Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

1. What is Computer?

Ans: computer is an electronics device which can operate the arithmetic


and logical operation with a high speed and accuracy.

Computer coming from compute word. compute is greek word it


means to calculate.
Charles babbage is the father of computer. He is born in London .
The invention of first analytical engine in 1837.

The Full Form Of COMPUTER:-


C :- Common
O :- Operating
M:- Machine
P:- Particularly
U:- Used for
T:- Technology
E:- Education
R:- Research
2. What is Hardware?
Ans: The physical existence of the computer is known
as computer hardware. We can touch it.
examples:- HDD, Monitor, CPU, SMPS
We can do assembling or disassembling and we
can solve any problem in hardware.
3. What is Software?
Ans: Software is a set of programs. Which we can see but we can’t touch it
is called Software.

Software Are Three Types


i) System Software
ii) Application Software
iii) Utility Software
I) System Software:- System software is a type of computer program. It
is used to run a computer hardware and others applications
software. Ex:- Operating System
II) Application Software:- Application Software is a group of programs.
It is used to perform every day task such as creating a document or
webpage.
Example:- Wordpad, Notepad, Ms Office Word, Paint
III) Utility Software:- Utility Software is a collection of one or more
program that helps the user in System maintenance task.
Example:- Anti-virus, Backup Software, Disk Cleaner, registry
Cleaners.
4. Firmware:- Firmware exits in to the Hardware but its work like a software.
Example:- BIOS.(Basic Input Output System)
5. Generation of computer:-
i) First Generation Computer:- The period of first generation was 1946-
1959. The computers of first generation used vacuum tubes. Punched
cards and magnetic tape were used as input and output devices.
The main features of first generation are:
Use Vacuum tube technology

Huge size

Some computers of this generation were:


(Electronics Numerical Integrator and Calculator)
IVAC 23
(Universal Automatic Computer)
-701
-650
ii) Second Generation Computer:- The period of second generation was
1959-1965. In this generation transistors were Used. In this
generation assembly language and high-level programming
languages like FORTRAN, COBOL were used. The computers used
batch processing and multiprogramming operating system.
The main features of second generation are:

ble in comparison to first generation computers

computers
er than first generation computers

Some computers of this generation were:

iii) Third Generation Computer:- The period of third generation was


1965-1971. The computers of third generation used integrated
circuits (IC's) in place of transistors.
The main features of third generation are:

previous two generations


Smaller size
-level language
Some computers of this generation were:
-360 series
-6000 series
PDP(Personal Data Processor)
-370/168
-316
iv) Fourth Generation Computer:- The period of fourth generation was
1971-1980. The computers of fourth generation used Very Large
Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. All the high-level languages like C,
C++, were used in this generation
The main features of fourth generation are:

nts in the fields of networks

Some computers of this generation were:

-1(Super Computer)
-X-MP(Super Computer)

v) Fifth Generation Computer:- The period of fifth generation is 1980-


till date. In the fifth generation, the VLSI technology became ULSI
(Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, resulting in the production
of microprocessor chips having ten million electronic components. All
the high-level languages like C and C++, Java, .Net etc. are used in
this generation
The main Features of Fifth Generation Computer
ULSI technology
eliable
Very cheap

It is very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates


Some computer types of this generation are:

6. Types of Computer?

Ans: Computer are three types.


i) Analog Computer
ii) Digital Computer
iii) Hybrid Computer

I) Analog Computer:- These are measuring device that works on


volatile data.example- Thermometer, Speedometers.
II) Digital Computer:- Digital Computer can be used to manipulate data
with great accuracy. Take input and give output. Can store large
quantities of data. example:- All electronics Computer.
III) Hybrid Computer:- It is a mixture of analog and digital Computer.
Input is generally in the form of Analog ,Measured by analog part of
Computer and then used by digital part for further operation.
Example:- Hybrid Computer used in factories for controlling
manufacturing processes, lunching a rocket.
7. Types of Digital Computer:-
Digital Computer are four types
i) Micro Computer
ii) Mini Computer
iii) Main Frame Computer
iv) Super Computer
Micro Computer:- It is a single user computer system having
moderately powerful microprocessor. The Micro-computers are
specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education
and work purposes. The manufacturers of Micro-computer are Dell,
Apple, Samsung, Sony & Toshiba. example- gaming pc, home
computer.
Mini Computer :-It is a multi-user computer system which is capable
of supporting up to 250 users simultaneously. It is used Schools and
companies.
Main Frame :-It is a multi-user computer system which is capable of
supporting hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously .
Main Frame computer used by government and businesses

