggressive to begin

with, and especially if other risk factors are present, such as growing up in a violent home.

Furthermore, Common Sense Media (2013) stated that a probably more accurate

and useful view about media violence is that it is a “risk factor” rather than a “cause” of

violence — one variable among many that increases the risk of violent behavior among

some children. Just as not all children raised in violent homes will become violent, not all

children who play violent video games will become violent — but there is a greater chance

that they will, especially if there are multiple risk factors operating at the same time.

Felson (1996) stated that there are many times when children learn how to be

aggressive in new ways from violent shows, and they will copy what they see. This

information may give direction to those who are already aggressive. Such a modeling

process could lead to more severe forms of aggression. It could increase the frequency

25
of violent behaviors if children who are motivated to harm someone chose a violent

method the saw on television.

Kalin (1997) stated that children who are heavy viewers of televised violence might

lose the ability to emphasize, protest, and to become distressed by real-life acts of

violence. They are found to be less aroused by violent scenes than those who watch only

a little and are also less bothered and less likely to see anything wrong with it.

Stone, McMillan, & Hazelton (2010) suggest that swearing is typically not tolerated

by others in the presence of children. They also added that one of the most notable

characteristics of swearing is its involvement in the expression of strong emotions, either

positive or negative, such as anger, frustration or joy.

Vingerhoets, Bylsma, & Vlam (2013) also theorized that demographic factors, such

as gender or age could influence a person's swearing behavior. Although swearing was

long considered a predominantly masculine activity, women now tend to swear as much,

or even more often, than men. People of lower socio-economic status also appear to

swear more often. Swearing or not swearing in a certain situation is also dependent on a

person's education and the toleration of swearing by that person's parents.

Conceptual Framework

This study was designed to assess the hypothesis that if teenagers watch movies

with violence and profanity, then it would have little to no effect on their attitudes towards

violence and profanity in real-life. Teenagers are already responsible and mature; thus,

there would not be any significant adverse effects on their language and behavior.

26
The researcher queried for the profiles of the teenagers including their age and

grade or year level. It also includes their availability to movies and amount of time spent

watching movies; their attitude towards the movie and real-life violence; acceptability of

aggressive behavior; and self-assessment on violence. The process involves the

distribution of questionnaires for the survey; analysis of data; and interpretation of data.

With these data in hand, the output would provide information on the effects of watching

movies with violence and profanity towards teenagers.

Research Paradigm

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

• Age and Grade/Year


level of Participants
• Amount of Time Spent
The Effects of Watching
Watching Movies
• Collection of Data Movies with Violence and
• Availability of Through Survey Profanity as Perceived by
Participants Towards
• Analysis of Data Students of Selected
Movies
• Interpretation of Data Senior High Schools in the
• Attitudes of Teenagers City of Batac
Towards Movie
Violence
• Acceptability of

27
CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

This chapter comprehensively includes the information about the research design,

where the study was conducted, the number of informants, the instrument used to gather

data, and research process of the study.

Research Design

This research was conducted using the descriptive or non-experimental

quantitative research. This method focused on the effects of movies with violence and

profanity towards teenagers below. This method also focused on the frequency of

teenagers watching movies with violence and profanity and their attitudes towards movie

violence and profanity.

Locale of the Study

This study will be conducted in the City of Batac particularly General Artemio

Ricarte Senior High School and Immaculate Conception Academy from September to

October, 2016.

General Artemio Ricarte Senior High School is a stand-alone Senior High School

temporarily located at Barangay 1-S Valdez, City of Batac. It offers Science, Technology

Engineering and Mathematics strand (STEM). It has a population of 171 students: 44 from

Grade 11–Pythagoras; 44 from Grade 11–Leeuwenhoek; 41 from Grade–12 Weierstrass;

and 42 from Grade–12 Schrodinger.

28
Immaculate Conception Academy is a Catholic educational institution that is

located beside the Immaculate Conception Parish at Barangay 1-S Valdez, City of Batac.

It offers education from Kindergarten to Senior High school including Science,

Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Accountancy and Business

Management (ABM), General Academic Strand (GAS) and Technical-Vocational

Livelihood courses. Specifically, in STEM, it comprises of 139 students: 86 from Grade

11 and 53 from Grade 12.

Population and Sampling

This study will target the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

students of General Artemio Ricarte Senior High School (GARSHS) and Immaculate

Conception Academy (ICA). Using random sampling, 40 respondents were selected. 20

students were chosen from GARSHS: ten from Grade 11 and ten from Grade 12. The

other 20 students were chosen from ICA: ten from Grade 11 and ten from Grade 12.

Research Instrument

The researcher used a survey questionnaire – divided into four parts – to elicit

information that answers the main problem of this research.

