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After study about hydroelectric power plant student will analyze that
enormous advantages it compared to other way of producing power.

Water vapour is one of the most important & major sources of energy.
The other source being the thermal power developed by fuels such as coal, air,
etc. & nuclear power. These are some of the conventional sources of energy.
However some non conventional sources of energy have also been developed such
as tidal power, solar power, geo thermal energy, wind power energy, etc .but
those are not the major sources of energy & are still in developing stages.

A hydro power development is essentially to utilize the hydraulic power

processed by water, flowing in a steam and to develop from it , electric power
through hydraulic turbine coupled to generators. The total amount of energy
(Hydroelectric) power that would be made available from a steam depends upon
continuous flow rate of steam and head available from flowing water.

** General Arrangement Of Storage Type Hydro Electric
Project And Its Operartion.

The storage type plant have large contents of water stored during raining
season. Water is collected seasonally so that reservoir capacity is large. Majority of
hydroelectric plants are of this type.

The basic arrangement of hydroelectric plant is a reservoir were long amounts

of water is stored in raining season & used through out the year. Reservoir is built
by constructing a dam on river. Water from reservoir is drawn by a fore bay
through an open canal or tunnel Water is supplied to prime mover from fore bay
through penstock located at much lower level than water height in reservoir.
Water entering turbine rotates & the generator shaft via turbine shaft current
flows from generator to transformer. Where voltage is stepped up & transmitted.

** Functions of Different Components Used In Hydroelectric Plant :

1) Reservoir :
Its main purpose is to store water during raining season & supply the
same during dry season. Also provides head of water to make water flow in
penstock with sufficient pressure.
2) Dam:
It increases height of water level behind it there by increasing the
reservoir capacity. It also helps to increase the working head of power plant.
3) Trash Rack:
Water from dam or fore bay is provided with trash rack to prevent entry
of debris, which might damage the gates, turbine runners or choke up the
nozzles of impulse turbine. In severe winter, it prevents ice.

4) Fore bay:
It serves as a regulating reservoir temporarily storing water. When load
decreases, provides water for increased load. Always used to reduce water
hammer. It is provided with outlet structure to direct water to penstock.
5) Surge Tank:
In decreased load turbine, gates are suddenly closed causing a pressure
wave to be created in penstock. Water is also required more when load is
So, deal with such a situation a surge tank is provided nearest to power
house on a high ground to reduce the height of tower to provided better
regulation of water pressure in varying load conditions. In increased load, surge
tank provides additional water & in decreased load, its level rises giving a
retarding load. Thus, it stabilizes velocity & pressure in penstock.
6) Pen Stock:
It is a pipe between surge tank and prime mover. It is structurally like a
pipe except that it has no to bear very high pressure on the inside in decreased
load & on out side in increased load. It is made of steel and reinforced concrete.
It has head gates at inlet for maintenance. An air inlet valve down stream from
gate is provided to prevent collapse of pipe after gate is used and closed.
Sufficient water depth is provided; prevent vortices which may carry air in,
cause lower turbine efficiency. Uncovered penstock is expensive.
7) Spill way:
It is considered to be safety valve for dam as it discharges major floods
with out damage to dam & keeps the reservoir level below some predetermined
max. Level.
8) Power Houses:
It consists of two main parts, a sub structure to support the hydraulic
and electrical equipments and a super structure to hose and protect this
equipment. Elevation of turbine w.r.t tail water is found by necessity of avoiding

The superstructure is a building housing generating units & exciters on
ground floor. Turbines having vertical axis are below ground level & those
having horizontal axis are placed besides generator.’

9) Prim Mover:
These convert kinetic energy of water to mechanical energy. These
can be Pelton turbine, Kaplan turbine, Propeller turbines.

10) Draft Tubes:

It is an essential part of reaction turbine. It utilizes most of remaining
K.E of water at discharge end of runner. It is a diverging passage connecting
runner with tail rate. It is designed to regain remaining K.E of water efficiency.

**Operation of Hydro Electric Power Duty:

In hydroelectric power plant, the potential energy of water is

converted in to kinetic energy. First passing through the tunnel to the power
plant. The kinetic energy of water is converted in to mechanical energy in the
water turbine. The mechanical energy of the water turbine is converted to run
electric generator. This is common principal of hydroelectric generator.

** Advantages:
1) Low operating cost compared with thermoelectric power plant.
2) The no. of operation required considerably small compared with thermo
electric power plant.
3) It does not contribute water and air pollution to green house effect.
4) There are no stands by losses.
5) The efficiency of hydroelectric power plant does not change with age.
6) The cost of land is not major problem.
7) Very long life, 100-125 years.
8) Annual operating & maintenance cost of plant is low.

9) The fuel cost is totally absent.
10) There is no problem of handling the fuel & ash.

** Disadvantages:
1) Capital cost of plant is considerably more than the thermal power plant.
2) Power generation depends upon the natural phenomena on of rain . Dry year
is more serious for hydroelectric project.
3) The site of plant station is selected on the criterion of water availability at
economical head.
4) It takes long time for its erection compared with thermal power plant.

Questions :-

1) How are hydroelectric power plant Classified ?

2) Draw a sketch of hydroelectric power plant

3) What are the essential parts of hydro- electric power plant .

4) A Hydroelectric power plant producing 100 MW brake power under

head of 450 m & 400 RPM Assuming over all efficiency 0.9 and D / d = 10.
Find out quantity of water required, diameter of jet and No of nozzle
required and Cv 0.98, U/ V1 = 0.45. ( Answer – 25.2 m3 , 9 jets )

5) A Hydroelectric power plant using pelton wheel generates 5 MW when head

of water available 400 m. the generated efficiency 90 % and overall
Efficiency 85 % Taking Cv= 0.98, D/d = 10 , U / V1 = 0.45 ( Answer – 1.66
m3 /s , 15.6 cm )