Super computer :-It is an extremely fast computer which can execute


hundreds millions of instructions per second. Super Computer used
for Weather forecasting, NASA.
8. Component (Parts) of Computer:- The parts of computer can be grouped
into input device, output device, Processing device(CPU).
i) Input Device:- The Parts Which Help to enter data into our computer
System is called input Devices. Ex:-Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner.
ii) Output Device:- The Parts which helps to SHOW the Processing data
is called an Output Devices. Ex: - Monitor, Printer, Speaker.
iii) Processing Devices:- The Parts which controls the entire process of
our Computer is called Processing Devices.
CPU:- Central Processing Unit
CPU has three parts
Memory Unit
 Cu :- Control Unit
 Alu :- Arithmetic Logic Unit
ALU:- It is the part of the CPU that does all the arithmetic and logical
operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division operation such
as X>Y ,a+b,a-b etc.
Control Unit:- It coordinates all the operations of the computer. It control
the input and output devices, all the ALU and Memory.
Memory Units Of Computer:- It Store the data / Information which is
given by the user.
Memory are two types
i) primary memory :- It is a temporary memory. Example- RAM
ii) secondary memory:- It is a permanent memory. Example- HDD, Pen
Drive.
Output
Input MEMORY A A
A
A

Control Unit

Arithmetic Logical Unit

9. What is Operating System?


Ans: Operating system provides the interface of a machine. Its works like a
bridge between hardware and user.

H Hardware
K Kernel
S
Shell
U
User Interface

Logical Structure of Operating System


User Interface:- User interface provide the platform where the users to operate
the Computer.
Shell:- Shell is a space where the human instruction and command are executed.
Ex:- ‘C’ shell, ‘bash’ shell, ‘tesh’ shell.
Windows Supports ‘C’ shell but Linux support ‘bash’shell and also tesh shell.
Shell support two types of interface
GUI:- Graphical User Interface
CLI:- Command Line Interface
Kernel:- kernel is the system file which has the ability to interact with the
hardware.ex.NTOSKRNL.EXE
10.Introduction of windows 7?
Windows 7 is an operating system launched by Microsoft in 2009 as an upgrade
from XP or Vista.

Windows 7 edition:-
i. Windows 7 Starter
ii. Windows 7 Home Basic
iii. Windows 7 Home premium
iv. Windows 7 professional
v. Windows 7 Enterprise
vi. Windows 7 Ultimate

Windows 7 Starter :- This is a base bone 32-bit only. Version on windows 7


intended for user in developing countries to serve the most basic computing
needs.
Windows 7 Home Basic:- Home basic sits somewhere between Stater and Home
Premium It has all the features of windows 7 starter and will also only be available
through OEM partners in developing countries.
Windows 7 Home Premium:- Windows 7 Home Premium has all the features of
starter and Home Basic and then some. This is the mainstream retail version that
nearly all consumer will be using. Windows 7 Home Premium will be available
worldwide to Microsoft OEMs and sold in retail stores loaded on new PC’s.
Windows 7 Professional:- Also available worldwide to OEMs and in retail,
windows 7 professional has the features of Home Premium but with added
networking and data protection features for small business and those who
frequently work at home.
Windows 7 Enterprise:- Windows 7 Enterprise is designed for the corporate
world and will only be used by larger business features that differentiate
Enterprise from Professional are:- Bitlocker, Direct Access Applocker.
Windows 7 Ultimate:- Ultimate the super-size version of windows, include all the
features of all the other versions. Think of it as windows 7 Enterprise for
consumers Ultimate will be the most expensive versions so it’s doubtful that
many people will use it other than the occasional super user who wants every
possible feature.