Part One of the survey contained personal profile of the respondents including their

name, age, gender, and religion. Part Two contain a series of 4 questions whose purpose

was to assess the teenager’s availability to movies and the amount of time watching

movies.

29
Part Three was adapted from a study conducted by Bobbi Jo Kenyon titled “The

Effects of Televised Violence on Students”. In this survey section, the participants were

questioned about when a given aggressive behavior is acceptable to them. Choices

include always appropriate, sometimes appropriate, and not appropriate. Samples

questions include: to hit someone back who hit you, to use revenge, to defend yourself,

to kill a criminal, and to swear at someone who made you angry. In this part, the

researcher wanted to see the if the aggressive behavior they saw in movies made them

believe that it was appropriate to use in certain situations.

In the last section which is Part Four, the participants were questioned about when

is it appropriate to use swearwords. Choices include always appropriate, sometimes

appropriate, and not appropriate. Samples questions contain: to hit someone back that

hit you, to defend yourself with a weapon, to hit a child or woman, any circumstance, to

hit something when you are angry, to kill someone purposefully, and others. In this part,

the researcher wanted to see the if the profanity they hear in movies made them believe

that it was appropriate to use in certain situations.

Research Process

The researcher followed a logical and chronological procedure for the data-

gathering. Below were the steps taken in the collection of data needed for the completion

of this study:

Identifying the Key Informants. The researcher decided to conduct a survey

towards teenagers aged 13 to 19 since they are the millennials of today’s time having

more exposure to media than any other age group.

30
Drafting the Survey Questionnaire. The researcher made sure to write guide

questions that specifically answered the main problem of the study and its sub-questions.

Informing the Key Informants. The researcher then reached out to the

informants through private messages asking them to participate in answering the

prepared questionnaires.

Floating the Survey Questionnaires. The survey was conducted using the

prepared survey questionnaire. The researcher made sure to give the participants the

instructions in answering the questionnaire as well as reassuring them on the

confidentiality of their names and answers.

Tallying and Tabulating. After the participants answered the questionnaire, it was

then collected soon after. After the collection of data, it was then tallied and the results

were tabulated to support the results and to make the analysis uncomplicated.

Analyzing the Data. After tallying and tabulating, the researcher then analyzed

the data gathered in respect to each question from the main problem. The tallied and

tabulated data were carefully analyzed several times to make sure that the results would

be as accurate as possible.

Statistical Treatment

For the purpose of analysis and interpretation, the responses to the questions on

the questionnaires were tallied and tabulated accordingly. The assessment tool the

researcher used was descriptive statistics which includes and considers frequency count

and percentage.

31
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the detailed results, analysis, discussions and implications

of the study conducted of the data collected from 20 students in General Artemio Ricarte

Senior High School and 20 students in Immaculate Concepcion Academy in relation to

the objectives of this study. This study aimed to determine the effects of watching movies

with violence and profanity as perceived by students of selected senior high schools in

the City of Batac. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data and were

responded by 40 participants. Moreover, the researcher has assured the participants that

the data collected will be used for academic purposes only and that their identities will be

completely confidential. The analytical procedures are arranged according to the

sequence of specific questions in the statement of the problem.

Demographic Profile of the Respondents

Based on Table 1, it can be seen that 35 (88%) respondents are students aged

16-17 years old; 4 (10%) are 18-19 years old; and 1 (2%) respondent is aged around 13-

15 years old. It is also shown that among the participants, 21 or 52.5% were male and 19

or 47.5% were females.

The distribution of the respondents’ grade level is equal as shown on Table 1. This

agrees with the study’s population sample wherein 20 students were chosen from

GARSHS: ten from Grade 11 and ten from Grade 12. The other 20 students were chosen

from ICA: ten from Grade 11 and ten from Grade 12.

32
Table 1. Characteristics of the Respondents

Frequency Percentage (%)


Age
13-15 1 2
16-17 35 88
18-19 4 10
Gender
Male 21 52.50
Female 19 47.50
Grade Level
Grade 11 20 50
Grade 12 20 50
Religion
Catholic 15 37.50
Baptist 2 5
Born Again 11 27.50
Iglesia ni Cristo 2 5
Aglipayan 7 17.50
Mormon 1 2.50
Protestant 2 5

The researcher asked the participants to state their religion in the questionnaire.

After analyzing the results, it was determined that 15 (37.5%) of the respondents are

Catholic; 11 (27.5%) are Born Again; 7 (17.5%) are Aglipayan; 2 (5%) are Baptist; 2 (5%)

are Iglesia ni Cristo; 2 (5%) are Protestant; and 1 (2.5%) of the respondents is a Mormon

as shown on Table 4. This shows that all of the participants have religious affiliations.

