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Name:__________________________________________ Hour:____

Unit 3 Document Analysis 2018


Task:
Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States history, answer the
questions that follow each document. Your answers to the questions will help you write the performance
writing activity on the unit exam. You will be completing HAPP analysis on the documents throughout
the unit to help fully analyze each source.

Prompt: Evaluate the extent of change in the domestic United States (the Homefront) during the
Second World War from 1939 to 1945.

Document 1
Unfortunately in this land of liberty, I was born of Japanese parents; born in Seattle of a mother and father
who have been in the country since 1901. Fine parents, who brought up their children in the best American
way of life…

Now that you can picture our thoroughly American background, let me describe our new home.

The resettlement center is actually a penitentiary (prison)--armed guards in towers with spotlights and deadly
tommy guns, fifteen feet of barbed wire fences, everyone confined to quarters at nine, lights out at ten
o’clock. The guards are ordered to shoot anyone who approaches within twenty feet of the fences. No one is
allowed to take the two-block-long hike to the latrine after nine, under any circumstances…

The food and sanitation problems are the worst. We have had absolutely no fresh meat, vegetables, or butter
since we can here. Mealtime queues (lines) extend for blocks; standing in a rainswept line, feet in the mud,
waiting for the scant portions of canned wieners and boiled potatoes, hash for breakfast or canned wieners and
beans for dinner…

Can this be the same America we left a few weeks ago?

Source: Ted Nakashima, “Concentration Camp: U.S. Style,” The New Republic, 1942.

1. Point of View: Who was Ted Nakashima? What was his perspective on events during WWII?

2. How does this excerpt demonstrate a change in the United States during WWII?

Document 2
Source: Office of War Information, a United States government agency, 1943.

1. Purpose: What is the message of this poster? Why did the government produce it?

2. How does this image demonstrate a change in the United States during WWII?

Document 3
Americans all, are involved in a gigantic war effort to assure victory for the cause of freedom--the four
freedoms that have been so nobly expressed by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. We, as
colored Americans, are determined to protect our country, our form of government and the freedoms which
we cherichs for ourselves and for the rest of the world, therefore we have adopted the … war cry--victory
over our enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefield abroad. Thus in our fight for
freedom we wage a two-pronged attack against our enslavers at home and those abroad who would enslave
us. WE HAVE A STAKE IN THIS FIGHT … WE ARE AMERICANS, TOO!

Source: Editorial, Pittsburgh Courier, an African American newspaper, 1942.

1. Audience: Who is this article targeting? What message is being expressed?

2. How does this excerpt demonstrate a change in the United States during WWII?

Document 4
Dear Yank,
Here is a question that each Negro soldier is asking. What is the Negro soldier fighting for? On whose team
are we playing? Myself and eight other soldiers were on our way from Camp Claiborne, [Louisiana] to the
hospital here at Fort Huachuca [Arizona]. We had to lay over until the next day for our train. On the next day
we could not purchase a cup of coffee at any of the lunchrooms around there. As you know, Old Man Jim
Crow rules. The only place where we could be served was at the lunchroom at the railroad station but, of
course, we had to go into the kitchen. But that's not all; 11:30 A.M. about two dozen German prisoners of
war, with two American guards, came to the station. They entered the lunchroom, sat at the tables, had their
meals served, talked, smoked, in fact had quite a swell time. I stood on the outside looking on, and I could
not help but ask myself these questions: Are these men sworn enemies of this country? Are they not taught
to hate and destroy . . . all democratic governments? Are we not American soldiers, sworn to fight for and
die if need be for this our country? Then why are they treated better than we are? Why are we pushed around
like cattle? If we are fighting for the same thing, if we are to die for our country, then why does the
Government allow such things to go on? Some of the boys are saying that you will not print this letter. I'm
saying that you will.

Fort Huachuca, Ariz.


-Cpl. RUPERT TRIMMINGHAM Yank, April 28, 1944

Source: Corporal Rupert Trimmingham, letter to Yank, a magazine produced by the United States military,
published in April 1944.

1. Point of View: Who was Corporal Rupert Trimmingham? What was his perspective on events
happening in WW2?

2. How does this excerpt demonstrate a change in the United States during WWII?
Document 5a

Source: American Social History Project/Education Development Center, Inc., U.S. Department of
Commerce.

Document 5b
Civilian Employment and Unemployment during World War II
(Numbers in thousands)
1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945

Civilian Labor Total 55,640 55,910 56,410 55,540 54,630 53,860


Force
% of Population 55.% 56% 57.2% 58.7% 58.6% 57.2%

Employed Total 47,520 50,350 53,750 54,470 53,960 52,820

% of Population 47.6% 50.4% 54.5% 57.6% 57.9% 56.1%

Unemployed Total 8,120 5,560 2,660 1,070 670 1,040

% of Population 8.1% 5.6% 2.7% 1.1% 0.7% 1.1%

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 1940
to date.”

1. Historical Context: What event was occuring in the United States prior to 1941? Why was this
important?
2. How do these graphs demonstrate a change in the United States during WWII?