33
Amount of Time Watching Movies

Consumers of Movies

When asked if participants watch movies, all forty of the respondents or 100%

answered yes as shown on Table. This just shows that movies have been and still are

relevant today as entertainment to people of all ages. Since all of the participants watch

movies, it can be deduced that teenagers are prone to be exposed to a lot of themes that

are suitable and not suitable alike to their age.

Table 2. Consumers of Movies

Choices Frequency Percentage (%)


Yes 40 100
No - -

Movies with Violence and Profanity

Almost all movies in produced nowadays, especially Hollywood movies, contain

scenes with violence and profanity regardless of the screen-time. Even movies which are

deemed appropriate for children have some violent scenes incorporated in them.

Moreover, lately, there have been many popular movies which are classified as Rated R

by MTRCB and Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).

Movie consumers aged 17 below are usually prohibited to watch Rated R films in

movie theaters. However, because of the availability of movies through the internet and

CDs, anyone can watch these movies regardless if it is appropriate for the consumer’s

age or not.

34
Table 3 shows the results when respondents were asked what movies with

violence and profanity they have already watched. 36 (90%) out 40 respondents have

already watched The Final Destination which is a R-Rated movie full of bloody, bleak,

and violent deaths and plenty of strong language (including "f--k" and "s--t"), and some

drinking and smoking (Common Sense Media, 2013).

This is followed by Deadpool and 21 Jump Street which has already been watched

by 32 (80%) respondents. Deadpool is a Rated R movie depicting the origin story of

former Special Forces operative turned mercenary Wade Wilson (Ryan Reynolds).

According to Common Sense Media (2013), it has lots of graphic violence, sex, adult

humor, and nonstop strong language. Unlike most other Marvel superhero films,

Deadpool is decidedly grown-up, bloody, and raunchy by comparison.

Table 3. Movies with Violence and Profanity

No. of Hours Frequency Percentage (%)


Deadpool 32 80
Logan 29 72.5
The Hangover 19 47.5
21 Jump Street 32 80
Lucy 30 75
Baby Driver 25 62.5
John Wick 27 67.5
Saw 34 85
Kick-Ass 21 52.5
X-Men 31 77.5
Transformers 30 75
The Wolverine 22 55
Guardians of the Galaxy 24 60
The Expendables 28 70
The Final Destination 36 90

35
On the other hand, 21 Jump Street is a Rated R movie with a storyline that leads

to plenty of drug content and also contains lots of strong language (including "f--k," "s--t,"

and more), crude references, and sexual innuendoes.

On the other end, 22 (55%) of the respondents have already watched The

Wolverine; 21 (52.5%) have watched Kick-Ass; and only 19 (47.5%) have seen The

Hangover. The Wolverine is a movie filled with violence and some melancholy. The film

also depicts some swearing ("s--t" and one use of "f--k"), a bit of drinking, and some

romance between the unrelenting action sequences.

The Hangover was Rated R for sexual references, nudity, intensively strong

language and drug use while Kick-Ass is Rated R for featuring teen characters who dole

out extreme violence and language. It also depicts some conspicuous sex scenes

between teens and references to drugs (Common Sense Media, 2013).

These agree with the surveys conducted in the United States of America wherein

it is found that even young audiences have seen violent, R-rated movies. On 2002, one

survey of 4,000 ten to 14-year-olds found that one in four (28%) had seen “extremely

violent” movies that were in that year’s top box-office hits (Sargent, Heatherton, Ahrens,

Dalton, Tickle, & Beach, 2002).

These findings imply that since most of the respondents are still underage and

most of them have also watched Rated R movies, teenagers watch any movie they want

regardless of its ratings on age-appropriateness. Most teenagers nowadays are more

open to various movie content and themes that older people might consider inappropriate

for the underaged. This makes teenagers more exposed and prone to the effects of media

content.

36
Gadgets Used in Watching Movies

Movies are readily available nowadays as the advancements in technology are in

its peak. If decades ago you could only watch films on limited materials such as CDs,

VCRs, and VHS tapes, now, you can watch on almost every gadget available in the

market. Not only could you watch movies easily because of the gadgets, but also because

of the availability of the internet. It all depends on the consumers on what gadgets are

available to them in watching movies.

Table 6 shows the result when respondents were asked what gadgets they use in

watching movies. It was shown that 32 (80%) out of the 40 respondents watch movies in

their laptops; 27 (67.5%) watch in their mobile phones or smartphones; 20 (50%)

answered television; 9 (22.5%) respondents watch on their computer desktops; and 7

(17.5%) watch on their tablets.

Table 4. Gadgets Used in Watching Movies

Gadgets Frequency Percentage (%)


Mobile Phones/Smartphones 27 37.5
Laptop 32 80
Computer/Desktop 9 22.5
Tablet 7 17.5
Television 20 67.5

These agree with what was stated in the background of the study that with the

advancement of technology at an unprecedented rate, not only can consumers watch

movies in televisions and theaters, people can also already watch on their own gadgets

such us laptops, tablets, and mobile phones. According to a report released by Nielsen

(2015), it showed that more than two thirds of Filipinos watch movies on a computer.

37
These heavily imply that movies are not only made available to adults, but is also

gave teenagers and children easy access to films of all genres. One could already watch

movies in their smartphones which almost everyone – including children – own now.

Hours Spent in Watching Movies During Weekdays

During schooldays, lessons, homework, projects, and tasks usually stress

students out which is why they always take time to relax and take a break from school

woks. While there are a lot of ways to relax such as playing sports, reading books, and

exercising, indulging oneself in media content through the advanced technologies also

make students take their mind off work for a little while.

In Table 7, when respondents were asked how many hours they spend in watching

movies during schooldays (Monday to Friday), 24 (60%) out of 40 responded that they

watch 0-3 hours; 13 (32.5%) answered 4-7 hours; and 3 (7.5%) out of 40 answered 8-12

hours.

Table 5. Hours Spent in Watching Movies During Weekdays

No. of Hours Frequency Percentage (%)


0-3 hour 24 60
4-7 hours 13 32.5
8-12 hours 3 7.5
13-16 hours - -
17-20 hours - -
21-25 hours - -
over 25 hours - -

These show that most of the teenagers in senior high schools spend only 0-3 hours

in watching movies during schooldays. However, there are also a lot of students who

38
spend 4-7 hours and some even 8-12 hours. These numbers show how much exposed

teenagers are to movies and its contents considering that they also have to balance their

studies while watching.

This variates with the study conducted by Kaiser Family Foundation (2010)

wherein it is revealed that children and teens consume many hours of media content: a

whooping average of seven hours of screen-media per day.

Hours Spent in Watching Movies During Weekends

It could be understandable that students could not watch as much movies on

weekdays than on weekends since a lot of school works might pile up leaving them no

time to watch movies. Weekends considerably give teenagers who are students more

time to relax by watching movies and doing other recreational activities.

In Table 8, the respondents were asked how many hours they spend in watching

movies during weekdays and 22 (55%) out of 40 answered that they spend 4-7 hours; 8

(20%) answered 0-3 hours; 6 (15%) answered 8-11 hours; 3 (7.5%) of the respondents

answered 16-20 hours; and only 1 (2.5%) answered 12-15 hours.

Table 6. Hours Spent in Watching Movies During Weekends

No. of Hours Frequency Percentage (%)


0-3 hours 8 20
4-7 hours 22 55
8-11 hours 6 15
12-15 hours 1 2.5
16-20 hours 3 7.5
over 20 hours - -

39
These show that teenagers significantly spend a lot more hours watching movies

on weekends (Saturday and Sunday) than on schooldays. Therefore, teenagers are more

prone to getting exposed towards movies with violence and profanity during weekends

than in weekdays.

Perception on Violence

Violence is known as the all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse,

neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse which

is why films with these depictions are usually Rated R. However, it has become normal

in the movie industry to include violent scenes that home video releases in 1996 found

that 76% included at least one scene of physical aggression, and 46% contained at least

one gun-scene (Oliver & Kalyanaraman, 2002).

Table 10 presents the result when the respondents were asked on their perception

on violence in various situations. When the respondents were asked if hitting someone

back that hit you was appropriate, 20 (50%) answered sometimes appropriate; 13 (32.5%)

answered not appropriate; and 7 (17.5%) out of forty participants answered appropriate

When asked if defending oneself with a weapon is appropriate, 24 (60%) answered

not appropriate; 9 (22.5%) of the respondents answered appropriate; and 7 (17.5%)

answered sometimes appropriate.

The participants were then asked if hitting a child or a woman in any circumstance

is appropriate. 38 (95%) out of 40 answered not appropriate; 2 (5%) answered sometimes

appropriate; and none answered that it was appropriate. When the participants were

40
asked if hitting something when angry is appropriate, 20 (50%) of the respondents

answered sometimes appropriate and 20 (50%) answered not appropriate.

Aside from these, when asked if killing someone purposefully is appropriate, 39

(97.5%) out of 40 answered not appropriate and 1 (2.5%) answered sometimes

appropriate. To fight to stick up for someone garnered 19 (47.5%) answers as not

appropriate; 17 (42.5%) answered sometimes appropriate; and 4 (10%) answers from

respondents as appropriate.

When respondents were asked if getting revenge for something someone did to

them was appropriate, 20 (50%) out of 40 respondents answered not appropriate; 18

(45%) answered sometimes appropriate; and 2 (5%) ans

wered that it was appropriate. On the other hand, when asked if killing a criminal

or “bad guy” is appropriate, 31 (77.5%) answered that it was not appropriate; 7 (17.5%)

answered sometimes appropriate; and 2 (5%) answered appropriate.