Document 6a

Source: Apartment building in a black section of Chicago, Illinois. April, 1941. Russell Lee,
Photographer. Gelatin-silver print. FSA-OWI Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of
Congress (126)

Document 6b
“My family was part of the migration. That is, my mother, my sister, and my brother. My father and my
mother were separated. I was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey. They were moving up the coast, as many
families were during that migration. And I was part of that. We moved up to various cities until we arrived-
the last two cities I can remember before moving to New York were Easton, Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. My young years were spent just doing that: traveling as part of the migration, and that was
it…

The lynchings that went on in the South were are their peak. The Amsterdam News reported that almost
every week, a lynching was taking place… This was happening in the South, and then we moved north…
New York represented a frontier for these people that were coming. The opportunities, jobs, and we were
going to war.”

Source: “Interview of Jacob Lawrence” from African American Frontiers Slave Narratives and Oral
Histories, by Alan Govenar, September 3, 1998

1. Historical Context: What was the Great Migration? Why was this important?
2. How does this image and excerpt demonstrate a change in the United States during WWII?

Document 7
Federal Spending and Military Spending during World War II
(dollar values in billions of constant 1940 dollars)
GDP Federal Spending Defense Spending

Year Total $ Total $ % Increase Total $ % Increase % of Federal


Spending

1940 101.4 9.47 1.66 17.53%

1941 120.67 13.00 37.28% 6.13 269.28% 47.15%

1942 139.06 30.18 132.15% 22.05 259.71% 73.06%

1943 136.44 63.57 110.64% 43.98 99.46% 69.15%

1944 174.84 72.62 14.24% 62.95 43.13% 86.68%

1945 173.52 72.11 -0.70% 64.53 2.51% 89.49%


Sources: 1940 GDP figure from “Nominal GDP: Louis Johnston and Samuel H. Williamson, “The Annual Real and Nominal GDP for
the United States, 1789 — Present,” Economic History Services, March 2004, available at http://www.eh.net/hmit/gdp/ (accessed 27
July 2005). 1941-1945 GDP figures calculated using Bureau of Labor Statistics, “CPI Inflation Calculator,” available at
http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/cpicalc.pl. Federal and defense spending figures from Government Printing Office, “Budget of the United
States Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2005,” Table 6.1—Composition of Outlays: 1940—2009 and Table 3.1—Outlays by
Superfunction and Function: 1940—2009.

1. Purpose: What information is being presented in this graph? Why is this being shown?

2. How does this graph demonstrate a change in the United States during WWII?
Essay Outline
Introduction Paragraph Contextualization: Describe the events leading up to the prompt.
- Contextualization Sentence 1: During this time, ____(theme)_________ was ___(give a general
- Thesis description)____________.
Sentence 2: Give specific details about the theme. Use specific evidence.
Sentence 3: Connect to the thesis. How does this relate to changes in the US during
WW2?

Thesis: Describe your argument. What changes occurred? Give your categories.
During World War II, the United States Home Front experienced…

Body Paragraph 1 Topic Sentence: One thing that changed significantly during the time period was…
- Social Changes Introduce Evidence: Cite a document that supports your topic
Introduce a 2nd piece of Evidence: Cite a document that supports your topic
How to Cite a doc: Complete HAPP Analysis: Describe the Historical Context, Audience, Purpose, or Point
- In Doc 1,... of View of the document (just need to complete on one doc)
OR Link to Thesis: Wrap up your paragraph and summarize the change that occurred in the
- … (Doc 1) United States

Body Paragraph 2 Topic Sentence: One thing that changed significantly during the time period was…
- Economic Changes Introduce Evidence: Cite a document that supports your topic
Introduce a 2nd piece of Evidence: Cite a document that supports your topic
Complete HAPP Analysis: Describe the Historical Context, Audience, Purpose, or Point
of View of the document (just need to complete on one doc)
Link to Thesis: Wrap up your paragraph and summarize the change that occurred in the
United States

Conclusion Restate your thesis and summarize your argument.


One strategy to restate your thesis is to use your body paragraph topic sentences to form a
new thesis statement.
Rubric: 3 2 1 0
Contextualization Gave a thorough Did not give
explanation of the background
- Explains the broader historical information within
historical background X X background that the time period.
occurring in the time helped the reader
period. understand the time
frame.
Argumentation (Thesis) Completed all parts Completed one part Did not complete
of the thesis of the thesis either part of the
- Answer the Question X statement statement thesis statement.
- Preview categories
Use of Historical Completed all Completed only 3/4 Completed 2/4 of Completed 1/4 or
Evidence (Body components of of the components. the components. did not attempt or
Paragraph 1) the body complete any of the
paragraph components of the
- Introduced the evidence thoroughly. body paragraph.
- Cited 2 docs
- Connected the documents
to the thesis
- Used HAPP on 1 doc
Use of Historical Completed all Completed only 3/4 Completed 2/4 of Completed 1/4 or
Evidence (Body components of of the components. the components. did not attempt or
Paragraph 1) the body complete any of the
paragraph components of the
- Introduced the evidence thoroughly. body paragraph.
- Cited 2 docs
- Connected the documents
to the thesis
- Used HAPP on 1 doc
Conclusion Thoroughly Did not summarize
explained argument argument or did not
- Restated thesis X X and answer to attempt.
- Summarized argument prompt.