Furthermore, when the participants were asked if stealing something you want that

you cannot afford is appropriate, all 40 (100%) of them answered that it was not

appropriate. On killing instead of be killed, 29 (72.5%) answered that it was not

appropriate; 8 (20%) answered that it was sometimes appropriate; and 3 (7.5%) said that

it was appropriate.

Overall, all of the situations stated which involves violence in different scenarios

garnered a total of 25 or 6.25% answers that using violence is appropriate on certain

occasions; violent actions are sometimes appropriate garnered a total of 100 or 25%

responses from the 40 participants; and not appropriate gained a total of 273 or 68.25%

responses which amassed the most responses from the participants.

41
Table 7. Perception on Violence

Sometimes Not
Appropriate
Situations Appropriate Appropriate
f % f % f %
To hit someone back that hit you 7 17.5 20 50 13 32.5
To defend yourself with a weapon 9 22.5 7 17.5 24 60
To hit a child or woman, any
- - 2 5 38 95
circumstance

To hit something when you are angry - - 20 50 20 50

To kill someone purposefully - - 1 2.5 39 97.5

To fight to stick up for someone 4 10 17 42.5 19 47.5


To get revenge for something
2 5 18 45 20 50
someone did to you
To kill a criminal or “bad guy” 2 5 7 17.5 31 77.5
To steal something you want and
- - - - 40 100
cannot afford
To kill instead of be killed 3 7.5 8 20 29 72.5
TOTAL 27 67.5 100 250 273 682.5
AVERAGE 2.7 6.75 10 25 27.3 68.25

These results agree with Common Sense Media (2013) has stated that a probably

more accurate and useful view about media violence is that it is a “risk factor” rather than

a “cause” of violence — one variable among many that increases the risk of violent

behavior among some children and teenagers. Just as not all students raised in violent

homes will become violent, not all students who watch movies with violence will become

violent — but there is a greater chance that they will, especially if there are multiple risk

factors operating at the same time.

These imply that just because students watch movies with violence, they would

also become violent. However, it could also affect their mindset on violence and make

42
them think that it is acceptable to use violence on certain situations. There are a lot of

respondents who answered that displaying violent behavior is sometimes appropriate

depending on the situation and only a few answered that it is totally appropriate. However,

majority of the respondents answered that it is not appropriate.

The profiles of the respondents might be a factor to the results of the analysis.

Since the participants are in their teens approaching adulthood, they already have a

sound mind which enables them to think critically, evaluate movie content, and distinguish

right from wrong. The fact that all of the respondents have religious affiliations also

suggests a strong relation to the results of the study. This indicates that the respondents

are taught moral values in their respective churches on dealing with various situations

involving violence.

Perception on Swearing

In a study conducted by Wang (2013), it was stated that swearing or uttering

offensive language had been frowned upon by people in the society long before.

Nevertheless, a lot of people still swear in their everyday lives and is even presented in

the media. Before, movie producers make an effort to censor curse; however, movies

nowadays openly display scenes with strings of curse words coming from the mouth of

the actors and actresses.

Table 11 presents the analysis and results of the perception of respondents on

swearing. When participants were asked if swearing when feeling extreme emotions is

appropriate, results show that 20 (50%) out of 40 respondents answered sometimes

43
appropriate; 17 (42.5%) answered not appropriate; and 3 (7.5%) answered that it was

appropriate.

These coincides with the study conducted by Wang (2013) wherein it was stated

that one primary function of swearing is to express emotions. Jay (2000) suggests that

the main purpose of swearing is to show the speaker's emotional state to listeners.

Usually, swearing is linked with negative emotions, such as to release stress or tension

or express anger. However, Crawford (1995) stated that as a form of emotional

expression, swearing could also be used to exhibit a range of positive emotions such as

excitement, enthusiasm, happiness, and surprise which half of the respondents answered

that it was sometimes appropriate.

Based on Table 11, it is also shown that when respondents were asked if swearing

at people who offend you is appropriate, 21 (52.5%) answered that it is not appropriate;

18 (45%) answered sometimes appropriate; and 1 (2.5%) answered appropriate. On the

matter of using swear words for emphasis, 24 (60%) of the respondents said that it is not

appropriate; 13 (32.5%) answered sometimes appropriate; and 3 (7.5%) answered

appropriate.

On using swearwords for emphasis, more than half of the respondents disagree

with the study conducted by Stapleton (2003) in which she stated that a speaker is using

swear words as a means of emphasizing his or her feelings about something. She also

stated that the emphatic function of swearing is to help speakers to get their messages

across. However, most of the respondents disagree to these.

Aside from these, participants were also asked if swearing at people younger than

them is appropriate in any circumstance. 33 (82.5%) answered that it is not appropriate;

44
6 (15%) said that it is sometimes appropriate; 1 (2.5%) answered that it is appropriate.

This agrees with what Stone, McMillan, & Hazelton (2010) suggested that swearing is

typically not tolerated by others in the presence of children.

When asked if it is appropriate to swear at people older than you in any

circumstance, 34 (85%) answered not appropriate; 5 (12.5%) answered sometimes

appropriate; and 1 (2.5%) answered appropriate.

Swearing to stick up for someone, on the other hand, garnered 24 (60%) out of 40

answers that it is not appropriate; 13 (32.5%) answered that it is sometimes appropriate;

and 3 (7.5%) answered that it is appropriate. When asked if swearing to feel accepted is

appropriate, 26 (65%) answered not appropriate; 12 (30%) answered sometimes

appropriate; and 2 (5%) answered appropriate.

In the case of swearing if you cannot get what you want, 27 (67.5%) out of the forty

respondents answered that it is not appropriate; 13 (32.5%) answered sometimes

appropriate; and none answered that it is appropriate. Swearing in school, on the other

hand, garnered 22 (55%) responses that it is not appropriate; 15 (37.55%) that it is

sometimes appropriate; and 3 (7.5%) that it is appropriate.

Furthermore, when the participants were asked if exchanging swearwords with an

enemy is appropriate, 23 (57.5%) answered that it is not appropriate; 17 (42.5%)

answered sometimes appropriate; and none answered appropriate.

Overall, the greater majority of the respondents answered that swearing or cursing

is not appropriate no matter the situation. The only occasion wherein it garnered less than

half answers on not appropriate and more on sometimes appropriate and appropriate

combined is on swearing when feeling extreme emotions (e.g. happy, angry, etc.). This

45
agrees with Stone, McMillan, & Hazelton (2010) on their suggestion that one of the most

notable characteristics of swearing is its involvement in the expression of strong

emotions, either positive or negative, such as anger, frustration or joy.

Table 8. Perception on Swearing

Sometimes Not
Appropriate
Situations Appropriate Appropriate
f % f % f %

To swear when feeling extreme


3 7.5 20 50 17 42.5
emotions (e.g. happy, angry, etc.)

To swear at people who offend you 1 2.5 18 45 21 52.5


To use swear words for emphasis 3 7.5 13 32.5 24 60
To swear at people younger than you 1 2.5 6 15 33 82.5

To swear at people older than you 1 2.5 5 12.5 34 85


To swear to stick up for someone 3 7.5 13 32.5 24 60
To swear to feel accepted by peers 2 5 12 30 26 65
To swear when you cannot get what
- - 13 32.5 27 67.5
you want
To swear in school 3 7.5 15 37.5 22 55
To exchange swear words with your
- - 17 42.5 23 57.5
enemy

TOTAL 17 42.5 132 330 251 627.5


AVERAGE 1.7 5.31 13.2 33 25.1 62.75

The results imply that students evaluate the situation wherein they could swear.

Given the amount of time they watch movies on weekdays and weekends and the

average number of Rated R movies they watch in a month, it can be concluded that they

could learn new curse words on movies they watch. However, based on the results, it

shows that students do not curse mindlessly. They choose the situation although majority

46
of the answers show that for the respondents, swearing is not appropriate on various

situations.

Furthermore, just like their perception on violence, the respondents’ demographic

profiles display a high relation to their perception on swearing which is similar to

Vingerhoets, Bylsma, & Vlam’s (2013) theory. They stated that demographic factors, such

as gender or age can influence a person’s swearing behavior. Although swearing was

long considered a predominantly masculine activity, women now tend to swear as much,

or even more often, than men.

47
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the research, the findings discussed and

interpreted, the conclusions drawn from the findings, and the corresponding

recommendations made as an outgrowth of this study. The summary, conclusion, and

recommendations are based on the results and discussion of this study to determine the

effects of watching movies with violence and profanity as perceived by students of

selected senior high schools in the City of Batac.

Summary

This study focused on effects of watching movies with violence and profanity as

perceived by students of selected senior high schools in the City of Batac. The descriptive

or non-experimental quantitative research was utilized which focused on This method

also focused on the frequency of teenagers watching movies with violence and profanity

and their attitudes towards movie violence and profanity.

The researcher used a survey questionnaire – divided into four parts – to elicit

information that answers the main problem of this research from 40 participants studying

in selected senior high schools selected through random sampling. This research was

conducted during the months September to October 2017.

The findings, conclusions, and recommendations below are anchored on the data

given by the 40 participants, the main problem of this study, and the research questions.

The main problem of this study was to investigate effects of watching movies with violence

and profanity as perceived by students of selected senior high schools in the City of Batac.

48
To answer the main problem, the researcher developed the following statement of

the problem: (1) the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender,

grade/year level, and religion; (2) the attitude of respondents towards movies in terms of

violence and profanity; and (3) the evident effects of watching movies with violence and

profanity towards teenagers on their language and behavior.

Findings

The prominent findings of the study are as follows:

1. Demographic Profiles of the Respondents

35 (88%) of the respondents are students aged 16-17 years old; 4 (10%) are

18-19 years old; and 1 (2%) respondent is aged around 13-15 years old. Among

the participants, 21 or 52.5% were male and 19 or 47.5% were females. The

distribution of the respondents’ grade level is equal. 20 or 50% respondents are

Grade 11 and the other 20 or 50% are Grade 12. Furthermore, it was determined

that 15 (37.5%) of the respondents are Catholic; 11 (27.5%) are Born Again; 7

(17.5%) are Aglipayan; 2 (5%) are Baptist; 2 (5%) are Iglesia ni Cristo; 2 (5%) are

Protestant; and 1 (2.5%) of the respondents is a Mormon. All of the participants

have religious affiliations.

2. Attitudes of the Respondents Towards Movies in Terms of:

2.1 Violence

All of the situations stated which involves violence in different scenarios

garnered a total of 25 or 6.25% answers that using violence is appropriate on

certain occasions; violent actions are sometimes appropriate garnered a total of

49
100 or 25% responses from the 40 participants; and not appropriate gained a total

of 273 or 68.25% responses which amassed the most responses from the

participants.

2.2 Profanity

All of the situations stated which involves profanity in different scenarios

garnered a total of 17 or 4.25% answers that cursing is appropriate on certain

occasions; swearing is sometimes appropriate garnered a total of 132 or 33%

responses from 40 participants; and not appropriate gained a total of 251 or

62.75% responses which amassed the most responses from the participants.

Overall, Majority of the students still consider the use of violence and

swearing or cursing as inappropriate in most situations despite the number of

hours they spend in watching movies with violence and profanity. The only

occasion wherein it garnered less than half answers on not appropriate and more

on sometimes appropriate and appropriate combined is on swearing when feeling

extreme emotions (e.g. happy, angry, etc.).

3. Effects of Watching Movies with Violence and Profanity Towards Teenagers on

their Language and Behavior

Based on the analysis of the results, the participants are already in their

teens approaching adulthood which is why they already have a sound mind

enabling them to think critically, evaluate movie content, and distinguish right from

wrong. Some of the respondents answered that using violence and cursing are

appropriate on certain occasions, a lot answered that it was sometimes

50
appropriate, and majority of the responses was that it was not appropriate. Movie

violence and profanity might affect some of the students, but majority are already

critical thinkers who evaluates movie content before applying what they see in real

life.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, several conclusions were drawn. Despite being

underage, most teenagers have already watched a lot of R-Rated movies which are

deemed appropriate for their age. Teenagers are more mature in terms of their attitudes

toward movie violence and profanity. They evaluate and asses the content first before

assimilating sieved value. Being a student may also affect their attitudes on media

violence and profanity since they have less time for leisure including watching movies

containing these themes. Despite these, watching movies with violence and profanity

does not guarantee that viewers would also be violent and profane. However, negative

effects are more probable through continuous watching of movies with violence and

profanity towards children than in teenagers.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions discussed, the following recommendations

are suggested:

1. The Movie and Television Review and Classification Board should be more strict

in rating movies according to age-appropriateness to avoid adverse effects not

only towards teenagers, but also children viewers.

51
2. Parents should make sure to monitor what their children are watching no matter

what their age are to be able to guide them. Reminding their children that violence

and profanity is unacceptable more often than not would make teenagers think

twice about imitating what they see on movies.

3. Teenagers should choose and evaluate the movies they watch. Since teenagers

are significantly more mature than children, it is advisable for them to distinguish

right from wrong and avoid assimilating violence and profanity in movies that are

inappropriate in real life.

4. Future researchers are also encouraged to conduct a further study on movie

violence and profanity including sex and investigate the relationship between the

profile of teenagers and their attitude on movies with violence and profanity.

52
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(2002). Adolescent exposure to extremely violent movies. Journal of Adolescent

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Stone, T.E., McMillan, M., & Hazelton, M. (2010). Swearing: Its prevalence in healthcare

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55
APPENDICES

56
APPENDIX 1:
LETTER TO THE RESPONDENT

Region I
GENERAL ARTEMIO RICARTE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
City of Batac

October 3, 2017

Dear Respondent,

I am a Grade 12 student of General Artemio Ricarte Senior High School and currently
conducting a research titled WHAT THE F*@#: THE EFFECTS OF WATCHING MOVIES WITH
VIOLENCE AND PROFANITY AS PERCEIVED BY STUDENTS OF SELECTED SENIOR HIGH
SCHOOLS IN THE CITY OF BATAC as one of the final requirements in Practical Research II.

In connection to this, may I request that you please answer the attached questionnaire
needed for my data honestly.

Rest assured that your answers will be completely confidential and for academic purposes
only.

Thank you and God bless!

Very truly yours,

MARY GRACE CABALLERO


Student Researcher

57
APPENDIX 2:
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

PART I. RESPONDENT’S PROFILE

Name (Optional): _____________________

Age: ( ) 13–15 ( ) 16–17 ( ) 18–19

Gender: ( ) Male ( ) Female

Grade/Year: ( ) 11 ( ) 12

Religion: ( ) Catholic ( ) Baptist ( ) Born Again ( ) Iglesia ni Cristo ( ) Seventh-Day Adventist

( ) Aglipayan ( ) Others, please specify ___________________

PART II. RESPONDENT’S AMOUNT OF TIME WATCHING MOVIES


INSTRUCTION: Please encircle the appropriate answer.

1. Do you watch movies?


a. Yes
b. No

2. Which movies listed below have you already watched? (You can select more than one)
a. Deadpool f. Baby Driver k. Transformers
b. Logan g. John Wick l. The Wolverine
c. The Hangover h. Saw m. Guardians of the Galaxy
d. 21 Jump Street i. Kick-Ass n. The Expendables
e. Lucy j. X-Men o. The Final Destination

3. On which gadget/s do you watch movies? (Select top three)


a. Mobile phone/Smartphone
b. Laptop
c. Computer/Desktop
d. Tablet
e. Television

4. During the school week, how many hours do you spend in watching movies?
f. 0-3 hour j. 17-20 hours
g. 4-7 hours k. 21-25 hours
h. 8-12 hours l. over 25 hours
i. 13-16 hours

5. During the weekend (Sat. and Sunday) about how many hours of movies do you watch total?
a. 0-3 hour d. 12-15 hrs
b. 4-7 hrs e. 16-20 hrs
c. 8-11 hrs f. over 20 hrs

58
PART III. RESPONDENT’S PERCEPTION ON VIOLENCE
INSTRUCTION: Please put a check mark on the box that best describe your response to each situation.

Situation Appropriate Sometimes appropriate Not appropriate


1. To hit someone back that hit
you
2. To defend yourself with a
weapon
3. To hit a child or woman, any
circumstance
4. To hit something when you are
angry
5. To kill someone purposefully
6. To fight to stick up for someone

7. To get revenge for something


someone did to you
8. To kill a criminal or “bad guy”
9. To steal something you want
and cannot afford
10. To kill instead of be killed

PART IV. RESPONDENT’S PERCEPTION ON SWEARING


INSTRUCTION: Please put a check mark on the box that best describe your response to each situation.

Situation Appropriate Sometimes appropriate Not appropriate


1. To swear when feeling extreme
emotions (e.g. happy, angry, etc.)

2. To swear at people who offends


you
3. To use swear words for
emphasis
4. To swear at people younger
than you
5. To swear at people older than
you
6. To swear to stick up for
someone
7. To swear to feel accepted by
peers
8. To swear when you cannot get
what you want
9. To swear at school
10. To exchange swear words with
your enemy

59
APPENDIX 2:
BIO DATA

Last Name: Caballero

First Name: Mary Grace

Middle Name: Santoyo

Gender: Female

Civil Status: Single

Nationality: Filipino

Age: 17

Date of Birth: 3 December 1999

Place of Birth: Quezon City, Manila

Religion: Seventh-Day Adventist

Height: 5’4 ft.

Weight: 138.891 lbs.

Address: Brgy. 16 Quiling Sur, City of Batac, Ilocos Norte

Email: mg.gwapa@gmail.com

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Senior High School:

2016 – 2018 General Artemio Ricarte Senior High School

City of Batac, Ilocos Norte

60
Junior High School:

2012 – 2016 Batac Junior College

City of Batac, Ilocos Norte

Elementary:

2011 – 2012 Batac Junior College

City of Batac, Ilocos Norte

AWARDS & ACHIEVEMENTS

Junior High School: First Honors (March 2016)

Supreme Student Government Organization

- Vice President (2016)

The Business Man (School Paper)

- Editor-in-Chief (2016)

Regional UP Namnama Feature-Writing in English

- 1st Placer (2014)

Provincial UP Namnama Feature-Writing in English

- 3rd Placer (2014)

Elementary: Salutatorian (2016)

61
WORK EXPERIENCE

Volunteer Work

2017 Vacation Bible School

Seventh-Day Adventist Church

Camandingan, City of Batac, Ilocos Norte

SKILLS

• With good computer skills in:

• Microsoft Office (Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint)

• Excellent in oral and written communication

• Languages: Fluent in English and Filipino

62